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Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument makes the National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii), a listed threatened species.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 07 Jun 2022

Commonwealth of Australia coat of arms

Commonwealth of Australia

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (Recovery PlanPolytelis swainsonii) Instrument 2022

 

I, Sussan Ley, Minister for the Environment, under subsection 269A(2) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), hereby make a recovery plan for the listed threatened species Polytelis swainsonii, entitled National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii).

The recovery plan will commence on the day after it is registered on the Federal Register of Legislation.

 

Dated this                 8th              day of              April 2022                

 

Sussan Ley

 

Sussan Ley

Minister for the Environment (Commonwealth)


Title page for the National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot Polytelis swainsonii


Publication and intellectual property information


Table of Contents

Contents


A picture of the Superb Parrot with a dedication to Rick Webster, who contributed significantly to the ecological knowledge and conservation of the Superb Parrot for over 30 years.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       C

SummarySuperb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii)
Family: Psittacidae
Current status of taxon:
•	Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth): Vulnerable
•	Nature Conservation Act 2014 (Australian Capital Territory): Vulnerable
•	Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 (New South Wales): Vulnerable
•	Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): Endangered
Description, distribution and habitat:
The Superb Parrot is a medium-sized (36–42 cm long; 133–157 g weight) slender, long- tailed green parrot. Adult males are bright green above and below, with a bright yellow forehead, throat and cheeks, and a narrow red band separating a yellow throat from a green breast. Adult females are entirely green, and somewhat duller than the males.
The core range of the Superb Parrot is west of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales from Canberra, Goulburn and as far west as Nyngan and Swan Hill. In Victoria, the species is largely confined to the Barmah Forest area with sightings south to Shepparton and east to Wangaratta, Chiltern and Corryong along the Murray River.
The Superb Parrot nests in loose colonies in large, living or dead trees with many hollow branches, typically near watercourses. On inland slopes, they use at least six species
of Eucalyptus (Webster, 1988), but have a particular reliance on Blakely’s Red Gum (Eucalyptus blakelyi) (Manning et al. 2006). Most nest sites are within 10 km of box-gum woodland and are sometimes within it (Manning et al. 2004). After breeding, Superb Parrots use a variety of woodlands and other habitat types (Webster 1988), including artificial habitats such as crops, urban parks and recreation reserves.
Recovery plan Vision, Objective and Strategies:
Long-term Vision
The Superb Parrot population has increased in size to such an extent that the species no longer qualifies for listing as threatened under any of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 listing criteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


By 2031, habitat critical to the survival of the Superb Parrot has been identified throughout the species’ range, and the extent, condition and connectivity of this habitat has been improved.
By 2031, conservation actions have been spatially prioritised to ensure the resilience of Superb Parrot populations under climate change.
By 2031, the impacts from anthropogenic threats have been reduced.
These objectives will be achieved by implementing the actions set out in this Recovery Plan that minimise threats while protecting and restoring the species’ habitat strategically across its range, adequately monitoring the species, generating new knowledge to guide recovery, and increasing public awareness.
Strategies to achieve objective
Identify, protect, manage and strategically restore Superb Parrot breeding, foraging and movement habitats, at the local, regional and landscape scales
Define, monitor, reduce and manage threats to the Superb Parrot at the local,
regional and landscape scales
Expand and sustain ecologically meaningful monitoring to track changes in Superb Parrot distribution, habitat use and population size, including developing and applying techniques to measure the success of recovery actions
Improve understanding of Superb Parrot movement ecology across multiple scales to better target protection and restoration measures
Engage local communities and stakeholders in Superb Parrot conservation Coordinate, review and report on Superb Parrot recovery progress
Criteria for success:
This recovery plan will be deemed successful if, by 2031, all of the following have been achieved:
•••1.2.3.4.5.
6.
•The Superb Parrot population (i.e. number of mature individuals) has increased from 2020 baseline counts, as a result of recovery actions and with adequate range-wide monitoring in place.
There has been an improvement in the quality and extent of Superb Parrot habitat throughout the species’ historical and future range.
Understanding of the species’ ecology has increased, in particular knowledge of movement patterns, habitat use, reproductive success, post-breeding dispersal and their respective regional drivers.
There is increased participation by key stakeholders and the public in recovery efforts and monitoring.
Efforts by all levels of government to improve the status of the Superb Parrot and its habitat are sustained.
••••Recovery team:
Recovery teams provide advice and assist in coordinating actions described in recovery plans. They include representatives from organisations with a direct interest in the recovery of the species, including those involved in funding and those participating in actions that support the recovery of the species. The National Superb Parrot Recovery Team has the responsibility of providing advice, coordinating and directing the implementation of the recovery actions outlined in this Recovery Plan. The membership of the Recovery Team includes individuals from relevant government agencies,
non-government organisations, industry groups and expertise from independent researchers and community groups.

 


Recovery Plan Objective


The review also concluded that all threats and threatening processes identified in the 2011 Recovery Plan continue to adversely affect the species across its range, some with increasing severity. Consequently, a decision was made that a new recovery plan should be developed for the Superb Parrot, with emphasis on extra protection and enhancement of habitat in the future predicted range, accounting for climate change impacts in future recovery planning.
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                                                                                                                                               Chapter 1

