Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Cape Byron Lighthouse Heritage Management Plan 2020

Authoritative Version
Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides a heritage management plan for the Cape Byron lighthouse.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 01 Oct 2020
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR06-Oct-2020
Tabled Senate06-Oct-2020

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

The Australian Maritime Safety Authority, acting pursuant to Schedule 7A of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations (2000), makes this heritage management plan in relation to parts of the Cape Byron Lighthouse within its ownership or control.

 

 

this 4th day of September 2020

 

 

Mick Kinley

Chief Executive Officer

 

 

 


Copyright

The Australian Maritime Safety Authority encourages the dissemination and exchange of information provided in this publication.

Except as otherwise specified, all material presented in this publication is provided under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence.

This excludes:

  the Commonwealth Coat of Arms

  this department’s logo

  content supplied by third parties.

The Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence is a standard form licence agreement that allows you to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt this publication provided that you attribute the work.

The details of the version 4.0 of the licence are available on the Creative Commons website, as is the full legal code for that licence.

 

 

Acknowledgements

The Australian Maritime Safety Authority acknowledges that the Lighthouse is in the traditional Country of the Bundjalung people.

For additional information or any inquiries about this heritage management plan, contact the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Manager Asset Capability, PO Box 10790, Adelaide Street, Brisbane QLD 4000

Phone: (02) 6279 5000 (switchboard) Email:             Heritage@amsa.gov.au Website: www.amsa.gov.au


Attribution

AMSA’s preference is that you attribute this publication (and any material sourced from it) using the following wording:

 

Source: Australian Maritime Safety Authority Cape Byron Lighthouse Heritage Management Plan – 2020

 

Front cover image

© Copyright Garry Searle

 

More information

For enquiries regarding copyright including requests to use material in a way that is beyond the scope of the terms of use that apply to it, please contact us through our website: www.amsa.gov.au


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cape Byron Lighthouse

Heritage Management Plan

 

 

          2020         


 


Contents

 


Executive summary                                                             3

1.  Introduction                                                                        4

1.1     Background and purpose                                           4

1.2     Heritage management plan objectives                    4

1.3     Methodology                                                                 5

1.4     Status                                                                              5

1.5     Authorship                                                                     5

1.6     Acknowledgements                                                     5

1.7     Language                                                                      6

1.8     Previous reports                                                           6

1.9     Sources of information and images                         6

2.  Cape Byron Lightstation site                                         7

2.1     Location                                                                         7

2.2     Setting and landscape                                                8

2.3     Lease and ownership                                                  9

2.4     Access                                                                            9

2.5     Listings                                                                           9

3.  History                                                                              13

3.1     General history of lighthouses in Australia            13

3.2     The Commonwealth lighthouse service               15

3.3     New South Wales lighthouse management         16

3.4     Cape Byron: a history                                                16

3.5     Planning a lighthouse                                               17

3.6     Lighthouse keepers                                                  21

3.7     Chronology of major events                                    22

3.8     Changes and conservation over time                    23

3.9     Summary of current and former uses                    24

3.10   Summary of past and present community

associations                                                                25

3.11   Unresolved questions or historical conflicts          26

3.12   Recommendations for further research                26

4.  Fabric                                                                                27

4.1     Fabric register                                                            27

4.2     Related object and associated AMSA artefact      53

4.3     Comparative analysis                                               53

5. 
Heritage significance
                                                    55

5.1     Commonwealth heritage list – Cape Byron Lightstation                55

5.2     NSW State heritage register – Cape Byron Lightstation 57

5.3     Condition and integrity of the

Commonwealth heritage values                             62

5.4     Gain or loss of heritage values                                62

6.  Opportunities and constraints                                     63

6.1     Implications arising from significance                    63

6.2     Framework – sensitivity to change                          64

6.3     Statutory and legislative requirements                   66

6.4     Operational requirements and occupier needs    70

6.5     Proposals for change                                                71

6.6     Potential pressures                                                    72

6.7     Process for decision-making                                   72

7.  Conservation management policies                          74

8.  Policy implementation schedule                                 80

9. Appendices                                                                      81

Appendix 1. Glossary of heritage conservation terms

Appendix 2. Glossary of historic lighthouse terms

relevant to Cape Byron Lighthouse                                   84

Appendix 3. Current Cape Byron light details                  86

Appendix 4. Opening of the Cape Byron Lightstation (1901) and transcription   88

Appendix 5. Table Demonstrating Compliance with

the EPBC Regulation (2000)                                              90

Reference List                                                                     92

