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Standards/Other as amended, taking into account amendments up to Manual of Standards (MOS) – Part 60 Amendment Instrument 2016 (No. 1)
Administered by: Infrastructure and Regional Development
Registered 16 Feb 2016
Start Date 05 Feb 2016

Manual of Standards Part 60—Synthetic Training Devices

VERSION 1.2: february 2016

Made under Part 60 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

This compilation was prepared on 9 February 2016 taking into account amendments up to Manual of Standards (MOS) – Part 60 Amendment Instrument 2016 (No. 1).

Prepared by Legislative Drafting Section, Legal Branch, Legal Services Division, Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Canberra.

 

 


© Civil Aviation Safety Authority

 

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved.

 

Requests for authorisation should be directed to:

 

              Corporate Communications

              Civil Aviation Safety Authority

              GPO Box 2005

              Canberra ACT 2601

 

Email: PublicEnquiries@casa.gov.au

 


Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1: Introduction............................................................................................ 1-1

Section 1.1: General........................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1.1  Background............................................................................................................ 1-1

1.1.2  Document Set......................................................................................................... 1-2

1.1.3  Differences between ICAO Standards and those in MOS............................. 1-2

1.1.4  Differences Published in AIP.............................................................................. 1-2

1.1.5  MOS Documentation Change Management.................................................... 1-2

1.1.6  Related documents............................................................................................... 1-3

Section 1.2: Glossary........................................................................................................ 1-4

Section 1.3: Abbreviations and Units......................................................................... 1-10

1.3.1  Abbreviations and Units..................................................................................... 1-10

Chapter 2: Requirements........................................................................................... 2-1

Section 2.1: General Requirements............................................................................... 2-1

2.1.1  Synthetic Training Device Qualification............................................................ 2-1

2.1.2  Testing for STD Qualification.............................................................................. 2-1

2.1.3  Qualification Test Guide....................................................................................... 2-2

2.1.4  Master Qualification Test Guide.......................................................................... 2-4

Chapter 3: Aeroplane Flight Simulator Standards............................... 3-1

Section 3.1: Criteria............................................................................................................ 3-1

3.1.1  Introduction............................................................................................................. 3-1

Section 3.2: Validation Tests........................................................................................ 3-15

3.2.1  Introduction........................................................................................................... 3-15

3.2.2  Test Requirements.............................................................................................. 3-16

Section 3.3: Information for Validation Tests........................................................... 3-59

3.3.1  Control Dynamics................................................................................................ 3-59

3.3.2  Ground Effect....................................................................................................... 3-63

3.3.3  Engineering Simulator–Validation Data......................................................... 3-64

3.3.4  Motion System...................................................................................................... 3-65

3.3.5  Visual System...................................................................................................... 3-69

3.3.6  Sound System...................................................................................................... 3-70

3.3.7  Additional Guidance Material for Validation Tests........................................ 3-73

Section 3.4: Functions and Subjective Tests........................................................... 3-75

3.4.1  Introduction........................................................................................................... 3-75

3.4.2  Test Requirements.............................................................................................. 3-75

Chapter 4: Helicopter Fight Simulators........................................................ 4-1

Section 4.1: Standards...................................................................................................... 4-1

4.1.1  Introduction............................................................................................................. 4-1

Chapter 5: flight training devices...................................................................... 5-1

Section 5.1: Standards...................................................................................................... 5-1

5.1.1  Aeroplane Flight Training Devices..................................................................... 5-1

5.1.2  Helicopter Flight Training Devices..................................................................... 5-1

Revision History........................................................................................................... RH-1


Chapter 1: Introduction

Section 1.1: General

1.1.1             Background

1.1.1.1          The standards applicable to aeroplane flight simulators were initially described by the following documents:

Australia                     FSD-1, Operational Standards and Requirements, Approved Flight Simulators

Canada                       TP9685, Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual

France                        Projet d’arrêté relatif à l’agrément des simulateurs de vol 1988

United Kingdom        CAP 453, Aeroplane Flight Simulators: Approval Requirements

United States             Advisory Circular 120-40B Airplane Simulator Qualification

1.1.1.2          A specially convened international working group under the sponsorship of the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS) held several meetings from 1989 to 1992 with the stated purpose of establishing common test criteria that would be recognised internationally. The final RAeS document, entitled International Standards For The Qualification Of Airplane Flight Simulators dated January 1992 was the core document used to establish the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators (MCQFS) Document 9625-AN/938 First Edition 1995.

1.1.1.3          During 2001, a working group under the joint chairmanship of the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) held two meetings to review and modernise the standards contained within MCQFS. The proposed second edition of MCQFS was forwarded to ICAO in October 2001.

1.1.1.4          This Manual aligns Australia’s requirements for aeroplane flight simulators with the proposed second edition of MCQFS with the following changes:

(a)      replacement of generic regulatory information by specific CASR Part 60 material;
(b)      addition of criteria and tests for lower level devices;
(c)       definitions broadened to cover synthetic training devices; and
(d)      use of Australian spelling.

1.1.1.5          The second edition of MCQFS is expected to be effective 1 July 2004. The first edition of MCQFS may be used as an alternative to the aeroplane flight simulator requirements stated in this MOS until 1 July 2004.

1.1.2             Document Set

1.1.2.1          The document hierarchy consists of:

(a)      relevant Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASRs);
(b)      the Manual of Standards (MOS); and
(c)       Advisory Circulars (ACs).

1.1.2.2          The regulatory documents establish, for service providers, a comprehensive description of system requirements and the means of meeting them.

1.1.2.3          CASRs establish the regulatory framework (Regulations) within which all service providers must operate.

1.1.2.4          The MOS comprises specifications (Standards) prescribed by CASA, of uniform application, determined to be necessary for the safety of air navigation. In those parts of the MOS where it is necessary to establish the context of standards to assist in their comprehension, the sense of parent regulations has been reiterated.

1.1.2.5          Readers should understand that in the circumstance of any perceived disparity of meaning between MOS and CASRs, primacy of intent rests with the regulations.

1.1.2.6          Service providers must document internal actions (Rules) in their own operational manuals, to ensure the maintenance of and compliance with standards.

1.1.2.7          ACs are intended to provide recommendations and guidance to illustrate a means, but not necessarily the only means of complying with the Regulations. ACs may explain certain regulatory requirements by providing interpretive and explanatory materials. It is expected that service providers will document internal actions in their own operational manuals, to put into effect those, or similarly adequate, practices.

1.1.3             Differences between ICAO Standards and those in MOS

1.1.3.1          Notwithstanding the above, where there is a difference between a standard prescribed in ICAO documents and the Manual of Standards (MOS), the MOS standard shall prevail.

1.1.4             Differences Published in AIP

1.1.4.1          Differences from ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures are published in AIP Gen 1.7.

1.1.5             MOS Documentation Change Management

1.1.5.1          Responsibility for the approval of the publication and amendment of the Manual of Standards (MOS) resides with the Branch Head, Operational and Flight Crew Licensing Standards Branch, of Aviation Safety Standards, Civil Aviation Safety Authority.

1.1.5.2          This document is issued and amended under the authority of the Branch Head, Operational and Flight Crew Licensing Standards Branch.

1.1.5.3          Requests for any change to the content of the MOS may be initiated by:

(a)      Technical areas within CASA;
(b)      Synthetic training device operators;
(c)       Synthetic training device users.

1.1.5.4          The need to change standards in the MOS may be generated by a number of causes. These may be to:

(a)      ensure safety;
(b)      ensure standardisation;
(c)       respond to changed CASA standards;
(d)      respond to ICAO prescription;
(e)      accommodate new initiatives or technologies.

1.1.6             Related documents

1.1.6.1          These standards should be read in conjunction with:

(a)      RAeS Airplane Flight Simulator Evaluation Handbooks Volume I (Second Edition) and Volume II (First Edition), or as amended, and
(b)      The International Air Transport Association (IATA) document entitled Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements 6th Edition 2000 or as amended.
 

Section 1.2: Glossary

 

Definition

Meaning

Aircraft performance data

Performance data published by the aircraft manufacturer in documents such as the Aeroplane Flight Manual, Operations Manual, Performance Engineering Manual, or equivalent.

Audited engineering simulation

An aircraft manufacturer’s engineering simulation which has undergone a review by the appropriate regulatory authorities and been found to be an acceptable source of supplemental validation data.

Automatic testing

Synthetic training device testing wherein all stimuli are under computer control.

Breakout

The force required at the pilot’s primary controls to achieve initial movement of the control position.

Closed loop testing

A test method for which the input stimuli are generated by controllers which drive the synthetic training device to follow a defined target response.

Computer controlled aeroplane

An aeroplane where pilot inputs to the control surfaces are transferred and augmented via computers.

Control sweep

Movement of the appropriate pilot controller from neutral to an extreme limit in one direction (forward, aft, right or left), a continuous movement back through neutral to the opposite extreme position and then a return to the neutral position.

Convertible flight simulator

A flight simulator in which hardware and software can be changed so that the flight simulator becomes a replica of a different model, usually of the same type aircraft. The same flight simulator platform, flight deck shell, motion system, visual system, computers and necessary peripheral equipment can thus be used in more than one simulation.

Critical engine parameter

The engine parameter which is the most appropriate measure of propulsive force.

Damping: Critical damping

That minimum damping of a second order system such that no overshoot occurs in reaching a steady state value after being displaced from a position of equilibrium and released. This corresponds to a relative damping ratio of 1.0.

Damping: Overdamped

That damping of a second order system such that it has more damping than is required for critical damping as described above. This corresponds to a relative damping ratio of more than 1.0.

Damping: Underdamped

That damping of a second order system such that a displacement from the equilibrium position and free release results in one or more overshoots or oscillations before reaching a steady state value. This corresponds to a relative damping ratio of less than 1.0.

Daylight visual

A visual system capable of meeting, as a minimum, system brightness, contrast ratio requirements and performance criteria appropriate for the level of qualification sought. The system, when used in training, should provide full colour presentations and sufficient surfaces with appropriate textural cues to successfully accomplish a visual approach, landing and airport movement (taxi).

Deadband

The amount of movement of the input for a system for which there is no reaction in the output or state of the system observed.

Driven

A test method where the input stimulus or variable is driven or deposited by automatic means, generally a computer input. The input stimulus, or variable, should not necessarily be an exact match to the flight test comparison data, but simply driven to certain predetermined values.

Engineering simulator validation data

Validation data generated by an engineering simulation or engineering simulator.

Evaluation

The careful appraisal of a synthetic training device by the authority to ascertain whether or not the standards required for a specified qualification level are met.

Flight simulator

Refer CASR Part 60 definition.

Flight simulator data

The various types of data used by the flight simulator manufacturer and the applicant to design, manufacture and test the flight simulator.

Flight simulator qualification

Refer CASR Part 60 definition.

Flight test data

Actual aircraft data obtained by the aircraft manufacturer (or other approved supplier of data) during an aircraft flight test programme.

Free response

The response of the aircraft after completion of a control input or disturbance.

Frozen/locked

A test condition where a variable is held constant with time.

Full sweep

Movement of the controller from neutral to a stop, usually the aft or right stop, to the opposite stop and then to the neutral position.

Functional performance

An operation or performance that can be verified by objective data or other suitable reference material that may not necessarily be flight test data.

Functions test

A quantitative assessment of the operation and performance of a synthetic training device by a suitably qualified evaluator. The test should include verification of correct operation of controls, instruments and systems of the simulated aircraft under normal and non-normal conditions.

Ground effect

The change in aerodynamic characteristics due to modification of the air flow past the aircraft, caused by proximity to the ground.

Hands-off

A test manoeuvre conducted or completed without pilot control inputs.

Hands-on

A test manoeuvre conducted or completed with pilot control inputs as required.

Highlight brightness

The area of maximum displayed brightness which satisfies the brightness test appropriate for the level of qualification sought.

Icing accountability

Refers to changes from normal (as applicable to the individual aeroplane design) in takeoff, climb (enroute, approach, landing) or landing operating procedures or performance data, in accordance with the AFM, for flight in icing conditions or with ice accumulation on unprotected surfaces.

Integrated testing

Testing of the synthetic training device such that all aircraft system models are active and contribute appropriately to the results. None of the aircraft system models should be substituted with models or other algorithms intended for testing purposes only. This should be accomplished by using controller displacements as the input. These controllers shall represent the displacement of the pilot’s controls and shall have been calibrated.

Irreversible control system

A control system in which movement of the control surface will not back-drive the pilot’s control on the flight deck.

Latency

The additional time beyond that of the basic perceivable response time of the aircraft due to the response of the synthetic training device.

Manual testing

Synthetic training device testing wherein the pilot conducts the test without computer inputs except for initial set-up. All modules of the simulation shall be active.

Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG)

The authority approved test guide which incorporates the results of tests witnessed by the authority. The MQTG serves as the reference for future evaluations.

Night visual

A visual system capable of meeting, as a minimum, system brightness, contrast ratio requirements and performance criteria appropriate for the level of qualification sought. The system, when used in training, should provide, as a minimum, all features applicable to the twilight scene, as defined below, with the exception of the need to portray reduced ambient intensity that removes ground cues that are not self-illuminating or illuminated by ownship lights (e.g., landing lights).

Normal control

A state where the intended control, augmentation and protection functions are fully available. Used in reference to computer-controlled aeroplanes.

Non-normal control

A state where one or more of the intended control, augmentation or protection functions are not fully available. Used in reference to computer-controlled aeroplanes.

Note:  Specific terms such as alternate, direct, secondary or back-up, etc., may be used to define an actual level of degradation used in reference to computer-controlled aeroplanes.

Objective test

A quantitative assessment based on comparison to data.

Operator

Refer CASR Part 60 definition.

Protection functions

Systems functions designed to protect an aeroplane from exceeding its flight and manoeuvre limitations.

Pulse input

A step input to a control followed by an immediate return to the initial position.

Qualification Test Guide (QTG)

Refer CASR Part 60 definition.

Reversible control systems

A control system in which movement of the control surface will back-drive the pilot’s control on the flight deck.

Robotic test

A basic performance check of a system’s hardware and software components. Exact test conditions are defined to allow for repeatability. The components are tested in their normal operational configuration and may be tested independently of other system components.

Snapshot

Presentation of one or more variables at a given instant of time.

Statement of compliance

Certification that specific requirements have been met.

Step input

An abrupt input held at a constant value.

Subjective test

A qualitative assessment based on established standards as interpreted by a suitably qualified person.

Throttle lever angle

The angle of the pilot’s primary engine control lever(s) on the flight deck, which also may be referred to as TLA or power lever or throttle.

Time history

Presentation of the change of a variable with respect to time.

Transport delay

The total synthetic training device system processing time required for an input signal from a pilot primary flight control until motion system, visual system or instrument response. It is the overall time delay incurred from signal input until output response and does not include (is independent of) the characteristic delay of the aircraft simulated.

Twilight (dusk/dawn) visual

A visual system capable of meeting, as a minimum, system brightness, contrast ratio requirements and performance criteria appropriate to the level of qualification sought. The system, when used in training, should provide full colour presentations of reduced ambient intensity (as compared with a daylight visual system), sufficient to conduct a visual approach, landing and airport movement (taxi).

Upgrade

The improvement or enhancement of a synthetic training device for the purpose of achieving a higher qualification.

Validation data

Data used to prove that the synthetic training device performance corresponds to that of the aircraft.

Validation flight test data

Performance, stability and control and other necessary test parameters electrically or electronically recorded in an aircraft using a calibrated data acquisition system of sufficient resolution and verified as accurate to establish a reference set of relevant parameters to which like synthetic training device parameters can be compared.

Validation test

A test by which synthetic training device parameters can be compared to the relevant validation data.

Visual ground segment test

Test designed to assess items impacting the accuracy of the visual scene presented to the pilot at decision height (DH) on an ILS approach.