Introduction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investment towards restoring Superb Parrot habitat;
Increased understanding on the breeding and foraging ecology of the species;
Climate change identified as a serious emerging threat, as bioclimatic modelling projected significant contraction, and a south-eastward shift in the species range;
New evidence of extreme nest site limitation, which leads to intense competition for resources with other hollow-using species; and
New evidence of potential constraints on recruitment of young into the Superb Parrot breeding population.
This document constitutes the ‘National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii)’. The plan considers the conservation requirements of the species across their range and identifies the actions to be taken to ensure the species’ long-term viability in nature, and the parties that will undertake those actions. This recovery plan is the second national recovery plan for the species.
The Superb Parrot is listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The species is also listed as threatened under state legislation in all parts of its range. The Superb Parrot’s conservation status was reassessed in 2015/16 by the Australian Government’s Threatened Species Scientific Committee as a result of new information obtained since the species’ original listing in 2000 (Garnett et al. 2011). The Threatened Species Scientific Committee recommended that the Superb Parrot should remain listed as Vulnerable (Criterion 1: A4(a)(c)) under the EPBC Act. The Minister for the Environment approved the listing and conservation advice and was in effect from 2 May 2016.
The 2011 Recovery Plan was reviewed in 2020/21 by the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment with the support of the National Superb Parrot Recovery Team. The review concluded that the previous plan resulted in:


The implementation of new recovery actions contained in this recovery plan will have cross-cutting benefits for a wide range of other woodland bird species such as Painted Honeyeater (Grantiella picta), Regent Honeyeater (Anthochaera phrygia), Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) and several threatened ecological communities including Grassy Box Gum woodland.
Accompanying Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT) pages provide background information on the biology, population status and threats to the Superb Parrot. SPRAT pages are available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.
1.1 Conservation status
1.2 Taxonomy
The Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii) (Desmarest, 1826), is also known as Barraband's Parrot, Barraband's Parakeet, or Green Leek Parrot. The species was first described
by French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1826. The Superb Parrot is one of three species in the genus Polytelis of long-tailed parrots. Its closest relative is the Regent Parrot (P. anthopeplus).
1.3 Species description
The Superb Parrot is a medium-sized (36–42 cm long; 133–157 g weight) bright green parrot with long, graduated tail. Adult males are bright green with diagnostic bright yellow face sharply demarcated by bright red band across lower throat, a blue wash on the hind crown and nape, and blue outer tail feathers. Adult females are duller than males with pale bluish-green on face, red thighs, and grey undertail feathers with conspicuous rose-pink edges. Juvenile birds are similar to adult females, but with pale yellow bill rather than pink. Their calls are characterised by a prolonged warbling note terminating abruptly or rolling, grating currack currack (Higgins 1999; Menkhorst et al. 2017).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The Superb Parrot is listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act and threatened under state and territory legislation (Table 1) in all parts of its range.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1 National and state conservation status of superb parrot. The Superb Parrot is considered Vulnerable under the Commonwealth, ACT and NSW. The Superb Parrot is considered Endangered in VIC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1.4 Species distribution
The Superb Parrot is endemic to inland south-eastern Australia, where the core range is west of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales from Canberra, Goulburn
and as far west as Nyngan and Swan Hill (Figure 1). In Victoria, the species is now largely confined to the Barmah Forest area with sightings south to Shepparton and east to Wangaratta, Chiltern and Corryong along the Murray River. The Superb Parrot disappeared from central and southern Victoria in the early 1900s, and from most of
northern Victoria by 1930 (Webster & Ahern 1992) and is absent from large parts of the Riverina and northern Victoria that are climatically optimal (Manning et al. 2005).
There are three main breeding areas: an area of the south-west slopes bounded by Molong, Rye Park, Yass, Coolac, Cootamundra and Young (NSW); along the
Murrumbidgee River, between Wagga Wagga and Toganmain Station, and farther north at Goolgowi (NSW); and along the Murray and Edward Rivers, from east of Barmah
and Millewa State Forest to south of Taylors Bridge (NSW and Victoria) (Baker-Gabb 2011). Birds generally move away from their breeding habitat in mid-January (part of the population moves into the Boree (Acacia pendula) woodlands between the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers, but the distribution and habitat use of the other birds from mid-January to early April is unclear). They are rarely seen on the inland slopes during winter, most of the breeding population from there appears to move
to the eucalypt-pine woodlands in west-central and north-central New South Wales (Baker-Gabb 2011).
Local abundance outside the breeding season has a strong positive association with plant productivity, but this can vary from year to year. Therefore, a general winter movement into northern New South Wales is not necessarily a regular migration (Manning et al. 2007).
1.5 Population size and trends
The Superb Parrot population was estimated to be fewer than 5,000 wild breeding pairs in the 1990s (Higgins 1999). The population was revised to 6,500 mature individuals
in 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and in 2010 the population was revised to over 10,000 mature individuals with no evidence of continuing decline (Garnett et al. 2011). The most recent population estimate in the Action Plan for Australian Birds 2020 is 20,000 mature individuals (range 6,500 – 100,000), with a stable trend (low reliability; BirdLife Australia Threatened Species Committee 2021).
Recent survey data suggest ongoing decline of the wild population across a substantial portion their range (Ellis & Taylor 2014; BirdLife Australia 2015) but an increasing number of sightings in the ACT region (EPSDD 2019). This appears to be consistent with the projected contraction and south-eastward shift of their range as a response to climate change (Manning et al. in review).
 