Website URLs                                                                      94


List of figures

 

 

 

Figure 1

Cover photo of Cape Byron Lighthouse (Garry Searle)

Figure 2

Planning process applied for heritage management (Australia ICOMOS, 1999)

Figure 3

Location of Byron Bay (NSW)

Figure 4

Location of Cape Byron Lighthouse (NSW)

Figure 5

View of Cape Byron Lighthouse and surrounding cliffs (2015)

Figure 6

View of Tallow Beach from Cape Byron Lighthouse tower (2009)

Figure 7

Lease plan detailing land parcels under AMSA control (AMSG, 2015)

Figure 8

AMSA Map of Lease – Cape Byron Lighthouse (2017)

 

Figure 9

Cape Byron Lightstation NSW State Heritage Register Plan 3210 (NSW State Heritage Council, 2019)

Figure 10

Early technology used in lighthouses

Figure 11

Incandescent oil vapour lamp by Chance Brothers

Figure 12

Dioptric lens on display at Narooma

Figure 13

Dalén’s system – sunvalve, mixer, flasher and cylinder

Figure 14

James Barnet (n.d.)

Figure 15

Blueprint design for Cape Byron Lighthouse tower and attached pavilions (c.1899)

 

Figure 16

a)  Ministerial party at official opening of the Cape Byron Lighthouse (1901)

b) View of Cape Byron Lighthouse (1901)

Figure 17

Design plan of Cape Byron’s lens and lantern room (1982)

 

Figure 18

a)  Cape Byron Lighthouse (lit 1901),

b) Point Perpendicular Lighthouse (lit 1899),

c) Norah Head Lighthouse (lit 1903).

Figure 19

Cape Byron elevation blueprint (1899)

Figure 20

Point Perpendicular elevation blueprint (1897)

Figure 21

Document detailing the opening of the Cape Byron light and signatures (1901)


Executive summary

 


 


The Cape Byron Lightstation was  placed  on the Commonwealth Heritage List in 2004 for its contribution to the establishment of marine Aids

to Navigation (AtoN) along the New South Wales coast, the rarity of its Henry-Lepaute optic, it’s aesthetic characteristics, unique technical features, and immense social value.

The Cape Byron Lightstation was placed on the NSW State Heritage Register in 2019 for its historical, associative, aesthetic and social significance, its research potential, rarity and

representativeness. The site is also of high cultural significance to the Bundjalung of Byron Bay Arakwal People who are the native title holders.

Situated 1.6 kilometres from Byron Bay town centre, the lightstation is located on the most easterly point of the Australian mainland. Built in 1901, the Cape Byron Lighthouse was one of the last lightstations

to make up the ‘highway of lights’ illuminating the New South Wales coastline. Its concrete block construction was designed by Charles Harding who modelled the lighthouse after the work of former colonial architect James Barnet. Apart from the tower and attached pavilion rooms, the lightstation also encompasses a flag locker, flagpole, the Cape Byron pillar, and two cottages. As a working aid

to navigation, the lighthouse tower remains the property of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA).

Although the lighthouse remains fitted with its  original lens assembly, it now runs on an automated mechanism as part of our network of AtoN. The equipment is serviced by AMSA’s maintenance contractor who visits at least once per year.

Our officers visit on an ad hoc basis for auditing,

project and community liaison purposes.

 

The larger part of the lightstation which includes the two cottages lies outside of our lease and is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). The lightstation is open to visitors all year round.


This heritage management plan  is concerned mainly with the lighthouse, but also addresses the management of the surrounding precinct and land. The plan is intended to guide our decisions and actions. We have prepared  this plan to integrate the heritage values of the lightstation in accordance with the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000.