Section 1.3: Abbreviations and Units

1.3.1             Abbreviations and Units

1.3.1.1          The abbreviations and units used in this manual have the following meaning:

 

Abbreviation

Meaning

AC

Advisory Circular

AFM

Aeroplane Flight Manual

AGL

Above ground level (m or ft)

airspeed

Calibrated airspeed unless otherwise specified (knots)

altitude

Pressure-altitude (m or ft) unless otherwise specified

AOA

Angle of attack (degrees)

Ad

Total initial displacement of pilot controller (initial displacement to final resting amplitude)

An

Sequential amplitude of overshoot after initial X-axis crossing (e.g., A1 = first overshoot)

bank

Bank/roll angle (degrees)

BC

ILS localizer back course

CAT I/II/III

Precision approach and landing category operations

CCA

Computer controlled aeroplane

cd/m2

Candela/metre2 (3.4263 candela/m2 = 1 ft-lambert)

cm

Centimetre

daN

DecaNewtons

dB

Decibel

dBSPL

Decibel, sound pressure level

deg

Degree

distance

Distance in nautical miles unless otherwise specified

DME

Distance measuring equipment

EPR

Engine pressure ratio

FAA

United States Federal Aviation Administration

ft

Foot (1 ft = 0.304801 m)

ft-lambert

Foot-lambert (1ft-lambert = 3.4263 candela/m2)

FOV

Field of view

fuel used

Mass of fuel used (kilograms or pounds)

g

Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2 or ft/s2; 1 g = 9.81 m/s2 or 32.2 ft/s2)

G/S

Glideslope

GBAS

Ground based augmentation system

GNSS

Global navigation satellite system

GPS

Global positioning system

Heavy

Operational mass at or near the maximum for the specified flight condition

height

Height above ground = AGL (m or ft)

HGS

Head-up guidance system

Hz

Unit of frequency (1 Hz = one cycle per second)

IAS

Indicated airspeed

IATA

International Air Transport Association

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

ILS

Instrument landing system

IPOM

Integrated proof of match

JAA

European Joint Aviation Authorities

JAWS

Joint Airport Weather Studies

km

Kilometres (1 km = 0.62137 statute miles)

kPa

KiloPascal (KiloNewton/m2) (1 psi = 6.89476 kPa)

kt

Knots calibrated airspeed unless otherwise specified (1 knot = 0.5148 m/s or 1.689 ft/s)

lb

Pound

light

Operational mass at or near the minimum for the specified flight condition

LLZ

ILS localizer

LOFT

Line oriented flight training

LOS

Line oriented simulation

m

Metre (1 m = 3.28083 ft)

MCTM

Maximum certificated take-off mass (kilograms/pounds)

medium

Normal operational mass for flight condition

min

Minute

MLG

Main landing gear

MLS

Microwave landing system

MPa

MegaPascals (1 psi = 6 894.76 pascals)

MQTG

Master qualification test guide

ms

Millisecond

N

Normal control state referring to computer controlled aeroplanes

n

Sequential period of a full cycle of oscillation

N1

Low pressure rotor revolutions per minute, expressed in percent of maximum

N2

High pressure rotor revolutions per minute, expressed in percent of maximum

NAA

National aviation authority

NDB

Non-directional beacon

NM

Nautical mile (1 NM = 6 076 ft)

NN

Non-normal control state referring to computer controlled aeroplanes

nominal

Normal operational mass, configuration, speed, etc., for the flight segment specified

NWA

Nosewheel angle (degrees)

PANS

Procedures for air navigation services

PAPI

Precision approach path indicator system

PAR

Precision approach radar

pitch

Pitch angle (degrees)

P0

Time from 90 per cent of the initial controller displacement until initial X-axis crossing (X-axis defined by the resting amplitude)

P1

First full cycle of oscillation after the initial X-axis crossing

P2

Second full cycle of oscillation after the initial X-axis crossing

Pn

Sequential period of oscillation

Pf

Impact or feel pressure

PLF

Power for level flight

POM

Proof of match

PSD

Power spectral density

psi

Pounds per square inch

QTG

Qualification test guide

RAE

Royal Aerospace Establishment

REIL

Runway end identifier lights

R/C

Rate of climb (m/s or ft/min)

R/D

Rate of descent (m/s or ft/min)

RNAV

Area navigation

RTO

Rejected take-off

RVR

Runway visual range (m or ft)

s

Second

SBAS

Space based augmentation system

sideslip

Sideslip angle (degrees)

sm

Statute miles (1 statute mile = 5 280 ft)

SOC

Statement of compliance

STD

Synthetic training device

SUPPS

Supplementary procedures referring to regional supplementary procedures

T(A)

Tolerance applied to amplitude

T(Ad)

Tolerance applied to residual amplitude

TACAN

Tactical air navigation

TLA

Throttle lever angle

T(P)

Tolerance applied to period

T/O

Take-off

Tf

Total time of the flare manoeuvre duration

Ti

Total time from initial throttle movement until a 10 per cent response of a critical engine parameter

Tt

Total time from initial throttle movement to a 90 per cent increase or decrease in the power level specified

VASI

Visual approach slope indicator system

VDR

Validation data roadmap

VFR

Visual flight rules

VGS

Visual ground segment

VHF

Very high frequency

Vmca

Minimum control speed (air)

Vmcg

Minimum control speed (ground)

Vmcl

Minimum control speed (landing)

VMO

Maximum operating speed

Vmu

Minimum unstick speed

VOR

VHF omni-directional range

Vr

Rotate speed

Vs

Stall speed or minimum speed in the stall

V1

Take-off decision speed

V2

Take-off safety speed

WAT

Weight, altitude, temperature

1st segment

That portion of the take-off profile from lift-off to completion of gear retraction

2nd Segment

That portion of the take-off profile from after gear retraction to end of climb at V2 and initial flap/slat retraction.

3rd segment

That portion of the take-off profile after flap/slat retraction is complete

 

 


Chapter 2: Requirements

Section 2.1: General Requirements

2.1.1             Synthetic Training Device Qualification

2.1.1.1          In dealing with synthetic training devices (STD), authorities differentiate between the technical criteria of the STD and its use for training/testing and checking. The initial evaluation of the STD and subsequent recurrent evaluations are designed to qualify the STD as an acceptable replication of the aircraft. Qualification is achieved by comparing the STD performance against the criteria specified in the Qualification Test Guide (QTG). Once the STD has been qualified, the authority responsible for supervision of the activities of the applicant for the use of the STD can decide what training tasks can be carried out on the STD. This determination should be based on the STD qualification, the experience of the operator (the applicant), the training programme in which the STD is to be used and the experience and qualifications of the pilots to be trained. This latter process results in the approved use of a STD within an approved training programme.

2.1.2             Testing for STD Qualification

2.1.2.1          The STD should be assessed in those areas which are essential to completing the flight crew member training and checking process. This includes the STD’s longitudinal and lateral-directional responses; performance in take-off, climb, cruise, descent, approach, landing; all-weather operations; control checks; pilot, flight engineer and instructor station functions checks. The motion, visual and sound systems will be evaluated to ensure their proper operation.

2.1.2.2          The intent is to evaluate the STD as objectively as possible. Pilot acceptance, however, is also an important consideration. Therefore, the STD will be subjected to validation tests and functions and subjective tests. Validation tests are used to compare objectively STD and aircraft data to ensure that they agree within specified tolerances. Functions and subjective tests provide a basis for evaluating STD capability to perform over a typical training period and to verify correct operation of the STD.

2.1.2.3          Tolerances listed for parameters in validation tests should not be confused with STD design tolerances and are the maximum acceptable for STD qualification.

2.1.2.4          For initial evaluation of flight simulators and flight training devices, the aircraft manufacturer’s validation flight test data is preferred. Data from other sources may be used, subject to the review and concurrence of the authority responsible for the qualification.

2.1.2.5          In the case of new aeroplane programmes, the aeroplane manufacturer’s data, partially validated by flight test data, may be used in the interim qualification of the STD. However, the STD shall be requalified following the release of the manufacturer’s data resulting from final airworthiness approval of the aeroplane. The requalification schedule shall be as agreed by the authority, STD operator, STD manufacturer and aeroplane manufacturer. For additional information refer to Advisory Circular 60-3.

2.1.2.6          STD operators seeking initial or upgrade evaluation of a STD should be aware that performance and handling data for older aircraft may not be of sufficient quality to meet some of the test standards contained in this manual. In this instance it may be necessary for a STD operator to acquire additional flight test data.

2.1.2.7          During STD evaluation, if a problem is encountered with a particular validation test, the test may be repeated to ascertain if test equipment or personnel error caused the problem. Following this, if the test problem persists, a STD operator should be prepared to offer alternative test results which relate to the test in question.

2.1.2.8          Validation tests, which do not meet the test criteria, should be rectified and satisfactorily retaken.

2.1.3             Qualification Test Guide

2.1.3.1          The Qualification Test Guide (QTG) is the primary reference document used for the evaluation of a STD. It contains STD test results, statements of compliance and other information to enable the evaluator to assess if the STD meets the test criteria described in this manual.

2.1.3.2          The applicant should submit a QTG which includes:

(a)      a title page with blocks for the signatures of both the applicant and approving authority;
(b)      a STD information page (for each configuration in the case of convertible STDs) providing (where relevant to the STD):
(i)        STD identification number;
(ii)       aircraft type being simulated;
(iii)      aerodynamic data revision;
(iv)      engine model and its data revision;
(v)       flight control data revision;
(vi)      avionic equipment system identification and revision level where the revision level affects the training and checking capability of the STD;
(vii)    STD model and manufacturer;
(viii)   date of STD manufacture;
(ix)      STD computer identification;
(x)       visual system type and manufacturer; and
(xi)      motion system type and manufacturer;
(c)       table of contents;
(d)      log of revisions and/or list of effective pages;
(e)      listing of all reference and source data;
(f)        glossary of terms and symbols used;
(g)      statements of compliance (SOC) with certain requirements; SOCs should refer to sources of information and show compliance rationale to explain how the referenced material is used, applicable mathematical equations and parameter values and conclusions reached. Refer to Table of Criteria and Table of Validation Tests ‘Comments’ column, for SOC requirements;
(h)      recording procedures and required equipment for the validation tests; and
(i)        the following items for each validation test:
(i)        Test title. This should be short and definitive, based on the test title referred to in Section 3.2, Table 3.2‑1, Table of Validation Tests.
(ii)       Test objective. This should be a brief summary of what the test is intended to demonstrate.
(iii)      Demonstration procedure. This is a brief description of how the objective is to be met.
(iv)      References. These are the aircraft data source documents including both the document number and the page/condition number.
(v)       Initial conditions. A full and comprehensive list of the STD initial conditions is required.
(vi)      Manual test procedures. Procedures should be sufficient to enable the test to be flown by a qualified pilot, using reference to flight deck instrumentation and without reference to other parts of the QTG or flight test data.
(vii)    Automatic test procedures. A test identification number for automatic testing shall be provided for Level C and D flight simulators.
(viii)   Evaluation criteria. Specify the main parameter(s) under scrutiny during the test.
(ix)      Expected result(s). The aircraft result, including tolerances and, if necessary, a further definition of the point at which the information was extracted from the source data.
(x)       Test result. STD validation test results obtained by the STD operator from the STD. Tests run on a computer, which is independent of the STD, are not acceptable.
(xi)      Source data. Copy of the aircraft source data, clearly marked with the document, page number, issuing organisation and the test number and title as specified in (i) above. Computer generated displays of flight test data over-plotted with STD data are insufficient on their own for this requirement.
(xii)    Comparison of results. An acceptable means of easily comparing STD test results to the data obtained on the aircraft. The preferred method is over-plotting.
(j)        a statement of compliance covering the functions and subjective tests.

2.1.3.3          The STD test results should be recorded on appropriate media acceptable to the authority conducting the test. STD results should be labelled using. These results should be easily compared with the terminology common to aircraft parameters as opposed to computer software identifications supporting data by employing cross plotting, overlay transparencies, or other acceptable means. Aircraft data documents included in the QTG may be photographically reduced only if such reduction will not alter the graphic scaling or cause difficulties in scale interpretation or resolution. Incremental scales on graphical presentations should provide resolution necessary for evaluation of the validation test parameters. The qualification test guide will provide the documented proof of compliance with the validation tests. For tests involving time histories, flight test data sheets, or transparencies thereof, STD test results should be clearly marked with appropriate reference points to ensure an accurate comparison between the STD and aircraft with respect to time. Where line printers are used to record time histories, information taken from line printer data output for cross plotting on the aircraft data should be clearly marked. The cross plotting of the STD data to aircraft data is essential to verify STD performance in each test. The evaluation serves to validate the STD test results given in the QTG.

2.1.4             Master Qualification Test Guide

2.1.4.1          The Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG) is the document which results from the evaluation and qualification of the STD.

2.1.4.2          The MQTG is then available as the document to use for recurrent or special evaluations and is also the document that any authority can use as proof of an evaluation and current qualifications of a STD when approval for the use of the particular STD is requested for a specific training task.


Chapter 3: Aeroplane Flight Simulator Standards

Section 3.1: Criteria

3.1.1             Introduction

3.1.1.1          This Section describes the minimum flight simulator requirements for qualifying flight simulators to Level A, B, C or D. The validation, and function and subjective tests listed in Section 3.2 and Section 3.4 shall also be consulted when determining the requirements of a flight simulator qualification level. Certain requirements included in this Section shall be supported with a Statement Of Compliance (SOC) and, in some designated cases, an objective test. The SOC will describe how the requirement was met, such as gear modelling approach, coefficient of friction sources, etc. The test results should show that the requirement has been attained. In the following tabular listing of flight simulator criteria, requirements for SOCs are indicated in the comments column.

Table 3.11: Flight simulator criteria

Requirements

A

B

C

D

Comments

1.    General

 

 

 

 

 

a)    Flight deck: a full-scale replica of the aeroplane simulated. Direction of movement of controls and switches identical to that in the aeroplane. Equipment for operation of the cockpit windows should be included in the flight simulator, but the actual windows need not be operable.

       Note:       The flight deck, for flight simulator purposes, consists of all that space forward of a cross section of the fuselage at the most extreme aft setting of the pilots' seats. Additional required flight crew member duty stations and those required bulkheads aft of the pilot seats are also considered part of the flight deck and shall replicate the aeroplane.

X

X

X

X

Flight deck observer seats are not considered to be additional flight crew member duty stations and may be omitted (See 1 f)) below).

Bulkheads containing items such as switches, circuit breakers, supplementary radio panels, etc. to which the flight crew may require access during any event after pre-flight cockpit preparation is complete are considered essential and may not be omitted.

Bulkheads containing only items such as landing gear pin storage compartments, fire axes or extinguishers, spare light bulbs, aircraft document pouches etc. are not considered essential and may be omitted. Such items, or reasonable facsimile, shall still be available in the flight simulator but may be relocated to a suitable location as near as practical to the original position. Fire axes and any similar purpose instruments need only be represented in silhouette.

b)    Circuit breakers that affect procedures and/or result in observable flight deck indications properly located and functionally accurate.

X

X

X

X

 

c)    Flight dynamics model that accounts for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight corresponding to actual flight conditions, including the effect of change in aeroplane attitude, thrust, drag, altitude, temperature, gross mass, moments of inertia, centre of gravity location and configuration.

X

X

X

X

For Level A, generic ground handling, flare and touchdown effect are acceptable.

d)    All relevant instrument indications involved in the simulation of the applicable aeroplane to automatically respond to control movement by a flight crew member or external disturbance to the simulated aeroplane, i.e., turbulence or wind shear.

X

X

X

X

Numerical values shall be presented in accordance with ICAO Annex 5.

e)    Communications, navigation and caution and warning equipment corresponding to that installed in the applicable aeroplane with operation within the tolerances prescribed for the applicable airborne equipment.

X

X

X

X

 

f)     In addition to the flight crew member duty stations, three suitable seats for the instructor/observer and authority inspector. The authority will consider options to this requirement based on unique flight deck configurations. These seats shall provide adequate vision to the pilots' panels and forward windows. Observer seats need not represent those found in the aeroplane, but shall be adequately secured to the floor of the flight simulator, fitted with positive restraint devices and of sufficient integrity to safely restrain the occupant during any known or predicted motion system excursion.

X

X

X

X

 

g)    Flight simulator systems to simulate the applicable aeroplane system operation, both on the ground and in flight. Systems shall be operative to the extent that all normal, abnormal and emergency operating procedures can be accomplished.

X

X

X

X

 

h)   Instructor controls to enable the operator to control all required system variables and insert abnormal or emergency conditions into the aeroplane systems.

X

X

X

X

 

i)     Control forces and control travel which correspond to that of the replicated aeroplane. Control forces should react in the same manner as in the aeroplane under the same flight conditions.

X

X

X

X

 

j)     Ground handling and aerodynamic programming to include:

1)    Ground effect. For example: round-out, flare and touchdown. This requires data on lift, drag, pitching moment, trim and power in ground effect.

2)    Ground reaction. Reaction of the aeroplane upon contact with the runway during landing to include strut deflections, tyre friction, side forces and other appropriate data, such as weight and speed, necessary to identify the flight condition and configuration.

3)    Ground handling characteristics. Steering inputs to include cross-wind, braking, thrust reversing, deceleration and turning radius.

X

X

X

X

SOC required. Tests required.

For Level A flight simulators, ground handling may generically be represented to the extent that allows turns within the confines of the runway and adequate control on the landing and roll-out from a cross-wind landing.

k)    Wind shear models which provide training in the specific skills required for recognition of wind shear phenomena and execution of required manoeuvres. Such models shall be representative of measured or accident derived winds, but may include simplifications which ensure repeatable encounters. For example, models may consist of independent variable winds in multiple simultaneous components. Wind models should be available for the following critical phases of flight:

1)    prior to take-off rotation;

2)    at lift-off;

3)    during initial climb;

4)    short final approach.

       Note: The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wind shear Training Aid, wind models from the United Kingdom Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project or other recognised sources may be implemented and shall be supported and properly referenced in the QTG. Wind models from alternative sources may also be used if supported by aeroplane related data and such data are properly supported and referenced in the QTG. Use of alternative data must be coordinated with the authority prior to submission of the QTG for approval.

 

 

X

X

Tests required. See Section 3.2 Test 2 g).

l)     Representative cross-winds and instructor controls for wind speed and direction.

X

X

X

X

 

m)   Representative stopping and directional control forces for at least the following runway conditions based on aeroplane related data:

1)    dry;

2)    wet;

3)    icy;

4)    patchy wet;

5)    patchy icy;

6)    wet on rubber residue in touchdown zone.

 

 

X

X

SOC required. Objective tests required for 1), 2), 3). Subjective check for 4), 5), 6). See Section 3.2 Test 1 e).

n)   Representative brake and tyre failure dynamics (including antiskid) and decreased braking efficiency due to brake temperatures based on aeroplane related data.

 

 

X

X

SOC required. Subjective test required for decreased braking efficiency due to brake temperature, if applicable.

o)    A means for quickly and effectively conducting daily testing of flight simulator programming and hardware.

 

 

X

X

SOC required.

p)    Flight simulator computer capacity, accuracy, resolution and dynamic response to fully support the overall flight simulator fidelity.

X

X

X

X

SOC required.

q)    Control feel dynamics which replicate the aeroplane simulated. Free response of the controls shall match that of the aeroplane within tolerance given in Section 3.2. Initial and upgrade evaluations will include control-free response (pitch, roll and yaw controllers) measurements recorded at the controls. The measured responses shall correspond to those of the aeroplane in take-off, cruise and landing configurations.