1.6 Biology and ecology
 Breeding biology 
The Superb Parrot nests between September and December (Webster 1988, 1991, 1993), singly or in loose colonies of up to 15 pairs (Webster 1988; L Rayner unpublished data), usually with each pair occupying separate trees (Higgins 1999). During brooding the females do not leave the nest other than to be fed by the male (Forshaw & Cooper 1981). The Superb Parrot has a clutch size of 4 to 6 eggs, which hatch in around 22 days (Higgins 1999). Nestlings are fed by both parents until they fledge, which takes around 40 days after hatching (Forshaw & Cooper 1981). A generation time of 4.6 years has been estimated (Bird et al. 2020).
In the Riverina, the Superb Parrot nests in loose colonies in large, living or dead trees with many hollow branches, typically near watercourses. On the inland slopes, they use at least six species of eucalyptus (Webster 1988) but have a particular reliance on
Blakely’s Red Gum (Eucalyptus blakelyi) (Manning et al. 2006; Rayner et al. 2015b, 2016). An assumed reliance on White Box (E. albens) and Yellow Box (E. melliodora) (Webster 1988) remains unproven (Manning et al. 2006). Rayner et al. (2015b, 2016) also found Superb Parrot nests in Scribbly Gum (E. rossii). Most nest sites are within 10 km of
box-gum woodland and are sometimes within it (Manning et al. 2004), and parrots typically forage up to 9 km from their nest site (Rayner et al. 2015b). They also nest in semi-urban environments (e.g. Canberra, Orange) where woodland remnants containing large old trees have been retained. The same nest hollows are used in successive
years, often by the same pair, but not exclusively (Webster & Ahern 1992; Davey 1997; Manning et al. 2004; D Stojanovic unpublished data).
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 1 Map indicating Modelled distribution of the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The Superb Parrot nests in trees with an average diameter at breast height of 113 cm, and tree height that ranges from 12 to 24 m. In Canberra, the Superb Parrot selects for hollows with four specific traits: a minimum hollow entrance diameter of 8–12 cm, hollow depth of 59–122 cm, hollow floor diameter of 15–22 cm, and hollow branch
or stem diameter of 36–49 cm (Stojanovic et al. 2020). Detailed studies on hollow dimensions in other parts of the species’ range have not been conducted. However, nest tree species used across the range are similar (e.g. Manning et al. 2004), and most hollow characteristics recorded by Stojanovic et al. (2020) did not differ significantly between nest tree species.
The Superb Parrot’s seasonal movements are not fully understood. Most individuals move between breeding and non-breeding areas seasonally, although some remain in the breeding range throughout the year (Blakers et al. 1984; Webster 1988).
 Diet and foraging 
After breeding, the Superb Parrot uses a variety of woodlands and other habitat types (Webster 1988), including artificial habitats such as crops and recreation reserves. Individuals mostly feed on the ground, where they take a variety of native and introduced seeds, but also in shrubs and trees on seeds and blossom (Webster 1988). Their diet includes seeds of Wallaby-grass (Rytidosperma spp.), Barley-grass (Critesion spp.), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Oats (Avena sativa), numerous wattles
(e.g. Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata), Deane’s Wattle (Acacia deanei), and Gold Dust Wattle (Acacia acinacea), and Elms (Ulmus spp.). They also feed on flowers, nectar and fruits of eucalypts, mistletoe (e.g. Amyema miquelii and A. quandang), Dwarf Cherry (Exocarpos strictus) and Plums (Prunus spp.). Lerps from Eucalypt foliage is another component of their diet (Baker-Gabb 2011; EPSDD 2019).
1.7 Key Biodiversity Areas
The Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) programme aims to identify, map, monitor and conserve the critical sites for global biodiversity. This process is guided by a Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas, the KBA Standard (IUCN 2016). It establishes a consultative, science-based process for the identification of globally important sites for biodiversity worldwide. Sites qualify as KBAs of global importance
if they meet one or more of 11 criteria in five categories: threatened biodiversity; geographically restricted biodiversity; ecological integrity; biological processes; and, irreplaceability. The KBA criteria have quantitative thresholds and can be applied
to species and ecosystems in terrestrial, inland water and marine environments. These thresholds ensure that only those sites with significant populations of a species or extent of an ecosystem are identified as global KBAs. Species or ecosystems that are the basis for identifying a KBA are referred to as Trigger species.
The global KBA partnership supports nations to identify KBAs within their country by working with a range of governmental and non-governmental organisations, scientific species experts and conservation planners. Defining KBAs and their management within protected areas or through Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMS) will assist the Australian Government to meet its obligations to international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. KBAs are also integrated in industry standards such as those applied by the Forest Stewardship Council or the Equator Principles adopted by financial institutions to determine environmental risk in projects.
 


The initial identification of a site as a KBA is tenure-blind and unrelated to its legal status as it is determined primarily based on the distribution of one or more trigger species at the site. However, existing protected areas or other delineations such as military training areas or a commercial salt works will often inform the final KBA delineation, because KBAs are defined with site management in mind (KBA Standards and Appeals Committee 2019). In practice, if an existing protected area or other designation roughly matches a KBA, it will generally be used for delineating the KBA. Many KBAs overlap wholly with existing protected area boundaries, including sites designated under international conventions (e.g. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance and World Heritage) and areas protected at national and local levels (e.g. national parks, National Heritage places, Indigenous or community conserved areas). However, not all KBAs are protected areas and not all protected areas are KBAs. It is recognised that other management approaches may also be appropriate to safeguard KBAs. In fact, research from Australia and elsewhere
demonstrates the value of OECMS in conserving KBAs and their Trigger species (Donald et al. 2019a) if the site is managed appropriately. The identification of a site as a KBA highlights the sites exceptional status and critical importance on a global scale for the persistence of the biodiversity values for which it has been declared for (particular Trigger species or habitats) and implies that the site should be managed in ways that ensure the persistence of these elements. More information on KBAs is available at http://www.keybiodiversityareas.org/home.
The global KBA partnership recognises three KBAs as important for Superb Parrot conservation and to support the long-term persistence of the species. KBAs are also undergoing a regular revision to ensure that changes in IUCN red list status, taxonomic changes, local population trends as well as increased knowledge of the species are reflected accurately in the KBA network. As such, over time, additional KBAs may be recognised for their importance for Superb Parrot or new KBAs may be declared for this and other taxa. Detailed KBA Factsheets, including boundary maps, population estimates of trigger species and scientific references for these three areas (and other KBAs) are available from the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas (BirdLife International 2020). The three KBAs with Superb Parrot as one of their Trigger species were also recognised prior to the introduction of the KBA standard as Important Bird Areas
for the species in 2009 based on the BirdLife Australia analysis (Donald et al. 2019b). They include:
 Barmah-Millewa 
The KBA is defined by the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests of Barmah-Millewa with a 10 km buffer zone around it. With a total area of 2,635 km2, this is the largest River Red Gum forest in Australia, which includes the Barmah Forest in Victoria and the Millewa and Moira forests in NSW, all of which are listed Ramsar
sites. Floods of three to six months duration occurred about six-eight times each decade (during which time supports a large number of breeding waterbirds), which determine vegetation patterns, with rushes (Juncus spp.) and sedges (Eleocharis acutus) growing in the most frequently flooded areas, Moira Grass (Pseudoraphis spinescens) and Red Gums growing in the less frequently flooded areas, and Black Box (Eucalyptus largiflorens) communities in the least flooded areas.
 