Being well built and  generally  well  maintained, the lighthouse precinct is in relatively good, stable

condition. The policies and management guidelines set out in this heritage management plan strive to ensure that the Commonwealth heritage values

of the Cape Byron Lightstation are recognised, maintained, and preserved for future generations.


 

1.   Introduction

 


1.1  Background and purpose

AMSA is the Commonwealth  agency  responsible for AtoNs. Our network includes the Cape Byron Lighthouse (NSW) built by the Department of Public Works in 1901.

The Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) requires us to prepare management plans that satisfy the

obligations included in Schedule 7A and 7B of the EPBC Regulations 2000. The principal features of this management plan are:

     a description of the place, its heritage values, their condition and the method used to assess its significance

     an administrative management framework

     a description of any proposals for change

     an array of conservation policies that protect and manage the place

     an implementation plan

     the ways the policies will be monitored and how the management plan will be reviewed.


We have commissioned this heritage management plan to guide the future conservation of the place.

This plan provides the framework and basis for the conservation and best practice management of the Cape Byron Lighthouse in recognition of  its

heritage values. The policies in this plan indicate the objectives for identification, protection, conservation and presentation of the commonwealth heritage values of the place. Figure 2. shows the basic planning process applied.

 

 

1.2  Heritage management plan objectives

The objectives of this heritage management plan are to:

     protect, conserve and manage the Commonwealth heritage values of the Cape Byron Lightstation.

     interpret and promote the Commonwealth heritage values of the Cape Byron  Lightstation.

     manage use of the lightstation

     use best practice standards, including ongoing technical and community input, and apply

best available knowledge and expertise when


 

 

 

Figure 2. Planning process applied for heritage management (Australia ICOMOS, 1999)


 

 

 


considering actions likely to have a substantial impact on Commonwealth heritage values.

 

In undertaking these objectives, this plan aims to:

     Provide for the protection and conservation of  the heritage values of the place while minimising any impacts on the environment by applying

the relevant environmental management requirements in a manner consistent with Commonwealth heritage management principles.

     Take into account the significance of the region as a cultural landscape occupied by Aboriginal people over many thousands of years.

     Recognise that the site has been occupied by

lease holders since the early 20th century.

     Encourage site  use that is compatible with the historical fabric, infrastructure and general environment.

     Record and document maintenance works, and changes to the fabric in the Cape Byron Lighthouse fabric register.

The organisational planning cycle and associated budgeting process is used to confirm requirements, allocate funding, and manage delivery of maintenance activities. Detailed planning for the  aids to navigation network is managed through our internal planning processes.

An interactive map showing many of AMSA’s heritage sites, including Cape Byron, can be found online at AMSA Heritage Lighthouses Interactive Mapa.

 

 

1.3         Methodology

The methods used in the preparation of this plan are consistent with the recommendations of The Burra Charter. The plan addresses:

     The history of the site based on information sourced from archival research, expert knowledge, and documentary resources.

     The description of the site based on information sourced from site inspection reports, and fabric registers.


     The Commonwealth heritage criterions satisfied by Cape Byron as set out by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000 (EPBC Regulations).

 

The EPBC Regulation Section 7A (h) (i-xiii)

was used to develop the necessary policies for management of the Cape Byron Lightstation, and  the Department of Environment and Energy advised on best practice management approaches.

The draft management plan was advertised in accordance with the EPBC Regulations and the comments received were incorporated into the final document. A developed draft was then submitted to the Minister through the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population  and Communities and in that process the Minister’s delegate sought advice from the Australian Heritage Council.

No updates or amendments have been made in this version of the plan. Future updates and amendments will be listed here.

 

 

1.4         Status

This plan has been adopted by AMSA in  accordance with Schedule 7A (Management plans for Commonwealth Heritage places) and Schedule 7B (Commonwealth Heritage management principles) of the EPBC Regulations (2000) to guide the management of the place and for inclusion in  the Federal Register of Legislative Instruments.

 

 

1.5         Authorship

This plan has been prepared by AMSA. At the initial time of publication, AMSG is the contract maintenance provider for the Commonwealth Government’s AtoN network including Cape Byron Lighthouse.

 

 

1.6         Acknowledgements

AMSA acknowledges the professional assistance of

conservation architect, Peter Marquis-Kyle.