1)    For aeroplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot static inputs are provided to represent conditions typical of those encountered in flight. Engineering validation or aeroplane manufacturer rationale shall be submitted as justification to ground test or to omit a configuration.

2)    For simulators requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial evaluations if the QTG shows both test fixture results and alternate test method results, such as computer data plots, which were obtained concurrently. Repeat of the alternate method during initial evaluation may then satisfy this requirement.

 

 

X

X

Tests required. See Section 3.2, Tests 2 b) 1), 2 b) 2) and 2 b) 3).

See Section 3.3.1 for a discussion of acceptable methods of validating control dynamics.

r)     Verify the relative response of the visual system, flight deck instruments and initial motion system response to ensure that they are coupled closely to provide integrated sensory cues. Visual scene changes from steady state disturbance, i.e., the start of the scan of the first video field containing different information, shall occur within the permissible delay. Motion onset shall also occur within the permissible delay. Motion onset should occur before the start of the scan of the first video field containing different information; but shall occur before the end of the scan of the same video field. The test to determine compliance with these requirements shall include simultaneously recording the output from the pilot's pitch, roll and yaw controllers, the output from the accelerometer attached to the motion system platform located at an acceptable location near the pilots' seats, the output signal to the visual system display (including visual system analogue delays) and the output signal to the pilot's attitude indicator or an equivalent test approved by the authority. The following two methods are acceptable means to prove compliance with the above requirement:

1)    Transport Delay. A transport delay test may be used to demonstrate that the flight simulator system response does not exceed the permissible delay. This test shall measure all the delays encountered by a step signal migrating from the pilot's control through the control loading electronics and interfacing through all the simulation software modules in the correct order, using a handshaking protocol, finally through the normal output interfaces to the motion system, to the visual system and instrument displays. A recordable start time for the test should be provided by a pilot flight control input. The test mode shall permit normal computation time to be consumed and shall not alter the flow of information through the hardware/ software system. The transport delay of the system is then the time between the control input and the individual hardware responses. It need only be measured once in each axis.

2)    Latency. The visual system, flight deck instruments and initial motion system response shall respond to abrupt pitch, roll and yaw inputs from the pilot's position within the permissible delay, but not before the time, when the aeroplane would respond under the same conditions. The objective of the test is to compare the recorded response of the flight simulator to that of the actual aeroplane data in the take-off, cruise and landing configuration for rapid control inputs in all three rotational axes. The intent is to verify that the simulator system response does not exceed the permissible delay (this does not include aeroplane response time as per the manufacturer’s data) and that the motion and visual cues relate to actual aeroplane responses. For aeroplane response, acceleration in the appropriate corresponding rotational axis is preferred.




X




X







X







X

Test required. See Section 3.2, Test 4 a) and AC 60-3 Section 11.

For Level A and B simulators the maximum permissible delay is 300 milliseconds.

For Level C and D simulators the maximum permissible delay is 150 milliseconds.

s)    Aerodynamic modelling that includes, for aeroplanes issued an original type certificate after June 1980, low altitude level flight ground effect, Mach effect at high altitude, normal and reverse dynamic thrust effect on control surfaces, aeroelastic effect and representations of non-linearities due to side-slip based on aeroplane flight test data provided by the aeroplane manufacturer.

 

 

 

X

SOC required. See Section 3.3.2 and Section 3.2, Test 2 f) for further information on ground effect. Mach effect, aeroelastic representations and non-linearities due to side-slip are normally included in the flight simulator aerodynamic model. The SOC shall address each of these items. Separate tests for thrust effects and an SOC are required.

t)     Modelling that includes the effects of airframe and engine icing.

 

 

X

X

A statement of compliance shall be provided describing the effects, which provide training in the specific skills required for recognition of icing phenomena and execution of recovery.

u)   Aerodynamic and ground reaction modelling for the effects of reverse thrust on directional control.

 

X

X

X

SOC required. Tests required. See Section 3.2, Test 2. e) 8) and 2. e) 9).

v)    Realistic implementation of aeroplane mass properties, including mass, centre of gravity and moments of inertia as a function of payload and fuel loading.

X

X

X

X

SOC required. SOC should include a range of tabulated target values to enable a demonstration of the mass properties model to be conducted from the instructor’s station.

w)   Self-testing for simulator hardware and programming to determine compliance with the simulator performance tests as prescribed in Section 3.2. Evidence of testing must include flight simulator number, date, time, conditions, tolerances and the appropriate dependent variables portrayed in comparison to the aeroplane data. Automatic flagging of ‘out-of-tolerance’ situations is encouraged.

 

 

X

X

SOC required. Tests required.

x)    Timely permanent update of flight simulator hardware and programming subsequent to aeroplane modification sufficient for the qualification level sought.

X

X

X

X

 

y)    Daily pre-flight documentation either in the daily log or in a location easily accessible for review.

X

X

X

X

 

2.    MOTION SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

a)    Motion cues perceived by the pilot representative of aeroplane motions, e.g., touchdown cues should be a function of the simulated rate of descent.

X

X

X

X

 

b)    A motion system:

1)    providing sufficient cueing which may be of a generic nature to accomplish the required tasks.

2)    having a minimum of 3 degrees of freedom (pitch, roll and heave).

3)    which produces cues at least equivalent to those of a six degree-of-freedom synergistic platform motion system.


X

 




X

 







X

 







X

SOC required. Tests required.

c)    A means of recording the motion response time as required.

X

X

X

X

See Section 3.2, Test 4 a).

d)    Motion effects programming to include:

1)    effects of runway rumble, oleo deflections, ground speed, uneven runway, centreline lights, and taxiway characteristics;

2)    buffets on the ground due to spoiler/speedbrake extension and thrust reversal;

3)    bumps associated with the landing gear;

4)    buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear;

5)    buffet in the air due to flap and spoiler/speedbrake extension;

6)    approach to stall buffet;

7)    touchdown cues for main and nose gear;

8)    nose-wheel scuffing;

9)    thrust effect with brakes set;

10)  Mach and manoeuvre buffet;

11)  tyre failure dynamics;

12)  engine malfunction and engine damage;

13)  tail and pod strike.

X

X

X

X

See Section 3.3.4 and Section 3.4.

For Level A, effects may be of a generic nature sufficient to accomplish the required tasks.

e)    Motion Vibrations. Tests with recorded results that allow the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency are required:

1)    Characteristic motion vibrations that result from operation of the aeroplane, in so far as vibration marks an event or aeroplane state that can be sensed at the flight deck, shall be present. The flight simulator shall be programmed and instrumented in such a manner that the characteristic vibration modes can be measured and compared to aeroplane data.

2)    Aeroplane data are also required to define flight deck motions when the aeroplane is subjected to atmospheric disturbances. General-purpose disturbance models that approximate demonstrable flight test data are acceptable. Tests with recorded results that allow the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency are required.

 

 

 

X

SOC required. Tests required.

See Section 3.3.4 and Section 3.2 Test 3. e).

3.    VISUAL SYSTEMS

 

 

 

 

 

a)    Visual system capable of meeting all the standards of this Section, Section 3.2 (Validation Tests) and Section 3.4 (Functions and Subjective Tests).

X

X

X

X

 


b)    Continuous minimum collimated visual field of view of 45 degrees horizontal and 30 degrees vertical field of view simultaneously for each pilot.

       Continuous cross-cockpit minimum collimated visual field of view providing each pilot with 180 degrees horizontal and 40 degrees vertical field of view. Application of tolerances require the field of view to be not less than a total of 176 measured degrees horizontal field of view (including not less than +/- 88 measured degrees either side of the centre of the design eye point) and not less than a total of 36 measured degrees vertical field of view from the pilot’s and co-pilot’s eye points.

X

X






X






X

See Section 3.2 Test 4. b) 1).

A SOC is acceptable in place of this test.

Consideration should be given to optimising the vertical field of view for the respective aeroplane cut-off angle.

c)    A means of recording the visual response time for visual systems as required.

X

X

X

X

See Section 3.2 Test 4 a).

d)    System geometry. The system fitted shall be free from optical discontinuities and artefacts that create non-realistic cues, e.g., image swimming and image roll-off, that may lead a pilot to make incorrect assessments of speed, acceleration and/or situational awareness.

X

X

X

X

See Section 3.2 Test 4.b) 2.

A SOC is acceptable in place of this test.

e)    Visual textural cues to assess sink rate and depth perception during take-off and landing.

X

X

X

X

For Level A, visual cueing sufficient to support changes in approach path by using runway perspective.

f)     Horizon and attitude shall correlate to the simulated attitude indicator.

X

X

X

X

SOC required. Tests required. See Section 3.4 Test 2. e).

g)    Occulting shall be demonstrated.

       A minimum of ten levels of occulting.

X

X

 

X

 

X

SOC required. See Section 3.4, Test 2. g) 4).



h)   Surface (vernier) resolution shall be demonstrated by a test pattern of objects shown to occupy a visual angle of not greater than 2 arc minutes in the visual display used on a scene from the pilot's eyepoint.

 

 

X

X

SOC required containing calculations confirming resolution. See Section 3.2, Test 4. b) 5.

i)     Lightpoint size: not greater than 5 arc minutes.

 

 

X

X

SOC required. See paragraph 3.3.5.1 d). This is equivalent to a lightpoint resolution of 2.5 arc minutes.

j)     Lightpoint contrast ratio: not less than 10:1.

       Lightpoint contrast ratio: not less than 25:1.

X

X



X



X

SOC required. See Section 3.2, Test 4. b) 7.

k)    Daylight, twilight (dusk/dawn) and night visual capability as applicable for level of qualification sought.

       The visual system shall be capable of meeting, as a minimum, the system brightness and contrast ratio requirements as identified in Section 3.2, Test 4. b).

       Total scene content shall be comparable in detail to that produced by 10 000 visible textured surfaces and (in day) 6 000 visible lights or (in twilight or night) 15 000 visible lights and sufficient system capacity to display 16 simultaneously moving objects.

       The system when used in training, should provide:

1)    In daylight, full colour presentations and sufficient surfaces with appropriate textural cues to conduct a visual approach, landing and airport movement (taxi). Surface shading effects should be consistent with simulated (static) sun position.

2)    At twilight, as a minimum, full colour presentations of reduced ambient intensity, sufficient surfaces with appropriate textural cues that include self-illuminated objects such as road networks, ramp lighting and airport signage to conduct a visual approach, landing and airport movement (taxi). Scenes shall include a definable horizon and typical terrain characteristics such as fields, roads and bodies of water and surfaces illuminated by representative ownship lighting, e.g., landing lights. If provided, directional horizon lighting shall have correct orientation and be consistent with surface shading effects.

3)    At night, as a minimum, all features applicable to the twilight scene, as defined above, with the exception of the need to portray reduced ambient intensity that removes ground cues that are not self-illuminating or illuminated by ownship lights, e.g., landing lights.

X


X








































X

X


X









































X

X


X




X









X






X


















X

X


X




X









X






X


















X

SOC required for system capability.






Scene content tests are also required—see Section 3.4, Test 2.

4.    SOUND SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

a)    Significant flight deck sounds which result from pilot actions corresponding to those of the aeroplane.

X

X

X

X

 

b)    Sound of precipitation, rain removal equipment and other significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the pilot during normal and abnormal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of limitations.

 

 

X

X

SOC required.


c)    Comparable amplitude and frequency of flight deck noises, including engine and airframe sounds. The sounds shall be co‑ordinated with the required weather.

 

 

 

X

See Section 3.3.6 and Section 3.2, Tests 5.a), 5.b) and 5.c).

d)    The volume control shall have an indication of sound level setting which meets all qualification requirements.

X

X

X

X

 

Section 3.2: Validation Tests

3.2.1             Introduction

3.2.1.1          Flight simulator performance and system operation must be objectively evaluated by comparing the results of tests conducted in the flight simulator to aeroplane data unless specifically noted otherwise. To facilitate the validation of the flight simulator, an appropriate recording device acceptable to the authority should be used to record each validation test result. These recordings should then be compared to the aeroplane source data.

3.2.1.2          Certain visual and motion tests in this section are not necessarily based upon validation data with specific tolerances. However, these tests are included here for completeness and the required criteria shall be fulfilled instead of meeting a specific tolerance.

3.2.1.3          The flight simulator QTG must describe clearly and distinctly how the flight simulator will be set up and operated for each test. Use of a driver programme designed to automatically accomplish the tests is required for Level C and D flight simulators, and is encouraged for all flight simulators. It is not the intent, nor is it acceptable, to test each flight simulator subsystem independently. Overall integrated testing of the flight simulator shall be accomplished to assure that the total flight simulator system meets the prescribed standards. A manual test procedure with explicit and detailed steps for completion of each test shall also be provided.

3.2.1.4          Submittal for approval of data other than flight test shall include an explanation of validity with respect to available flight test information. Tests and tolerances in this section shall be included in the flight simulator QTG. For aeroplanes certificated after January 2002 the QTG shall be supported by a Validation Data Roadmap (VDR) as described in Advisory Circular 60-3. Data providers are encouraged to supply a VDR for older aeroplanes.

3.2.1.5          Table 3.2‑1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests in this section indicates the required tests. Unless noted otherwise, flight simulator tests should represent aeroplane performance and handling qualities at operating mass and centres of gravity (cg) positions typical of normal operation. If a test is supported by aeroplane data at one extreme mass or cg position, another test supported by aeroplane data at mid-conditions or as close as possible to the other extreme should be included. Certain tests which are relevant only at one extreme mass or cg condition need not be repeated at the other extreme. Tests of handling qualities shall include validation of augmentation devices.

3.2.1.6          For the testing of computer-controlled aeroplane (CCA) flight simulators, flight test data are required for both the normal (N) and non-normal (NN) control states, as indicated in the validation requirements of this section. Tests in the non-normal state will always include the least augmented state. Tests for other levels of control state degradation may be required as detailed by the authority at the time of definition of a set of specific aeroplane tests for flight simulator data. Where applicable, flight test data shall record:

(a)      pilot controller deflections or electronically generated inputs including location of input; and
(b)      flight control surface positions unless test results are not affected by, or are independent of, surface positions.

3.2.1.7          The recording requirements of a) and b) above apply to both normal and non-normal states. All tests in the table of validation tests require test results in the normal control state unless specifically noted otherwise in the comments section following the computer-controlled aeroplane designation (CCA). However, if the test results are independent of control state, non-normal control data may be substituted.

3.2.1.8          Where non-normal control states are required, test data shall be provided for one or more non-normal control states including the least augmented state.

3.2.2             Test Requirements

3.2.2.1          The ground and flight tests required for qualification are listed in Table 3.2‑1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests. Computer generated flight simulator test results should be provided for each test. The results should be produced on an appropriate recording device acceptable to the authority. Time histories are required unless otherwise indicated in Table 3.2‑1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests.

3.2.2.2          Flight test data which exhibit rapid variations of the measured parameters may require engineering judgement when making assessments of flight simulator validity. Such judgement must not be limited to a single parameter. All relevant parameters related to a given manoeuvre or flight condition must be provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or impossible to match flight simulator to aeroplane data throughout a time history, differences shall be justified by providing a comparison of other related variables for the condition being assessed.

3.2.2.3          Parameters, tolerances and flight conditions. Table 3.2‑1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests of this section describes the parameters, tolerances and flight conditions for flight simulator validation. When two tolerance values are given for a parameter, the less restrictive may be used unless indicated otherwise. Regardless, the test should exhibit correct trend. Flight simulator results shall be labelled using the tolerances and units given.

3.2.2.4          Flight condition verification. When comparing the parameters listed to those of the aeroplane, sufficient data shall also be provided to verify the correct flight condition. For example, to show the control force is within ±2.2 daN (5 lb) in a static stability test, data to show correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, aeroplane configuration, altitude, and other appropriate datum identification parameters should also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the aeroplane, but airspeed, altitude, control input, aeroplane configuration and other appropriate data shall also be given. All airspeed values shall be clearly annotated as to indicated, calibrated, etc., and like values used for comparison.

3.2.2.5          For Level A flight simulators, where the tolerances have been replaced by ‘Correct Trend and Magnitude’ (CT&M), the flight simulator should be tested and assessed as representative of the aeroplane to the satisfaction of the Authority. To facilitate future evaluations, sufficient parameters should be recorded to establish a reference.

3.2.2.6          Flight condition definitions. The flight conditions specified in Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests, 1 (performance) and 2 (handling qualities) are defined as follows:

(a)      Ground – on ground, independent of aeroplane configuration.
(b)      Take-off – gear down with flaps in any certified take-off position.
(c)       Second segment climb – gear up with flaps in any certified take-off position.
(d)      Clean – flaps and gear up.
(e)      Cruise – clean configuration at cruise altitude and airspeed.
(f)        Approach – gear up or down with flaps at any normal approach position as recommended by the aeroplane manufacturer.
(g)      Landing – gear down with flaps in any certified landing position.

Table 3.21: Table of flight simulator validation tests

Test

Tolerance

Flight Condition

Comments

A

B

C

D

1.  Performance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a) Taxi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   minimum radius turn

±0.9 m (3 ft) or ±20% of aeroplane turn radius

Ground

Plot both main and nose gear loci. Data for no brakes and the minimum thrust required to maintain a steady turn except for aeroplanes requiring asymmetric thrust or braking to turn.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   rate of turn versus nosewheel steering angle (NWA)

±10% or ±2°/s turn rate

Ground

Tests for minimum of two speeds, greater than minimum turning radius speed, with a spread of a least 5 kt.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

b) Take-off

 

 

 

Note:  All commonly-used take-off flap settings should be demonstrated at least once either in minimum unstick speed (1.b) 3)), normal take-off (1.b) 4)), critical engine failure on take-off (1.b) 5)) or cross wind take-off (1.b) 6)).

