Statutory Rules 1995 No. 55

 

TABLE OF PROVISIONS

 

Regulation Page

 

1 Title 1

2 Commencement 2

3 Purpose 2

4 Interpretation 2

5 Application of Heavy Vehicle Standards 3

6 Exemption from Heavy Vehicle Standards 4

7 Failure of a motor vehicle to comply with

 Heavy Vehicle Standards 5

8 Failure of a trailer to comply with Heavy

 Vehicle Standards 6

9 Failure of a combination of vehicles to comply

 with Heavy Vehicle Standards 6

10 Penalty for an offence 6

 

 SCHEDULE 8

HEAVY VEHICLE STANDARDS

Clause Page

PART 1—APPLICATION OF ADRs

1.1 Compliance with second edition ADRs 9

1.2 Compliance with third edition ADRs 10

1.3 Limitations on application of the ADRs 10

1.4 Additional equipment on vehicles 11

PART 2—GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

2.1 Steering 12

2.2 Turning ability 13

2.3 Ability to travel backwards and forwards 13

2.4 External or internal protrusions 13

2.5 Driver’s view and control of vehicle 14

2.6 Seating 14

2.7 Mudguards 15

2.8 Horns and alarms 16

2.9 Rear-vision mirrors 17

2.10 Automatic transmissions 17

2.11 Diesel engines 18

2.12 Bonnet latching 18

2.13 Electrical wiring, connections and installations 18

2.14 Television and visual display units 19

2.15 Windscreens and windows 20

2.16 Window tinting 20

2.17 Windscreen wipers and washers 21

2.18 Wheels and tyres 22

2.19 Tyre tread 23

PART 3—VEHICLE MARKING

3.1 Vehicle and engine identification numbers 24

3.2 White or silver band on certain vehicles 25

3.3 B-double warning sign 25

3.4 Road train warning sign 26

3.5 Specifications for warning signs 26

PART 4—VEHICLE CONFIGURATION AND DIMENSIONS

Division 1—Axles

4.1 Axle configuration 29

4.2 Relation between axles in an axle group 30

4.3 Minimum axle spacings 31

Division 2—Dimensions

4.4 Width 31

4.5 Length of single motor vehicles 31

4.6 Length of single trailers 31

4.7 Length of combinations of vehicles 33

4.8 Rear overhang 33

4.9 Trailer drawbar length 34

4.10 Height 34

4.11 Ground clearance 35

Division 3—Additional requirements for a converter dolly

4.12 Axle arrangement on a converter dolly 36

4.13 Construction of a converter dolly 37

4.14 Converter dolly coupling 37

4.15 Converter dolly suspension 37

PART 5—LIGHTS AND REFLECTORS

Division 1—General requirements for lights

5.1 Prevention of glare 38

5.2 Pairs of lights 39

Division 2—Headlights

5.3 Headlights to be fitted to a vehicle 39

5.4 How should headlights be fitted? 40

5.5 Performance of headlights 40

5.6 Effective range of headlights 40

5.7 Changing headlights from high-beam to

 low-beam position 41

Division 3—Parking lights

5.8 Parking lights 41

Division 4—Daytime running lights

5.9 Daytime running lights 43

Division 5—Tail lights

5.10 Tail lights 44

5.11 Pattern of fitting tail lights 44

5.12 Performance of tail lights 45

5.13 Wiring of tail lights 45

Division 6—Number-plate lights

5.14 Number-plate lights 46

Division 7—Clearance lights

5.15 Front clearance lights 46

5.16 External cabin lights 47

5.17 Rear clearance lights 47

Division 8—Side marker lights

5.18 Which vehicles need side marker lights? 48

5.19 Location of side marker lights 49

5.20 Performance of side marker lights 50

5.21 Side marker lights and rear clearance lights 51

Division 9—Brake lights

5.22 Fitting brake lights 51

5.23 Performance and operation of brake lights 52

Division 10—Reversing lights

5.24 Reversing lights 53

Division 11—Direction indicator lights

5.25 Direction indicator lights on a motor vehicle 53

5.26 Direction indicator lights on a trailer 54

5.27 Location of direction indicator lights 54

5.28 Operation and visibility of direction indicator lights 54

Division 12—Fog lights

5.29 Front fog lights 56

5.30 Rear fog lights 56

Division 13—Interior lights

5.31 Interior lights 57

Division 14—Reflectors generally

5.32 General requirements for reflectors 57

Division 15—Reflectors at the back of a vehicle

5.33 Rear reflectors 58

Division 16—Reflectors on the side of a vehicle

5.34 Compulsory side reflectors on pole-type trailers 58

5.35 Optional side-facing reflectors 59             

Division 17—Front reflectors

5.36 Compulsory front reflectors on trailers 59

5.37 Optional front reflectors 59

Division 18—Other lights or reflectors

5.38 Additional lights and reflectors 60

5.39 Rear marking plates 61

PART 6—BRAKING SYSTEMS

Division 1—Brake requirements for all vehicles

6.1 Parts of a braking system 63

6.2 Provision for wear 64

6.3 Supply of air or vacuum to brakes 64

6.4 Performance of braking systems 65

Division 2—Motor vehicle braking systems

6.5 What braking system must a motor vehicle have? 66

6.6 Operation of brakes on motor vehicles 67

6.7 Air or vacuum brakes on motor vehicles 67

Division 3—Trailer braking systems

6.8 What brakes must a trailer have? 69

6.9 Operation of brakes on a trailer 69

6.10 Air or vacuum brakes on a trailer 69

Division 4—Additional brake requirements for B-doubles and long road trains

6.11 Application to road trains more than 19 metres long 70

6.12 Braking system for a prime mover in a B-double 70

6.13 Braking system design for a motor vehicle in

 a road train 70

6.14 Braking system design for a trailer in a

 B-double or a road train 71

6.15 Air brakes of a motor vehicle in a B-double  

 or road train 71

6.16 Air brakes in a B-double or road train:

 least favoured chamber 72

6.17 Recovery of air pressure for brakes in

 a B-double or road train 73

6.18 Air supply for brakes in a B-double or road train 73

6.19 Brake line couplings 74

6.20 Simultaneous parking brake application74

6.21 Capacity of air reservoirs 74

Part 7—Fuel Systems, Noise and Emissions

7.1 Crank case gases 75

7.2 Visible exhaust emissions 75

7.3 LPG-powered vehicles 76

7.4 Exhaust system 77

Part 8—Maximum Road Speed Limiting

8.1 Speed limiting 79

8.2 Exemptions from speed limiting 80

Part 9—Mechanical Connections Between Vehicles

Division 1—Couplings on all types of vehicles

9.1 General coupling requirements 81

9.2 Drawbar couplings 82

Division 2—Additional coupling requirements for B-doubles and long road trains

9.3 Application of Division to road trains 82

9.4 Couplings for B-doubles and road trains 83

9.5 Selection of fifth wheel couplings for B-doubles 83

9.6 Selection of fifth wheel couplings for road trains 84

9.7 Determining the D-value of a fifth wheel coupling 85

9.8 Mounting of fifth wheel couplings on

 B-doubles and road trains 85

9.9 Branding of fifth wheel couplings on

 B-doubles and road trains 86

9.10 Selection of kingpins for B-doubles and road trains 86

9.11 Attachment of kingpins on B-doubles and road

 trains 88

9.12 Branding of kingpins on B-doubles and road trains 88

9.13 Selection of couplings and drawbar eyes on road

 trains 88

9.14 Attachment of couplings and drawbar eyes on road

 trains 89

9.15 Branding of couplings and drawbar eyes on road

 trains 89

9.16 Tow coupling overhang on road trains 89

PART 10—INTERPRETATION AND DEFINITIONS

Division 1—Interpretation of ADRs

10.1 Second edition ADRs 91

10.2 Third edition ADRs 91

10.3 ADR transitional provisions 93

Division 2—Miscellaneous

10.4 Measurement of distance between lines 94

10.5 Equipment of a vehicle 94

Division 3—Definitions

10.6 Definitions 95

 

ADR

owner

 

air brake

point of articulation

 

approved material

mudguard

 

articulated bus

pole-type trailer

 

Australian Standard

prime mover

 

axle

quad-axle group

 

axle group

rear overhang

 

B-double

rear overhang line

 

braking system

repeater horn

 

bus

retractable axle

 

centre of an axle group

road train

 

combination of vehicles

semi-trailer

 

controlled access bus

service brake

 

converter dolly

single axle

 

dog trailer

single axle group

 

drawbar

spring brake

 

driver

tandem axle group

 

D-value

tow coupling overhang

 

emergency brake

tri-axle group

 

emergency vehicle

turntable

 

fifth wheel coupling

twinsteer axle group

 

ground clearance

vacuum brakes

 

GTM

vehicle registration authority

 

GVM

50 millimetre kingpin

 

high-beam

75 millimetre kingpin

 

load-sharing suspension system

90 millimetre kingpin

 

low-beam

 

__________

 

 

 

Statutory Rules 1995   No. 551

__________________

Road Transport Reform (Heavy Vehicle Standards) Regulations

I, The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, make the following Regulations under the Road Transport Reform (Vehicles and Traffic) Act 1993.

Dated 22 March 1995.

 

 BILL HAYDEN

 Governor-General

By His Excellency’s Command,

 

LAURIE BRERETON

Minister for Transport

____________

Title

 1 (1) These Regulations may be cited as the Road Transport Reform (Heavy Vehicle Standards) Regulations.

Commencement

 2 (1) Regulations 1 and 2 commence on the day on which the making of these Regulations is notified in the Gazette.

 2 (2) The remaining provisions of these Regulations commence on a day or days specified by the Commonwealth Minister by notice in the Gazette.

Purpose

 3 (1) The purpose of these Regulations is to provide a set of standards, uniform or consistent throughout Australia, for the construction and performance of heavy motor vehicles and trailers:

 (a) to promote, throughout the life of vehicles, their safe use, efficiency and harmony with the environment; and

 (b) to reduce the costs of transport administration.

Interpretation

 4 (1) In these Regulations:

  “Commonwealth Minister” means the Minister of the Commonwealth administering the Act;

  “Heavy Vehicle Standards” means the Heavy Vehicle Standards set out in the Schedule;

  “the Act” means the Road Transport Reform (Vehicles and Traffic) Act 1993.

 4 (2) Words and phrases defined in the Heavy Vehicle Standards have the same meanings in the Regulations.

 

NOTE

Definitions appear at the end of the Heavy Vehicle Standards.

 

 

 4 (3) A note does not form part of these Regulations.

 4 (4) Subject to subregulation (5), a diagram appearing in these Regulations is illustrative only.

 4 (5) If a provision contains a diagram that is called an essential diagram, that diagram is part of these Regulations.

Application of Heavy Vehicle Standards

 5 (1) The relevant requirements of the Heavy Vehicle Standards apply to a vehicle or combination of vehicles if it:

 (a) is, or includes, a vehicle with a GVM exceeding 4.5 tonnes; and

 (b) is on:

 (i) a road; or

 (ii) an area that divides a road; or

 (iii) a footpath or nature strip adjacent to a road; or

 (iv) an area that is not a road and that is open to or used by the public for driving or parking vehicles; or

 (v) an area that is open to or used by the public and has been declared in accordance with section 16 of the Act to be an area to which these Regulations apply.

 5 (2) In spite of subregulation (1), a requirement of the Heavy Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle or combination of vehicles that is used only on a railway or tramway.

 5 (3) In spite of subregulation (1), a requirement in Part 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 of the Heavy Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle if:

 (a) the requirement is inconsistent with a requirement of a second edition or third edition ADR; and

 (b) the vehicle complies with that requirement.

 

 5 (4) Subregulation (3) does not apply to:

 (a) the luminous transmittance requirements in paragraph 2.16 (2) (b) of the Standards; or

 (b) the requirements of subclause 2.18 (5) of the Standards relating to the speed at which a tyre must be suitable for road use.

 5 (5) In spite of subregulation (1), a requirement in Part 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9  of the Heavy Vehicle Standards does not apply to a vehicle if the vehicle has been exempted under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth from complying with a requirement of an ADR that deals with the same subject as the requirement of the Standards.

 

NOTE

Under section 15 of the Act, the Minister can, by notice in the Government Gazette, suspend the operation of all or parts of these Regulations for a specified period, or vary them.  A requirement of the Heavy Vehicle Standards does not apply to the extent that it is suspended or varied under the Act.

 

Vehicles and combinations to be properly maintained

 6 (1) A vehicle or combination of vehicles must be kept in a condition that ensures:

 (a) its safe operation; and

 (b) the safety of its occupants and of other road users.

 6 (2) A vehicle or combination of vehicles must be kept in a condition that ensures that the means of control of its emissions of gas, particles and noise remain in good working order.

 6 (3) Subregulations (1) and (2) include, but are not limited to, the following aspects of the vehicle or combination:

 (a) its steering, brakes, suspension, wheels, tyres, towing equipment and the means of transmitting engine power to the driven wheels; and

 (b) the lights and reflectors that it is required to have under these regulations; and

 (c) the strength of its structure; and

 (d) its driver’s view of the road.

 

NOTE

The requirements of regulation 6 apply in addition to the requirements of the Heavy Vehicle Standards.

 

The Heavy Vehicle Roadworthiness Guidelines, published in August 1994 by the National Road Transport Commission, provide information to help people meet the requirements of regulation 6.

 

Exemption from Heavy Vehicle Standards

 7 (1) The Minister may declare in writing under section 17 of the Act that a specified vehicle is exempt from a requirement of the Heavy Vehicle Standards if he or she is satisfied that:

 (a) compliance with the requirement would prevent the vehicle from operating in the manner, or for the purpose, for which the vehicle was built or modified; or

 (b) the vehicle is an experimental vehicle or prototype that could not reasonably be expected to comply with the requirement; or

 (c) the vehicle is at least 30 years old and could not reasonably be altered to comply with the requirement; or

 (d) the vehicle:

 (i) was registered, or authorised to be driven or towed on a road, in the jurisdiction before these Regulations commenced; and

 (ii) was not required to comply with a requirement similar to the requirement from which the vehicle is being exempted.