 

1.7         Language

For clarity and consistency,  some words in this  plan such as restoration, reconstruction, and preservation, are used with the meanings defined  in the Burra Charter 1. See Appendix 1, Glossary of heritage conservation terms.

Also see Appendix 2, Glossary of lighthouse terminology relevant to Cape Byron Lighthouse which sets out the technical terminology used in this plan.

 

 

1.8         Previous reports

A Supplementary Information report on Cape Byron by Graham Brooks and Associates Pty Ltd was produced for NSW NPWS in November 2001.b

A Conservation Management Plan was prepared in 2008 by Donald Ellsmore Pty Ltd (and contributors) for Freeman Ellsmore, Conservation Architects and Planners for the NSW Department of Lands and Water Conservation.c

 

 

1.9         Sources of information and images

This plan has used a number of sources of information. This includes the National Archives of Australia (NAA), the National Library of Australia (NLA), as well as the heritage collection of AMSA.

Photos with no credit are solely owned by AMSA.

Website URLs are found in Appendix 5. and are referenced via superscript letters in main text. Example: Cape Byron Reportx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Australia ICOMOS Burra Charter, (2013)


2.   Cape Byron Lightstation site

 


 

2.1         Location

The Cape Byron Lighthouse is located on  Lighthouse Road, Cape Byron, NSW, 1.6 kilometres from Byron Bay town centre and 143 kilometres


south of Brisbane’s central business district. The Cape is considered the most easterly point of the Australian mainland.

Coordinates: 28° 38.3131’ S, 153° 38.1845’ E


 

 

location of Byron Bay lighthouse on a map

 

Figure 3. Location of Byron Bay (NSW)

 

 

 

location of cape byron lighthouse on a map of cape byron

 

Figure 4. Location of Cape Byron Lighthouse (NSW)


 

 

 

 


 

2.2         Setting and landscape

The lightstation is located on Cape Byron approximately 1.6 kilometres from Byron Bay’s town centre.

Situated atop a rocky cliff, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is surrounded by coastal beaches. The Cape is considered the most easterly point of the Australian mainland.

The thick vegetation found to its south-south-east is listed under the Cape Byron State Conservation Authority, which hosts the Cape Byron walking

track, a trail that loops around the Cape. This region

is registered as a protected area.

Due to its elevated position, views from the

lightstation are uninterrupted.

 

 

view of cape byron lighthouse and surrounding cliffs

 

Figure 5. View of Cape Byron Lighthouse and surrounding cliffs (2005)


The Cape Byron Lighthouse precinct comprises of:

     a lighthouse tower and attached pavilion rooms

     a signal house/flag room

     a head lightkeeper’s quarters currently a visitor

information centre

     an assistant lightkeeper’s quarters

     a signal mast

     a retaining wall

     steps

     a toilet block

     a walkway

 

AMSA is responsible for the lighthouse tower and surrounding paved area only.

 

Fauna and flora

The Byron Bay district is home to a number of native fauna species including flying foxes, koalas, and frogs.

A number of endangered ecological communities have been identified in the Arakwal National Park surrounding the Cape Byron Lightstation. The Graminoid Clay Heath, an endangered ecological community containing a large collective of native plants including, but not limited to, the fern-leaved banksia, hairy bushpea, kangaroo grass, and broad sword sedge.

The Themeda grasslands, another endangered ecological community, contains the following species:

     Acacia sophorae

     Banksia integrifolia subsp. Integrifolia

     Commelina cyanea

     Glycine clandestina

     Glycine microphylla

     Hibbertia scandens

     Isolepis nodosa

     Kennedia rubicunda

     Lepidosperma spp.

     Leptospermum laevigatum

     Lomandra longifolia

     Monotoca elliptica


 

 

 


     Opercularia aspera

     Pimelea linifolia

     Poranthera microphylla

     Sporobolus virginicus

     Themeda australis

     Viola banksii

     Westringia fruticosa

The endangered ecological community of the Littoral Rainforest has been identified within the Byron Bay region. The community is dominated by rainforest species but also includes Angophora costata, Banksia integrifolia, Eucalyptus botryoides and Eucalyptus tereticornis which are scattered throughout.