 

 

 

 

1)   ground acceleration time and distance

±5% time and distance or

±5% time and ±61 m (200 ft) of distance

Take-off

Acceleration time and distance should be recorded for a minimum of 80% of the total time from brake release to Vr. May be combined with normal take-off (1.b) 4)) or rejected take-off (1.b) 7)). Plotted data should be shown using appropriate scales for each portion of the manoeuvre.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   minimum control speed, ground (Vmcg) aerodynamic controls only per applicable airworthiness requirement or alternative engine inoperative test to demonstrate ground control characteristics

±25% of maximum aeroplane lateral deviation or ±1.5 m (5 ft)

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:

±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) rudder pedal force

Take-off

Engine failure speed shall be within ±1 kt of aeroplane engine failure speed. Engine thrust decay shall be that resulting from the mathematical model for the engine applicable to the flight simulator under test. If the modelled engine is not the same as the aeroplane manufacturer’s flight test engine, then a further test may be run with the same initial conditions using the thrust from the flight test data as the driving parameter. If a Vmcg test is not available an acceptable alternative is a flight test snap engine deceleration to idle at a speed between V1 and V1-10 kt, followed by control of heading using aerodynamic control only and recovery shall be achieved with the main gear on the ground. To ensure only aerodynamic control, nosewheel steering should be disabled, i.e., castered, or the nosewheel held slightly off the ground.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

3)   minimum unstick speed (Vmu) or equivalent test to demonstrate early rotation take-off characteristics

±3 kt airspeed ±1.5° pitch

Take-off

Vmu is defined as the minimum speed at which the last main landing gear leaves the ground. Main landing gear strut compression or equivalent air/ground signal should be recorded. If a Vmu test is not available, alternative acceptable flight tests are a constant high-attitude take-off run through main gear lift-off, or an early rotation take-off. Record time history data from 10 kt before start of rotation until at least 5 s after the occurrence of main gear lift-off.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

4)   normal take-off

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±6 m (20 ft) height.

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems: ±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force

Take-off

Data required for near maximum certificated take-off mass at mid centre of gravity and light take-off mass at an aft centre of gravity. If the aeroplane has more than one certificated take-off configuration, a different configuration should be used for each mass. Record take-off profile from brake release to at least 61 m (200 ft) AGL. May be used for ground acceleration time and distance (1b1). Plotted data should be shown using appropriate scales for each portion of the manoeuvre.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

5)   critical engine failure on take-off

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±6 m (20 ft) height
±2° bank and sideslip angle
±3° heading

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems: ±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force
±10% or ±1.3 daN (3 lb) wheel force
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) rudder pedal force.

Take-off

Record take-off profile to at least 61 m (200 ft) AGL. Engine failure speed shall be within ±3 kt of aeroplane data. Test at near MCTM.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

6)   cross-wind take-off

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±6 m (20 ft) height
±2° bank and side-slip angle
±3° heading
Correct trends at airspeeds below 40 kt for rudder/pedal and heading.

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb)

Column force
±10% or ±1.3 daN (3 lb) wheel force
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) rudder pedal force

Take-off

Record take-off profile from brake release to at least 61 m (200 ft) AGL. Requires test data, including wind profile, for a cross-wind component of at least 60% of the AFM value measured at 10 m (33 ft) above the runway.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

7)   rejected take-off

±5% time or ±1.5 s
±7.5% distance or ±76 m (250 ft)

Take-off

Record near MCTM. Speed for reject should be at least 80% of V1. Autobrakes will be used where applicable. Maximum braking effort, auto or manual. Time and distance should be recorded from brake release to a full stop.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

8)   dynamic engine failure after take-off

±20% or ±2°/s body angular rates

Take-off

Engine failure speed shall be within ±3 kt of aeroplane data. Engine failure may be a snap deceleration to idle. Record hands-off from 5 s before engine failure to +5 s or 30° bank, whichever occurs first. Note: for safety considerations, aeroplane flight test may be performed out of ground effect at a safe altitude, but with correct aeroplane configuration and airspeed.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

c) Climb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   normal climb all engines operating

±3 kt airspeed
±5% or ±0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) rate of climb

Clean

Flight test data or aeroplane performance manual data may be used. Record at nominal climb speed and mid initial climb altitude. Flight simulator performance to be recorded over an interval of at least 300 m (1 000 ft).

X

X

X

X

2)   one engine inoperative 2nd segment climb

±3 kt airspeed
±5% or ±0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) rate of climb, but not less than AFM values

2nd segment climb

Flight test data or aeroplane performance manual data may be used. Record at nominal climb speed. Flight simulator performance to be recorded over an interval of at least 300 m (1 000 ft). Test at WAT (weight, altitude or temperature) limiting condition.

X

X

X

X

3)   one engine inoperative en-route climb

±10% time
±10% distance
±10% fuel used

Clean

Flight test data or aeroplane performance manual data may be used. Test for at least a 1 550 m
(5 000 ft) segment.

X

X

X

X

4)   one engine inoperative approach climb for aeroplanes with icing accountability if required by the flight manual for this phase of flight

±3 kt airspeed
±5% or ±0.5 m/s (100 ft/min) rate of climb but not less than AFM values

Approach

Flight test data or aeroplane performance manual data may be used. Flight simulator performance to be recorded over an interval of at least 300 m (1 000 ft). Test near maximum certificated landing mass as may be applicable to an approach in icing conditions. Aeroplane should be configured with all anti-ice and de-ice systems operating normally, gear up and go-around flap. All icing accountability considerations, in accordance with the flight manual for an approach in icing conditions, should be applied.

 

 

X

X

d) Cruise/Descent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   level flight acceleration

±5% time

Cruise

Minimum of 50 kt speed increase using maximum continuous thrust rating or equivalent.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   level flight deceleration

±5% time

Cruise

Minimum of 50 kt speed decrease using idle power.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

3)   cruise performance

±.05 EPR or
±5% N1 or
±5% torque
±5% fuel flow

Cruise

May be a single snapshot showing instantaneous fuel flow, or a minimum of two consecutive snapshots with a spread of at least 3 minutes in steady flight.

X

X

X

X

4)   idle descent

±3 kt airspeed
±5% or ±1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) rate of descent

Clean

Idle power stabilised descent at normal descent speed at mid altitude. Flight simulator performance to be recorded over an interval of at least 300 m (1 000 ft).

X

X

X

X

5)   emergency descent

±5 kt airspeed
±5% or ±1.5 m/s (300 ft/min) rate of descent

As per AFM

Stabilised descent to be conducted with speedbrakes extended if applicable, at mid altitude and near VMO or according to emergency descent procedure. Flight simulator performance to be recorded over an interval of at least 900 m (3 000 ft).

 

 

X

X

e) Stopping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   deceleration time and distance, manual wheel brakes, dry runway, no reverse thrust

±5% of time

For distances up to 1 220 m (4 000 ft) ±61 m (200 ft) or ±10%, whichever is the smaller.

For distances greater than 1 220 m
(4 000 ft) ±5% distance.

Landing

Time and distance should be recorded for at least 80% of the total time from touchdown to a full stop. Data required for medium and near maximum certificated landing mass. Engineering data may be used for the medium mass condition. Brake system pressure shall be available.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   deceleration time and distance, reverse thrust, no wheel brakes, dry runway

±5% time and the smaller of ±10% or ±61 m (200 ft) of distance

Landing

Time and distance should be recorded for at least 80% of the total time from initiation of reverse thrust to full thrust reverser minimum operating speed. Data required for medium and near maximum certificated landing mass. Engineering data may be used for the medium mass condition.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

3)   stopping distance, wheel brakes, wet runway

±10% or ±61 m (200 ft) distance

Landing

Either flight test or manufacturer's performance manual data should be used where available. Engineering data, based on dry runway flight test stopping distance and the effects of contaminated runway braking coefficients, are an acceptable alternative.

 

 

X

X

4)   stopping distance, wheel brakes, icy runway

±10% or ±61 m (200 ft) distance

Landing

Either flight test or manufacturer's performance manual data should be used where available. Engineering data, based on dry runway flight test stopping distance and the effects of contaminated runway braking coefficients, are an acceptable alternative.

 

 

X

X

f)  Engines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   acceleration

±10% Ti or ±0.25 s
±10% T
t

Approach or landing

Ti = total time from initial throttle movement until a 10% response of a critical engine parameter. Tt = total time from initial throttle movement to 90% of go-around power. Critical engine parameter should be a measure of power (N1, N2, EPR, etc.). Plot from flight idle to go-around power for a rapid throttle movement.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   deceleration

±10% Ti or ±0.25 sec
±10% T
t

Ground

Ti = total time from initial throttle movement until a 10% response of a critical engine parameter. Tt = total time from initial throttle movement to 90% decay of maximum take-off power. Plot from maximum take-off power to idle for a rapid throttle movement.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2.  HANDLING QUALITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a) Static control checks

 

 

Note:  Pitch, roll and yaw controller position versus force or time shall be measured at the control. An alternative method would be to instrument the flight simulator in an equivalent manner to the flight test aeroplane. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the aeroplane data. Such a permanent installation could be used without any time for installation of external devices. See Section 3.3.1. Testing of position versus force is not applicable if forces are generated solely by use of aeroplane hardware in the flight simulator.

 

 

 

 

1)   pitch controller position versus force and surface position calibration

±0.9 daN (2 lb) breakout
±2.2 daN (5 lb) or ±10% force
±2° elevator angle

Ground

Uninterrupted control sweep to stops. Shall be validated with in-flight data from tests such as longitudinal static stability, stalls, etc. Static and dynamic flight control tests should be accomplished at the same feel or impact pressures.

X

X

X

X

2)   roll controller position versus force and surface position calibration

±0.9 daN (2 lb) breakout
±1.3 daN (3 lb) or ±10% force
±2° aileron angle
±3° spoiler angle

Ground

Uninterrupted control sweep to stops. Shall be validated with in-flight data from tests such as engine-out trims, steady state side-slips, etc. Static and dynamic flight control tests should be accomplished at the same feel or impact pressures.

X

X

X

X

3)   rudder pedal position versus force and surface position calibration

±2.2 daN (5 lb) breakout.
±2.2 daN (5 lb) or ±10% force
±2° rudder angle

Ground

Uninterrupted control sweep to stops. Shall be validated with in-flight data from tests such as engine-out trims, steady state side-slips, etc. Static and dynamic flight control tests should be accomplished at the same feel or impact pressures.

X

X

X

X

4)   nosewheel steering controller force and position calibration

±0.9 daN (2 lb) breakout
±1.3 daN (3 lb) or ±10% force
±2° NWA

Ground

Uninterrupted control sweep to stops.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

5)   rudder pedal steering calibration

±2° NWA

Ground

Uninterrupted control sweep to stops.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

6)   pitch trim indicator versus surface position calibration

±0.5° trim angle

Ground

Purpose of test is to compare flight simulator against design data or equivalent.

X

X

X

X

7)   pitch trim rate

±10% trim rate (°/s)

Ground and approach

Trim rate to be checked at pilot primary induced trim rate (ground) and autopilot or pilot primary trim rate in flight at go-around flight conditions.

X

X

X

X

8)   alignment of cockpit throttle lever versus selected engine parameter

±5° of TLA or ±3% N1 or ±.03 EPR or ±3% torque

For propeller-driven aeroplanes, where the propeller levers do not have angular travel, a tolerance of ±2 cm (±0.8 in) applies.

Ground

Simultaneous recording for all engines. The tolerances apply against aeroplane data and between engines. For aeroplanes with throttle detents, all detents to be presented. In the case of propeller-driven aeroplanes, if an additional lever, usually referred to as the propeller lever, is present, it shall also be checked. May be a series of snapshot tests.

X

X

X

X

9)   brake pedal position versus force and brake system pressure calibration

±2.2 daN (5 lb) or 10% force
±1.0 MPa (150 psi) or ±10% brake system pressure

Ground

Flight simulator computer output results may be used to show compliance. Relate the hydraulic system pressure to pedal position in a ground static test.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

b) Dynamic control checks.

 

 

Note:  Tests 2 b) 1), 2 b) 2), and 2 b) 3) are not applicable if dynamic response is generated solely by use of aeroplane hardware in the flight simulator. Power setting may be that required for level flight unless otherwise specified.

 

 

 

 

1)   pitch control

For under-damped systems:
±10% of time from 90% of initial displacement (A
d) to first zero crossing and ±10(n+1)% of period thereafter
±10% amplitude of first overshoot applied to all overshoots greater than 5% of initial displacement (A
d)
±1 overshoot (first significant overshoot should be matched)

For overdamped systems:
±10% of time from 90% of initial displacement (A
d) to 10 % of initial displacement (0.1 Ad)

Take-off, cruise and landing

Data should be for normal control displacements in both directions (approximately 25% to 50% full throw or approximately 25% to 50% of maximum allowable pitch controller deflection for flight conditions limited by the manoeuvring load envelope). Tolerances apply against the absolute values of each period (considered independently). n = the sequential period of a full oscillation. Refer to Section 3.3.1.2.

 

 

X

X

2)   roll control

same as 2b1 above

Take-off, cruise and landing

Data should be for normal control displacement  (approximately 25% to 50% of full throw or approximately 25% to 50% of maximum allowable roll controller deflection for flight conditions limited by the manoeuvring load envelope). Refer to Section 3.3.1.2.

 

 

X

X

3)   yaw control

same as 2b1 above

Take-off, cruise and landing

Data should be for normal control displacement (Approximately 25% to 50% of full throw). Refer to Section 3.3.1.2.

 

 

X

X

4)   small control inputs—pitch

±0.15°/s body pitch rate or ±20% of peak body pitch rate applied throughout the time history

Approach or landing

Control inputs should be typical of minor corrections made while established on an ILS approach (approximately 0.5 to 2°/s pitch rate). Test in both directions. Show time history data from 5 s before until at least 5 s after initiation of control input.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

 

 

X

X

5)   small control inputs—roll

±0.15°/s body roll rate or ±20% of peak body roll rate applied throughout the time history

Approach or landing

Control inputs should be typical of minor corrections made while established on an ILS approach (approximately 0.5 to 2°/s roll rate). Test in one direction. For aeroplanes that exhibit non-symmetrical behaviour, test in both directions. Show time history data from 5 s before until at least 5 s after initiation of control input.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

 

 

X

X

6)   small control inputs—yaw

±0.15°/s body yaw rate or ±20% of peak body yaw rate applied throughout the time history

Approach or landing

Control inputs should be typical of minor corrections made while established on an ILS approach (approximately 0.5 to 2°/s yaw rate). Test in one direction. For aeroplanes that exhibit non-symmetrical behaviour, test in both directions. Show time history data from 5 s before until at least 5 s after initiation of control input.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

 

 

X

X

c)         Longitudinal

 

 

Note:  Power setting may be that required for level flight unless otherwise specified.

 

 

 

 

1)   power change dynamics

±3 kt airspeed
±30 m (100 ft) altitude
±1.5° or ±20% pitch

Approach

Power change from thrust for approach or level flight to maximum continuous or go-around power. Time history of uncontrolled free response for a time increment equal to at least 5 s before initiation of the power change to completion of the power change + 15 s.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

2)   flap change dynamics

±3 kt airspeed
±30 m (100 ft) altitude
±1.5° or ±20% pitch

Take-off through initial flap retraction, and approach to landing

Time history of uncontrolled free response for a time increment equal to at least 5 s before initiation of the reconfiguration change to the completion of the reconfiguration change + 15 s.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

3)   spoiler/ speedbrake change dynamics

±3 kt airspeed
±30 m (100 ft) altitude
±1.5° or ±20% pitch

Cruise

Time history of uncontrolled free response for a time increment equal to at least 5 s before initiation of the configuration change to completion of the configuration change + 15 s. Results required for both extension and retraction.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

4)   gear change dynamics

±3 kt airspeed
±30 m (100 ft) altitude
±1.5° or ±20% pitch

Take-off (retraction) and approach (extension)

Time history of uncontrolled free response for a time increment equal to at least 5 s before initiation of the configuration change to completion of the configuration change + 15 s.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

5)   longitudinal trim

±1° elevator
±0.5° stabiliser
±1° pitch
±5% net thrust or equivalent

Cruise, approach and landing

Steady-state wings level trim with thrust for level flight. May be a series of snapshot tests.

CCA:  Test in normal or non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

6)   longitudinal manoeuvring stability (stick force/g)

±2.2 daN (5 lb) or ±10% pitch controller force

Alternative method:
±1 deg or ±10% change of elevator

Cruise, approach and landing

Continuous time history data or a series of snapshot tests may be used. Test up to approximately 30° of bank for approach and landing configurations. Test up to approximately 45° of bank for the cruise configuration. Force tolerance not applicable if forces are generated solely by the use of aeroplane hardware in the flight simulator. Alternative method applies to aeroplanes which do not exhibit stick-force-per-g characteristics.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state as applicable.

X

X

X

X

7)   longitudinal static stability

±2.2 daN (5 lb) or ±10% pitch controller force.

Alternative method:
±1° or ±10% change of elevator

Approach

Data for at least two speeds above and two speeds below trim speed. May be a series of snapshot tests. Force tolerance not applicable if forces are generated solely by the use of aeroplane hardware in the flight simulator. Alternative method applies to aeroplanes which do not exhibit speed stability characteristics.

CCA:  Test in normal or non-normal control state as applicable.