 Murrumbidgee Red Gums 
This KBA has an area of 2,451 km2, consisting of two stretches of the Murrumbidgee River, one extending west from Wagga Wagga and the other centred on Darlington Point, south of Griffith. The Wagga Wagga part is about 60 km, from around Central Wagga Wagga downstream to around the west end of Berry Jerry State Forest. The Griffith
part is from Narrandera downstream to Cumbungi Creek and Lagoon, about 20 km downstream from Benerembah State Forest and also including Cuba, Wilbriggie and Yarradda State Forests. Both components of the KBA include a 10 km buffer zone on either side.
 South-west Slopes of New South Wales 
This area of 25,653 km2 has been identified as a KBA as it supports a significant wintering population of the Critically Endangered Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor), Vulnerable Painted Honeyeater (Grantiella picta), as well as containing the core distribution of the Superb Parrot. The KBA boundary has been drawn around the Superb Parrot’s core distribution and approximates to an 80 km-wide length of the inland slopes of the Great Dividing Range from Wagga Wagga to Orange, extending south-east through Boorowa and Yass to Queanbeyan, with an extension south to include the important Swift Parrot sites of Livingstone National Park, Tarcutta, Gundagai, Tumut and Adelong. Most of the area is highly modified wheat and sheep country with very little intact and extensive natural vegetation remnants. All agricultural land with scattered large trees
is considered potential habitat for the Superb Parrot. Further, this KBA also contains the majority of areas that are projected to become climatically optimal for the Superb Parrot in the future (Manning et al. in review).



1.8 Habitat critical to the survival of the Superb Parrot
Habitat critical to the survival of a species or ecological community refers to areas that are necessary:
For activities such as foraging, breeding, roosting, or dispersal;
For the long-term maintenance of the species or ecological community (including the maintenance of species essential to the survival of the species or ecological community, such as pollinators);
To maintain genetic diversity and long-term evolutionary potential; and
For the re-introduction of populations or recovery of the species or ecological community.
Such habitat may be, but is not limited to: habitat identified in a recovery plan for the species or ecological community as habitat critical for that species or ecological
community; and/or habitat listed on the Register of Critical Habitat maintained by the Minister under the EPBC Act.
Habitat critical to the survival of the Superb Parrots is divided into their breeding habitat, foraging habitat, and habitat for long-term maintenance of the species:
 Breeding habitat
Any potential nest trees with suitable hollows captured within a buffer zone (described above) should also be considered part of habitat critical to the survival.
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 Foraging habitat ,All preferred foraging habitat during both breeding and non-breeding season. For the purpose of this document, this does not include exotic feeding grounds such as agricultural lands and non-native feeding grounds (e.g. exotic street trees).
 Habitat for the long-term maintenance of the species. ,All KBAs with the Superb Parrot as a Trigger species.
Any potential suitable foraging and breeding habitats within the projected south- eastward range shift (Manning et al. in review).
 Key considerations in environmental impact assessments 
The Superb Parrot occurs across a large area of south-eastern Australia and is highly mobile. However, knowledge of their exact movements is not fully understood (EPSDD 2019). It has been suggested that seasonal movements are linked to plant
productivity (Manning et al. 2007), food supply (Baker-Gabb 2011) and drought impacts (Higgins 1999). With the projected contraction and shift in their range (Manning et al. in review), and the decreasing availability of breeding sites (i.e. tree hollows; see Threats), it is important when considering habitat critical to the survival of the Superb Parrot that all foraging, breeding, and future habitats listed above should be included.
Habitat critical to the survival of the species should not be destroyed or modified. Actions that have indirect impacts on habitat critical to the survival should be minimised and adequately mitigated (e.g. noise and light pollution). Actions that compromise
adult and juvenile survival should also be avoided, for example, the transmission and introduction of diseases, and actions that might increase predation threat from both native and introduced predators. Actions should not be assessed in isolation and consideration must be given to existing and future activities that may impact the species to ensure conservation outcomes on a landscape scale are achieved.
Actions that remove habitat critical to survival would likely interfere with the recovery of the Superb Parrot and reduce the area of occupancy of the species. It is important
to retain both breeding and foraging habitats described above. If removal of habitat critical to the survival cannot be avoided or mitigated, then an offset should be provided.
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2.2 Current threatening processes
The main threats to the survival of the Superb Parrot are limited nesting sites as a result of habitat loss, and increased competition for hollows with native and non-native species, which may be exacerbated by climate change. Other known or potential threats identified in this plan include collision with vehicles, illegal removal of wild birds, diseases, predation, and exposure to agricultural pesticides.
To ensure the conservation of Superb Parrots there is an urgent need to protect existing and potential breeding and foraging habitat throughout the species current and projected range. Improved knowledge of their seasonal movements between breeding, foraging and wintering habitat, including the interactive effects of climate change, is needed to implement effective management interventions in known and potential habitat.
2.2.1 Habitat loss and degradation
There has been widespread habitat loss across the species’ range, primarily involving the loss, fragmentation and degradation of box-dominated woodlands for agricultural and other human purposes (Webster 1988; Baker-Gabb 2011). The loss of woodland habitat adversely impacts Superb Parrot’s breeding, foraging and movement habitats.
Estimates suggest that in some parts of the range, such as the south western slopes of New South Wales, over 90 percent of the suitable habitat has been cleared with remaining patches occurring mostly along roadsides or in small scattered remnant patches on private land (Baker-Gabb 2011). The abundance of large hollow bearing
trees (i.e. their nesting sites) throughout production landscapes will continue to decline into the future unless urgent action is taken to legally secure their survival (Manning et al. 2013; Le Roux et al. 2014b). This is especially problematic as hollows take at least
120 years to develop in eucalypts, and trees with larger hollows used by Superb Parrots are likely to be over 220 years old (Gibbons & Lindenmayer 2002; Manning et al. 2004).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chapter 2