 

NOTE

Subsection 46 (2) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 of the Commonwealth allows the Minister to specify a vehicle for an exemption by referring to a class of vehicles.

 

Vehicles can also be exempted from the dimension requirements of these Regulations by the Minister under the Road Transport Reform (Medium and Long Combination Vehicles) Regulations or the Road Transport Reform (Oversize and Overmass Vehicles) Regulations.

Failure of a motor vehicle to comply with Heavy Vehicle Standards

 8 (1) If a motor vehicle fails to comply with a requirement in these Regulations that applies to it, each of the following persons is guilty of an offence:

 (a) the owner of the motor vehicle;

 (b) the driver of the motor vehicle.

8 (2)A person who is both the owner and the driver of the motor vehicle may be punished only once in relation to the same failure of the motor vehicle to comply with a requirement.

 

NOTE

The words “driver” and “owner” are defined in the Heavy Vehicle Standards.

Failure of a trailer to comply with Heavy Vehicle Standards

 9 (1) If a trailer fails to comply with a requirement in these Regulations that applies to it, each of the following persons is guilty of an offence:

 (a) the owner of the trailer;

 (b) the owner of any motor vehicle towing the trailer;

 (c) the driver of any motor vehicle towing the trailer.

 9 (2) A person who meets more than one of the descriptions in paragraphs (1) (a), (b) and (c) may be punished only once in relation to the same failure of the trailer to comply with a requirement.

Failure of a combination of vehicles to comply with Heavy Vehicle Standards

 10 (1) If a combination of vehicles fails to comply with a requirement in these Regulations that applies to it, each of the following persons is guilty of an offence:

 (a) the owner of a motor vehicle forming part of the combination;

 (b) the driver of a motor vehicle forming part of the combination.

 10 (2) A person who is both the owner and the driver of the motor vehicle may be punished only once in relation to the same failure of the combination of vehicles to comply with a requirement.

Penalty for an offence

 11 (1) A person convicted of an offence under regulation 8, 9 or 10 is liable to a penalty not exceeding $2,000 for an individual or $10,000 for a body corporate.

 

__________

 

 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO HEAVY VEHICLE STANDARDS

The Heavy Vehicle Standards apply to all vehicles and trailers over 4.5 tonnes GVM (gross vehicle mass), regardless of when they were built, unless they have been exempted.  Some of the Standards relate to combinations of vehicles such as B-doubles or road trains.

In most cases, if a vehicle meets all of the Standards, it is suitable for use on the road without special restrictions.  However, some vehicles at or approaching some of the maximum dimensions may be severely restricted as to where they can travel.  These restrictions are imposed by other sets of regulations under the Road Transport Reform (Vehicles and Traffic) Act 1993.  For example, other sets of regulations restrict the operation of:

 rigid vehicles more than 12.5 metres long or 4.3 metres high; and

 combinations of vehicles more than 19 metres long or 4.3 metres high;               and

 vehicles with a quad-axle group.

The Standards are intended to cover areas not already covered by the Australian Design Rules (ADRs), which are a set of rules for designing and building vehicles.  The ADRs do not cover vehicles built before 1969, combinations of vehicles of any age, or some vehicles built for a special purpose.  These are covered in Parts 2 to 9 (inclusive) of the Standards.  The ADRs did not cover every safety feature for vehicles built between 1969 and 1988.  The Standards are intended to fill these gaps too.

If a vehicle is covered by both an ADR and a Standard, and the 2 are inconsistent, the vehicle must generally comply with the ADR.

These Standards also require a vehicle to continue to comply with the applicable ADRs.

A vehicle must continue to comply with these Regulations, even if it is modified.  The “National Code of Practice: Heavy Vehicle Modifications”, issued by the Federal Office of Road Safety in Vehicle Standards Bulletin 6, provides advice to help decide whether a modified vehicle continues to comply with the Regulations.  It is recommended that modifications be made in accordance with the Code.  Modifications that are not covered by, or consistent with, the Code  may also be permitted, but the owner must ensure that the vehicle continues to comply with these Regulations.  Road laws provide that vehicles must not be used on a road unless they are in a safe condition.

PART 1—APPLICATION OF ADRs

 

NOTE

This Part sets out how the ADRs and the other requirements in these Standards are applied to various vehicles.  Vehicles are required to continue to comply with the relevant ADRs throughout their life but, because the most recent standards are the appropriate ones for today’s roads, a vehicle is allowed to meet a more recent standard instead of the one that applied to it when it was built.  An earlier standard need not be complied with if it is inconsistent with a later standard dealing with the same thing on the same vehicle, and the vehicle complies with the later standard.  Older vehicles are allowed to be fitted with any equipment that is allowed on newer vehicles.  As explained in the Introductory Note, modified vehicles must still comply with these Standards.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

ADR      prime mover

GVM      semi-trailer

mudguard     

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer

Compliance with second edition ADRs

 1.1 (1) A vehicle to which a second edition ADR applies must comply with the ADR.

 1.1 (2) For the purpose of subclause (1), a second edition ADR applies to a vehicle if the cover sheet of the document containing the standard includes a recommendation by the Australian Transport Advisory Council that vehicles in a category that includes the vehicle:

 (a) comply, or be designed to comply, with the ADR; or

 (b) be equipped with a thing that complies with the ADR; or

 (c) have instruments located so as to comply with the ADR.

 1.1 (3) In spite of subclause (1), a vehicle need not comply with a requirement of a second edition ADR if:

 (a) the requirement has been superseded by, or is inconsistent with, a requirement of a third edition ADR; and

 (b) the vehicle complies with the third edition ADR requirement.

Compliance with third edition ADRs

 1.2 (1) A vehicle to which a third edition ADR applies must comply with the ADR.

Limitations on application of the ADRs

 1.3 (1) In spite of clauses 1.1 and 1.2, a vehicle that has been exempted under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth from a requirement of an ADR need not comply with the requirement.

 1.3 (2) In spite of clauses 1.1 and 1.2, the luminous transmittance requirements in paragraph 2.16 (2) (b) apply instead of the corresponding requirements in the relevant ADR.

 1.3 (3) In spite of clauses 1.1 and 1.2, the requirements of subclause 2.18 (5) (relating to the speed at which a tyre must be suitable for road use) apply instead of the tyre speed category requirements in the relevant ADR.

Additional equipment on vehicles

 1.4 (1) If a third edition ADR permits a vehicle to be fitted with equipment, a vehicle may be fitted with the equipment, even though the vehicle was manufactured before the date specified in the ADR for the type of vehicle.


PART 2—GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

 

NOTE

To allow a vehicle to be operated safely, every aspect of the vehicle needs to be properly designed to minimise the potential for accidents or harm to other road users.  This Part sets out various requirements covering the driver’s view from, and control of, a vehicle, protection of vehicle occupants and other road users, and other safety features of a more general nature.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

ADR      GVM

approved material    mudguard

Australian Standard    pole-type trailer

axle      prime mover

axle group     repeater horn

B-double     road train

driver      single axle

emergency vehicle

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     road

trailer

Steering

 2.1 (1) The centre of the steering control of a motor vehicle must not be placed left of the centre of the vehicle.

 2.1 (2) A component of the steering system of a motor vehicle that is essential for effective steering of the vehicle must be built to transmit energy by mechanical means only.

 2.1 (3) Failure of a non-mechanical component of the steering system must not prevent effective steering of the vehicle.

Turning ability

 2.2 (1) A motor vehicle must be able to turn both left and right, within a circle not exceeding 25 metres in diameter, measured by the outer edge of the tyre track at ground level.

Ability to travel backwards and forwards

 2.3 (1) A motor vehicle must be capable of being driven both backwards and forwards by the driver when the driver is in the normal driving position.

External or internal protrusions

 2.4 (1) A vehicle must not have fitted to it an object or fitting that:

 (a) protrudes from the vehicle in a way that is reasonably likely to increase the risk of injury to a person; and

 (b) is not technically essential to the vehicle.

 2.4 (2) An object or fitting that is technically essential to a vehicle must be designed, built and fitted to the vehicle in a way that minimises the risk of bodily injury to a person making contact with the vehicle.

 

NOTE

An example of an object that protrudes but is not technically essential to a vehicle is a bonnet mascot that is rigid and is not designed to spring away on impact.

 

A bull bar that unduly increases the risk of injury to a person would not be allowed to be fitted.  However, a well-designed bull bar that minimises the greater risk of bodily injury in an accident involving contact with the bull bar would be allowed.

 

Driver’s view and control of vehicle

 2.5 (1) A motor vehicle must be built:

 (a) to allow the driver a view of traffic to its front and sides; and

 (b) with its controls located;

  so that the driver can drive it safely.

 2.5 (2) The rearmost position of any passenger seat in a motor vehicle must not be located more than 100 millimetres in front of the rearmost position of the driver’s seat.

 2.5 (3) A passenger seat on the right of the driver of a motor vehicle must not be located beside or in front of the driver.

Seating

 2.6 (1) A seat provided for a person to use in a moving vehicle must be securely attached to the vehicle.

Mudguards

 2.7 (1) A vehicle must have firmly fitted to it:

 (a) a mudguard for each wheel or for adjacent wheels; and

 (b) if the vehicle is part of a B-double—spray suppression devices complying with British Standard AU200-1984 “Spray Reducing Devices for Heavy Goods Vehicles” Parts 1 and 2 for all axle groups or single axles of the vehicle.

 2.7 (2) Paragraph (1) (a) does not apply to a vehicle if:

 (a) its construction or use makes it unnecessary or impracticable to provide mudguards; or

 (b) the body or part of the body of the vehicle prevents stones, mud, water, ice, or snow from being thrown up by the vehicle.

 

NOTE

Examples of vehicles to which paragraph (2) (a) applies are timber jinkers, most road-making plant and some agricultural implements.

 

 2.7 (3) A mudguard must, when the wheels of the vehicle are in position for it to move straight ahead:

(a) reduce the danger of a person contacting the moving wheels; and

(b) in the case of the rear wheels:

 (i) cover the overall tyre width of the wheel or wheels for which it is provided; and

 (ii) be fitted so that the height above the ground of the lowest edge of the rear of the mudguard is not more than one third of the horizontal distance of that edge from the centre of the rearmost axle.

 2.7 (4) In spite of subclause (3), the mudguard may be at least:

 (a) 230 millimetres above the ground; or

 (b) on a vehicle built to be used off a road—300 millimetres above the ground.

 2.7 (5) The external surface of a rear mudguard, except a mudflap, that can be seen from the rear of the vehicle to which it is fitted must be coloured white or silver if the vehicle:

 (a) is at least 2.2 metres wide, excluding mirrors, side-mounted lights and reflectors; and

 (b) has a body that is less than 300 millimetres high at the rear, measured from the lowest point of the body above the ground to the highest point; and

 (c) is not fitted with rear marking plates in accordance with clause 5.39.

Horns and alarms

 2.8 (1) A motor vehicle must have fitted to it at least one horn or other device capable of giving sufficient audible warning to other road users of the approach or position of the vehicle.

 2.8 (2) A motor vehicle, other than an emergency vehicle, must not have fitted to it a device capable of producing a sound resembling the sound of a siren, bell, exhaust whistle, compression whistle or repeater horn.

 2.8 (3) In spite of subclause (2), an anti-theft alarm producing a sound described in subclause (2) may be fitted to a vehicle if the device cannot be operated while the vehicle is moving.

 2.8 (4) A motor vehicle may be fitted with a device which emits a regular, intermittent sound while the vehicle is rolling backwards or in reverse gear.

 2.8 (5) A device described in subclause (4) must not be louder than is reasonably necessary for a person close to the vehicle and the driver to be able to hear the device.

Rear-vision mirrors

 2.9 (1) Each side of a motor vehicle must be fitted with a mirror, which when used together enable the driver of the vehicle at all times to obtain, by reflection, a clear view of:

 (a) the road to the rear of the vehicle; and

 (b) any following or overtaking vehicle.

 2.9 (2) A mirror fitted to a vehicle must not project more than 150 millimetres beyond the widest part (excluding lights and reflectors) of the vehicle or combination of vehicles including the vehicle.

 2.9 (3) In spite of subclause (2), the mirrors fitted to a motor vehicle may project beyond the widest part (excluding lights and reflectors) of the vehicle or combination of vehicles by up to 230 millimetres if they can be folded or collapsed to project not more than 150 millimetres.

 2.9 (4) One mirror on the left side of the vehicle must have a reflecting surface of at least 150 square centimetres.

 2.9 (5) One mirror on the right side of a vehicle must have a flat reflecting surface of at least 150 square centimetres.

 2.9 (6) A vehicle may be fitted with additional mirrors or mirror surfaces that are flat or convex or a combination of flat and convex.

Automatic transmissions

 2.10 (1) A motor vehicle fitted with an automatic transmission must have an engine starter mechanism that cannot operate when the transmission control is in a position to drive the vehicle.

 2.10 (2) A vehicle that is:

 (a) fitted with automatic transmission; and

 (b) manufactured after 1975;

  must have in the driver’s compartment an indicator showing the transmission control position.

Diesel engines

 2.11 (1) A motor vehicle propelled by a compression ignition engine (commonly known as a “diesel engine”) must be fitted with a device that prevents the engine from being started accidentally or inadvertently.

Bonnet latching

 2.12 (1) A motor vehicle with a moveable body panel forward of the windscreen that covers an engine, luggage, storage or battery compartment must be provided with a latch for that panel.

 2.12 (2) If the panel opens from the front in a way that partly or completely obstructs the driver’s forward view through the windscreen, the panel must be provided with:

 (a) a second latching position on the latch; or

 (b) a second latch.