X

X

X

X

8)   stall characteristics

±3 kt airspeed for initial buffet, stall warning, and stall speeds

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force (prior to g-break only)

2nd segment climb and approach or landing

Wings-level (1g) stall entry with thrust at or near idle power. Time history data should be shown to include full stall and initiation of recovery. Stall warning signal should be recorded and shall occur in the proper relation to stall. Flight simulators for aeroplanes exhibiting a sudden pitch attitude change or ‘g break’ shall demonstrate this characteristic.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

9)   phugoid dynamics

±10% period
±10% time to ½ or double amplitude or ±.02 of damping ratio

Cruise

Test should include three full cycles or that necessary to determine time to ½ or double amplitude, whichever is less.

CCA:  Test in non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

10) short period dynamics

±1.5° pitch or ±2°/s pitch rate
±.1 g normal acceleration

Cruise

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

d) Lateral directional

 

 

Note:  Power setting may be that required for level flight unless otherwise specified.

 

 

 

 

1)   minimum control speed, air (Vmca or Vmcl), per applicable airworthiness requirement or low speed engine inoperative handling characteristics in the air.

±3 kt airspeed

Take-off or landing (whichever is most critical in the aeroplane)

Minimum speed may be defined by a performance or control limit which prevents demonstration of Vmca or Vmcl in the conventional manner. Take-off thrust should be set on the operating engine(s). Time history or snapshot data may be used.

CCA:  Test in normal or non-normal control state.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   roll response (rate)

±10% or ±2°/s roll rate

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±1.3 daN (3 lb) roll controller force

Cruise and approach or landing

Test with normal roll control displacement (about 30% of maximum control wheel). May be combined with step input of flight deck roll controller test (2 d) 3)).

X

X

X

X

3)   step input of flight deck roll controller

±10% or
±2° bank

Approach or landing

With wings level, apply a step roll control input using approximately one-third of roll controller travel. At approximately 20° to 30° bank, abruptly return the roll controller to neutral and allow at least 10 s of aeroplane free response. May be combined with roll response (rate) test (2 d) 2)).

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

4)   spiral stability

correct trend and ±2° or ±10% bank in 20 s.

If alternate test is used:  correct trend and ±2° aileron.

Cruise and approach or landing

Aeroplane data averaged from multiple tests may be used. Test for both directions. As an alternative test, show lateral control required to maintain a steady turn with a bank angle of approximately 30°.

CCA:  Test in non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

5)   engine inoperative trim

±1° rudder angle or ±1° tab angle or equivalent rudder pedal
±2° side-slip

2nd segment climb and approach or landing

Test should be performed in a manner similar to that for which a pilot is trained to trim an engine failure condition. 2nd segment climb test should be at take-off thrust. Approach or landing test should be at thrust for level flight. May be snapshot tests.

X

X

X

X

6)   rudder response

±2°/s or ±10% yaw rate

Approach or landing

Test with stability augmentation on and off. Test with a step input at approximately 25% of full rudder pedal throw.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

7)   dutch roll (yaw damper off)

±0.5 s or ±10% of period
±10% of time to ½ or double amplitude or ±.02 of damping ratio
±20% or ±1 s of time difference between peaks of bank and side-slip

Cruise and approach or landing

Test for at least six cycles with stability augmentation off.

CCA:  Test in non-normal control state.

X

X

X

X

8)   steady state side-slip

For a given rudder position:
±2° bank
±1° side-slip
±10% or ±2° aileron
±10% or ±5° spoiler or equivalent roll controller position or force

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±1.3 daN (3 lb) wheel force
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) rudder pedal force.

Approach or landing

May be a series of snapshot tests using at least two rudder positions (in each direction for propeller driven aeroplanes) one of which should be near maximum allowable rudder.

X

X

X

X

e) Landings

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   normal landing

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±3 m (10 ft) or ±10% of height.

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force

Landing

Test from a minimum of 61 m (200 ft) AGL to nosewheel touchdown. Two tests shall be shown, including two normal landing flaps (if applicable) one of which shall be near maximum certificated landing mass, the other at light or medium mass.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state if applicable.

C
T
&
M

X

X

X

2)   minimum flap landing

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±3 m (10 ft) or ±10% of height.

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force

Minimum certificated landing flap configur-ation

Test from a minimum of 61 m (200 ft) AGL to nosewheel touchdown. Test at near maximum certificated landing mass.

 

X

X

X

3)   cross-wind landing

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±3 m (10 ft) or ±10% height
±2° bank angle
±2° sideslip angle
±3° heading

For aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems:
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) column force
±10% or ±1.3 daN (3 lb) wheel force
±10% or ±2.2 daN (5 lb) rudder pedal force.

Landing

Test from a minimum of 61 m (200 ft) AGL to a 50% decrease in main landing gear touchdown speed. Requires test data, including wind profile, for a cross-wind component of at least 60% of AFM value measured at 10 m (33 ft) above the runway.

 

X

X

X

4)   one engine inoperative landing

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±3 m (10 ft) or ±10% height
±2° bank angle
±2° sideslip angle
±3° heading.

Landing

Test from a minimum of 61 m (200 ft) AGL to a 50% decrease in main landing gear touchdown speed.

 

X

X

X

5)   autopilot landing (if applicable)

±1.5 m (5 ft) flare height
±0.5 s or ±10% T
f
±0.7 m/s (140 ft/min) R/D at touchdown
±3 m (10 ft) lateral deviation during rollout

Landing

If autopilot provides rollout guidance, record lateral deviation from touchdown to a 50% decrease in main landing gear touchdown speed. Time of autopilot flare mode engage and main gear touchdown shall be noted. Tf = duration of flare.

 

X

X

X

6)   all-engine autopilot go-around

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA

As per AFM

Normal all-engine autopilot go-around shall be demonstrated (if applicable) at medium mass.

CCA:  Test in normal and non-normal control state.

 

X

X

X

7)   one-engine-inoperative go-around

±3 kt airspeed
±1.5° pitch
±1.5° AOA
±2° bank
±2° sideslip

As per AFM

Engine inoperative go-around required near maximum certificated landing mass with critical engine(s) inoperative. Provide one test with autopilot (if applicable) and one without autopilot.

CCA: non-autopilot test to be conducted in non-normal mode.

 

X

X

X

8)   directional control (rudder effectiveness) with reverse thrust (symmetric)

±5 kt airspeed
±2°/s yaw rate

Landing

Apply rudder pedal input in both directions using full reverse thrust until reaching full thrust reverser minimum operating speed.

 

X

X

X

9)   directional control (rudder effectiveness) with reverse thrust (asymmetric)

±5 kt airspeed
±3° heading

Landing

With full reverse thrust on the operating engine(s), maintain heading with rudder pedal input until maximum rudder pedal input or thrust reverser minimum operating speed is reached.

 

X

X

X

f)  Ground effect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   a test to demonstrate ground effect

±1° elevator
±0.5° stabiliser angle
±5% net thrust or equivalent
±1° AOA
±1.5 m (5 ft) or ±10% height
±3 kt airspeed
±1° pitch

Landing

See Section 3.3.2. A rationale shall be provided with justification of results.

CCA:  Test in normal or non-normal control state

 

X

X

X

g) Wind shear

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   a test to demonstrate wind shear models

None

Take-off and landing

Wind shear models are required which provide training in the specific skills required for recognition of wind shear phenomena and execution of recovery manoeuvres.

 

 

X

X

Note:         Wind shear models shall be representative of measured or accident derived winds, but may be simplifications which ensure repeatable encounters. For example, models may consist of independent variable winds in multiple simultaneous components. Wind models should be available for the following critical phases of flight:

i)    prior to take-off rotation;

ii)   at lift-off;

iii)  during initial climb; and

iv)  short final approach.

The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wind shear Training Aid, wind models from the United Kingdom Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), the United States Joint Aerodrome Weather Studies (JAWS) Project or other recognised sources may be implemented and shall be supported and properly referenced in the QTG. Wind models from alternate sources may also be used if supported by aeroplane related data and such data are properly supported and referenced in the QTG. Use of alternate data shall be co-ordinated with the authority prior to submission of the QTG for approval.

h) Flight and manoeuvre envelope protection functions

 

 

Note:  The requirements of this paragraph are only applicable to computer-controlled aeroplanes. Time history results of response to control inputs during entry into each envelope protection function, i.e., with normal and degraded control states if function is different, are required. Set thrust as required to reach the envelope protection function.

 

 

 

 

1)   overspeed

±5 kt airspeed

Cruise

 

X

X

X

X

2)   minimum speed

±3 kt airspeed

Take-off, cruise and approach or landing

 

X

X

X

X

3)   load factor

±0.1 g normal acceleration

Take-off, cruise

 

X

X

X

X

4)   pitch angle

±1.5° pitch

Cruise, approach

 

X

X

X

X

5)   bank angle

±2° or ±10% bank

Approach

 

X

X

X

X

6)   angle of attack

±1.5° AOA

2nd segment and approach or landing

 

X

X

X

X

3.  MOTION SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a) Frequency response

As specified by the applicant for flight simulator qualification

Not applicable

Appropriate test to demonstrate frequency response required. See also Section 3.3.4.2.

X

X

X

X

b) Leg balance

As specified by the applicant for flight simulator qualification

Not applicable

Appropriate test to demonstrate leg balance required. See also Section 3.3.4.2.

X

X

X

X

c) Turn-around check

As specified by the applicant for flight simulator qualification

Not applicable

Appropriate test to demonstrate smooth turn-around required. See also Section 3.3.4.2.

X

X

X

X

d) Motion effects

 

 

Refer to Section 3.4 subjective testing

 

 

 

 

e) Motion system repeatability

±0.05g actual platform linear accelerations

None

Ensure that motion system hardware and software (in normal flight simulator operating mode) continue to perform as originally qualified. Performance changes from the original baseline can be readily identified with this information. See Section 3.3.4.4.

 

 

X

X

f)  Motion cueing performance signature

None

Ground and flight

For a given set of flight simulation critical manoeuvres record the relevant motion variables. These tests should be run with the motion buffet module disabled. See Section 3.3.4.3.

X

X

X

X

g) Characteristic motion vibrations

The following tests with recorded results and an SOC are required for characteristic motion vibrations, which can be sensed at the flight deck where applicable by aeroplane type.

None

Ground and flight

The recorded test results for characteristic buffets shall allow the comparison of relative amplitude versus frequency. For atmospheric disturbance testing, general purpose disturbance models that approximate demonstrable flight test data are acceptable. Principally, the flight simulator results should exhibit the overall appearance and trends of the aeroplane plots, with at least some of the frequency ‘spikes’ being present within 1 or 2 Hz of the aeroplane data. See Section 3.3.4.5.

 

 

 

 

1.   thrust effects with brakes set

n/a

Ground

Test should be conducted at maximum possible thrust with brakes set.

 

 

 

X

2.   landing gear extended buffet

n/a

Flight

Test condition should be for a normal operational speed and not at the gear limiting speed.

 

 

 

X

3.   flaps extended buffet

n/a

Flight

Test condition should be for a normal operational speed and not at the flap limiting speed.

 

 

 

X

4.   speedbrake deployed buffet

n/a

Flight

 

 

 

 

X

5.   approach-to-stall buffet

n/a

Flight

Test condition should be approach-to-stall. Post-stall characteristics are not required.

 

 

 

X

6.   high speed or Mach buffet

n/a

Flight

Test condition should be for high speed manoeuvre buffet/wind-up-turn or alternatively Mach buffet.

 

 

 

X

7.   In-flight vibrations

n/a

Flight (clean configur-ation)

Test should be conducted to be representative of in-flight vibrations for propeller driven aeroplanes.

 

 

 

X

4.  VISUAL SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a) System response time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.   latency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Or

150 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response

300 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response

Take-off, cruise, and approach or landing

One test is required in each axis (pitch, roll and yaw) for each of the three conditions compared to aeroplane data for a similar input. The visual scene or test pattern used during the response testing should be representative of the required system capacities required to meet the daylight, twilight (dusk/dawn) and night visual capability. Response tests should be confirmed in daylight, twilight and night settings.






X






X

X

X

2.   transport delay

150 milliseconds or less after controller movement

300 milliseconds or less after controller movement

Pitch, roll and yaw

One separate test is required in each axis






X






X

X

X

b) Visual scene quality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.         continuous collimated cross-cockpit visual field of view





























Continuous collimated visual field of view

 

Continuous, cross-cockpit, minimum collimated visual field of view providing each pilot with 180 degrees horizontal and 40 degrees vertical field of view. Horizontal FOV: Not less than a total of 176 measured degrees (including not less than ±88 measured degrees either side of the centre of the design eye point). Vertical FOV: Not less than a total of 36 measured degrees from the pilot’s and co-pilot’s eye point.

Continuous, minimum collimated visual field of view providing each pilot with 45 degrees horizontal and 30 degrees vertical field of view

Not applicable

Field of view shall be measured using a visual test pattern filling the entire visual scene (all channels) consisting of a matrix of black and white 5° squares. Installed alignment should be confirmed in a Statement of Compliance.



















30 degrees vertical field of view may be insufficient to meet the requirements of Test 4c.







































X







































X

X

X

2.   system geometry

5° even angular spacing within ±1° as measured from either pilot eye-point, and within 1.5° for adjacent squares.

Not applicable

System geometry shall be measured using a visual test pattern filling the entire visual scene (all channels) consisting of a matrix of black and white 5° squares with light points at the intersections. The operator should demonstrate that the angular spacing of any chosen 5° square and the relative spacing of adjacent squares are within the stated tolerances. The intent of this test is to demonstrate local linearity of the displayed image at either pilot eye-point.

X

X

X

X

3.   surface contrast ratio

Not less than 5:1

Not applicable

Surface contrast ratio shall be measured using a raster drawn test pattern filling the entire visual scene (all channels). The test pattern shall consist of black and white squares, 5° per square with a white square in the centre of each channel. Measurement shall be made on the centre bright square for each channel using a 1° spot photometer. This value shall have a minimum brightness of 7 cd/m2 (2 foot‑lamberts). Measure any adjacent dark squares. The contrast ratio is the bright square value divided by the dark square value.

Note. During contrast ratio testing, simulator aft-cab and flight deck ambient light levels should be zero.

 

 

X

X

4.   highlight brightness

Not less than 20 cd/m2 (6 ft‑lamberts) on the display

Not applicable

Highlight brightness shall be measured by maintaining the full test pattern described in 4.b) 3) above, superimposing a highlight on the centre white square of each channel and measuring the brightness using the 1° spot photometer. Lightpoints are not acceptable. Use of calligraphic capabilities to enhance raster brightness is acceptable.

 

 

X

X

5.   vernier resolution

Not greater than 2 arc minutes

Not applicable

Vernier resolution shall be demonstrated by a test of objects shown to occupy the required visual angle in each visual display used on a scene from the pilot’s eye-point. The eye will subtend two arc minutes (arc tan (4/6876)x60) when positioned on a 3‑degree glideslope, 6 876 ft slant range from the centrally located threshold of a black runway surface painted with white threshold bars that are 16 ft wide with 4 ft gaps in-between. This should be confirmed by calculations in a statement of compliance.

 

 

X

X

6)   lightpoint size

Not greater than 5 arc minutes

Not applicable

Lightpoint size shall be measured using a test pattern consisting of a centrally located single row of lightpoints reduced in length until modulation is just discernible in each visual channel. A row of 48 lights will form a 4° angle or less.

 

 

X

X

7)   lightpoint contrast ratio

Not less than 10:1

Not less than 25:1

Not applicable

Lightpoint contrast ratio shall be measured using a test pattern demonstrating a 1° area filled with lightpoints, i.e., lightpoint modulation just discernible, and shall be compared to the adjacent background.

Note:  During contrast ratio testing, simulator aft-cab and flight deck ambient light levels should be zero.

X

X



X



X

c) Visual ground segment

Near end:
The threshold lights computed to be visible shall be visible in the flight simulator.
Far end: ±20% of the computed VGS.

Trimmed in the landing configur-ation at 30 m (100 ft) wheel height above touchdown zone on glide slope at an RVR setting of 300m (980 ft) or 1200 ft (365 m).

Visual Ground Segment. This test is designed to assess items impacting the accuracy of the visual scene presented to a pilot at DH on an ILS approach. Those items include
1): RVR,
2): glideslope (G/S) and localiser modelling accuracy (location and slope) for an ILS,
3): for a given mass, configuration and speed representative of a point within the aeroplane’s operational envelope for a normal approach and landing.

Note:  If non-homogenous fog is used, the vertical variation in horizontal visibility shall be described and be included in the slant range visibility calculation used in the VGS computation.

X

X

X

X

5.  SOUND SYSTEMS

 

 

All tests in this section shall be presented using an unweighted 1/3-octave band format from band 17 to 42 (50 Hz to 16 kHz). A minimum 20 s average shall be taken at the location corresponding to the aeroplane data set. The aeroplane and flight simulator results shall be produced using comparable data analysis techniques. Refer to Section 3.3.6.

 

 

 

 

a) Turbo-jet aeroplanes3.2, Tests 5.a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   ready for engine start

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to engine start. The APU should be on if appropriate.

 

 

 

X

2)   all engines at idle

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

3)   all engines at maximum allowable thrust with brakes set

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

4)   climb

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

En-route climb

Medium altitude.

 

 

 

X

5)   cruise

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Cruise

Normal cruise configuration.

 

 

 

X

6)   speedbrake /spoilers extended (as appropriate)

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Cruise

Normal and constant speedbrake deflection for descent at a constant airspeed and power setting.

 

 

 

X

7)   initial approach

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Approach

Constant airspeed, gear up, flaps/slats as appropriate.