A restoration project is currently in place to assist in preserving the native landscape.

Information on fauna and flora camp management plans can be access from the Byron Shire Council: Native Animals and Plants webpage.d Furthermore, the Arakwal National Park plan of management

is available via the NSW Department of Planning,

Industry and Environment webpage.e

 

 

2.3         Lease and ownership

The Cape Byron Lighthouse and surrounding land is owned by the New South Wales Government. AMSA lease the lighthouse and land from the NPWS.

The AMSA lease consists of two parcels with a

combined total of 639.8 metres-squared:

     Lot 1: 405.4 sq. m

     Lot 2: 234.4 sq. m

 

The current lease was signed on 8 October 1998 and terminates on 8 June 2022. The lease has an option to renew for a period of 25 years. The lease stipulates that AMSA must comply with any applicable management plan and state environmental laws.

Due to the popularity in tourism on the site, there was a tourist licence signed between the NSW Minister for Environment and AMSA on 1 July 1997 and terminates on 13 June 2022. There is an option to renew this licence for a further 25 years.


2.4         Access

The precinct has an elevated position and there is only one vehicle access track, a well-maintained sealed road (Lighthouse Road). It terminates as a vehicle parking site at the base of Lot 2 (lighthouse block) between the assistant lighthouse keeper’s cottages and tourism facilities blocks. A restricted vehicle access road exists between the  base  of the lighthouse and this parking site however all visitors are required to complete the last 80 metres (approximately) by foot.

Walking access is available along the Cape Byron walking track (approximately a 3.7 kilometre loop) which includes the Cape Byron Lighthouse along its State Conservation Area route. These access points are located to the south and the north-north-east

of Lot 2. A concrete apron paving allows walking

access around the entire base of the  lighthouse.

 

 

2.5         Listings

 

Register

 

Commonwealth Heritage List

ID

105599f

NSW State Heritage List

02023g

Register of the National Estate

103599

view of tallow beach from cape byron lighthouse tower

Figure 6. View of Tallow Beach from Cape Byron Lighthouse tower (2009)


 

 

 

 

lease plan

 

 

Figure 7. Lease Plan detailing land parcels under AMSA control (AMSG, 2015)


 

cape byron NSW state heritage register plan

 

Figure 8. Cape Byron Lightstation NSW State Heritage Register Plan 3210 (NSW State Heritage Council, 2019)


 

heritage council of NSW heritage plan location map

 

Figure 9. Cape Byron Lightstation NSW State Heritage Register Plan 3210 (NSW State Heritage Council, 2019)


3.   History

 


 

The following sections outline the history of lighthouses in Australia and Cape Byron Lighthouse. Some sections were provided by heritage architect, Peter Marquis-Kyle, and are referenced via footnote.

 

 

3.1         General history of lighthouses in Australia

The first lighthouse to be constructed along Australian soil was Macquarie Lighthouse, located at the entrance to Port Jackson, NSW. First lit in 1818, the cost of the lighthouse was recovered through the introduction of a levy on shipping. This was instigated by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, who had ordered and named the light.

The following century oversaw the construction of hundreds of lighthouses around the country. Constructing and maintaining a lighthouse were costly ventures that often required the financial

early lamp technology

 

Figure 10. Early technology used in lighthouses 2


support of multiple colonies. However, they were deemed necessary aids  in assisting the safety of mariners at sea. Lighthouses were firstly

managed by the colony they lay within, with each colony developing their own style of lighthouse and operational system. Following Federation in 1901, which saw the various colonies unite under one Commonwealth government, lighthouse management was transferred from State hands to the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

early lamp technology


 

 

1 Figure 10 – The Lantern room of the 1834 Belle Tout lighthouse, south west England. ‘The apparatus here employed is that of the “catoptric” system, in which a revolving frame has a number of large concave reflectors, with an Argand fountain lamp in each, fitted to each side of the frame. The shape and position of the reflectors are precisely calculated to throw the rays of light, in a combined flood of light, upon certain parts of the surface of the sea, and to prevent their being wasted in the sky.’ (Parts of a wood engraving and article published in the Illustrated London News, 5th January, 1884.); Figure [10] right – Early example of a rotating catadioptric apparatus, made for the 1844 lighthouse at Skerryvore, Western Scotland (Steel engraving from Tomlinson’s Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, 1854)