Electrical wiring, connections and installations

 2.13 (1) The wiring of electrical equipment of a vehicle, other than the high tension ignition wiring, must:

 (a) be supported at intervals of not more than 600 millimetres, unless the vehicle is a pole-type trailer with a pole whose length can be adjusted, or an extendible trailer; and

 (b) be insulated at joints; and

 (c) be located where it cannot:

 (i) become overheated; or

 (ii) contact moving parts; or

 (iii) come close enough to the fuel system to constitute a fire hazard; and

 (d) be protected from chafing.

 2.13 (2) The electrical connectors between motor vehicles and trailers, for operation of the vehicle lights prescribed in these Standards, must comply with Australian Standard AS 2513-1982 “Electrical Connections for Trailer Vehicles”.

 2.13 (3) A trailer must be equipped with an electrical conductor, independent of the trailer coupling, that provides a return path between the electrical circuits of the trailer and the towing vehicle.

 2.13 (4) The electrical wiring, connections and installations of a semi-trailer, dog trailer or converter dolly used in a road train more than 19 metres long after 30 June 1998 must comply with third edition ADR 63 whether or not it was built before the date specified in the ADR for that type of vehicle.

Television and visual display units

 2.14 (1) A television receiver or visual display unit must not be installed in a vehicle if any part of the image on the screen is visible to the driver from the normal driving position.

 2.14 (2) Subclause (1) does not apply to installation of a driver’s aid in any vehicle or a destination sign in a bus.

 

NOTE

Examples of display units that are considered to be drivers’ aids are: rear-view screens, ticket-issuing machines, navigational or intelligent highway and vehicle system equipment, vehicle monitoring devices, despatch systems and closed circuit television security cameras.

 

 2.14 (3) A television receiver or visual display unit and its associated equipment in a vehicle must be securely mounted in a position that:

 (a) does not obscure the driver’s view of the road; and

 (b) does not impede the movement of a person in the vehicle.

Windscreens and windows

 2.15 (1) Transparent material used in a windscreen, window, or an interior partition of a motor vehicle must be approved material if:

(a) the motor vehicle was manufactured on or after 1 July 1953; or

(b) the material was fitted on or after 1 July 1953.

Window tinting

 2.16 (1) Glazing in a motor vehicle must not have:

 (a) a luminous transmittance of less than:

 (i) 75% in the case of a windscreen of a vehicle manufactured after 1971; and

 (ii) 70% in any other case; or

 (b) a reflectance of more than 10%.

 2.16 (2) Paragraph (1) (a) does not apply to:

 (a) the greater of the following areas of a windscreen:

 (i) the area above the highest point of the windscreen that is swept by a windscreen wiper;

 (ii) the highest area, measured in front of the driver’s seat, that covers 10% of the windscreen; or

 (b) glazing with a luminous transmittance of at least 35% behind the driver’s seat.

 2.16 (3) In this clause, “glazing” means transparent material, or a combination of transparent materials, fitted to the front, sides or rear of a vehicle, through which the driver or a passenger can obtain a view of the road.

Windscreen wipers and washers

 2.17 (1) A motor vehicle fitted with a windscreen must be fitted with at least one windscreen wiper.

 2.17 (2) A windscreen wiper or windscreen wipers must:

 (a) be able to remove moisture from the windscreen in front, and to the left, of the driver to allow the driver an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle when the windscreen is wet; and

 (b) be able to be operated by the driver of the vehicle from a normal driving position; and

 (c) be power-driven; and

 (d) if operated by engine manifold vacuum—be provided with a vacuum reservoir or pump to maintain efficient operation of the wiper or wipers while the vehicle is in motion.

 2.17 (3) A motor vehicle:

 (a) manufactured on or after 1 January 1983; and

 (b) required to be fitted with a windscreen wiper;

  must be fitted with a windscreen washer that can direct water on to the exterior of the windscreen within the area swept by a wiper so that the wiper can spread the water to the whole area swept by the wiper.

 2.17 (4) A windscreen washer must be able to be operated from a normal driving position.

 2.17 (5) In spite of subclause (1), if the driver in a normal driving position can obtain an adequate view of the road ahead of the motor vehicle when the windscreen is obscured, the vehicle need not be fitted with a windscreen wiper or washer.

Wheels and tyres

 2.18 (1) A vehicle must be fitted with pneumatic tyres.

 2.18 (2) The wheels and tyres fitted to an axle of a vehicle must be of sufficient size and capacity to carry the portion of the GVM transmitted to the ground through the axle.

 2.18 (3) The size and capacity of a tyre to be fitted to a vehicle must be determined using a cold inflation pressure that does not exceed the lesser of:

(a) the pressure recommended by the manufacturer of the tyre; and

(b) in the case of:

 (i) a radial ply tyre—825 kilopascals; or

 (ii) another tyre—700 kilopascals.

 2.18 (4) A tyre fitted to a vehicle must be free of any apparent defect which could make the vehicle unsafe.

 

 2.18 (5) A tyre fitted to a vehicle must be suitable for road use at:

 (a) a speed of at least 100 kilometres an hour; or

 (b) if the vehicle cannot travel at a speed of 100 kilometres an hour—its top speed.

Tyre tread

 2.19 (1) A tyre of a vehicle must not have cleats or other gripping devices that could damage the road surface.

 2.19 (2) Except at tread wear indicators, a tyre fitted to a vehicle must have a tread pattern at least 1.5 millimetres deep in a band that runs continuously:

 (a) across at least 75% of the tyre width that normally comes into contact with the road; and

 (b) around the whole circumference of the tyre.

 2.19 (3) A vehicle must not be fitted with a tyre that has been treated by re-cutting or re-grooving the tread rubber, unless the tyre was:

 (a) constructed with an extra thickness of rubber designed for the purpose of re-cutting or re-grooving; and

 (b) labelled to indicate the construction.


PART 3—VEHICLE MARKING

 

NOTE

This Part sets out requirements that help to identify a vehicle for the purpose of knowing who is responsible for it on the road, and to warn other motorists that the vehicle may be unusually long.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

Australian Standard    road train

B-double

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer

Vehicle and engine identification numbers

 3.1 (1) The engine block of a motor vehicle must have an  individual engine identification number stamped, embossed or otherwise permanently displayed on it.

 3.1 (2) An engine identification number on a plate that is fixed to an engine block using screws or rivets is not permanently displayed on the block.

 3.1 (3) A vehicle must have an individual vehicle identification number clearly stamped, embossed or otherwise permanently displayed on a substantial part of its frame or chassis.

 3.1 (4) An identification number must be located where it can be read easily without having to use tools to remove a part of the vehicle that would otherwise obstruct the reader’s view.

 3.1 (5) In this clause, “number” includes letters.

White or silver band on certain vehicles

 3.2 (1) A vehicle that:

 (a) is at least 2.2 metres wide; and

 (b) has a body that is less than 300 millimetres high at the rear, measured from the lowest point of the body above the ground to the highest point; and

 (c) is not fitted with rear marking plates in accordance with clause 5.39;

  must have a white or silver band at least 75 millimetres high across the full width of the rearmost part of the body of the vehicle.

B-double warning sign

 3.3 (1) A B-double that is more than 19 metres long must have fitted horizontally to the rearmost part of it a B-double warning sign that meets the requirements set out in subclauses (2) and (3), and clause 3.5.

 3.3 (2) The sign must show the words “LONG VEHICLE” in black, upper-case letters at least 180 millimetres high in typeface Series B (N), complying with Australian Standard AS 1744 “Forms of Letters and Numerals for Road Signs”.

 3.3 (3) If the sign is in 2 pieces, the word “LONG” must appear on one piece and the word “VEHICLE” on the other.

 3.3 (4) A B-double warning sign, or a piece of a B-double warning sign, must not be displayed on:

 (a) vehicle that does not form part of a B-double; or

 (b) a B-double that is not more than 19 metres long.

Road train warning sign

 3.4 (1) A road train that is more than 19 metres long must have fitted horizontally to its front and rear a road train warning sign that meets the requirements set out in subclauses (2) and (3), and clause 3.5.

 3.4 (2) The sign must show the words “ROAD TRAIN” in black, upper-case letters at least 180 millimetres high in typeface Series B (N), complying with Australian Standard AS 1744 “Forms of Letters and Numerals for Road Signs”.

 3.4 (3) If the sign is in 2 pieces, the word “ROAD” must appear on one piece and the word “TRAIN” on the other.

 3.4 (4) A road train warning sign, or a piece of a road train warning sign, must not be displayed on:

 (a) a vehicle that does not form part of a road train; or

 (b) a road train that is not more than 19 metres long.

Specifications for warning signs

 3.5 (1) A warning sign must be:

 (a) durable; and

 (b) manufactured in 1 or 2 pieces from sheet steel 0.8 millimetres thick or an alternative material of at least equivalent stiffness, unless it is designed to be fixed to the vehicle body using an adhesive.

 3.5 (2) A sign must be at least 1.02 metres wide and 250 millimetres high.

 3.5 (3) A sign must be coated with yellow retro-reflective material (class 1 or class 2) which meets Australian Standard AS 1906 “Retro-reflective Materials and Devices for Road Traffic Control Purposes”.

 3.5 (4) A sign must have a black border.

 3.5 (5) The sign must show the sign manufacturer’s name or logo, and the brand and class of retro-reflective material used, in block letters not more than 10 millimetres high.

 3.5 (6) A warning sign must be mounted so that no part of the sign is:

 (a) more than 1.8 metres above the ground; or

 (b) less than 500 millimetres above the ground.

 

 

 

Positioning of a warning sign

 


PART 4—VEHICLE CONFIGURATION AND DIMENSIONS

 

NOTE

This Part sets out various requirements covering suspensions on vehicles and size limits for single vehicles and combinations of vehicles, so that they can be operated safely with other traffic, without taking up too much road space or damaging the road and structures on the road.

 

Generally, the limits specified in this Part apply to a vehicle and any load it may be carrying.

 

Specific requirements for loaded vehicles are covered in other sets of regulations under the Road Transport Reform (Vehicles and Traffic) Act 1993.  Those regulations also include a number of different size limits to cater for vehicles from which the load is allowed to protrude, for example height and allowable rear overhang of car carriers.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

articulated bus     GVM

axle      load-sharing suspension system

axle group     point of articulation

bus      rear overhang

centre of an axle group   rear overhang line

combination of vehicles   road train

converter dolly    semi-trailer

dog trailer     single axle

drawbar      single axle group

fifth wheel coupling    tandem axle group

ground clearance    twinsteer axle group

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer


Division 1—Axles

Axle configuration

 4.1 (1) A motor vehicle, other than an articulated bus, must have only:

 (a) a single axle group, a twinsteer axle group or a single axle towards the front of the vehicle; and

 (b) one axle group or a single axle towards the rear of the vehicle.

 4.1 (2) An articulated bus must have on:

 (a) its front section:

 (i) only a single axle group, a twinsteer axle group or a single axle towards the front of the section; and

 (ii) only one axle group or a single axle towards the rear of the section; and

 (b) a section other than its front section—only one axle group or single axle.

 4.1 (3) A trailer, other than a semi-trailer, must have only:

 (a) one axle group or a single axle; or

 (b) 2 axle groups or 2 single axles in the following configuration:

 (i) one axle group or single axle towards the front of the vehicle, with all the wheels on the axle group or single axle connected to the steering mechanism for that part of the trailer;

 (ii) one axle group or single axle towards the rear of the vehicle.

 4.1 (4) A semi-trailer must have only one axle group or a single axle.

 4.1 (5) The axle group or single axle must be located towards the rear of the semi-trailer.

 4.1 (6) A semi-trailer that is extendible, or is fitted with sliding axles, must:

 (a) have a securing device that:

 (i) can securely fix the extendible part or the sliding axles to the rest of the vehicle in any position of adjustment provided; and

 (ii) is located in a position that can prevent accidental or inadvertent release, if it is mounted on the chassis of the vehicle; and

 (iii) is fitted with a visible or audible warning device to indicate to a person standing beside the vehicle that the device is not engaged; and

 (iv) is fitted with a means of preventing loss of air from the air brake supply, if the device uses air from the brake system and fails in a way that allows air to escape; and

 (v) is held in the applied position by direct mechanical action without the intervention of any hydraulic, electric or pneumatic device; and

 (b) be built so that the adjustable parts of the vehicle remain connected if the securing device fails.

Relation between axles in an axle group

 4.2 (1) The axles in an axle group, other than a twinsteer axle group, fitted to a vehicle must relate to each other through a load-sharing suspension system.

Minimum axle spacings

 4.3 (1) The centre lines of adjacent axles that are not in the same axle group on a motor vehicle with a GVM more than 12 tonnes must be at least 2.5 metres apart.

Division 2—Dimensions

Width

 4.4 (1) A vehicle must not be more than 2.5 metres wide.

 4.4 (2) For the purposes of subclause (1), the width of a vehicle is measured without taking into account rear-vision mirrors, lights or reflectors that:

 (a) are mounted on either side of the vehicle; and

 (b) comply with these Standards.

Length of single motor vehicles

 4.5 (1) A motor vehicle, other than an articulated bus or a controlled access bus, must not be more than 12.5 metres long.

 4.5 (2) A controlled access bus must not be more than 14.5 metres long.

 4.5 (3) An articulated bus must not be more than 18 metres long.

Length of single trailers

 4.6 (1) On a semi-trailer or a dog trailer:

 (a) the distance between the point of articulation at the front and the rear overhang line must not be more than 9.5 metres; and

 (b) the distance between the point of articulation at the front and the rear of the trailer must not be more than 12.3 metres.

 4.6 (2) A projection forward of the point of articulation at the front of a semi-trailer must be contained within a radius of 1.9 metres from the point of articulation.

 

 

 

Maximum dimensions of a semi-trailer

 

 4.6 (3) If a semi-trailer has more than one point of articulation at the front, it must meet the requirements of subclauses (1) and (2) when measured at one of the points.

 4.6 (4) The length of a trailer built to carry cattle, sheep, pigs or horses must not exceed 12.5 metres, ignoring any drawbar.

Length of combinations of vehicles

 4.7 (1) A combination of vehicles must not be more than 19 metres long.