 

 

 

X

8)   final approach

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Landing

Constant airspeed, gear down, full flaps

 

 

 

X

b) Propeller aeroplanes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1)   ready for engine start

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to engine start. The APU should be on if appropriate.

 

 

 

X

2)   all propellers feathered

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

3)   ground idle or equivalent

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

4)   flight idle or equivalent

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

5)   all engines at maximum allowable power with brakes set

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Ground

Normal condition prior to take-off.

 

 

 

X

6)   climb

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

En-route climb

Medium altitude.

 

 

 

X

7)   cruise

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Cruise

Normal cruise configuration.

 

 

 

X

8)   initial approach

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Approach

Constant airspeed, gear up, flaps extended as appropriate, RPM as per operating manual.

 

 

 

X

9)   final approach

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

Landing

Constant airspeed, gear down, full flaps, RPM as per operating manual.

 

 

 

X

c) Special cases 5.c)

±5 dB per 1/3 octave band

 

Special cases identified as particularly significant to the pilot, important in training, or unique to a specific aeroplane type or model.

 

 

 

 

d) Flight simulator background noise

Initial evaluation: not applicable. Recurrent evaluation:
±3dB per 1/3 octave band compared to initial evaluation

 

Results of the background noise at initial qualification shall be included in the QTG document and approved by the qualifying authority. The simulated sound will be evaluated to ensure that the background noise does not interfere with training. Refer to Section 3.3.6.6. The measurements are to be made with the simulation running, the sound muted and a dead cockpit.

 

 

X

X

e) Frequency response

Initial evaluation: not applicable. Recurrent evaluation: cannot exceed ±5 dB on three consecutive bands when compared to initial evaluation and the average of the absolute differences between initial and recurrent evaluation results cannot exceed 2 dB.

 

Only required if the results are to be used during recurrent evaluations according to Section 3.3.6.8. The results shall be acknowledged by the authority at initial qualification.

 

 

X

X

 

Section 3.3: Information for Validation Tests

3.3.1             Control Dynamics

3.3.1.1          General. The characteristics of an aeroplane flight control system have a major effect on handling qualities. A significant consideration in pilot acceptability of an aeroplane is the ‘feel’ provided through the flight controls. Considerable effort is expended on aeroplane feel system design so that pilots will be comfortable and will consider the aeroplane desirable to fly. In order for a flight simulator to be representative, it too shall present the pilot with the proper feel: that of the aeroplane being simulated. Compliance with this requirement shall be determined by comparing a recording of the control feel dynamics of the flight simulator to actual aeroplane measurements in the take-off, cruise and landing configurations.

(a)      Recordings such as free response to a pulse or step function are classically used to estimate the dynamic properties of electromechanical systems. In any case, the dynamic properties can only be estimated since the true inputs and responses are also only estimated. Therefore, it is imperative that the best possible data be collected since close matching of the flight simulator control loading system to the aeroplane systems is essential. The required control dynamics tests are indicated in Tests 2 b) 1), 2 b) 2) and 2 b) 3) of Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests.
(b)      For initial and upgrade evaluations, it is required that control dynamics characteristics be measured at and recorded directly from the flight controls. This procedure is usually accomplished by measuring the free response of the controls using a step input or pulse input to excite the system. The procedure shall be accomplished in the take-off, cruise and landing flight conditions and configurations.
(c)       For aeroplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot-static inputs are provided to represent airspeeds typical of those encountered in flight. Likewise, it may be shown that for some aeroplanes, take-off, cruise and landing configurations have like effects. Thus, one may suffice for another. If either or both considerations apply, engineering validation or aeroplane manufacturer rationale shall be submitted as justification for ground tests or for eliminating a configuration. For flight simulators requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial and upgrade evaluations if the QTG shows both test fixture results and the results of an alternate approach, such as computer plots which were produced concurrently and show satisfactory agreement. Repeat of the alternate method during the initial evaluation would then satisfy this test requirement.

3.3.1.2          Control dynamics evaluation. The dynamic properties of control systems are often stated in terms of frequency, damping and a number of other classical measurements, which can be found in texts on control systems. In order to establish a consistent means of validating test results for flight simulator control loading, criteria are needed that will clearly define the interpretation of the measurements and the tolerances to be applied. Criteria are needed for underdamped, critically damped and overdamped systems. In the case of an underdamped system with very light damping, the system may be quantified in terms of frequency and damping. In critically damped or overdamped systems, the frequency and damping are not readily measured from a response time history. Therefore, some other measurement shall be used.

(a)      Tests to verify that control feel dynamics represent the aeroplane shall show that the dynamic damping cycles (free response of the controls) match those of the aeroplane within specified tolerances. The method of evaluating the response and the tolerance to be applied is described for the underdamped and critically damped cases.
(i)        Underdamped response. Two measurements are required for the period, the time to first zero crossing (in case a rate limit is present) and the subsequent frequency of oscillation. It is necessary to measure cycles on an individual basis in case there are non-uniform periods in the response. Each period will be independently compared to the respective period of the aeroplane control system and, consequently, will enjoy the full tolerance specified for that period.

The damping tolerance should be applied to overshoots on an individual basis. Care should be taken when applying the tolerance to small overshoots since the significance of such overshoots becomes questionable. Only those overshoots larger than 5 per cent of the total initial displacement should be considered. The residual band, labelled T(A
d) in Figure 3.3-1 is ±5 per cent of the initial displacement amplitude Ad from the steady state value of the oscillation. Only oscillations outside the residual band are considered significant. When comparing flight simulator data to aeroplane data, the process should begin by overlaying or aligning the flight simulator and aeroplane steady state values and then comparing amplitudes of oscillation peaks, the time of the first zero crossing and individual periods of oscillation. The flight simulator should show the same number of significant overshoots to within one when compared against the aeroplane data. This procedure for evaluating the response is illustrated in Figure 3.3-1.
(ii)       Critically damped and overdamped response. Due to the nature of critically damped and overdamped responses (no overshoots), the time to reach 90 per cent of the steady state (neutral point) value should be the same as the aeroplane within ±10 per cent. Figure 3.3-2 illustrates the procedure.
(iii)      Special considerations. Control systems which exhibit characteristics other than classical overdamped or underdamped responses should meet specified tolerances. In addition, special consideration should be given to ensure that significant trends are maintained
(b)      Tolerances. The following table summarises the tolerances, T. See Figure 3.3-1 and Figure 3.3-2 for an illustration of the referenced measurements.

T(P0)                                       ±10% of P0

T(P1)                                       ±20% of P1

T(P2)                                       ±30% of P2

T(Pn)                                       ±10(n+1)% of Pn

T(An)                                       ±10% of A1

T(Ad)                                       ±5% of Ad = residual band

Significant overshoots        first overshoot and ±1 subsequent overshoots

3.3.1.3          Alternate method for control dynamics evaluation. One aeroplane manufacturer has proposed, and his authority has accepted, an alternate means for dealing with control dynamics. The method applies to aeroplanes with hydraulically powered flight controls and artificial feel systems. Instead of free response measurements, the system would be validated by measurements of control force and rate of movement.

(a)      For each axis of pitch, roll and yaw, the control shall be forced to its maximum extreme position for the following distinct rates. These tests shall be conducted at typical taxi, take-off, cruise and landing conditions.
(i)        Static test. Slowly move the control such that approximately 100 s are required to achieve a full sweep. A full sweep is defined as movement of the controller from neutral to the stop, usually aft or right stop, then to the opposite stop, then to the neutral position.
(ii)       Slow dynamic test. Achieve a full sweep in approximately 10 s.
(iii)      Fast dynamic test. Achieve a full sweep in approximately 4 s.

Note:  Dynamic sweeps may be limited to forces not exceeding 44.5 daN (100 lb).

(b)      Tolerances
(i)        Static test. Items 3.2, Tests 2.a) 1), 2.a) 2) and 2.a) 3) of Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests.
(ii)       Dynamic test. ±0.9 daN (2 lb) or ±10 per cent on dynamic increment above static test.
(c)       The authorities are open to alternative means such as the one described above. Such alternatives shall, however, be justified and appropriate to the application. For example, the method described here may not apply to all manufacturers’ systems and certainly not to aeroplanes with reversible control systems. Hence, each case shall be considered on its own merit on an ad hoc basis. Should the authority find that alternative methods do not result in satisfactory performance, then more conventionally accepted methods shall be used.

Figure 3.31: Underdamped step response

 

Figure 3.32: Critically damped step response

3.3.2             Ground Effect

3.3.2.1          For a flight simulator to be used for take-off and landing it shall faithfully reproduce the aerodynamic changes which occur in ground effect. The parameters chosen for flight simulator validation shall be indicative of these changes.

A dedicated test should be provided which will validate the aerodynamic ground effect characteristics.

The selection of the test method and procedures to validate ground effect is at the option of the organisation performing the flight tests; however, the flight test should be performed with enough duration near the ground to sufficiently validate the ground-effect model.

3.3.2.2          Acceptable tests for validation of ground effect include:

(a)      Level fly-bys. The level fly-bys should be conducted at a minimum of three altitudes within the ground effect, including one at no more than 10% of the wingspan above the ground, one each at approximately 30% and 50% of the wingspan where height refers to main gear tyre above the ground. In addition, one level-flight trim condition should be conducted out of ground effect, e.g., at 150% of wingspan.
(b)      Shallow approach landing. The shallow approach landing should be performed at a glide slope of approximately one degree with negligible pilot activity until flare.

If other methods are proposed, rationale shall be provided to conclude that the tests performed do validate the ground-effect model.

3.3.2.3          The lateral-directional characteristics are also altered by ground effect. For example, because of changes in lift, roll damping is affected. The change in roll damping will affect other dynamic modes usually evaluated for flight simulator validation. In fact, Dutch roll dynamics, spiral stability and roll-rate for a given lateral control input are altered by ground effect. Steady heading side-slips will also be affected. These effects shall be accounted for in the simulator modelling. Several tests such as ‘cross-wind landing’, ‘one engine inoperative landing’ and ‘engine failure on take-off’ serve to validate lateral-directional ground effect since portions of them are accomplished whilst transiting heights at which ground effect is an important factor.

3.3.3             Engineering Simulator–Validation Data

3.3.3.1          When a fully flight-test validated simulation is modified as a result of changes to the simulated aeroplane configuration, a qualified aeroplane manufacturer may choose, with the prior agreement of the relevant authority, to supply validation data from an ‘audited’ engineering simulator/simulation to selectively supplement flight test data. This arrangement is confined to changes which are incremental in nature and which are both easily understood and well defined.

3.3.3.2          To be qualified to supply engineering simulator validation data, an aeroplane manufacturer should:

(a)      have a proven track record of developing successful data packages;
(b)      have demonstrated high quality prediction methods through comparisons of predicted and flight test validated data;
(c)       have an engineering simulator which:
(i)        has models which run in an integrated manner;
(ii)       uses the same models as released to the training community (which are also used to produce stand-alone proof-of-match and checkout documents);
(iii)      is used to support aeroplane development and certification;
(d)      use the engineering simulation to produce a representative set of integrated proof-of-match cases;
(e)      have an acceptable configuration control system in place covering the engineering simulator and all other relevant engineering simulations.

3.3.3.3          Aeroplane manufacturers seeking to take advantage of this alternative arrangement should contact the authority at the earliest opportunity.

3.3.3.4          For the initial application, each applicant should demonstrate his ability to qualify to the satisfaction of the authority, in accordance with the means provided in this section and Advisory Circular 60-3.

3.3.4             Motion System

3.3.4.1          General. Pilots use continuous information signals to regulate the state of the aeroplane. In concert with the instruments and outside-world visual information, whole-body motion feedback is essential in assisting the pilot to control the aeroplane’s dynamics, particularly in the presence of external disturbances. The motion system should therefore meet basic objective performance criteria, as well as being subjectively tuned at the pilot's seat position to represent the linear and angular accelerations of the aeroplane during a prescribed minimum set of manoeuvres and conditions. Moreover, the response of the motion cueing system should be repeatable.

The objective validation tests presented in Section 3.2 are intended to qualify the flight simulator motion cueing system from a mechanical performance standpoint. Additionally, the list of motion effects provides a representative sample of dynamic conditions that shall be present in the flight simulator. A list of representative training-critical manoeuvres that shall be recorded during initial qualification (but without tolerance) to indicate the flight simulator motion cueing performance signature has been added to this document. These are intended to help to improve the overall standard of flight simulator motion cueing.

3.3.4.2          Motion System Checks. The intent of tests as described in Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests, Tests 3 a) Frequency Response,  3 b) Leg Balance, and 3 c) Turn-around Check is to demonstrate the performance of the motion system hardware, and to check the integrity of the motion set-up with regard to calibration and wear. These tests are independent of the motion cueing software and should be considered as robotic tests.

3.3.4.3          Motion Cueing Performance Signature

(a)      Background. The intent of this test is to provide quantitative time history records of motion system response to a selected set of automated QTG manoeuvres during initial qualification. This is not intended to be a comparison of the motion platform accelerations against the flight test recorded accelerations, i.e., not to be compared against aeroplane cueing. This information describes a minimum set of manoeuvres and a guideline for determining the flight simulator’s motion footprint. If over time there is a change to the initially certified motion software load or motion hardware then these baseline tests shall be rerun.
(b)      List of tests. Table 3.3-1 delineates those tests that are important to pilot motion cueing and are general tests applicable to all types of aeroplanes and thus the motion cueing performance signature shall be run for initial qualification. These tests can be run at any time deemed acceptable to the Authority prior to or during the initial qualification. The tests in Table 3.3-2 are also significant to pilot motion cues and are provided for information only. These tests are not required to be run.
(c)       Priority. A priority (X) is given to each of these manoeuvres, with the intent of placing greater importance on those manoeuvres that directly influence pilot perception and control of the aeroplane motions. For the manoeuvres designated with a priority in the tables below, the flight simulator motion cueing system should have a high tilt co-ordination gain, high rotational gain, and high correlation with respect to the aeroplane simulation model.
(d)      Data recording. The minimum list of parameters provided should allow for the determination of the flight simulator’s motion cueing performance signature for the initial qualification. The following parameters are recommended as being acceptable to perform such a function:
(i)        flight model acceleration and rotational rate commands at the pilot reference point;
(ii)       motion actuators position;
(iii)      actual platform position ;
(iv)      actual platform acceleration at pilot reference point.

Table 3.31: Tests required for initial qualification

No

Associated Validation Test

Manoeuvre

Priority

Comments

1

1 b) 4)

Take-off rotation (Vr to V2)

X

Pitch attitude due to initial climb shall dominate over cab tilt due to longitudinal acceleration

2

1 b) 5)

Engine failure between V1 and Vr

X

 

3

2 e) 6)

Pitch change during go-around

X

 

4

2 c) 2) and 2 c) 4)

Configuration changes

X

 

5

2 c) 1)

Power change dynamics

X

Resulting effects of power changes

6

2 e) 1)

Landing flare

X

 

7

2 e) 1)

Touchdown bump

 

 

Table 3.32: Tests that are significant but are not required to be run


No

Associated Validation Test

Manoeuvre

Priority

Comments

8

1 a) 2)

Taxi (including acceleration, turns, braking), with presence of ground rumble

X

 

9

1 b) 4)

Brake release and initial acceleration

X

 

10

1 b) 1) and 3) g)

Ground rumble on runway, acceleration during take-off, scuffing, runway lights and surface discontinuities

X

Scuffing and velocity cues are given priority

11

1 b) 2) and 1 b) 7)

Engine failure prior to V1 (RTO)

X

Lateral and directional cues are given priority

12

1 c) 1)

Steady-state climb

X

 

13

1 d) 1) and 1 d) 2)

Level flight acceleration and deceleration

 

 

14

2 c) 6)

Turns

X

 

15

1 b) 8)

Engine failures

 

 

16

2 c) 8)

Approach-to-stall

X

 

17

 

System failures

X

Priority depending on the type of system failure and aeroplane type, e.g., flight controls failures, rapid decompression, inadvertent thrust reverser deployment.

18

2 g) 1) and 2 e) 3)

Windshear/cross-wind including de-crabbing

X

Influence on vibrations and on attitude control

19

1 e) 1)

Deceleration on runway

 

Including contamination effects

3.3.4.4          Motion system repeatability. The intent of this test is to ensure that the motion system software and motion system hardware have not degraded or changed over time. This diagnostic test should to be run during recurrent checks in lieu of the robotic tests. This will allow an improved ability to determine changes in the software or determine degradation in the hardware that have adversely affected the training value of the motion as was accepted during the initial qualification. The following information delineates the methodology that should be used for this test.