 

 

 

 

 


Lamps and optics – an overview

Lighthouse technology has altered drastically over the centuries. 18th century lighthouses were lit using parabolic mirrors and oil lamps. Documentation

of early examples of parabolic  mirrors  in the United Kingdom, circa 1760, were documented as consisting of wood and lined with pieces of looking

glass or plates of tin. As described by Searle, “When light hits a shiny surface, it is reflected at an angle equal to that at which it hit. With a light source is placed in the focal point of a parabolic reflector,

the light rays are reflected parallel to one another,

producing a concentrated beam”3.

In 1822, Augustin Fresnel invented the dioptric glass lens. By crafting concentric annular rings with a convex lens, Fresnel had discovered a method

to reduce the amount of light absorbed by a lens. The Dioptric System was adopted quickly with Cordouran Lighthouse (France),  fitted  with  the first dioptric lens in 1823. The majority of heritage-

listed lighthouses in Australia house dioptric lenses made by others such as Chance Brothers (United Kingdom), Henry-LePaute (France), Barbier, Bernard & Turenne (BBT, France) and Svenska Aktiebolaget Gasaccumulator (AGA of Sweden).

These lenses were made in a range of standard sizes, called orders—see Appendix 2. Glossary of lighthouse Terms relevant to Cape Byron Lighthouse.

Early Australian lighthouses were originally fuelled by whale oil and burned in Argand lamps, and multiple wicks were required in order to create a large flame that could be observed from sea. By the 1850s,  whale oil had been replaced by colza oil, which was  in turn replaced by kerosene, a mineral oil.

In 1900, incandescent burners were introduced.  This saw the burning of fuel inside an incandescent mantle which produced a brighter light  with  less fuel within a smaller volume. Light keepers were required to maintain pressure to the burner by manually pumping a handle as can be seen in Figure 11.


incandescent oil vapour lamp

 

Figure 11. Incandescent oil vapour lamp by Chance Brothers

 

dioptric lens

 

Figure 12. Dioptric lens on display at Narooma


 

 

2 Searle. G, First Order: Australia’s Highway of Lighthouses, (2013). Page 34


 

 

 


In 1912, Gustaf Dalén, a Swedish engineer, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for a series of inventions relating to acetylene-powered navigation lights. Dalén’s system included the sun valve,

the mixer, the flasher, and the cylinder containing compressed acetylene. Due to their efficiency and reliability, Dalén’s inventions led to the gradual demanning of lighthouses. Acetylene was quickly adopted by the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service from 1915 onwards.

Large dioptric lenses, such as that shown in Figure 12, gradually decreased in popularity due to cost and the move towards unmanned automatic lighthouses. By the early 1900s, Australia had stopped ordering these lenses with the last installed at Eclipse Island in Western Australia in 1927.

Smaller Fresnel lenses continued to be produced and installed until the 1970s when plastic lanterns, still utilising Fresnel’s technology, were favoured instead. Acetylene remained in use until it was finally phased out in the 1990s.

In current day, Australian lighthouses are lit and extinguished automatically using mains power, diesel generators, and solar-voltaic systems.


3.2         The Commonwealth lighthouse service

When the Australian colonies federated in 1901, it was decided that the new Commonwealth Government would be responsible for coastal

lighthouses. This included only the major lights used by vessels travelling from port to port, not the minor lights used for navigation within harbours and rivers. There was a delay before this new arrangement came into effect and the existing lights continued to be operated by the states.

Since 1915, various Commonwealth departments have managed lighthouses. AMSA, established under the Australian Maritime  Safety  Authority Act 1990, is now responsible for operating

Commonwealth lighthouses and other marine aids

to navigation, along with its other functions.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dalen's system - sunvalve, mixer, flasher and cylinder

 

Figure 13. Dalén’s system – sunvalve, mixer, flasher and cylinder


 

 

 

 


3.3         New South Wales lighthouse management

The table below details the authorities of NSW

lighthouse management from 1915 to  present.