 4.7 (2) In spite of subclause (1):

 (a) a B-double must not be more than 23 metres long; and

 (b) a road train must not be more than 53.5 metres long; and

 (c) a combination of vehicles that is designed to carry vehicles on more than one deck must not be more than 23 metres long.

Rear overhang

 4.8 (1) The rear overhang of a semi-trailer, or a dog trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly, must not exceed the lesser of:

 (a) 60% of the distance between the point of articulation at the front and the rear overhang line; and

 (b) 3.7 metres.

 4.8 (2) A semi-trailer with more than one point of articulation at the front must comply with subclause (1) when measured at the same point used for measurement of compliance with subclause 4.6 (3).

 4.8 (3) The rear overhang of a trailer with only one axle group or single axle, other than a semi-trailer, must not exceed the lesser of:

 (a) the length of the load carrying area, or body, ahead of the rear overhang line; and

 (b) 3.7 metres.

 4.8 (4) The rear overhang of a vehicle not described in subclause (1) or (3) must not exceed the lesser of:

 (a) 60% of the distance between the centre of the front axle and the rear overhang line; and

 (b) 3.7 metres.

Trailer drawbar length

 4.9 (1) The distance between the coupling pivot point on the drawbar of a dog trailer and the centre-line of the front axle group or the centre line of the front single axle of the trailer must:

 (a) not exceed 5 metres; and

 (b) not be less than 3 metres, if the trailer is used in a road train more than 19 metres long.

 

 

 

Length of a drawbar on a dog trailer

 

 4.9 (2) The distance between the coupling pivot point on a drawbar and the centre-line of the axle group or single axle on a trailer with only one axle group or single axle, other than a semi-trailer, must not exceed 8.5 metres.

Height

 4.10 (1) A vehicle must not be more than 4.3 metres high.

 

 4.10 (2) In spite of subclause (1):

 (a) the height of a vehicle built to carry cattle, sheep, pigs or horses must not exceed 4.6 metres; and

 (b) the height of a double-deck bus must not exceed 4.4 metres.

Ground clearance

 4.11 (1) A motor vehicle or combination of vehicles must have a ground clearance:

 (a) of at least 100 millimetres at any point within 1 metre of an axle; and

 (b) of at least one-thirtieth of the distance between the centres of adjacent axles at the mid-point between them; and

 (c) at any other point—of at least the distance that allows the vehicle or combination to pass over a peak in the road, the gradient on either side of which is 1:15, when the wheels of one axle of the vehicle or combination are on the slope on one side of the peak and the wheels of the next axle are on the slope on the other side.

 

 

 

Ground clearance at the mid-point between 2 axles

 

 

 

 

Ground clearance over a peak in the road

 

Division 3—Additional requirements for a converter dolly

Axle arrangement on a converter dolly

 4.12 (1) A converter dolly must have a single axle group, a tandem axle group or a single axle.

Construction of a converter dolly

 4.13 (1) A converter dolly must be built so that the torque reaction generated in the dolly by braking forces can be:

 (a) transmitted through a towing coupling built for the purpose into a towing vehicle; or

 (b) absorbed or dissipated by a limited travel suspension system fitted to a tandem axle group on the dolly.

Converter dolly coupling

 4.14 (1) The fifth wheel coupling of a converter dolly must be able to pivot about a horizontal axis transverse to the vehicle.

 4.14 (2) A converter dolly referred to in paragraph 4.13 (1) (a) must have a fixed drawbar.

 4.14 (3) The drawbar of a converter dolly referred to in paragraph 4.13 (1) (b) must be hinged to the front of the dolly chassis in a way that allows the drawbar to swing up and down.

Converter dolly suspension

 4.15 (1) A tandem axle group supporting a converter dolly referred to in paragraph 4.13 (1) (a) must have a single point or air bag suspension system.

 4.15 (2) A tandem axle group supporting a converter dolly referred to in paragraph 4.13 (1) (b) must have a suspension system incorporating:

 (a) at least 4 laminated springs; or

 (b) leading and trailing arms; or

 (c) torsion bars; or

 (d) air bags.


PART 5—LIGHTS AND REFLECTORS

 

NOTE

This Part deals with how the lights on a vehicle are fitted and work so that the driver can see the road, pedestrians and other vehicles at night, and can signal to others.  Unless these Standards prohibit the fitting of a particular kind of light or reflector, it may be fitted to a vehicle.

 

Regulations dealing with road traffic state when certain lights must be switched on.  The visibility requirements for lights in this Part apply to lights switched on at times when road traffic regulations require them to be switched on.  The requirements in this Part for a light, other than a brake light or direction indicator light, to be visible over a specified distance apply only at night.

 

In this Part, the description “yellow” is used instead of the description “amber” that is used in many older pieces of legislation and some ADRs.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

ADR      high-beam

driver      low-beam

emergency vehicle    pole-type trailer

GTM      prime mover

GVM      semi-trailer

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer

road

Division 1—General requirements for lights

Prevention of glare

 5.1 (1) A light, other than a high-beam headlight, fitted to a vehicle must be built and adjusted to provide the necessary amount of light, without dazzling the driver or rider of another vehicle approaching or being approached by the vehicle.

Pairs of lights

 5.2 (1) If a pair of lights is fitted to a vehicle:

 (a) one light must be fitted towards each side of the vehicle; and

 (b) the centre of each light of the pair must be the same distance from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle; and

 (c) the centre of each light of the pair must be at the same height above ground level; and

 (d) each light of the pair must project approximately the same amount of light of the same colour.

 5.2 (2) Subclause (1) does not apply to number plate lights referred to in Division 6 or to pairs of side marker lights fitted under Division 8 or interior lights referred to in Division 13.

Division 2—Headlights

Headlights to be fitted to a vehicle

 5.3 (1) A motor vehicle must have a pair of low-beam headlights fitted to it.

 5.3 (2) If a motor vehicle is capable of travelling at a speed of more than 60 kilometres an hour:

 (a) each low-beam headlight referred to in subclause (1) must also be able to work in the high-beam position; or

 (b) a pair of headlights that can work in the high-beam position must also be fitted to the vehicle.

 5.3 (3) A motor vehicle may also have additional pairs of headlights fitted to it.

How should headlights be fitted?

 5.4 (1) The low-beam headlights fitted to a vehicle must have their centres at least 600 millimetres apart.

 5.4 (2) The centre of a low-beam headlight must be:

 (a) not more than 1.4 metres above ground level; and

 (b) at least 500 millimetres above ground level.

 5.4 (3) Headlights must be fitted to a vehicle so that their light does not reflect off the vehicle into the driver’s eyes.

Performance of headlights

 5.5 (1) When switched on, a headlight or additional headlight fitted to a vehicle must:

 (a) show only white light; and

 (b) project its main beam of light ahead of the vehicle; and

 (c) illuminate the road ahead of the vehicle.

Effective range of headlights

 5.6 (1) A low-beam headlight must be effective at a distance of at least 25 metres.

 5.6 (2) A high-beam headlight must be effective at a distance of at least 50 metres.

Changing headlights from high-beam to low-beam position

 5.7 (1) A motor vehicle capable of a speed of more than 60 kilometres an hour must be fitted with:

 (a) a dipping device enabling the driver in the normal driving position:

 (i) to change the headlights from the high-beam position to the low-beam position; or

 (ii) simultaneously to switch off a high-beam headlight and switch on a low-beam headlight; and

 (b) a device to indicate to the driver that the headlights are in the high-beam position.

 5.7 (2) A headlight fitted to a vehicle not fitted with a dipping device described in paragraph (1) (a) must be in the low-beam position.

 5.7 (3) A headlight fitted to a vehicle:

 (a) must be able to be, or remain, switched on only in the low-beam position, when another headlight fitted to the vehicle is switched to the low-beam position; and

 (b) if the headlight cannot be switched to the low-beam position—must not be closer to the side of the vehicle than a headlight that can be in the low-beam position.

Division 3—Parking lights

Parking lights

 5.8 (1) A pair of parking lights must be fitted to the front of a motor vehicle.

 5.8 (2) A pair of parking lights must be fitted with the centre of each light:

 (a) at least 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and

 (b) within 510 millimetres of the nearer side of the vehicle.

 

 

Location of parking lights on a vehicle

 5.8 (3) When switched on, a parking light must:

 (a) show a white light visible 200 metres from the front of the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

 5.8 (4) Parking lights fitted to a motor vehicle manufactured on or after 1 January 1970 must be wired so that, when a headlight on the vehicle is switched on, the parking lights:

 (a) stay switched on if they are already switched on; or

 (b) come on if they are not already switched on.

Division 4—Daytime running lights

 

Daytime running lights

 5.9 (1) A pair of daytime running lights may be fitted to a motor vehicle.

 5.9 (2) A pair of daytime running lights must be fitted with the centre of each light:

 (a) at least 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and

 (b) within 510 millimetres of the nearer side of the vehicle.

 

 

Location of daytime running lights on a vehicle

 


 5.9 (3) When switched on, a daytime running light must:

 (a) show a white light visible from the front of the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 25 watts.

 5.9 (4) Daytime running lights must be wired so that they go off when a headlight or parking light is switched on.

Division 5—Tail lights

Tail lights

 5.10 (1) A vehicle must have fitted towards each side of its rear at least one tail light, with its centre not more than 1.5 metres above ground level.

 5.10 (2) A vehicle may have fitted to it one or more additional tail lights at any height above ground level.

Pattern of fitting tail lights

 5.11 (1) If an even number of tail lights are fitted to a vehicle, they must be fitted symmetrically on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

 5.11 (2) If an odd number of tail lights are fitted to a vehicle:

 (a) one light must :

 (i) be fitted in the centre of the rear of the vehicle; or

 (ii) be placed so as also to illuminate the number plate of the vehicle with white light; and

 (b) an even number of lights must be fitted symmetrically on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

 

Location of tail lights on a vehicle

 

 5.11 (3) Tail lights fitted in accordance with this Division may also serve as rear clearance lights if they are fitted to a vehicle in accordance with subclause 5.17 (3).

Performance of tail lights

 5.12 (1) When switched on, a tail light must:

 (a) show a red light visible 200 metres from the rear of the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

Wiring of tail lights

 5.13 (1) A tail light must be wired to come on and stay on when a parking light or headlight on the vehicle is switched on.

Division 6—Number-plate lights

Number-plate lights

 5.14 (1) At least one number-plate light must be fitted to the rear of a vehicle.

 5.14 (2) When switched on, the number-plate light or lights must illuminate a number plate on the rear of the vehicle with white light, so that the characters on the number plate can be easily read at night 20 metres from the rear of the vehicle.

 5.14 (3) A number-plate light:

 (a) may be combined with a tail light; and

 (b) must not project white light to the rear of the vehicle except by reflection; and

 (c) must not obscure the characters on the number plate; and

 (d) must be wired to come on and stay on when a parking light or headlight on the vehicle is switched on.

Division 7—Clearance lights

Front clearance lights

 5.15 (1) A pair of front clearance lights must be fitted to a motor vehicle that is at least 2.2 metres wide, or a prime mover.

 5.15 (2) Front clearance lights may only be fitted to a vehicle that is at least 1.8 metres wide.

 5.15 (3) The centre of a front clearance light must be:

 (a) no more than 400 millimetres from a side of the vehicle; and

 (b) at least 750 millimetres higher than the centre of any low beam headlight fitted to the vehicle.

 5.15 (4) A front clearance light may be mounted on an external rear-vision mirror or a mirror support if, when the mirror is correctly adjusted, no part of the lens of the light is visible to a person in the normal driving position.

 5.15 (5) When switched on, a front clearance light must:

 (a) show a yellow or white light visible 200 metres from the front of the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

External cabin lights

 5.16 (1) A motor vehicle with front clearance lights may also have additional forward-facing lights fitted to, or above, the roof of its cabin.

 5.16 (2) The additional forward-facing lights must be symmetrically spaced on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, with their centres at least 120 millimetres apart.

 5.16 (3) When switched on, an additional forward-facing light must:

 (a) show a yellow or white light; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

Rear clearance lights

 5.17 (1) A pair of rear clearance lights must be fitted to the rear of a vehicle that is at least 2.2 metres wide.

 5.17 (2) Rear clearance lights may only be fitted to a vehicle that is at least 1.8 metres wide.


 5.17 (3) The centre of a rear clearance light must be:

 (a) not more than 400 millimetres from a side of the vehicle; and

 (b) at least 600 millimetres above ground level, if practicable.

 5.17 (4) When switched on, a rear clearance light must:

 (a) show a red light visible 200 metres from the rear of the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

Division 8—Side marker lights

Which vehicles need side marker lights?

 5.18 (1) A pair of side marker lights must be fitted towards the rear of the sides of a motor vehicle that is more than 7.5 metres long and at least 2.2 metres wide.

 5.18 (2) A motor vehicle built to draw a pole-type trailer, or a pole-type trailer, with one cross-bar or bolster must have a side marker light fitted to each side of the cross-bar or bolster.

 5.18 (3) A pole-type trailer with at least 2 cross-bars or bolsters must have fitted to each side of:

 (a) the front cross-bar or bolster a light which, when switched on, shows a yellow light to the front; and

 (b) the back cross-bar or bolster a light which, when switched on, shows a red light to the rear.

 5.18 (4) At least 2 side marker lights must be fitted towards each side of:

 (a) a trailer that is:

 (i) up to 7.5 metres long; and

 (ii) at least 2.2 metres wide; and

 (iii) not a pole-type trailer; or

 (b) a semi-trailer that is up to 7.5 metres long.

 5.18 (5) At least 3 side marker lights must be fitted towards each side of:

 (a) a trailer that is:

 (i) more than 7.5 metres long; and

 (ii) at least 2.2 metres wide; and

 (iii) not a pole-type trailer; or

 (b) a semi-trailer that is more than 7.5 metres long.

Location of side marker lights

 5.19 (1) The centre of a side marker light must not be more than 150 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.