Threats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1Historical causes of decline

 

 

 

 

 

The past decline of the Superb Parrot was mainly due to the loss of a significant proportion of their breeding and foraging habitat due to the removal of box-woodlands throughout its range for agriculture and other human activities. This had an adverse effect on the population size and trend as the condition and connectivity of box-gum woodland communities supporting breeding colonies may influence the species’ breeding success (Leslie 2005). Consequently, their range has contracted significantly, and this is particularly evident in Victoria (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Baker-Gabb 2011).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Live nest trees are also threatened by harvesting in production forest and for firewood collection. Much of the remnant habitat is also degraded, with regeneration of nest trees prevented by overgrazing by stock and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and by inappropriate fire regimes (Webster & Ahern 1992; Baker-Gabb 2011) and lack of
eucalypt recruitment. Irrigation, drainage schemes and rising water tables also threaten habitat quality in some regions, especially in the Murrumbidgee and Murray valleys (Baker-Gabb 2011).
Habitat loss and degradation also occurs in urban landscapes where Superb Parrots breed, and is typically a result of urban sprawl. Le Roux et al. (2014a) compared the availability of habitat structures in urban landscapes around Canberra, highlighting the issue of limited potential habitats in urban greenspace, and the need for restoring key habitat structures in urban landscapes. Although nest boxes have been beneficial for some species (Griffith et al. 2008; Fay et al. 2019), recent studies suggested that in the case of the Superb Parrot, using nest boxes to compensate for the loss of hollows might not be straightforward (Le Roux et al. 2016; Lindenmayer et al. 2016, 2017; Forbes et al. 2018) as they mostly benefit already common or pest species, rather than targeted threatened species (Grarock et al. 2013; Lindenmayer et al. 2016, 2017).
Furthermore, Le Roux et al. (2016) observed that nest boxes only increased visit rate to large trees but not small or medium trees, suggesting that the resources and certain habitat attributes provided by large trees simply cannot be mimicked, re-enforcing the importance of large hollow-bearing trees (also see Le Roux et al. 2015). Future nest box projects may be more effective if tailored to the preferences and needs of the Superb Parrot (Goldingay & Stevens 2009; Forbes et al. 2018; for specific hollow characteristics see 2.2.3 Competition for nest hollows). An emerging alternative to nest boxes is mechanically created artificial hollows, however, further research is required to determine the practicality and effectiveness of this method (Rueegger 2017).
2.2.2 Climate variability and change
Bioclimatic modelling has shown that the Superb Parrot is highly sensitive to climate change (Manning et al. in review). Recent modelling using the BIOCLIM species distribution model (Nix 1986; Busby 1991; Nix & Switzer 1991; Xu & Hutchinson 2013) has shown the bioclimatic range of the Superb Parrot will decline by around 47 percent by 2050 and by 75 percent by 2070. The future bioclimatic core range of the Superb Parrot will likely centre around the ACT region and to the immediate north. This has implications for long-term Superb Parrot conservation as this area is already highly modified and other work (Manning et al. 2013) has demonstrated that nest trees are continuing to decline in this region and that, under a ‘business as usual’ greenhouse gas emissions scenario, are likely to decline by a further 38 percent from current levels by 2050 (Manning et al. 2013; Manning et al. in review).
Average temperatures in Australia have increased by just over 1°C in the past century (BOM & CSIRO 2020), and globally are expected to rise up to another 2°C by 2050 (IPCC 2018). More frequent and extreme heatwaves are expected across Australia (BOM & CSIRO 2020). Rainfall patterns may also vary regionally under the changing climate (Evans et al. 2017; BOM & CSIRO 2020). Climate change is increasing the likelihood of extreme events such as wildfire, drought and heatwave (BOM & CSIRO 2020), and these may have detrimental impacts on the Superb Parrot and its habitat.
 