(a)      Conditions:
(i)        One test case on-ground: to be determined by the operator;
(ii)       One test case in-flight: to be determined by the operator.
(b)      Input. The inputs shall be such that both rotational accelerations/rates and linear accelerations are inserted before the transfer from aeroplane cg to pilot reference point with a minimum amplitude of 5 deg/sec/sec, 10 deg/sec and 0.3g respectively to provide adequate analysis of the output.
(c)       Recommended output:
(i)        actual platform linear accelerations; the output will comprise accelerations due to both the linear and rotational motion acceleration;
(ii)       motion actuators position

3.3.4.5          Motion Vibrations

(a)      Presentation of results. The characteristic motion vibrations are a means to verify that the flight simulator can reproduce the frequency content of the aeroplane when flown in specific conditions. The test results should be presented as a Power Spectral Density (PSD) plot with frequencies on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis. The aeroplane data and flight simulator data should be presented in the same format with the same scaling. The algorithms used for generating the flight simulator data should be the same as those used for the aeroplane data. If they are not the same then the algorithms used for the flight simulator data should be proven to be sufficiently comparable. As a minimum the results along the dominant axes should be presented and a rationale for not presenting the other axes should be provided.
(b)      Interpretation of results. The overall trend of the PSD plot should be considered while focusing on the dominant frequencies. Less emphasis should be placed on the differences at the high frequency and low amplitude portions of the PSD plot. During the analysis it should be considered that certain structural components of the flight simulator have resonant frequencies that are filtered and thus may not appear in the PSD plot. If such filtering is required the notch filter bandwidth should be limited to 1 Hz to ensure that the buffet feel is not adversely affected. In addition, a rationale should be provided to explain that the characteristic motion vibration is not being adversely affected by the filtering. The amplitude should match aeroplane data as per the description below; however, if for subjective reasons the PSD plot was altered a rationale should be provided to justify the change. If the plot is on a logarithmic scale it may be difficult to interpret the amplitude of the buffet in terms of acceleration. A 1x10-3 grms2/Hz would describe a heavy buffet and may be seen in the deep stall regime. On the other hand, a 1x10-6 grms2/Hz buffet is almost not perceivable; but may represent a flap buffet at low speed. The previous two examples differ in magnitude by 1000. On a PSD plot this represents three decades (one decade is a change in order of magnitude of 10; two decades is a change in order of magnitude of 100, etc.).

3.3.5             Visual System

3.3.5.1          Level C and D visual systems shall meet the following criteria:

(a)      Contrast ratio shall be demonstrated using a raster drawn test pattern filling the entire visual scene (three or more channels) consisting of a matrix of black and white squares no larger than 5 degrees per square with a white square in the centre of each channel.

Measurement shall be made on the centre bright square for each channel using a 1 degree spot photometer. This value shall have a minimum brightness of 7 cd/m2 (2 foot-lamberts). Measure any adjacent dark squares. The contrast ratio is the bright square value divided by the dark square value. Minimum test contrast ratio result is 5:1.

Lightpoint contrast ratio shall be not less than 25:1 when a square of at least 1 degree filled, i.e., lightpoint modulation is just discernible, with lightpoint is compared to the adjacent background.

(b)      Highlight brightness test shall be demonstrated by maintaining the full test pattern described above, then superimposing a highlight on the centre white square of each channel and measure the brightness using the 1 degree spot photometer. The highlight brightness shall not be less than 6 ft-lamberts. Lightpoints are not acceptable. Use of calligraphic capabilities to enhance raster brightness is acceptable.
(c)       Resolution shall be demonstrated by a test of objects shown to occupy a visual angle of  not greater than 2 arc minutes in the visual scene from the pilot's eyepoint. This should be confirmed by calculations in the statement of compliance.
(d)      Lightpoint size of not greater than 5 arc minutes shall be measured in a test pattern consisting of a single row of lightpoints reduced in length until modulation is just discernible. A row of 48 lights will form a 4 degree angle or less.

3.3.5.2          Visual ground segment

(a)      Altitude and RVR for the assessment have been selected in order to produce a visual scene that can be readily assessed for accuracy (RVR calibration) and where spatial accuracy (centreline and G/S) of the simulated aeroplane can be readily determined using approach/runway lighting and flight deck instruments.
(b)      The QTG should indicate the source of data, i.e., airport and runway used, ILS G/S antenna location (airport and aeroplane), pilot eye reference point, flight deck cut-off angle, etc., used to accurately make visual scene ground segment (VGS) scene content calculations.
(c)       Automatic positioning of the simulated aeroplane on the ILS is encouraged. If such positioning is accomplished, diligent care shall be taken to ensure the correct spatial position and aeroplane attitude is achieved. Flying the approach manually or with an installed autopilot shall also produce acceptable results. A SOC shall be provided in the QTG indicating that ILS systems are accurately modelled (location and slope) for the airport models used.

3.3.6             Sound System

3.3.6.1          General. The total sound environment in the aeroplane is very complex, and changes with atmospheric conditions, aeroplane configuration, airspeed, altitude, power settings, etc. Thus, flight deck sounds are an important component of the flight deck operational environment and as such provide valuable information to the flight crew. These aural cues can either assist the crew, as an indication of an abnormal situation, or hinder the crew, as a distraction or nuisance. For effective training, the flight simulator shall provide flight deck sounds that are perceptible to the pilot during normal and abnormal operations, and that are comparable to those of the aeroplane. Accordingly, the flight simulator operator should carefully evaluate background noises in the location being considered. To demonstrate compliance with the sound requirements, the objective or validation tests in Section 3.2 have been selected to provide a representative sample of normal static conditions typical of those experienced by a pilot.

3.3.6.2          Alternate propulsion. For flight simulators with multiple propulsion configurations any condition listed in Section 3.2, Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests Test 5 that is identified by the aeroplane manufacturer as significantly different, due to a change in propulsion system (engine or propeller), shall be presented for evaluation as part of the QTG.

3.3.6.3          Data and data collection system.

(a)      Information provided to the flight simulator manufacturer should comply with ‘IATA Flight Simulator Design & Performance Data Requirements’, 6th Edition, 2000. This information shall contain calibration and frequency response data.
(b)      The system used to perform the tests listed in Section 3.2, Table 3.2-1, Table of Flight Simulator Validation Tests Test 5, shall comply with the following standards:
(i)        ANSI S1.11-1986 - Specification for octave, half octave and third octave band filter sets;
(ii)       IEC 1094-4 - 1995 - measurement microphones - type WS2 or better.

3.3.6.4          Headsets. If headsets are used during normal operation of the aeroplane they should also be used during the flight simulator evaluation.

3.3.6.5          Playback equipment. Playback equipment and recordings of the QTG conditions according to Section 3.2 Tests shall be provided during initial evaluations.

3.3.6.6          Background noise.

(a)      Background noise is the noise in the flight simulator due to the flight simulator's cooling and hydraulic systems that is not associated with the aeroplane, and the extraneous noise from other locations in the building. Background noise can seriously impact the correct simulation of aeroplane sounds, so the goal should be to keep the background noise below the aeroplane sounds. In some cases, the sound level of the simulation can be increased to compensate for the background noise. However, this approach is limited by the specified tolerances and by the subjective acceptability of the sound environment to the evaluation pilot.
(b)      The acceptability of the background noise levels is dependent upon the normal sound levels in the aeroplane being represented. Background noise levels that fall below the lines defined by the following points, may be acceptable (refer to Figure 3.3-3):
(i)        70 dB @ 50 Hz;
(ii)       55 dB @ 1000 Hz;
(iii)      30 dB @ 16 kHz.

These limits are for unweighted 1/3 octave band sound levels. Meeting these limits for background noise does not ensure an acceptable flight simulator. Aeroplane sounds, which fall below this limit require careful review and may require lower limits on the background noise.

(c)       The background noise measurement may be rerun at the recurrent evaluation as per Paragraph 3.3.6.8. The tolerances to be applied are as follows:
(i)        recurrent 1/3 octave band amplitudes cannot exceed ±3 dB when compared to the initial results.

3.3.6.7          Frequency Response. Frequency response plots for each channel shall be provided at initial certification. These plots may be rerun at the recurrent evaluation as per Paragraph 3.3.6.8. The tolerances to be applied are as follows:

(a)      recurrent 1/3 octave band amplitudes cannot exceed ±5 dB for three consecutive bands when compared to initial results.
(b)      the average of the sum of the absolute differences between initial and recurrent results cannot exceed 2 dB (refer Table 3.3-3).

Table 3.33: Example of recurrent frequency response test tolerance

Band Centre Freq.

Initial Results (dBSPL)

Recurrent Results (dBSPL)

Absolute Difference

50

75.0

73.8

1.2

63

75.9

75.6

0.3

80

77.1

76.5

0.6

100

78.0

78.3

0.3

125

81.9

81.3

0.6

160

79.8

80.1

0.3

200

83.1

84.9

1.8

250

78.6

78.9

0.3

315

79.5

78.3

1.2

400

80.1

79.5

0.6

500

80.7

79.8

0.9

630

81.9

80.4

1.5

800

73.2

74.1

0.9

1000

79.2

80.1

0.9

1250

80.7

82.8

2.1

1600

81.6

78.6

3.0

2000

76.2

74.4

1.8

2500

79.5

80.7

1.2

3150

80.1

77.1

3.0

4000

78.9

78.6

0.3

5000

80.1

77.1

3.0

6300

80.7

80.4

0.3

8000

84.3

85.5

1.2

10000

81.3

79.8

1.5

12500

80.7

80.1

0.6

16000

71.1

71.1

0.0

 

 

Average

1.1

Figure 3.33: 1/3 Octave band frequency (Hz)

3.3.6.8          Initial and recurrent evaluations. If recurrent frequency response and flight simulator background noise results are within tolerance, respective to initial evaluation results, and the operator can prove that no software or hardware changes have occurred that will affect the aeroplane cases, then it is not required to rerun those cases during recurrent evaluations. If aeroplane cases are rerun during recurrent evaluations then the results may be compared against initial evaluation results rather than aeroplane master data.

3.3.6.9          Validation Testing. Deficiencies in aeroplane recordings should be considered when applying the specified tolerances to ensure that the simulation is representative of the aeroplane. Examples of typical deficiencies are:

(a)      variation of data between tail numbers;
(b)      frequency response of microphones;
(c)       repeatability of the measurements;
(d)      extraneous sounds during recordings.

3.3.7             Additional Guidance Material for Validation Tests

3.3.7.1          Advisory Circular 60-3 contains material to give advice and guidance to all interested parties on some key issues which have become accepted practices over a period of time.

3.3.7.2          This guidance should not be interpreted as definitive, but as representing the current industry ‘best practice’. As a result of precedence, and of much constructive debate by all parties, i.e., data suppliers, flight simulator manufacturers, operators, and the authorities the following guidelines have been developed.

3.3.7.3          It is envisaged that the range of topics will be expanded, initially through the various multi-national regulatory/industry forums, and subsequently in future updates to this manual.

3.3.7.4          AC 60-3 provide guidance for the following subjects:

(a)      New aeroplane flight simulator qualification. An acceptable interim validation method for new aeroplane programmes.
(b)      Engineering simulation validation data. The use of engineering simulator data as an alternative source of validation data.
(c)       Validation test tolerances. Likely sources of variation when using engineering simulator data for validation.
(d)      Validation data roadmap. Applies configuration management to the validation data.
(e)      Data requirements for alternate engines. The issues arising when generating a Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG) for a flight simulator representing more than one engine type or thrust rating.
(f)        Data requirements for alternate avionics. The issues arising when generating an MQTG as the simulated aeroplane(s)’ avionics are progressively updated during the life on the represented in-service aeroplane(s).
(g)      Transport delay testing method. The issues arising when measuring transport delay for conventional aeroplanes, CCA using aeroplane hardware, CCA using software emulation, and when using simulated displays
(h)      Recurrent evaluations—validation test data presentation. An alternative means of comparing simulator test results during re-current regulatory inspections.

 


Section 3.4: Functions and Subjective Tests

3.4.1             Introduction

3.4.1.1          Accurate replication of aeroplane systems functions should be checked at each flight crewmember position. This includes procedures using the AFM and checklists. Handling qualities, performance and flight simulator systems operation will be subjectively assessed. Prior co-ordination with the authority responsible for the evaluation is essential to ensure that the functions tests are conducted in an efficient and timely manner and that any skills, experience or expertise required by the evaluation team are available.

3.4.1.2          At the request of an authority, the flight simulator may be assessed for a special aspect of a relevant training programme during the functions and subjective portion of an evaluation. Such an assessment may include a portion of a LOFT (Line Oriented Flight Training) scenario or special emphasis items in the training programme. Unless directly related to a requirement for the current qualification level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the flight simulator’s current status.

3.4.1.3          Functions tests should be run in a logical flight sequence at the same time as performance and handling assessments. This also permits real time flight simulator running for two to three hours, without repositioning of flight or position freeze, thereby permitting proof of reliability.

3.4.2             Test Requirements

3.4.2.1          The ground and flight tests and other checks required for qualification are listed in the following table of Functions and Subjective Tests. The table includes manoeuvres and procedures to assure that the flight simulator functions and performs appropriately for use in pilot training and checking in the manoeuvres and procedures normally required of a training and checking programme.

3.4.2.2          Manoeuvres and procedures are included to address some features of advanced technology aeroplanes and innovative training programmes. For example, ’high angle of attack manoeuvring’ is included to provide an alternative to approach to stalls. Such an alternative is necessary for aeroplanes employing flight envelope limiting technology.

3.4.2.3          All systems functions will be assessed for normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with a flight phase will be assessed during the evaluation of manoeuvres or events within that flight phase. Systems are listed separately under ’any flight phase’ to assure appropriate attention to systems checks.

Table 3.41: Table of functions and subjective tests

Functions and Subjective Tests

Level

A   B   C   D

1.    FUNCTIONS AND MANOEUVRES

 

 

 

 

a)    Preparation for flight

1)    pre-flight.

i)     accomplish a functions check of all switches, indicators, systems and equipment at all crew members’ and instructor’s stations and determine that the flight deck design and functions are identical to that of the aeroplane simulated

X

X

X

X

b)   Surface operations (pre-take-off)

1)    engine start

i)     normal start

ii)    alternate start procedures

iii)   abnormal starts and shutdowns (hot start, hung start, etc.)

2)    pushback/powerback

3)    taxi

i)     thrust response

ii)    power lever friction

iii)   ground handling

iv)   nose-wheel scuffing

v)    brake operation (normal and alternate/emergency)

vi)   brake fade (if applicable)

vii)  other

X

X

X

X

c)    Take-off

1)    normal

i)     parameter relationships

ii)    acceleration characteristics

iii)   nose-wheel and rudder steering

iv)   cross-wind (maximum demonstrated)

v)    special performance

vi)   instrument take-off (low visibility)

vii)  landing gear, wing flap, leading edge device operation

viii) other

2)    abnormal/emergency

i)     rejected

ii)    rejected special performance

iii)   with failure of most critical engine at most critical point along take-off path, take-off continued

iv)   with wind shear

v)    flight control system failure modes

vi)   other

X

X

X

X

d)   In-flight operation

1)    climb

i)     normal

ii)    one or more engine(s) inoperative

iii)   other

2)    cruise

i)     performance characteristics (speed versus power)

ii)    turns with/without spoilers (speedbrake) deployed

iii)   high altitude handling

iv)   high IAS handling

v)    Mach tuck and trim, overspeed warning

vi)   normal and steep turns

vii)  performance turns

viii) approach to stalls, stall warning, buffet and g-break (cruise, take-off, approach and landing configuration)

ix)   high angle of attack manoeuvres (cruise, take-off, approach and landing configuration)

x)    in-flight engine shutdown and restart

xi)   manoeuvring with one or more engines inoperative, as appropriate

xii)  specific flight characteristics

xiii) manual flight control reversion

xiv) flight control system failure modes

xv)  other

3)    descent

i)     normal

ii)    maximum rate

iii)   manual flight control reversion

iv)   flight control system failure modes

v)    other

X

X

X

X

e)    Approaches

1)    precision approach and landing procedures, e.g.:

i)     PAR

ii)    ILS/MLS/GBAS

(a)  normal

(b)  engine(s) inoperative

(c)   Category I published approach

(1)   manually controlled with and without flight director to 30 m (100 ft) below CAT I minima

(2)   with cross-wind (maximum demonstrated)

(3)   with wind shear

(d)  Category II published approach

(1)   auto-coupled, autothrottle, autoland

(2)   all engines operating missed approach

(e)  Category III published approach

(1)   with generator failure

(2)   with 10 knot tail wind

(3)   with 10 knot cross-wind

(4)   one engine inoperative

2)    non-precision approach and landing procedures

(a)  NDB, VOR, DME ARC, TACAN

(b)  ILS LLZ only, BC

Note:  BC approaches are not included in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168).

(c)   RNAV (GNSS, VOR/DME, DME/DME)

(d)  ILS offset localizer

(e)  direction finding facility

(f)   surveillance radar

For (a) to (f) above assess the following:

(1)   manoeuvring with all engines operating

(2)   landing gear, operation of flaps and speed brake

(3)   all engines operating

(4)   one or more engines inoperative

(3)   Approach procedures with vertical guidance (APV), e.g., SBAS

(4)   missed approach procedures

i)     all engines operating

ii)    one or more engines inoperative (as applicable)

X

X

X

X

f)     Visual segment and landing

1)    normal

i)     cross-wind (maximum demonstrated)

ii)    from VFR traffic pattern

iii)   from non-precision approach

iv)   from precision approach

v)    from circling approach

vi)   without glide slope guidance

2)    abnormal/emergency

i)     engine(s) inoperative

ii)    rejected

iii)   with wind shear

iv)   with standby (minimum) electrical/hydraulic power

v)    with longitudinal trim malfunction

vi)   with lateral-directional trim malfunction

vii)  with loss of flight control power (manual reversion)

viii) with worst case failure of flight control system (most significant degradation of fly-by-wire system which is not extremely improbable)

ix)   abnormal wing flaps/slats

x)    other flight control system failure modes as dictated by the training programme

xi)   other

X

X

X

X

g)   Surface operations (post landing)

1)    landing roll and taxi

i)     spoiler operation

ii)    reverse thrust operation

iii)   directional control and ground handling, both with and without reverse thrust

iv)   reduction of rudder effectiveness with increased reverse thrust (rear pod-mounted engines)

v)    brake and anti-skid operation with dry, wet and icy conditions

vi)   brake operation

vii)  other

X

X

X

X

h)   Any flight phase

1)    aeroplane and powerplant systems operation

i)     air conditioning

ii)    de-icing/anti-icing

iii)   auxiliary power unit

iv)   communications

v)    electrical

vi)   fire and smoke detection and suppression

vii)  flaps

viii) flight controls

ix)   fuel and oil

x)    hydraulic

xi)   landing gear

xii)  oxygen

xiii) pneumatic

xiv) powerplant

xv)  pressurisation

2)    flight management and guidance systems

i)     airborne radar

ii)    automatic landing aids

iii)   autopilot

iv)   collision avoidance systems

v)    flight control computers

vi)   flight display systems

vii)  ground proximity warning systems

viii) head-up displays

ix)   navigation systems

x)    stall warning/avoidance

xi)   stability and control augmentation

xii)  wind shear avoidance equipment

3)    airborne procedures

i)     holding

ii)    air hazard avoidance

iii)   wind shear

4)    engine shutdown and parking

i)     engine and systems operation

ii)    parking brake operation

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

X

X

2.    VISUAL SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

a)    Functional test content requirements

1)    Levels C and D

Note:  The following is the minimum airport model content requirement to satisfy visual capability tests, and provides suitable visual cues to allow completion of all Functions and Subjective Tests described in this Section. Operators are encouraged to use the model content described below for the Functions and Subjective Tests. If all of the elements cannot be found at a single real world airport, then additional real world airports may be used.