 5.19 (2) The centre of a front side marker light:

 (a) fitted to a motor vehicle must be towards the front of the vehicle with no part of the lens visible to the driver; or

 (b) fitted to a trailer must be:

 (i) within 300 millimetres of the foremost point of the side of the trailer; or

 (ii) if the construction of the trailer makes it impracticable to comply with subparagraph (i)—as close as practicable to the front of the trailer.

 5.19 (3) The centre of a rear side marker light fitted to a vehicle must be:

 (a) within 300 millimetres of the rearmost point of the side of the vehicle; or

 (b) if the construction of the vehicle makes it impracticable to comply with paragraph (a)—as close as practicable to the rear of the vehicle.

 5.19 (4) The centres of adjacent side marker lights fitted to the side of a vehicle must be an equal distance apart.

 5.19 (5) Subclauses (2) to (4) (inclusive) do not apply to side marker lights fitted to a cross-bar or bolster of:

 (a) a pole-type trailer; or

 (b) a motor vehicle built to tow a pole-type trailer.

 5.19 (6) Only the rearmost side marker lights need be fitted if compliance with subparagraph (2) (b) (ii) and paragraph (3) (b) would mean that the front and rear side marker lights would be less than 2.5 metres apart.

 5.19 (7) A side marker light must be fitted to a vehicle so that:

 (a) its centre is not more than:

 (i) 1.5 metres above ground level; or

 (ii) if it is not practicable to fit it lower—2.1 metres above ground level; and

 (b) its centre is at least 600 millimetres above ground level; and

 (c) it is, as far as practicable, in a row of side marker lights along the side of a vehicle.

 5.19 (8) A vehicle fitted with side marker lights in accordance with subclause (7) may have fitted to it additional side marker lights with centres at any height at least 600 millimetres above ground level.

Performance of side marker lights

 5.20 (1) When switched on, a side marker light must:

 (a) show light visible for 200 metres from the vehicle; and

 (b) not use more power than 7 watts.

 5.20 (2) When switched on, a side marker light, other than a light referred to in subclause 5.18 (3), must show yellow light towards the front of the vehicle and red light towards the rear of the vehicle.

Side marker lights and rear clearance lights

 5.21 (1) The rearmost side marker light of a vehicle may also be a rear clearance light for the purposes of clause 5.17.

Division 9—Brake lights

Fitting brake lights

 5.22 (1) A pair of brake lights must be fitted to the rear of a vehicle.

 5.22 (2) The centre of a brake light must be:

 (a) not more than:

 (i) 1.5 metres above ground level; or

 (ii) if it is not practicable to fit the light lower—2.1 metres above ground level; and

 (b) at least 350 millimetres above ground level.

 5.22 (3) A vehicle fitted with brake lights in accordance with subclauses (1) and (2) may have fitted to it one or more additional brake lights, with their centres at any height but at least 350 millimetres above ground level.

 5.22 (4) If an even number of brake lights is fitted to a vehicle, the lights must be fitted symmetrically on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

 5.22 (5) If an odd number of brake lights is fitted to a vehicle, one must be fitted on the vertical centre line of the rear of the vehicle and the others must be fitted symmetrically on each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

 

Location of brake lights on a vehicle

Performance and operation of brake lights

 5.23 (1) When switched on, a brake light must show a red light visible 30 metres from the rear of the vehicle at any time.

 5.23 (2) A brake light fitted to a motor vehicle must come on when the brake that is normally used to stop the vehicle is applied.

 5.23 (3) Subclause (2) does not apply if the controls in the vehicle are in a position that makes it impossible for the engine to operate.

 5.23 (4) A brake light on a trailer must come on:

 (a) when any device which independently activates the brakes fitted to the trailer is applied; and

 (b) when the brake light of the towing vehicle is switched on in accordance with subclause (2).

 5.23 (5) A brake light may be operated by an engine brake, retarder or similar device.

 5.23 (6) An engine brake, retarder or similar device operating a brake light must not:

 (a) interfere with the operation of the brake light as required by subclause (2) or (4); or

 (b) cause the brake light to remain on if a malfunction of the device occurs.

Division 10—Reversing lights

Reversing lights

 5.24 (1) One or more reversing lights may be fitted to the rear of a vehicle.

 5.24 (2) A reversing light must:

 (a) when switched on, show white or yellow light to the rear of the vehicle; and

 (b) have its centre not more than 1.2 metres above ground level.

 5.24 (3) A reversing light fitted to a motor vehicle must be wired so that it can be switched on only when the vehicle is reversing or is in reverse gear.

 5.24 (4) A reversing light fitted to a trailer must be wired so that it can be switched on only when a motor vehicle towing the trailer is reversing or is in reverse gear.

Division 11—Direction indicator lights

Direction indicator lights on a motor vehicle

 5.25 (1) A motor vehicle must have:

 (a) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on or towards its front, facing forward; and

 (b) a pair of direction indicator lights fitted on or towards its rear, facing backwards.

Direction indicator lights on a trailer

 5.26 (1) A pair of direction indicator lights must be fitted on or towards the rear of a trailer, facing backwards.

Location of direction indicator lights

 5.27 (1) A pair of direction indicator lights must be fitted so that the centre of each light is:

 (a) at least 600 millimetres from the centre of the other light; and

 (b) at least 350 millimetres above ground level; and

 (c) not more than:

 (i) 1.5 metres above ground level; or

 (ii) if it is not practicable for the light to be fitted lower—2.1 metres above ground level.

 5.27 (2) A vehicle fitted with direction indicator lights in accordance with paragraph (1) (c) may be fitted with additional pairs of direction indicator lights with centres at any height at least 350 millimetres above ground level.

Operation and visibility of direction indicator lights

 5.28 (1) A direction indicator light must:

 (a) when operating, display regular flashes of light at a rate of not less than 60, and not more than 120, flashes a minute; and

 (b) be controlled by a switch that can be operated by a person in the driving position of the vehicle; and

 (c) be wired to an audible or visible telltale in the vehicle that shows the driver of the vehicle that the light is operating; and

 (d) be on and off at the same time as any other light of the same type fitted on the same side of the vehicle.

 5.28 (2) The flashes of light referred to in paragraph (1) (a) must:

 (a) if the light shows to the front of the vehicle—be white or yellow; or

 (b) if the light shows to the rear of the vehicle, be:

 (i) yellow; or

 (ii) if the vehicle was manufactured before 1 January 1960—yellow or red; or

 (c) if the light shows to the side of the vehicle—be yellow.

 5.28 (3) If a vehicle’s direction indicator lights show only yellow light, the vehicle may be equipped to allow the lights to operate simultaneously on both sides of the vehicle, if a visible or audible signal informs the driver of the simultaneous operation.

 5.28 (4) When operating, a direction indicator light must be visible at any time 30 metres from:

 (a) if the light is facing forward—the front of the vehicle; or

 (b) if the light is facing backward—the rear of the vehicle; or

 (c) if the light is facing outwards from the side of the vehicle—that side of the vehicle.


 5.28 (5) When operating, each direction indicator light of one pair of lights fitted on or towards the front of a motor vehicle that is more than 7.5 metres long or a prime mover must be visible at any time at a point:

 (a) 1.5 metres at right angles away from the side of the vehicle on which the light is fitted; and

 (b) in line with the rear of the vehicle.

Division 12—Fog lights

Front fog lights

 5.29 (1) A pair of front fog lights may be fitted to a motor vehicle to project light in front of the vehicle.

 5.29 (2) If the lights are further than 400 millimetres from their respective sides of the vehicle, their centres must be at least 600 millimetres apart.

 5.29 (3) If the top of the fog light is higher than the top of any low-beam headlight on the vehicle, the centre of the fog light must not be higher than the centre of the low-beam headlight.

 5.29 (4) A front fog light must:

 (a) show white or yellow light; and

 (b) be a low-beam light; and

 (c) be capable of being switched on and off independently of any headlight; and

 (d) be fitted so that the light from it does not reflect off the vehicle into the driver’s eyes.

Rear fog lights

 5.30 (1) A vehicle may have fitted to its rear:

 (a) a pair of rear fog lights; or

 (b) one rear fog light fitted on, or to the right, of the centre of the vehicle.

 5.30 (2) A rear fog light must:

 (a) have its centre:

 (i) not more than 1.5 metres above ground level; and

 (ii) at least 100 millimetres from the centre of a brake light; and

 (b) project light behind the vehicle; and

 (c) show a red light; and

 (d) not use more power than 27 watts; and

 (e) have incorporated in its wiring an independent telltale located in the driver’s view showing when the light is switched on.

Division 13—Interior lights

Interior lights

 5.31 (1) A vehicle may be fitted with interior lights that illuminate any interior part of the vehicle.

 5.31 (2) An interior light must show only light necessary for its purpose.

Division 14—Reflectors generally

General requirements  for reflectors

 5.32 (1) A reflector fitted to a vehicle must show a red, yellow or white reflection of light when light is projected directly onto the reflector at night by a low-beam headlight that:

 (a) is 45 metres from the reflector; and

 (b) complies with these Standards.

 5.32 (2) The reflection must be clearly visible from the position of the headlight.

Division 15—Reflectors at the back of a vehicle

 

Rear reflectors

 5.33 (1) A vehicle, other than a pole-type trailer, must have towards each side of its rear a rear-facing red reflector.

 5.33 (2) A pole-type trailer must have at least 4 rear-facing red reflectors on its back cross-bar or bolster.

 5.33 (3) The centre of each reflector must  be:

 (a) at the same height above ground level; and

 (b) not more than 1.5 metres above ground level.

 5.33 (4) At least one point on a reflector must be no more than 400 millimetres from the nearest side of the vehicle.

 5.33 (5) A vehicle fitted with rear-facing red reflectors in accordance with subclause (1) or (2) may be fitted with additional red reflectors at any height above ground level or any distance from the side of the vehicle.

Division 16—Reflectors on the side of a vehicle

 

Compulsory side reflectors on pole-type trailers

 5.34 (1) Yellow or red side-facing reflectors must be fitted along the length of the left and right faces of the pole of a pole-type trailer at intervals of not more than 1.25 metres.

 5.34 (2) Additional side-facing reflectors may be fitted in accordance with clause 5.35 to a pole-type trailer.

Optional side-facing reflectors

 5.35 (1) A vehicle may be fitted with side-facing reflectors.

 5.35 (2) A side-facing reflector:

 (a) towards the front of the vehicle must be yellow or white; and

 (b) towards the rear of the vehicle must be yellow or red; and

 (c) on the central part of the vehicle must be yellow.

 

Division 17—Front reflectors

 

Compulsory front reflectors on trailers

 5.36 (1) A front-facing white or yellow reflector must be fitted towards each side of the front of:

 (a) a semi-trailer, other than a pole-type trailer; and

 (b) the front cross-bar or bolster of a pole-type trailer; and

 (c) a trailer that is at least 2.2 metres wide.

 5.36 (2) The centre of each reflector must  be:

 (a) at the same height above ground level; and

 (b) not more than 1.5 metres above ground level; and

 (c) not more than 400 millimetres from the nearer side of the vehicle.

 5.36 (3) Additional reflectors may be fitted in accordance with clause 5.37 to a trailer referred to in subclause (1).

 

Optional front reflectors

 5.37 (1) A vehicle may have one or more front-facing white or yellow reflectors fitted towards each side of its front.

 

 5.37 (2) The centres of the reflectors must be:

 (a) at the same height above ground level; and

 (b) equidistant from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle; and

 (c) at least 600 millimetres apart.

 

Division 18—Other lights, rear marking plates or reflectors

 

Additional lights and reflectors

 5.38 (1) A vehicle may display a light or reflector of a type that is not described in these Standards.

 

NOTE

The ADRs allow particular types of vehicles to be fitted with a range of lights and reflectors, additional to those described in this Part (e.g. flashing yellow lights on tow trucks).  Under clause 1.4 of these Standards, those lights and reflectors may also be fitted to vehicles to which third edition ADRs do not apply.

 5.38 (2) Subclause (1) does not allow the display on a vehicle of:

 (a) a light that flashes; or

 (b) a light or reflector that:

 (i) shows red light to the front; or

 (ii) shows white light to the rear; or

 (iii) is similar in size, colour and intensity to a traffic control signal; or

 (iv) is shaped or located in a way that reduces the effectiveness of a light or reflector that is specified by these Standards.

 5.38 (3) In spite of subclause (2), an emergency vehicle may have one or more:

 (a) lights that either flash, show red light to the front or both flash and show red light to the front; or

 (b) reflectors that:

 (i) show a reflection of red light to the front; or

 (ii) show a reflection of white light to the rear; or

 (iii) are similar in size, colour and intensity to a traffic control signal.

 5.38 (4) In spite of subclause (2), any of the following vehicles may display at least one light that flashes and shows yellow light in any direction:

 (a) a tow truck or motor breakdown service vehicle built or fitted for use at the scene of an accident or breakdown;

 (b) a vehicle built or fitted for use in a hazardous position on a road by a government or public authority;

 (c) a vehicle to which the Road Transport Reform (Oversize Vehicle Operations) Regulations apply;

 (d) a pilot vehicle built or fitted to escort a vehicle that is required by the Road Transport Reform (Oversize Vehicle Operations) Regulations to be escorted;

 (e) a bus that is required by an Act to display a sign with the words “School Bus”.

Rear marking plates

 5.39 (1) Rear marking plates must be fitted to:

 (a) a motor vehicle, other than a bus with specific provision for standing passengers, that has a GVM of more than 12 tonnes; or

 (b) a trailer that has a GTM of more than 10 tonnes;

  in accordance with clause 13.6.101 of third edition ADR 13/00.

 5.39 (2) Subclause (1) applies to a vehicle even though it was manufactured before the date specified in the ADR.

 

NOTE

Rear marking plates may be fitted to any motor vehicle that does not exceed 12 tonnes GVM or to any trailer that does not exceed 10 tonnes GVM.