2.2.3 Competition for nest hollows
Superb Parrot monitoring conducted in Canberra since 2015 (ongoing) has provided insights into nest site characteristics of the local breeding population (Rayner et al. 2015b, 2016; Stojanovic et al. 2020). The Superb Parrot prefer nest trees previously occupied by Superb Parrots, therefore the loss of known nest trees has a detrimental impact on local populations and their breeding success.
Stojanovic et al. (2020) estimated that only 0.5 percent of available hollows, or 2 percent of available trees are suitable nest sites for Superb Parrots. With such limited availability of nest sites, competition with other hollow-using species may arise due to a decrease
in available hollows (see 2.2.1 Habitat loss and degradation) and/or an increase in competitors. Competitors include both introduced species, and native species that have increased in abundance due to habitat alteration. The most common visitors recorded by Rayner et al. (2015b, 2016; also see Webster 1988) were the Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita), Eastern Rosella (Platycercus eximius), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), Galah (Eolophus roseicapilla), Little Corella (Cacatua sanguinea) and Long-billed Corella (Cacatua tenuirostris). Competitive interactions occurred most frequently and intensely between the Superb Parrot and Crimson or Eastern Rosella (Rayner et al. 2015b, 2016).
Further, non-native competitors (Common Starling and Common Myna) have been observed removing Superb Parrot eggs from active nests. There are also anecdotal reports of feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) occupying Superb Parrot nesting hollows, although the significance and level of impact on the species is not known (Baker-Gabb 2011).
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

 

 

 


2.2.4 Wind farm operation and other energy infrastructure
With the push for renewable energy in recent years, an emerging threat for the Superb Parrot is the development of energy infrastructure such as wind and solar
farms. The development of this type of infrastructure may have both direct (e.g. loss of breeding and foraging habitat due to clearing for infrastructure, and post-construction collision with wind turbines) and indirect (e.g. habitat fragmentation, habitat avoidance in proximity to turbine site) impacts on a range of bird species (Smith & Dwyer 2016), which may potentially include the Superb Parrot. The risk and extent of the threat is variable depending on the species (Smales 2006; Hull et al. 2013), however, impacts such as habitat clearance as a result of these developments is avoidable with careful planning and mitigation.
The New South Wales Electricity Strategy foresees the development of three Renewable Energy Zones (REZ; NSW Government 2019), which will result in an increase in number and density of energy infrastructure within the range of the Superb Parrots. Two of the three proposed zones overlap with the core range of the species, and border (potentially overlap) with some KBAs identified in this plan (see Key Biodiversity Areas). The issue of renewable energy development overlapping with KBAs is increasingly becoming a threat globally (Rehbein et al. 2020).
2.2.5 Expanding suburban development and human disturbance
Impacts of urban development may increase with proximity to the urban boundary (e.g. Rayner et al. 2015a), which may play a role in the shifting range and distribution of the Superb Parrot. For example, in Canberra, Superb Parrots discontinued their use of some known nest trees located within 200 m of a new urban boundary (EPSDD 2019). Development in the south-east region intersects with the predicted bioclimatic range shift of the species, potentially impacting future refuge areas and therefore impeding
conservation efforts. Furthermore, increased human activity and disturbance may have significant impact on the breeding behaviour of the Superb Parrot (Baker-Gabb 2011), which may adversely affect individuals’ reproductive success.
2.2.6 Road kill
Superb Parrots are often killed in collisions with vehicles as they frequently use remnant habitat and feed plants found along roadsides. The impacts of this are compounded in rural areas during summer grain harvest time due to the propensity for the parrots
to feed in flocks on the ground on spilled grain on regional roads. In these instances, many individuals may be killed in a single incident (Baker-Gabb 2011; Rees 2016).
 



2.2.7 Other potential threatening process
 Exposure to high levels of agricultural pesticides 
Poison used for pest control, and pesticides used for crop management are potential threats to the Superb Parrot (Baker-Gabb 2011). In some regions of the Superb Parrot’s range, some birds forage extensively on crops across heavily cleared agricultural landscapes (Manning & Lindenmayer 2009), this may pose a chemical exposure
threat to birds in those areas, potentially increasing mortality and decreasing reproductive success.
An emerging example is Carnaby’s Cockatoo (Zanda latirostris) in Western Australia, another threatened parrot which increasingly utilises agricultural crops as an alternate food source. Le Souëf et al. (2020) suggested that an emerging disease in Carnaby’s Cockatoo, hindlimb paralysis syndrome, may be caused by the ingestion of organophosphate. However, the extent or actual impact of this threat to other parrots, such as the Superb Parrot, are unknown.
 Predation 
Predation of nestlings and adults by introduced predators has been identified as a minor threat, the ground foraging behaviour makes the Superb Parrot especially vulnerable.
However, predation of Superb Parrot adults by feral cats, foxes and dogs has not been studied (EPSDD 2019).
 Illegal harvest for pet trade 
There are many wild caught birds held in captivity in Australia (Garnett 1992). Although accurate estimates are not available, it is believed that in the past many thousands of wild caught birds have illegally entered the aviculture trade (Baker-Gabb 2011). The impact of this threat remains unclear (EPSDD 2019).
 Diseases and health conditions 
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) is a potentially fatal disease caused by Psittacine Circovirus (DEH 2005; Department of the Environment 2015; DEE 2016). Psittacine Circovirus is typically transferred between adults and nestlings. The ongoing loss of nest hollows is likely to intensify competition and use of nest trees, and thus may increase the likelihood of transmission of the virus. Other diseases, parasites, and health conditions (e.g. leg paralysis) may also be a threat to Superb Parrots, however, the extent of the threat is unknown.
Three higher-risk native animal diseases listed in the National Priority List of Exotic Environmental Pests, Weeds and Diseases may be a potential threat to native psittacine bird species: West Nile virus disease; Pacheco’s disease and Internal papillomatosis disease; and Proventricular dilatation disease. Although the threat to Superb Parrot is currently very low (DAWE 2020), outbreaks of exotic diseases from captive or imported birds is a potential threat.