The intent of this visual scene content requirement description is to identify that content required to aid the pilot in making appropriate, timely decisions.

i)     two parallel runways and one crossing runway displayed simultaneously; at least two runways should be lit simultaneously;

ii)    runway threshold elevations and locations shall be modelled to provide sufficient correlation with aeroplane systems, e.g., HGS, GPS, altimeter; slopes in runways, taxiways, and ramp areas should not cause distracting or unrealistic effects, including pilot eye-point height variation;

iii)   representative airport buildings, structures and lighting;

iv)   one useable gate, set at the appropriate height, for those aeroplanes that typically operate from terminal gates;

v)    representative moving and static gate clutter, e.g., other aeroplanes, power carts, tugs, fuel trucks, additional gates;

vi)   representative gate/apron markings (e.g., hazard markings, lead-in lines, gate numbering) and lighting;

vii)  representative runway markings, lighting, and signage, including a wind sock that gives appropriate wind cues;

viii) representative taxiway markings, lighting, and signage necessary for position identification, and to taxi from parking to a designated runway and return to parking; representative, visible taxi route signage shall be provided; a low visibility taxi route, e.g., surface movement ground control system, follow-me truck, daylight taxi lights) should also be demonstrated;

ix)   representative moving and static ground traffic, e.g., vehicular and aeroplane;

x)    representative depiction of terrain and obstacles within 25 NM of the reference airport;

xi)   representative depiction of significant and identifiable natural and cultural features within 25 NM of the reference airport;

Note:    This refers to natural and cultural features that are typically used for pilot orientation in flight. Outlying airports not intended for landing need only provide a reasonable facsimile of runway orientation;

xii)  representative moving airborne traffic;

xiii) appropriate approach lighting systems and airfield lighting for a VFR circuit and landing, non-precision approaches and landings, and Category I, II and III precision approaches and landings;

xiv) representative gate docking aids or a marshaller.

 

 

X

X

2)    Levels A and B

Note:  The following is the minimum airport model content requirement to satisfy visual capability tests, and provides suitable visual cues to allow completion of all Functions and Subjective Tests described in this Section. Operators are encouraged to use the model content described below for the Functions and Manoeuvres Tests.

i)     representative airport runways and taxiways;

ii)    runway definition;

iii)   runway surface and markings;

iv)   lighting for the runway in use including runway edge and centreline lighting, visual approach aids and approach lighting of appropriate colours;

v)    representative taxiway lights.

X

X

 

 

b)   Visual scene management

1)    runway and approach lighting intensity for any approach should be set at an intensity representative of that used in training for the visibility set; all visual scene light points should fade into view appropriately

2)    the directionality of strobe lights, approach lights, runway edge lights, visual landing aids, runway centre line lights, threshold lights, and touchdown zone lights on the runway of intended landing should be realistically replicated.

X

X

X

X

c)    Visual feature recognition

Note:  Tests 2. c) 1) to  2. c) 6) below contain the minimum distances at which runway features should be visible. Distances are measured from runway threshold to an aeroplane aligned with the runway on an extended 3-degree glide slope in suitable simulated meteorological conditions.

For circling approaches, tests 2. c) 1) to 2. c) 7) below apply both to the runway used for the initial approach and to the runway of intended landing.

1)    runway definition, strobe lights, approach lights and white runway edge lights from 8 km (5 sm) of the runway threshold

2)    visual landing aids from 8 km (5 sm) of the runway threshold

3)    visual landing aids from 5 km (3 sm) of the runway threshold

4)    runway centre line lights and taxiway definition from 5 km (3 sm)

5)    threshold lights and touchdown zone lights from 3 km (2 sm)

6)    runway markings within range of landing lights for night/twilight scenes or as required by the surface resolution test on day scenes

7)    for circling approaches, the runway of intended landing and associated lighting should fade into view in a non-distracting manner

 









X

 

X

X

X

X


X

 









X

 

X

X

X

X


X

 









X

X

 

X

X

X


X

 









X

X

 

X

X

X


X

d)   Airport model content

Minimum of three specific airport scenes as defined below.

1)    terminal approach area:

i)     accurate portrayal of airport features is to be consistent with published data used for aeroplane operations;

ii)    all depicted lights should be checked for appropriate colours, directionality, behaviour and spacing, e.g., obstruction lights, edge lights, centre line, touchdown zone, VASI, PAPI, REIL and strobes;

iii)   depicted airport lighting should be selectable via controls at the instructor station as required for aeroplane operation

iv)   selectable day, twilight and night airport visual scene capability at each model demonstrated;

2)    terrain

i)     appropriate terrain, geographic and cultural features

3)    dynamic effects

i)     the capability to present multiple ground and air hazards such as another aeroplane crossing the active runway or converging airborne traffic; hazards should be selectable via controls at the instructor station

4)    illusions

i)     operational visual scenes which portray representative physical relationships known to cause landing illusions, for example short runways, landing approaches over water, uphill or downhill runways, rising terrain on the approach path and unique topographic features

Note:     Illusions may be demonstrated at a generic airport or specific aerodrome.

 

 

X

X

e)    Correlation with aeroplane and associated equipment

1)    visual system compatibility with aerodynamic programming

2)    visual cues to assess sink rate and depth perception during landings

3)    accurate portrayal of environment relating to flight simulator attitudes

4)    the visual scene should correlate with integrated aeroplane systems, where fitted, e.g., terrain, traffic and weather avoidance systems and head-up guidance system (HGS).

5)    representative visual effects for each visible, ownship, aeroplane external light

6)    the effect of rain removal devices should be provided

 

X



X






 

 

X

X

X




X

 

 

X

X

X

X


X

X

 

X

X

X

X


X

X

f)     Environmental effects

1)    the displayed scene should correspond to the appropriate surface contaminants and include runway lighting reflections for wet, partially obscured lights for snow, or suitable alternative effects

2)    weather representations which include the sound, motion and visual effects of light, medium and heavy precipitation near a thunderstorm on take-off, approach and landings at and below an altitude of 610 m (2 000 ft) above the aerodrome surface and within a radius of 16 km (10 sm) from the aerodrome

3)    in - cloud effects such as variable cloud density, speed cues and ambient changes should be provided

4)    the effect of multiple cloud layers representing few, scattered, broken and overcast conditions giving partial or complete obstruction of the ground scene

5)    gradual break-out to ambient visibility/RVR, defined as up to 10% of the respective cloud base or top, 20 ft ≤ transition layer ≤ 200 ft; cloud effects should be checked at and below a height of 610 m (2 000 ft) above the aerodrome and within a radius of 16 km (10 sm) from the airport

6)    visibility and RVR measured in terms of distance. Visibility/RVR should be checked at and below a height of 610 m (2 000 ft) above the aerodrome and within a radius of 16 km (10 sm) from the airport

7)    patchy fog giving the effect of variable RVR
Note - Patchy fog is sometimes referred to as patchy RVR.

8)    effects of fog on aerodrome lighting such as halos and defocus

9)    effect of ownship lighting in reduced visibility, such as reflected glare, to include landing lights, strobes, and beacons

10)  wind cues to provide the effect of blowing snow or sand across a dry runway or taxiway should be selectable from the instructor station

 




















X









 

 




















X









 

 

X



X




X

X


X




X



X

X

X

X

 

X



X




X

X


X




X



X

X

X

X

g)   Scene quality

1)    surfaces and textural cues should be free from apparent quantization (aliasing)

2)    system capable of portraying full-colour realistic textural cues

3)    the system light points should be free from distracting jitter, smearing or streaking

4)    demonstration of occulting through each channel of the system in an operational scene

5)    demonstration of a minimum of ten levels of occulting through each channel of the system in an operational scene

6)    system capable of providing focus effects that simulate rain and light-point perspective growth

7)    system capable of six discrete light step controls (0-5)

 



 

X

X





X

 



 

X

X





X

 

X

X

X



X

X

X

 

X

X

X



X

X

X

h)   Instructor controls

1)    environmental effects; effects described herein should be selectable via controls at the instructor station, e.g., cloud base, cloud effects, cloud density and visibility (kilometres/ statute miles) and RVR (metres/feet);

2)    dynamic effects including ground and flight traffic;

3)    aerodrome selection;

4)    aerodrome lighting including variable intensity.

X

X

X

X

3.    MOTION EFFECTS

Note - The following specific motion effects are required to indicate the threshold at which a flight crewmember should recognise an event or situation. Where applicable below, flight simulator pitch side loading and directional control characteristics should be representative of the aeroplane as a function of aeroplane type.

 

 

 

 

a)    Effects of runway rumble, oleo deflections, ground speed, uneven runway, centreline lights and taxiway characteristics

1)    After the aeroplane has been pre-set to the take-off position and then released, taxi at various speeds, first with a smooth runway, and note the general characteristics of the simulated runway rumble effects of oleo deflections. Next repeat the manoeuvre with a runway roughness of 50%, then finally with maximum roughness. The associated motion vibrations should be affected by groundspeed and runway roughness. If time permits, different gross weights can also be selected as this may also affect the associated vibrations depending on aeroplane type. The associated motion effects for the above tests should also include an assessment of the effects of centreline lights, surface discontinuities of uneven runways, and various taxiway characteristics

*

X

X

X

b)   Buffets on the ground due to spoiler/speedbrake extension and thrust reversal

1)    Perform a normal landing and use ground spoilers and reverse thrust—either individually or in combination with each other—to decelerate the simulated aeroplane. Do not use wheel braking so that only the buffet due to the ground spoilers and thrust reversers is felt.

*

X

X

X

c)    Bumps associated with the landing gear

1)    Perform a normal take-off paying special attention to the bumps that could be perceptible due to maximum oleo extension after lift-off. When the landing gear is extended or retracted, motion bumps could be felt when the gear locks into position.

*

X

X

X

d)   Buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear

1)    Operate the landing gear. Check that the motion cues of the buffet experienced are reasonably representative of the actual aeroplane.

*

X

X

X

e)    Buffet in the air due to flap and spoiler/speedbrake extension

1)    First perform an approach and extend the flaps and slats, especially with airspeeds deliberately in excess of the normal approach speeds. In cruise configuration verify the buffets associated with the spoiler/speedbrake extension. The above effects could also be verified with different combinations of speedbrake/flap/gear settings to assess the interaction effects.

*

X

X

X

f)     Approach to stall buffet

1)    Conduct an approach-to-stall with engines at idle and a deceleration of 1 knot/second. Check that the motion cues of the buffet, including the level of buffet increase with decreasing speed, are reasonably representative of the actual aeroplane.

*

X

X

X

g)   Touchdown cues for main and nose gear

1)    Fly several normal approaches with various rates of descent. Check that the motion cues of the touchdown bumps for each descent rate are reasonably representative of the actual aeroplane.

*

X

X

X

h)   Nose-wheel scuffing

1)    Taxi the simulated aeroplane at various groundspeeds and manipulate the nosewheel steering to cause yaw rates to develop which cause the nosewheel to vibrate against the ground (‘scuffing’). Evaluate the speed/nosewheel combination needed to produce scuffing and check that the resultant vibrations are reasonably representative of the actual aeroplane.

*

X

X

X

i)     Thrust effect with brakes set

1)    With the simulated aeroplane set with the brakes on at the take-off point, increase the engine power until buffet is experienced and evaluate its characteristics. This effect is most discernible with wing mounted engines. Confirm that the buffet increases appropriately with increasing engine thrust.

*

X

X

X

j)     Mach and manoeuvre buffet

1)    With the simulated aeroplane trimmed in 1 g flight while at high altitude, increase the engine power such that the Mach number exceeds the documented value at which Mach buffet is experienced. Check that the buffet begins at the same Mach number as it does in the aeroplane (for the same configuration) and that buffet level are a reasonable representation of the actual aeroplane. In the case of some aeroplanes, manoeuvre buffet could also be verified for the same effects. Manoeuvre buffet can occur during turning flight at conditions greater than 1 g, particularly at higher altitudes.

*

X

X

X

k)    Tyre failure dynamics

1)    Dependent on aircraft type, a single tyre failure may not necessarily be noticed by the pilot and therefore there should not be any special motion effect. There may possibly be some sound and/or vibration associated with the actual tyre losing pressure. With a multiple tyre failure selected on the same side the pilot may notice some yawing which should require the use of the rudder to maintain control of the aeroplane.

 

 

X

X

l)     Engine malfunction and engine damage

1)    The characteristics of an engine malfunction as stipulated in the malfunction definition document for the particular flight simulator should describe the special motion effects felt by the pilot. The associated engine instruments should also vary according to the nature of the malfunction.

*

X

X

X

m)  Tail and pod strikes

1)    Tail-strike can be checked by over-rotation of the aeroplane at a speed below Vr while performing a take-off. The effects can be verified during a landing. The motion effect should be felt as a noticeable bump. Excessive banking of the aeroplane during its take-off/landing roll can cause a pod strike. The motion effect should also be felt as a noticeable bump. If the tail and/or pod strike affects the aeroplane’s angular rates, the cueing provided by the motion systems should have an associated effect.

*

X

X

X

4.    SOUND SYSTEM

 

 

 

 

a)    The following checks should be performed during a normal flight profile with motion

1)    precipitation

2)    rain removal equipment

3)    significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the pilot during normal operations

4)    abnormal operations for which there are associated sound cues including, but not limited to, engine malfunctions, landing gear/tyre malfunctions, tail and engine pod strike and pressurisation malfunction.

5)    sound of a crash when the flight simulator is landed in excess of limitations

 

 

X

X

5.    SPECIAL EFFECTS

 

 

 

 

a)    Braking dynamics

1)    Representative brake failure dynamics (including antiskid) and decreased brake efficiency due to high brake temperatures based on aeroplane related data. These representations should be realistic enough to cause pilot identification of the problem and implementation of appropriate procedures. Flight simulator pitch, side loading and directional control characteristics should be representative of the aeroplane.

 

 

X

X

b)   Effects of airframe and engine icing

See Section 3.1 Requirement 1 t).

 

 

X

X

*    For Level A, an asterisk (*) denotes that the appropriate effect is required to be present.

 


Chapter 4: Helicopter Flight Simulators

Section 4.1: Standards

4.1.1             Introduction

4.1.1.1          If CASA has not developed a Helicopter Flight Simulator standard, CASA may qualify Helicopter Flight Simulators using the criteria, validation tests, and functions and subjective tests detailed in either:

(a)      The Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 60 Appendix C, Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators; or
(b)      the European Aviation Safety Agency – Certification Specifications for Helicopter Flight Simulation Training Devices (CS-FSTD(H)).

Chapter 5: FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICES

Section 5.1: Standards

5.1.1             Aeroplane Flight Training Devices

5.1.1.1          If CASA has not developed an Aeroplane Flight Training Device standard, CASA may qualify aeroplane Flight Training Devices using the criteria, validation tests, and functions and subjective tests detailed in either:

(a)      The Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 60 Appendix B, Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices; or
(b)      the European Aviation Safety Agency – Certification Specifications for Aeroplane Flight Simulation Training Devices (CS-FSTD(A)).

5.1.2             Helicopter Flight Training Devices

5.1.2.1          If CASA has not developed a Helicopter Flight Training Device standard, CASA may qualify helicopter Flight Training Devices using the criteria, validation tests, and functions and subjective tests detailed in either:

(a)      The Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 60 Appendix D, Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices; or
(b)      the European Aviation Safety Agency – Certification Specifications for Helicopter Flight Simulation Training Devices (CS-FSTD(H)).

 

 


Notes to Manual of Standards Part 60

Note 1

The Manual of Standards Part 60 (in force under the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998) as shown in this compilation comprises Manual of Standards Part 60 amended as indicated in the Tables below.

Table of Manual of Standards and Amendments

Year and
number

Date of making/
registration on FRLI

Date of
commencement

Application, saving or
transitional provisions

MOS 60

28 Feb 2003

28 Feb 2003

 

MOS 60 2008 Amendment No. 1

FRLI 30 May 2008  (see F2006L01328)

31 May 2008 (see s. 2)

MOS 60 2016 Amendment No. 1

FRLI 4 February 2016  (see F2016L00087)

5 February 2016 (see s. 2)

Revision History

Note   The Revision History shows the most recent amendment first.

Version

Date

Chapter/
Section/
Paragraph

Details

1.2

February 2016

4.1.1.1 (b)

5.1.1.1 (b)

5.1.2.1 (b)

Paragraphs substituted.

1.1

June 2008

4.1.1.1

5.1.1.1

5.1.2.1

Paragraphs substituted.

1.0

February 2003

All

First issue of MOS Part 60.