 

 

An example of rear marking plates

 

 

An alternative pattern for rear marking plates

PART 6—BRAKING SYSTEMS

 

NOTE

This Part sets out the braking system requirements for vehicles to ensure that they can be reliably slowed even if a part of a braking system fails, and to ensure that a vehicle can be prevented from rolling away when parked.  The Part also includes special requirements for braking systems on B-doubles and road trains to ensure that the braking systems on the component vehicles are compatible.  The special requirements do not apply to a road train that has a length of 19 metres or less.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

ADR      emergency brake

air brake     prime mover

Australian Standard    road train

axle      semi-trailer

axle group     service brake

B-double     single axle group

braking system    spring brake

combination of vehicles   tandem axle group

converter dolly    tri-axle group

driver      vacuum brakes

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer

road

Division 1—Brake requirements for all vehicles

Parts of a braking system

 6.1 (1) Each component of the braking system of a vehicle must comply with the design and performance requirements of one relevant standard issued by one of the following bodies before these Regulations commenced:

 (a) the Council of the Standards Association of Australia;

 (b) the British Standards Institution;

 (c) the American Society of Automotive Engineers;

 (d) the American National Standards Institute;

 (e) the Japanese Standards Association;

 (f) the German Deutsches Institut für Normung;

 (g) the International Organisation for Standardisation.

 6.1 (2) A brake tube or hose fitted to a vehicle must:

 (a) be manufactured from a material appropriate to its intended use in the vehicle; and

 (b) be of adequate length to allow for the full range of steering and suspension movement of the vehicle to which it is attached; and

 (c) be fitted so as to prevent it being damaged by:

 (i) a source of heat from the normal operation of the vehicle; or

 (ii) any movement of the parts to which it is attached during the normal operation of the vehicle.

Provision for wear

 6.2 (1) The braking system of a vehicle must provide for adjustment to take account of normal wear.

Supply of air or vacuum to brakes

 6.3 (1) If air brakes are fitted to a vehicle:

 (a) the compressor that supplies the air to the brakes must be capable of building up air pressure to at least 80% of the governor cut-out pressure in not more than 5 minutes from a time when the compressed air reserve is fully depleted; and

 (b) the air storage tanks must have sufficient capacity to enable 5 applications of the service brakes before the air pressure drops below half the governor cut-out pressure; and

 (c) there must be an automatic or manual condensate drain valve at the lowest point of each air brake reservoir in the system; and

 (d) any spring brake fitted to the vehicle must not operate before the warning referred to in paragraph 6.7 (3) (b) or 6.10 (3) (b) has been given.

 6.3 (2) If vacuum brakes are fitted to a vehicle, the vacuum supply must be capable of building up vacuum:

 (a) within 30 seconds to the level at which the warning signal referred to in paragraph 6.7 (3) (b) or 6.10 (3) (a) no longer operates; and

 (b) within 60 seconds to the normal working level;

  from a time when the vacuum reserve is fully depleted.

Performance of braking systems

 6.4 (1) One sustained application of the brake must be able to produce the performance specified in subclause (2), (3) or (4):

 (a) when the motor vehicle or combination of vehicles is on a dry, smooth, level road surface, free from loose material; and

 (b) without part of the vehicle or combination of vehicles moving outside a straight path:

 (i) 3.7 metres wide; and

 (ii) centred on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle or combination before the brake was applied.

 6.4 (2) The braking system of a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles must bring the vehicle or combination from a speed of 35 kilometres an hour to a stop within:

 (a) 16.5 metres when the service brake is applied; or

 (b) 40.5 metres when the emergency brake is applied.

 6.4 (3) The braking system of a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles must decelerate the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle can travel, by an average of at least:

 (a) 2.8 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; or

 (b) 1.1 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.

 6.4 (4) The braking system of a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles must achieve a minimum peak deceleration of the vehicle or combination, from any speed at which the vehicle can travel, of:

 (a) 4.4 metres a second a second when the service brake is applied; or

 (b) 1.5 metres a second a second when the emergency brake is applied.

 6.4 (5) The parking brake of a vehicle or combination must be capable of holding the vehicle or combination stationary on a 12% upgrade or downgrade.

Division 2—Motor vehicle braking systems

What braking system must a motor vehicle have?

 6.5 (1) A motor vehicle must be fitted with a braking system that:

 (a) comprises brakes fitted to all wheels of the vehicle; and

 (b) has at least 2 separate methods of activation, arranged so that effective braking remains on at least 2 wheels if one method fails.

 6.5 (2) The braking system must have a service brake operating on all wheels that, when applied:

 (a) acts directly on the wheels and not through the vehicle’s transmission; or

 (b) acts on a shaft between a differential of a vehicle and a wheel.

 6.5 (3) The braking system must have a parking brake that:

 (a) is held in the applied position by direct mechanical action without the intervention of any hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic device; and

 (b) is fitted with a locking device capable of holding the brake in the applied position; and

 (c) has its own separate control.

 6.5 (4) The braking system must have an emergency brake.

 6.5 (5) The parking brake may also be the emergency brake.

Operation of brakes on motor vehicles

 6.6 (1) The braking system on a motor vehicle must be arranged to allow the driver of the motor vehicle to apply the brakes from a normal driving position.

Air or vacuum brakes on motor vehicles

 6.7 (1) If a motor vehicle has air brakes, its braking system must include at least one air storage tank.

 6.7 (2) If a motor vehicle has vacuum brakes, its braking system must include at least one vacuum tank.

 6.7 (3) An air storage tank or vacuum tank must:

 (a) be built to ensure that if:

 (i) the engine of the vehicle stops; or

 (ii) the source of air or vacuum fails;

  the service brake can be applied to meet the requirements of clause 6.4 at least twice; and

 (b) be built to provide a visible or audible warning to the driver, while in a normal driving position, of lack of air or vacuum that would prevent the service brake from performing at least twice as required by clause 6.4; and

 (c) be safeguarded by a check valve or other device against loss of air or vacuum if the supply fails or leaks.

 6.7 (4) If vacuum brakes or air brakes are fitted to a motor vehicle equipped to tow a trailer, the brakes of the motor vehicle must be able to stop it at the standard required for emergency brakes by clause 6.4, if a trailer breaks away.

 6.7 (5) The braking system of a motor vehicle equipped to tow a trailer fitted with air brakes must include protection against loss of supply line air or brake control signal air.

 6.7 (6) The protection must:

 (a) operate automatically if a brake supply line hose connecting the motor vehicle and a trailer fails; and

 (b) maintain enough air pressure to allow the brakes to be applied at the standard required for emergency brakes by clause 6.4; and

 (c) include a visible or audible warning to the driver.

Division 3—Trailer braking systems

What brakes must a trailer have?

 6.8 (1) A trailer, other than a semi-trailer or converter dolly, must have brakes that operate on at least 2 wheels at opposite ends of one or more axles of the trailer.

 6.8 (2) A semi-trailer or converter dolly must have brakes that operate on all its wheels.

Operation of brakes on a trailer

 6.9 (1) The braking system of a trailer must allow the driver of a motor vehicle to which the trailer is coupled to operate the brakes from a normal driving position.

 6.9 (2) The brakes on a trailer must:

 (a) operate automatically and promptly if the trailer breaks away from the towing vehicle; and

 (b) remain in operation for at least 15 minutes after a break-away; and

 (c) be able to hold the trailer on a 12% upgrade or downgrade while in operation after a break-away.

Air or vacuum brakes on a trailer

 6.10 (1) If a trailer has air brakes, its braking system must include at least one air storage tank.

 6.10 (2) If a trailer has vacuum brakes, its braking system must include at least one vacuum tank.

 6.10 (3) An air storage tank or vacuum tank must be:

 (a) built to provide a visible or audible warning to the driver of the towing vehicle, while the driver is in a normal driving position, of lack of air or vacuum that would prevent the brakes from performing as required by clause 6.4; and

 (b) safeguarded by a check valve or other device against loss of air or vacuum if the supply fails or leaks.

Division 4—Additional brake requirements for B-doubles and long road trains

Application to road trains more than 19 metres long

 6.11 (1) This Division does not apply to a road train that has a length of 19 metres or less, or a vehicle used in a road train of that length.

Braking system design for a prime mover in a B-double

 6.12 (1) A prime mover used in a Bdouble must meet the requirements of second edition ADR 35A or third edition ADR 35.

Braking system design for a motor vehicle in a road train

 6.13 (1) A motor vehicle that:

 (a) would not otherwise be required to comply with an ADR relating to braking; and

 (b) is used in a road train;

  must comply with the requirements specified in either second edition ADR 35A or third edition ADR 35 for the performance of the service brake system, the secondary brake system and the parking brake system.

Braking system design for a trailer in a B-double or a road train

 6.14 (1) A trailer that:

 (a) would not otherwise be required to comply with an ADR relating to braking; and

 (b) is used in a B-double or road train;

  must comply with the requirements specified in second edition ADR 38 or third edition ADR 38 for the performance of the service brake system, the emergency brake system and the parking brake system.

 6.14 (2) A road train trailer to which subclause (1) applies need not be fitted with a mechanical parking brake if it carries wheel chocks that provide a performance equivalent to the performance requirement specified in that subclause for a parking brake system.

Air brakes of a motor vehicle in a B-double or road train

 6.15 (1) If a B-double or road train is fitted with brakes that operate using compressed air, the braking system of the motor vehicle must meet the requirements in subclauses (2) and (3) when:

 (a) the pressure is measured in an 800 millilitre vessel connected by a 2 metre pipe with a bore of approximately 13 millimetres to the coupling head of the braking system; and

 (b) the initial air pressure is not less than:

 (i) the arithmetic average of the maximum and minimum pressures in the operating pressure range specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle; or

 (ii) if there is no manufacturer’s specification—650 kilopascals.

 

 6.15 (2) The pressure must reach at least 420 kilopascals within 400 milliseconds after the rapid and complete application of the foot-operated control of the braking system.

 6.15 (3) After the brakes have been fully applied, the pressure must fall within 500 milliseconds of the release of the foot-operated control to 35 kilopascals.

Air brakes in a B-double or road train: least favoured chamber

 6.16 (1) The pressure in the least favoured chamber of the braking system of a B-double or road train whose brakes operate using compressed air must meet the requirements of subclause (2) when the initial air pressure is not less than:

 (a) the arithmetic average of the maximum and minimum pressures in the operating pressure range specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle; or

 (b) if there is no manufacturer’s specification—650 kilopascals.

 6.16 (2) The pressure must reach at least 420 kilopascals within:

 (a) 1.0 seconds of the rapid and complete application of the foot-operated control on a B-double; or

 (b) 1.5 seconds of the rapid and complete application of the foot-operated control on a road train; and

 6.16 (3) After the brakes have been fully applied, the pressure must fall to 35 kilopascals or the pressure at which the friction surfaces cease to contact each other within:

 (a) 1.0 second of the release of the foot-operated brake control on a B-double; or

 (b) 1.5 seconds of the release of the foot-operated brake control on a road train.

 6.16 (4) In subclause (1), “least favoured chamber” means the brake chamber with the longest line to the treadle valve in the prime mover.

Recovery of air pressure for brakes in a B-double or road train

 6.17 (1) The air pressure in each air brake reservoir in a B-double or road train must recover to at least 420 kilopascals within one minute after 3 full brake applications have been made within a 10 second period if, before the 3 brake applications have been made:

 (a) the engine is running at maximum speed; and

 (b) the governor cut-in pressure is no higher than:

 (i) the pressure recommended by the manufacturer; or

 (ii) if there is no recommendation by the manufacturer—550 kilopascals; and

 (c) the initial air pressure in the storage tanks of the vehicles is not less than:

 (i) the arithmetic average of the maximum and minimum pressures in the operating pressure range specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle; or

 (ii) if there is no manufacturer’s specification—650 kilopascals.

Air supply for brakes in a B-double or road train

 6.18 (1) A B-double or road train that uses compressed air to operate accessories must have:

 (a) sufficient air compressor capacity and air receiver volume to ensure that the operation of the accessories does not adversely affect brake performance; and

 (b) a compressed air system built to ensure that the brake system is preferentially charged.

Brake line couplings

 6.19 (1) Brake line couplings on the same part of a vehicle in a B-double or road train must not be interchangeable.

 6.19 (2) The couplings must be polarised in accordance with Australian Standard AS D8-1971 “Hose Couplings for Use with Vacuum and Air-Pressure Braking Systems on Prime Movers, Trailers and Semi-trailers” if the hoses used with the brake couplings are used for the same purpose as the hoses described in the Australian Standard.

Simultaneous parking brake application

 6.20 (1) If the parking brake of a motor vehicle in a B-double or road train is applied, the parking brakes of any attached trailer must also be applied automatically.

Capacity of air reservoirs

 6.21 (1) The capacity of the air storage tanks of a motor vehicle used in a B-double or road train must be at least 12 times the volume of all the brake activation chambers on the motor vehicle.

 6.21 (2) The capacity of the air storage tanks of a trailer used in a B-double or road train must be at least 8 times the volume of all the brake activation chambers on the trailer.

Part 7—Fuel Systems, Noise and Emissions

 

NOTE

This Part sets out requirements to ensure that motor vehicles do not put out too much smoke or noise, and that exhaust gases cannot enter the passenger compartment of a vehicle.  It also deals with rules to ensure that LPG fuel systems are safely installed in vehicles, and that vehicles with LPG installed can be identified.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

Australian Standard    bus

 

The term “motor vehicle” is defined in section 4 of the Act.

Crank case gases

 7.1 (1) A motor vehicle that is:

 (a) manufactured after 1971; and

 (b) powered by a petrol engine;

  must be built or fitted to prevent crank case gases from escaping into the atmosphere.

Visible exhaust emissions

 7.2 (1) A motor vehicle propelled by an internal combustion engine must not emit visible exhaust emissions for a continuous period of 10 seconds or more.

 7.2 (2) Subclause (1) does not apply if the exhaust is visible only because of its heat, or the condensation of water vapour.