 Illegal shooting 
Infrequent and unquantified reports of Superb Parrots being shot in cherry orchards and other fruit crops are still received by government agencies, although many crops are now netted for protection from hail and birds. The scale of contemporary shooting of Superb Parrots is poorly known but may still be a threat to the species’ survival.
2.3 Threat prioritisation
Each of the threats outlined above has been assessed to determine the risk posed to the Superb Parrot population using a risk matrix. This, in turn, determines the priority for actions outlined below. The risk matrix considers the likelihood of an incident occurring and the consequences of that incident. Threats may act differently in different parts
of the species range and at different times of year, but the precautionary principle dictates that the threat category is determined by the subpopulation at highest risk. Population-wide threats are generally considered to present a higher risk.
The risk matrix uses a qualitative assessment drawing on peer reviewed literature and expert opinion. In some cases, the consequences of activities are unknown. In these cases, the precautionary principle has been applied, and consequences are assumed to be of the greatest plausible severity. Levels of risk and the associated priority for action are defined as follows:
Very High – immediate mitigation action required
High – mitigation action and an adaptive management plan required, the precautionary principle should be applied
Moderate – obtain additional information and develop mitigation action if required
Low – monitor the threat occurrence and reassess threat level if likelihood or consequences change
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Table 2 indicating the Risk prioritisation by likelihood of occurrence and consequences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Categories for likelihood are defined as follows:
Almost certain – expected to occur every year
Likely – expected to occur at least once every five years
Possible – might occur at some time
Unlikely – such events are known to have occurred on a worldwide basis but only a few times
Rare or Unknown – may occur only in exceptional circumstances; OR it is currently unknown how often the incident will occur
Categories for consequences are defined as follows:
Not significant – no long-term effect on individuals or populations
Minor – individuals are adversely affected but no effect at population level
Moderate – population recovery stalls or reduces
Major – population decreases
Catastrophic – population extinction
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Table 3 indicating the Superb Parrot risk matrix by likelihood of occurrence and consequences

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Populations Under  

Particular Pressure

 

The main threats of habitat loss, increased competition for nest hollows, and anthropogenic threats impact the Superb Parrot across its range. Furthermore, modelling has shown that the Superb Parrot is highly sensitive to climate change, with a south-eastward shift and contraction of their core range projected (Manning et al. in review).
The species should be considered as one population when planning for any management interventions. The actions described in this recovery plan are designed to provide ongoing protection for Superb Parrot throughout its current and projected range.

 

 

An image of two Superb Parrots embracing on a tree branch.


Identify, protect, manage and strategically restore Superb Parrot breeding, foraging and movement habitats, at the local, regional and landscape scales
Define, monitor, reduce and manage threats to the Superb Parrot at the local,
regional and landscape scales
Expand and sustain ecologically meaningful monitoring to track changes in Superb Parrot distribution, habitat use and population size, including developing and applying techniques to measure the success of recovery actions
Improve understanding of Superb Parrot movement ecology across multiple scales to better target protection and restoration measures
Engage local communities and stakeholders in Superb Parrot conservation Coordinate, review and report on Superb Parrot recovery progress
1.2.3.4.5.
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                                               Chapter 4

Recovery Plan Vision, Objectives and Strategies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term Vision
The Superb Parrot population has increased in size to such an extent that the species no longer qualifies for listing as threatened under any of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 listing criteria.
Recovery Plan Objectives
By 2031, habitat critical to the survival of the Superb Parrot has been identified throughout the species’ range, and the extent, condition and connectivity of this habitat has been improved.
By 2031, conservation actions have been spatially prioritised to ensure the resilience of Superb Parrot populations under climate change.
By 2031, the impacts from anthropogenic threats have been reduced.
These objectives will be achieved by implementing the actions set out in this Recovery Plan that minimise threats while protecting and restoring the species’ habitat strategically across its range, adequately monitoring the species, generating new knowledge to guide recovery, and increasing public awareness.
Strategies to achieve objective

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Priority 1: The action is necessary in order to mitigate the key threats to the Superb Parrot and also provide valuable information to help identify long-term population trends.
The action would provide a more informed basis for the long-term management and recovery of the Superb Parrot.
The action is desirable, but not critical to the recovery of the Superb Parrot or assessment of trends in that recovery.
Priority 2:
Priority 3:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chapter 5

Actions to Achieve the

 Specific Objectives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Actions identified for the recovery of Superb Parrot are described below. It should be noted that some of the objectives are long-term and may not be achieved prior to the scheduled five-year review of the Recovery Plan. Priorities assigned to actions should be interpreted as follows:

Table of Strategy 1 which seeks to identify, protect, manage and strategically restore Superb Parrot breeding, foraging and movement habitats at the local, regional and landscape scales


 

Table of Strategy 1 which seeks to identify, protect, manage and strategically restore Superb Parrot breeding, foraging and movement habitats at the local, regional and landscape scales (continued)


Table for Strategy 2 which seeks to define, monitor, reduce and manage threats to the Superb Parrot at the local, regional and landscape scales


Table for Strategy 2 to define, monitor, reduce and manage threats to the Superb Parrot at the local, regional and landscape scales (continued)


Table for Strategy 2 to define, monitor, reduce and manage threats to the Superb Parrot at the local, regional and landscape scales (continued)


 

Table for Strategy 3 which seeks to Expand and sustain ecologically meaningful monitoring to track changes in Superb Parrot distribution, habitat use and population size, including developing and applying techniques to measure the success of recovery actions


Table for Strategy 4 which seeks to improve understanding of Superb Parrot movement ecology across multiple scales to better target protection and restoration measures


 

Table for Strategy 5 which seeks to engage local communities and stakeholders in Superb Parrot conservation


 

Table for Strategy 5 which seeks to engage local communities and stakeholders in Superb Parrot conservation (continued)


Table for Strategy 6 which seeks to coordinate, review and report on Superb Parrot recovery progress


It is anticipated that the recovery process will not be achieved prior to the scheduled five-year review of the recovery plan. The cost of implementation of this plan should be incorporated into the core business expenditure of the affected organisations and
through additional funds obtained for the explicit purpose of implementing this recovery plan. It is expected that state, territory and Commonwealth agencies will use this plan
to prioritise actions to protect the species and enhance their recovery, and that projects will be undertaken according to agency priorities and available resources. All actions are considered important steps towards ensuring the long-term survival of the species.

