Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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This instrument amends the Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes to include Grey box-grey gum wet forest of subtropical eastern Australia in the Endangered category.
Administered by: Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water
Registered 10 Aug 2022
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR05-Sep-2022
Tabled Senate05-Sep-2022

Commonwealth of Australia coat of arms



Commonwealth of Australia


List of Threatened Ecological Communities Amendment (EC181) Instrument 2022



I, TANYA PLIBERSEK, Minister for the Environment and Water, pursuant to paragraph 184(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, amend the list referred to in section 181 of that Act by including in the list of threatened ecological communities in the endangered category:


Grey box-grey gum wet forest of subtropical eastern Australia


as described in the Schedule to this instrument.


This instrument commences the day after registration.




Tanya Plibersek


Tanya Plibersek

Minister for the Environment and Water




Dated..........5th August 2022......................................




Grey box-grey gum wet forest of subtropical eastern Australia

Grey box-grey gum wet forest of subtropical eastern Australia is an assemblage of native plants, animals and other organisms constituting at maturity a type of tall open forest with a canopy dominated by Eucalyptus species with or without Araucaria cunninghamii (Hoop Pine) and with an understorey that typically includes significant cover of species with drier vine-forest (rainforest) affiliations.

The canopy contains Eucalyptus moluccana (grey box) and/or a grey gum species (E. propinqua (small-fruited grey gum)) and/or less commonly E. punctata (grey gum)). Other canopy species often present include E. siderophloia (grey ironbark) and/or Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine). In some areas, any of these canopy species may be locally dominant. Other tree species occur in the canopy less frequently.

Understorey species composition is highly variable, however vine forest affiliated species frequently include the small to medium-sized trees Psydrax odorata (shiny-leaved canthium), Denhamia bilocularis (orange bark) and Cupaniopsis parvifolia (small-leaved tuckeroo), the shrubs Psychotria daphnoides (smooth psychotria) and Alyxia ruscifolia (chain-fruit), the vines and lianas Celastrus subspicatus (large-leaved staff vine), Solori involuta (native derris) and Maclura cochinchinensis (cock-spur), the grasses and sedges Gahnia aspera (sword sedge), Cyperus gracilis (slender flat-sedge) and Ottochloa gracillima (pademelon grass). Ferns such as Doodia aspera (rasp fern) and Pellaea falcata (sickle fern) also occur. Relatively shade tolerant grass species including Oplismenus spp. (basket grasses) are often present whilst relatively shade intolerant grasses may occur where sufficient sunlight reaches the ground naturally or following disturbance.


Following disturbance or other temporary or localised variations in environmental conditions there may be areas of the understorey dominated by open grassy forest affiliated species. Examples of grassy open forest affiliated taxa occurring in recently disturbed areas in the understorey include juveniles of Eucalyptus spp. (eucalypts),  Acacia spp. (wattles), Allocasuarina torulosa (forest she-oak), Dodonaea viscosa (sticky hop-bush), Leucopogon ericoides (heath-leaved beard-heath), Leucopogon juniperinus (prickly beard-heath), Imperata cylindrica (blady grass), Aristida gracilipes (three-awn spear-grass), Poa labillardierei (tussock grass), Cymbopogon refractus (barbed-wire grass) and Glycine clandestine (twining glycine).

The ecological community is found predominately on the escarpment slopes and foothills of inland hinterland ranges in the north coast region of New South Wales and in south eastern Queensland. It is typically associated with soils derived from fine-grained sedimentary or volcanic geologies but may occur on other substrates, especially where influence from these parent materials occurs. It is most common in localities where there is a mosaic of grassy eucalypt forests with drier vine-forest associations.

The ecological community also includes a variety of fauna species, including several species that are listed as threatened at a national or state level.