LPG-powered vehicles

 7.3 (1) A motor vehicle equipped to run on LPG must comply with:

 (a) the version of Australian Standard AS 1425 (relating to use of LPG in vehicles) that was current at the time the vehicle was first equipped to run on LPG; or

 (b) a later version of the Standard published before the commencement of these Regulations.

 7.3 (2) A vehicle equipped to run on LPG must have fixed conspicuously to the front and rear number plates a label that is:

 (a) made of durable material; and

 (b) at least 25 millimetres wide; and

 (c) at least 25 millimetres high; and

 (d) reflective red conforming to Australian Standard AS 17421975 “Manual of Uniform Traffic Control devices” Appendix C, Class 2; and

 (e) marked “LPGAS”, “LPG”, or with words or acronyms to similar effect, in upper-case letters at least 6 millimetres high.

 7.3 (3) In this clause, “LPG” means a liquid that is a mixture consisting largely of one or more of butanes, butenes, propane and propene.

 

NOTE

LPG is a commonly used name for liquefied petroleum gas.

 

Exhaust system

 7.4 (1) A motor vehicle propelled by an internal combustion engine must be fitted with an efficient silencing device through which all the exhaust from the engine passes.

 7.4 (2) The exhaust system of a motor vehicle must:

 (a) have any exposed section, except the outlet, shielded to prevent personal injury during normal operating conditions; and

 (b) not pass through the passenger or driving compartment.

 7.4 (3) The outlet of the exhaust system of a motor vehicle, other than a bus, must extend:

 (a) behind the back seat; and

 (b) at least 40 millimetres beyond the outermost joint of the floorpan that is not continuously welded or permanently sealed; and

 (c) to the widest perimeter of the vehicle, if:

 (i) the body of the vehicle is permanently enclosed; and

 (ii) the vehicle is not fitted with a vertical exhaust system; and

 (d) no further than the widest perimeter of the vehicle; and

 (e) either:

 (i) at least 150 millimetres above the cab, discharging above the horizontal and not to the left; or

 (ii) less than 750 millimetres above the ground, discharging horizontally or not more than 45 degrees downwards and not to the left.

 

 

 7.4 (4) The exhaust system of a bus must:

 (a) have its outlet as near as practicable to the rear of the vehicle; and

 (b) if the outlet pipe is vertical—discharge upwards or rearwards at an angle above the horizontal behind the passenger compartment; and

 (c) if the outlet pipe is not vertical:

 (i) discharge rearwards or to the right of the vehicle, horizontally or not more than 45  degrees downwards; and

 (ii) extend no further than the widest perimeter of the vehicle.

 

 

 

Bus exhaust outlet pipe

 

Part 8—Maximum Road Speed Limiting

 

NOTE

This Part requires various heavy vehicles built after 31 December 1987 but before 1 July 1991 to have a restricted top speed.  However, the Part exempts from being speed limited emergency vehicles and certain 2-axle prime movers owned by farmers and used in primary production.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

ADR      GVM

axle      owner

bus      prime mover

emergency vehicle    road train

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     road

Speed limiting

 8.1 (1) A bus with  a GVM of more than 14.5 tonnes that was manufactured after 31 December 1987 must comply with the technical requirements of ADR 65.

 8.1 (2) A prime mover with a GVM of more than 15 tonnes that was manufactured after 31 December 1987 must comply with the technical requirements of ADR 65.

 8.1 (3) For the purposes of the technical requirements of ADR 65, the maximum road speed capability of a motor vehicle used in a road train is 90 kilometres an hour.

 

NOTE

Vehicle Standards Bulletin 2 (VSB 2) contains the technical requirements of ADR 65.  The Bulletin is available from the Federal Office of Road Safety.

Exemptions from speed limiting

 8.2 (1) Clause 8.1 does not apply to:

 (a) an emergency vehicle; or

 (b) a bus with specific provision for standing passengers.

 8.2 (2) Subclause 8.1 (2) does not apply to a 2-axle prime mover if:

 (a) it was manufactured after 31 December 1987 but before 1 July 1991; and

 (b) its owner is a person who uses it for agriculture, horticulture, or other primary production activities (except forestry and mining).

Part 9—Mechanical Connections Between Vehicles

 

NOTE

This Part sets out various requirements to ensure that the couplings used when operating motor vehicles and trailers in combinations are strong enough to hold them together.  The requirements in this Part relating to mechanical connections between vehicles in a road train do not apply to a road train that has a length of 19 metres or less.

 

The following terms defined in clause 10.6 are used in this Part:

 

Australian Standard    pole-type trailer

axle      prime mover

axle group     rear overhang line

B-double     road train

centre of an axle group   semi-trailer

converter dolly    single axle

dog trailer     tow coupling overhang

drawbar      turntable

D-value      50 millimetre kingpin

fifth wheel coupling    75 millimetre kingpin

point of articulation    90 millimetre kingpin

 

The following terms defined in section 4 of the Act are used in this Part:

 

motor vehicle     trailer

 

Division 1—Couplings on all types of vehicles

General coupling requirements

 9.1 (1) A fifth wheel coupling, kingpin or the mating parts of a coupling must not be used for a load greater than the  manufacturer’s load rating.

 9.1 (2) A kingpin must be used only with a fifth wheel coupling that has a corresponding jaw size.

 

NOTE

For example, an adaptor is not to be used to fit a kingpin to a fifth wheel coupling.

 9.1 (3) The mating parts of a coupling used to connect a semi-trailer to a towing vehicle must not allow the semi-trailer to roll to an extent that makes the towing vehicle unstable.

Drawbar couplings

 9.2 (1) A coupling for attaching a trailer, other than a semi-trailer or pole-type trailer, to a towing vehicle must be built and fitted so that:

 (a) the coupling is equipped with a positive locking mechanism; and

 (b) the positive locking mechanism can be released regardless of the angle of the trailer to the towing vehicle.

Division 2—Additional coupling requirements for Bdoubles and long road trains

Application of Division to road trains

 9.3 (1) This Division does not apply to a vehicle, coupling or part of a coupling that is used in a road train that has a length of 19 metres or less.

Couplings for B-doubles and road trains

 9.4 (1) A fifth wheel coupling used to connect a towing vehicle to a semi-trailer used in a B-double or road train must not be built with a pivot that allows a semi-trailer to roll relative to the towing vehicle.

 9.4 (2) Subclause (1) does not apply to a fifth wheel coupling if:

 (a) the semi-trailer design requires torsional stresses to be minimised; and

 (b) the roll axis of the fifth wheel coupling is above the surface of the coupler plate; and

 (c) the degree of rotation allowed around the roll axis of the fifth wheel coupling is restricted to prevent roll instability.

 9.4 (3) A turntable used in a vehicle manufactured on or after the commencement of these Regulations that forms part of a B-double or road train must be marked with:

 (a) the name or trademark of the manufacturer; and

 (b) the D-value rating;

  of the turntable.

 9.4 (4) A trailer with only one axle group or a single axle (except a semi-trailer or a converter dolly) that is used in a road train must not have a coupling fitted at its rear.

Selection of fifth wheel couplings for B-doubles

 9.5 (1) A fifth wheel coupling used in a B-double must have a D-value of at least 107 kilonewtons (11.0 tonnes) in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”.

 

 9.5 (2) A turntable used in a B-double must have a D-value of at least 107 kilonewtons (11.0 tonnes) in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”.

 9.5 (3) A fifth wheel coupling used in a B-double that is built for a 50 millimetre or 90 millimetre kingpin must:

 (a) be built to meet the dimensional requirements in Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”; and

 (b) not be worn away more than is recommended by that Australian Standard.

 9.5 (4) A fifth wheel coupling used in a B-double that is built for a 75 millimetre kingpin must:

 (a) be compatible with the kingpin described in subclause 9.10 (4); and

 (b) not be worn away more than is specified in paragraphs 9.7 (1) (a) and (b).

Selection of fifth wheel couplings for road trains

 9.6 (1) A fifth wheel coupling used in a road train must:

 (a) be built for a 50 millimetre, 75 millimetre, or 90 millimetre kingpin; and

 (b) have a D-value of at least:

 (i) 140 kilonewtons (14.3 tonnes) for a prime mover; or

 (ii) 162 kilonewtons (16.5 tonnes) for a converter dolly;

  in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”.

 

 

 9.6 (2) A turntable used in a road train must have a D-value of at least 140 kilonewtons (14.3 tonnes) for a prime mover and 162 kilonewtons (16.5 tonnes) for a converter dolly, in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”.

 9.6 (3) A fifth wheel coupling used in a road train that is built for a 50 millimetre or 90 millimetre kingpin must meet the dimensional requirements in Australian  Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”.

 9.6 (4) A fifth wheel coupling used in a road train that is built for a 75 millimetre kingpin must be compatible with the kingpin described in subclause 9.10 (4).

Determining the D-value of a fifth wheel coupling

 9.7 (1) When testing a fifth wheel coupling built for a 75 millimetre kingpin used in a B-double or road train to determine whether its D-value meets the requirements of paragraph 9.6 (1) (b):

 (a) the closed jaw diameter must not wear more than 2.6 millimetres; and

 (b) the jaw thickness must not wear more than 3 millimetres.

Mounting of fifth wheel couplings on B-doubles and road trains

 9.8 (1) A fifth wheel coupling must be mounted on a prime mover or a semi-trailer used in a B-double or a road train in accordance with the requirements of Australian Standard AS 17711987 “Installation of Fifth Wheel and Turntable Assemblies”.

Branding of fifth wheel couplings on B-doubles and road trains

 9.9 (1) A fifth wheel coupling on a vehicle manufactured on or after 1 July 1991 forming part of a B-double or road train must be clearly and permanently marked in accordance with Australian Standard AS 1773-1990  “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies” with the:

 (a) the name or trademark of its manufacturer; and

 (b) its D-value rating; and

 (c) its nominal size.

Selection of kingpins for B-doubles and road trains

 9.10 (1) A kingpin used in a B-double must:

 (a) be a 50 millimetre, 75 millimetre or 90 millimetre kingpin; and

 (b) have a Dvalue of at least 107 kilonewtons (11.0 tonnes) in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Kingpins”.

 9.10 (2) A kingpin used in a road train must:

 (a) be a 50 millimetre, 75 millimetre or 90 millimetre kingpin; and

 (b) have a Dvalue of at least 162 kilonewtons (16.5 tonnes) in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Kingpins”.

 9.10 (3) A 50 millimetre or 90 millimetre kingpin used in a B-double or road train must:

 (a) be built to meet the dimensional requirements in Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Kingpins”; and

 (b) not be worn away more than is recommended by that Australian Standard.

 9.10 (4) A 75 millimetre kingpin used in a B-double or road train must:

 (a) be built to meet the dimensions in the essential diagram below; and

 (b) not be worn away more than is specified in paragraphs 9.10 (5) (a), (b) and (c).

 

 

Dimensions of a 75 millimetre kingpin

 9.10 (5) When testing a 75 millimetre kingpin described in the essential diagram in subclause (4) to determine whether its D-value meets the requirements of paragraph (1) (b) or (2) (b):

 (a) diameter F must not wear more than 3 millimetres; and

 (b) diameter G must not wear more than 2 millimetres; and

 (c) height H must not wear more than 2.3 millimetres.

Attachment of kingpins on B-doubles and road trains

 9.11 (1) A kingpin on a trailer used in a B-double or road train must be attached in accordance with:

 (a) the manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions; or

 (b) the guidelines detailed in Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Kingpins”.

Branding of kingpins on B-doubles and road trains

 9.12 (1) A kingpin used in a trailer manufactured on or after 1 July 1991 that forms part of a B-double or road train must be clearly and permanently marked on the lower circular face of the kingpin in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Kingpins” with:

 (a) the name or trademark of its manufacturer; and

 (b) its D-value rating; and

 (c) its nominal size.

Selection of couplings and drawbar eyes on road trains

 9.13 (1) A drawbar-type coupling or a drawbar eye used in a road train must:

 (a) be a 50 millimetre pin type; and

 (b) have a D-value of at least 186 kilonewtons (19.0 tonnes) in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2213-1984 “50mm Pin-Type Couplings and Drawbar Eyes for Trailers”; and

 (c) be built to the dimensions specified in that Australian Standard; and

 (d) not be worn away more than is recommended in that Australian Standard.

Attachment of couplings and drawbar eyes on road trains

 9.14 (1) A drawbar-type coupling or drawbar eye in a road train must be built and positioned so that:

 (a) when the road train is moving, the drawbar can move at least 15 degrees upwards or downwards from the position it occupies when the road train is parked on level ground; and

 (b) the pivot point of the coupling is not more than 300 millimetres forward of the rear of the trailer to which it is attached; and

 (c) it is at a height of at least 800 millimetres, but not more than 950 millimetres, when the road train is unloaded and parked on level ground.

Branding of couplings and drawbar eyes on road trains

 9.15 (1) A drawbar-type coupling or a drawbar eye on a vehicle manufactured on or after 1 July 1991 forming part of a road train must be clearly and permanently marked in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2213-1984 “50mm Pin-Type Couplings and Drawbar Eyes for Trailers” with:

 (a) the name or trademark of manufacturer; and

 (b) its D-value rating.

Tow coupling overhang on road trains

 9.16 (1) The tow coupling overhang of a motor vehicle, other than a prime mover, used in a road train must not be more than the greater of:

 (a) 30% of the distance from the centre of the front axle to the centre of the axle group or single axle at the rear of the vehicle; and

 

 (b) 2.7 metres:

 9.16 (2) The tow coupling overhang of a semi-trailer, or a dog trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly, used in a road train must not be more than 30% of the distance from the point of articulation to the centre of the axle group or single axle at the rear of the vehicle.

 9.16 (3) The tow coupling overhang of any other dog trailer used in a road train must not be more than 30% of the distance from the centre of the front axle group or single axle to the centre of the axle group or single axle at the rear of the vehicle.