 

 

 

 


Chapter 6

Duration and cost of the

recovery process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4 Summary of recovery actions and estimated costs in for the first five years of implementation (these estimated costs do not take into account inflation over time)

Description automatically generated


The protection and restoration of Superb Parrot habitat will help many other listed threatened woodland bird species with similar distribution and habitat use, such as the Critically Endangered Regent Honeyeater (Anthochaera phrygia) and Swift
Parrot (Lathamus discolor), and the Vulnerable Painted Honeyeater (Grantiella picta). Many other mammals, invertebrates and plants will also benefit due to measures put in place to protect and restore Superb Parrot habitat.
Threatened Ecological Communities listed under the EPBC Act, and at the state level, that are of importance to the Superb Parrot will also benefit from increased efforts to protect and restore Superb Parrot habitat.

 

 


Chapter 7

Effects on other native species and biodiversity benefits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An image containing baby Superb Parrots nestled in the hands of an individual.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               Chapter 8

Social and economic

Considerations

 

The main social and economic impacts of this recovery plan will be on those who require approval to remove or modify Superb Parrot habitat and are prevented from doing
so, or are required to modify their proposal by a consent authority. This may include increased costs due to the assessment processes, requirement to provide offset funding, to secure or rehabilitate habitat, or for other threat mitigation work. Restrictions on further clearing of Superb Parrot habitat may impact some landowners, managers and developers. These restrictions may not significantly impact agricultural industries since many of the more fertile areas are already cleared and the remaining forest communities are generally located on less fertile soils and are, therefore, relatively less attractive for grazing or cropping.
Landholders may be eligible for various government grants and funding programs that support threatened species. Landholders may also be provided with opportunities to participate in a range of conservation programs that benefit a wide range of threatened species. These may include covenanting programs to protect habitat critical to the survival of the species, incentive or stewardship programs to restore or maintain
high quality foraging or breeding habitat for the species, and other offset-related opportunities to be involved in conservation management on their land.
A large network of community volunteers across eastern Australia actively participate in BirdLife Australia’s coordinated surveys for woodland birds. Involvement can provide social benefits with community members and engaged groups having a sense of achievement, inclusion, community spirit and pride whilst gaining enjoyment, knowledge and appreciation of their surrounding natural environment. The community education components of the program also promote community ownership, provide community support and encourage active involvement in protecting local natural resources. Furthermore, bird watching is a major recreational pursuit across Australia. Therefore, the conservation of bird communities enhances the lifestyle of Australians and provides ecotourism opportunities.
Native vegetation protection and restoration efforts for the conservation of the Superb Parrot may achieve measurable benefits for sustainable agriculture through provision of shade and shelter for livestock, improved soil integrity and health, and aesthetic improvements that contribute to landholder and general community health and wellbeing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                               Chapter 9

Affected interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organisations and individuals likely to be affected by the actions proposed in this plan include government agencies (Commonwealth, state and territory, local), particularly those involved with woodland and forest environments and conservation programs; private landholders; Indigenous Traditional Owners and land management groups (including ranger programmes); researchers; bird watching groups; conservation groups; wildlife interest groups; camping, 4WD and fishing groups; environmental consulting companies; tourism operators; industry and commercial bodies; and, proponents of agricultural development in the vicinity of important habitat.
However, this list should not be considered exhaustive, as there may be other interest groups that may like to be included in the future or need to be considered when specialised tasks are required.
The following table lists some of the interest groups, how they could contribute to the success of the plan and the potential benefits/impacts that may emerge from the Plan’s implementation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Table 5 Affected interests and their contribution to the Recovery Plan


 

Table 5 detailing Affected interests and their contribution to the Recovery Plan (continued)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               Chapter 10

Consultation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot has been developed through extensive consultation with a broad range of stakeholders. The consultation process brought together key species experts and conservation managers, from a range of different organisations, to categorise ongoing threats to the Superb Parrot, and identify knowledge gaps and potential management options. During the drafting of the plan, the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment (Cwlth) continued to work closely with key stakeholders including representatives from government agencies, non-government organisations and researchers.
The National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot was also published online for a three-month consultation period, from 21 April to 30 July 2021 during which time
submissions were invited from all members of the public, any comments received that were relevant to the survival of the species were considered by the Threatened Species Scientific Committee as part of its assessment process.


Whether the plan continues unchanged, is varied to remove completed actions, or varied to include new conservation priorities; or
Whether a recovery plan remains necessary for the species, which may be because
a conservation advice will suffice, or the species can be removed from the threatened
species list.
As part of this review, the listing status of the species will be assessed against the EPBC Act species listing criteria.
The review will be coordinated by the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment in association with relevant Australian and state government agencies and key stakeholder groups such as non-governmental organisations, local community groups and scientific research organisations.
Key stakeholders who may be involved in the review of the performance of the National Recovery Plan for the Superb Parrot include organisations likely to be affected by the actions proposed in this plan and are expected to include:
 Australian Government 
•	Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
 State/territory governments
Australian Capital Territory – Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate
New South Wales – Department of Planning, Industry and Environment Victoria – Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning Natural resource management bodies
Local government
•••••
•
•
•

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                                                                                                                                               Chapter 11

Organisations/persons involved

in evaluating the performance of the plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This plan should be reviewed no later than five years from when it was endorsed and made publicly available. The review will determine the performance of the plan and assess:


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An image of a Superb Parrot perched on a branch Non-government organisations •
•
•
•
•
•
Superb Parrot Recovery Team Conservation groups
Local communities Academic institutions Private landholders
Indigenous communities


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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BIO785.0921