PART 10—INTERPRETATION AND DEFINITIONS

Division 1—Interpretation of ADRs

Second edition ADRs

 10.1 (1) In these Standards, a reference to a second edition ADR is a reference to a standard contained in a document:

 (a) known as an Australian Design Rule; and

 (b) incorporated in a 3-volume book  entitled “Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicle Safety, Second Edition”, published by the Commonwealth Department of Transport;

  as in force immediately before these Standards commenced.

Third edition ADRs

 10.2 (1) In these Standards, a reference to a third edition ADR is a reference to a standard contained in a document:

 (a) known as an Australian Design Rule; and

 (b) incorporated in a book entitled “Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicles and Trailers, Third Edition, endorsed by the Australian Transport Advisory Council”, published by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Communications;

  as amended from time to time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE

 

The following table provides a comparative list of some technical terms used in these Standards and the third edition of the ADRs, for information.

 

 

Third Edition ADR

Heavy Vehicle Standards

 

Main-beam headlamp

High-beam headlight

 

Dipped-beam headlamp

Low-beam headlight

 

Front fog lamp

Front fog light

 

Reversing lamp

Reversing light

 

Direction indicator lamp

Direction indicator light

 

Stop lamp

Brake light

 

Rear registration plate lamp

Number plate light

 

Front position (side) lamp

Parking light

 

Rear position (side) lamp

Tail light

 

Rear fog lamp

Rear fog light

 

End-outline marker lamp

Front or rear clearance light

 

Rear reflex reflector, non-triangular

Rear reflector

 

 

 


 

NOTE—continued

 

The following table provides a comparative list of some technical terms used in these Standards and the third edition of the ADRs, for information.

 

 

Third Edition ADR

Heavy Vehicle Standards

 

Front reflex reflector, non-triangular

Front reflector

 

Side reflex reflector, non-triangular

Side reflector

 

External cabin lamp

External cabin light

 

Internal lamp

Interior light

 

Side marker lamp

Side marker light

 

Daytime running lamp

Daytime running light

 

Wheelguard

Mudguard

 

 

 

ADR transitional provisions

 10.3 (1) For the purposes of these Standards, if an ADR is the subject of a transitional provision in the book entitled “Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicles and Trailers, Third Edition, endorsed by the Australian Transport Advisory Council”, published by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Communications, as at the commencement of these Standards, the ADR has effect subject to the transitional provision.

 

NOTE

The transitional provisions in the third edition ADRs were introduced to enable vehicles that were approved under second edition ADRs before 1 July 1988 to continue to have compliance plates placed on them under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989.

Division 2—Miscellaneous

 

Measurement of distance between lines

 10.4 (1) In these Standards, a reference to a distance between 2 lines that are parallel means the distance measured at right angles between the lines.

 

Equipment of a vehicle

 10.5 (1) In these Standards, a reference to a vehicle includes its equipment.

 

Division 3—Definitions

 

NOTE

The Road Transport Reform (Vehicles and Traffic) Act 1993 defines the following terms in section 4:

“motor vehicle” means a vehicle that is built to be propelled by a motor that forms part of the vehicle;

“road” means an area that is open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as one of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles;

“trailer” means a vehicle that is built to be towed, or is towed, by a motor vehicle, but does not include a motor vehicle being towed.

The terms have the same meaning in these Standards as they have in the Act.

Definitions

 10.6 (1) In these Standards:

  “ADR” (Australian Design Rule) means a national standard under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989;

  “air brake” means an air-operated or air-assisted brake;

  “approved material” means material with characteristics equivalent to those of material specified in one of the following standards:

 (a) Australian Standard AS R1-1965 “Safety Glass for Land Transport”;

 (b) Australian Standard AS R1-1968 “Safety Glass for Land Transport”;

 (c) Australian Standard AS 2080-1977 “Safety Glass for Vehicles”;

 (d) British Standards Institution - BS 857:1967 “Specification for Safety Glass for Land Transport”, read with Amendments 1, 2, 3 and 4;

 (e) British Standards Institution - BS 5282:1975 “Road Vehicle Safety Glass”, read with Amendments 1 and 2;

 (f) Economic Commission for Europe - Regulation No. 43 “Uniform Provisions Concerning Approval of Safety Glazing and Glazing Materials for Installation on Power Driven Vehicles and their Trailers”;

 (g) British Standards Institution - BS AU178:1980 “Road Vehicle Safety Glass”;

 (h) Japanese Industrial Standard - JISR 3211-1979 “Safety Glasses for Road Vehicles”;

 (i) American National Standard - ANSIZ26.1-1980 “Safety Code for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways”;

  “articulated bus” means a bus:

 (a) consisting of at least 2 rigid sections with access between the sections for passengers; and

 (b) the sections of which are connected to each other so as to allow rotary movement between the sections;

  “Australian Standard” means a standard, approved for publication on behalf of the Council of the Standards Association of Australia, as in force at the commencement of these Standards;

  “axle” means one or more shafts positioned in a line across a vehicle, on which one or more wheels intended to support the vehicle turn;

  “axle group” means a single axle group, tandem axle group, twinsteer axle group, tri-axle group or quad-axle group;

  “B-double” means a combination of vehicles consisting of a prime mover towing 2 semi-trailers;

 

 

 

B-double

 

  “braking system” means all the brakes of a vehicle and all the components of the mechanisms by which they are operated;

  “bus” means a motor vehicle:

 (a) built mainly to carry people; and

 (b) that seats more than 9 adults (including the driver);

  “centre of an axle group” means:

 (a) a line located midway between the centre lines of the outermost axles of the group; or

 (b) if the group consists of 2 axles, one of which is fitted with twice the number of tyres as the other axle—a line located one third of the way from the centre line of the axle with more tyres towards the centre line of the axle with fewer tyres;

 

 

 

Centre of a tandem axle group fitted with an equal number of tyres on each axle

 

 

 

Centre of a tandem axle group fitted with a different number of tyres on each axle

 

 

 

Centre of a tri-axle group

 

 

 

Centre of a quad-axle group

 

  “combination of vehicles” means a motor vehicle connected to one or more trailers;

  “controlled access bus” means a bus, except an articulated bus, that is more than 12.5 metres long;

  “converter dolly” means a trailer with one axle group or single axle and a fifth wheel coupling, designed to convert a semi-trailer into a dog trailer;

 

 

 

Converter dolly

 

  “dog trailer” means a trailer (including a trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly) with:

 (a) one axle group or single axle at the front that is steered by connection to the towing vehicle by a drawbar; and

 (b) one axle group or single axle at the rear;

 

 

 

Dog trailer

 

  “drawbar” means a part of a trailer (other than a semi-trailer) that connects the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes;

  “driver” means the person driving or in control of a vehicle;

  “D-value” means the strength capacity of a connection device as defined in:

 (a) Australian Standard AS 1773-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - Fifth Wheel Assemblies”; or

 (b) Australian Standard AS 2213-1984 “50mm Pin-type Couplings and Drawbar Eyes for Trailers”; or

 (c) Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles - King Pins”;

  “emergency brake” means a brake designed to be used if a service brake fails;

  “emergency vehicle” means a motor vehicle authorised under the Road Transport Reform (Road Traffic) Regulations as an emergency vehicle for the purposes of those Regulations;

  “fifth wheel coupling” means a device, other than the upper rotating element and the kingpin (which are parts of a semi-trailer), used with a prime mover, semi-trailer or a converter dolly to permit quick coupling and uncoupling and to provide for articulation;

  “ground clearance” means the minimum distance to the ground from the underside of a vehicle excluding its tyres, wheels, wheel hubs, brake backing plates and flexible mudguards or mudflaps;

  “GTM” means the mass transmitted to the ground by the axles of a trailer when the trailer is loaded to its GVM and connected to a towing vehicle;

  “GVM” (gross vehicle mass) means the maximum loaded mass of a vehicle:

 (a) specified by the manufacturer; or

 (b) specified by the vehicle registration authority if:

 (i) the manufacturer has not specified a maximum loaded mass; or

 (ii) the manufacturer cannot be identified; or

 (iii) the vehicle has been modified to the extent that the manufacturer’s specification is no longer appropriate;

  “high-beam”, in relation to a headlight, means built or adjusted so that it is not in the low-beam position;

  “load-sharing suspension system” means an axle group suspension system that:

 (a) is built to divide the load between the tyres on the group so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if the load were divided equally; and

 (b) has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the group;

  “low-beam”, in relation to a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle, means built or adjusted so that, when the vehicle is standing on level ground, the top of the main beam of light projected is:

(a) not higher than the centre of the headlight or fog light, when measured at a point 8 metres in front of the vehicle; and

(b) not more than one metre higher than the level on which the motor vehicle is standing, when measured at a point 25 metres in front of the vehicle;

 

 

 

A headlight in the low-beam position

 

  “mudguard” means a fitting or device, with or without a mudflap, which is built and fitted to a vehicle in a way that will, as far as practicable, catch or deflect downwards any stone, mud, water or other substance thrown up by the rotation of the wheel for which the fitting or device is provided;

  “owner”, in relation to a vehicle, means:

 (a) a person in whose name the vehicle is registered under a Commonwealth, State or Territory Act; or

 (b) a person who, according to the vehicle registration authority’s records, has acquired the vehicle from the person in whose name the vehicle is registered under the relevant Act; or

 (c) if the vehicle is not registered—a person to whom a mark, plate, or permit has been issued to allow the vehicle to be used; or

 (d) a person who is entitled to the possession of the vehicle;

  “point of articulation” means:

 (a) the axis of a kingpin for a fifth wheel; or

 (b) the vertical axis of rotation of a fifth wheel coupling; or

 (c) the vertical axis of rotation of a turntable assembly; or

 (d) the vertical axis of rotation of the front axle group or single axle of a dog trailer;

 

 

 

Point of articulation—fifth wheel coupling on a converter dolly (forming the front axle group of a dog trailer)

 

 

 

Articulation—fifth wheel on a prime mover

 

 

 

Point of articulation—kingpin for fifth wheel

 

  “pole-type trailer” means a trailer that:

 (a) is attached to a towing vehicle by means of a pole or an attachment fitted to the pole; and

 (b) is ordinarily used for transporting loads, such as logs, pipes, structural members or other long objects, that are generally capable of supporting themselves like beams between supports;

 

 

 

Pole-type trailer

 

  “prime mover” means a motor vehicle built to tow a semi-trailer;

  “quad-axle group” means a group of 4 axles, in which the horizontal distance between the centre lines of the outermost axles is more than 3.2 metres but not more than 4.9 metres;

  “rear overhang” means the distance between the rear overhang line and the rear of the vehicle;

  “rear overhang line” means:

 (a) if there is a single axle at the rear of the vehicle—the centre line of the axle; or

 (b) if there is an axle group at the rear of the vehicle—the centre of the axle group, determined without regard to the presence of any steerable axle or retractable axle in the group unless all axles in the group are steerable or retractable;

 

 

 

Rear overhang and rear overhang line—vehicle with tri-axle group at rear

 

 

 

Rear overhang and rear overhang line—motor vehicle

 

 

Rear overhang and rear overhang line—semi-trailer

 

  “repeater horn” means a device which makes a sound alternating between different tones or frequencies on a regular time cycle;

  “retractable axle” means an axle with a means of adjustment enabling it to be raised or lowered relative to the other axles in the axle group;

  “road train” means a combination of vehicles, other than a B-double, consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least 2 trailers (counting as one trailer a converter dolly supporting a semi-trailer);

 

 

 

Road train

 

  “semi-trailer” means a trailer (including a pole-type trailer) that has:

 (a) one axle group or single axle towards the rear; and

 (b) a means of attachment to a prime mover that would result in some of the load being imposed on the prime mover;

 

  “service brake” means the brake normally used to decelerate a vehicle;

  “single axle” means an axle not forming part of an axle group;

  “single axle group” means a group of 2 or more axles, in which the horizontal distance between the centre lines of the outermost axles is less than 1 metre;

  “spring brake” means a brake using one or more springs to store the energy required to operate the brake;

  “tandem axle group” means a group of at least 2 axles, in which the horizontal distance between the centre lines of the outermost axles is at least 1 metre, but not more than 2 metres;

  “tow coupling overhang” means the horizontal distance from the centre of the axle group, or the centre line of the single axle, at the rear of a vehicle to the pivot point of the coupling near the rear of the vehicle;

 

 

 

Tow coupling overhang—semi-trailer with extra coupling at rear

 

 

Tow coupling overhang—motor vehicle

 

 

 

Tow coupling overhang—dog trailer

 

  “tri-axle group” means a group of at least 3 axles, in which the horizontal distance between the centre lines of the outermost axles is more than 2 metres, but not more than 3.2 metres;

  “turntable” means a bearing that is built to carry vertical and horizontal loads, but does not allow quick separation of its upper and lower rotating elements, and that is used to connect and allow articulation between:

 (a) a prime mover and semi-trailer; or

 (b) the steering axle or axle group of a dog trailer and the body of the trailer; or

 (c) a fifth wheel coupling and the vehicle to which it is mounted;

  “twinsteer axle group” means a group of 2 axles:

 (a) with single tyres; and

 (b) fitted to a motor vehicle; and

 (c) connected to the same steering mechanism; and

 (d) the horizontal distance between the centre lines of which is at least 1 metre, but not more than 2 metres;

 

 

 

Twinsteer axle group on a motor vehicle

 

  “vacuum brakes” means vacuum-operated or vacuum-assisted brakes;

 

 

  “vehicle registration authority”, in relation to a vehicle, means:

 (a) the authority that last registered the vehicle; or

 (b) if the vehicle has never been registered—the authority responsible for registering vehicles in the jurisdiction in which the vehicle is used or is intended to be used;

  “50 millimetre kingpin” means a kingpin meeting the dimension requirements for a 50 millimetre kingpin in Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles Kingpins”;

  “75 millimetre kingpin” means a kingpin with the dimensions specified in subclause 9.10 (4);

  “90 millimetre kingpin” means a kingpin meeting the dimension requirements for a 90 millimetre kingpin in Australian Standard AS 2175-1990 “Articulated Vehicles Kingpins”.

 

 

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NOTE

1. Notified in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette on 29 March 1995.