 



3.4         Cape Byron: a history

 

Indigenous presence

Time Period


1915 – 1927	Administration
	Lighthouse Branch No. 3 District New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, Sydney headquarters.

1927 – 1963	Deputy Director of Lighthouses and Navigation, New South Wales.

1963 – 1972	Department of Shipping and Transport, Regional Controller, New South Wales.


1972 – 1977	Department of Transport [III], New South Wales Region / (from 1973) Surface Transport Group,
New South Wales region.

1977 – 1982	Department of Transport [III],
New South Wales region.

1982 – 1983	Department of Transport and Construction, regional office, New South Wales.

1983 – 1987	Department of Transport [IV], New South Wales regional office.

1987 – 1990	Department of Transport and Communications (Transport Group), New South Wales regional office.

1991 –	Australian Maritime Safety Authority
(AMSA).

Prior to European occupation, the Bundjalung  people (containing the subgroups of Arakwal and Galibal) claimed the coastal lands around Cape Byron (regarded by custodians as ‘Walgun’) as their tribal territories.

The rich surrounding nature reserve was a key area for hunting and gathering, and also as a camping site 4. Various shell middens have been identified in the area with one site (4-5-0037, the pippi midden) regarded as the oldest dated foredune shell midden on the north coast of NSW with a date estimate of 1440+/- 70 BP.

Further consultation with traditional stakeholders will be undertaken to gain a greater understanding of Cape Byron’s history. This plan will be updated in future versions to reflect the accumulation of information.

 

 

Early European history

Captain Cook is believed to have been the first European to sight, record and name Cape Byron during his travels along what would become the New South Wales coast in mid-May 1770. Naming the Cape after fellow circumnavigator Vice-Admiral John Byron (1723–1786), it was also on this same day that Cook observed people walking along a beach believed to be just south of Byron 5.

The region appeared to forgo further European interaction until 1828 when the Rainbow docked in Byron and the ship’s master, William Johns, charted the bay. This remains the earliest known landing at Byron Bay 6.


 

 

 

1Boyd, W. E., et al, ‘The accumulation of charcoal within a midden at Cape Byron, northern New South Wales, during the last millennium’ Australian Archaeology (51) 2000, pg. 21; Pratten C., and R. Irving., Cape Byron Headland Reserve Heritage Study, (1991), pg. 10.

2Beaglehole, J.C., (ed.), The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of Discovery. I The Voyage of the Endeavour 1768- 1771, (Cambridge University Press), 1955; Brooks, G., and Associated Pty Ltd NPWS Lighthouses Conservation Management and Cultural Tourism Plan - Cape Byron Lighthouse: Supplementary Information, (2001) pg. 4.

3 Stubbs, B.J., History of the Cape Byron Lightstation Precinct, Crown (2008) pg. 2.


 

 

 

 

On 25 June 1840, surveyor Robert Dixon travelled         Design

through the Byron Bay region and recorded                   Designing the Cape Byron lightstation was a large interactions with a group of Indigenous hunters.             feat as not only was a design required for a tower, Throughout the 1840s, Byron Bay became a critical        but also for a surrounding precinct complete with point of access to shipping as cedar logs cut from       living quarters for both chief and assistant lighthouse

the hinterland were dragged through the shallows           keepers. Initial designs were produced by James

and onto cargo boats waiting in deeper water.               Barnet, renowned architect who was frequently In 1881, a walking trip from Ballina to Brunswick         engaged to design lightstations.

Heads took travellers through Byron Bay, and                After his retirement as head colonial architect in 1890 European settlement in the area followed swiftly    however, the official blueprints for the lightstation thereafter. By 1886, the first government sale of land     precinct were completed by Charles Harding of the

in the area had occurred, and by the late 1880s, a          Harbour and River Navigation Branch. The blueprints

jetty had been built 7.                                                    are believed to have been largely based on Barnet’s

earlier designs 10.

3.5       Planning a lighthouse

 

Why Cape Byron?

Owing to the importance of shipping and trade within the region, nautical traffic was relatively frequent with freight shipping increasingly common towards the

end of the 1860s.                                                           Figure 14. James Barnet (n.d)

In 1864, the freight ship HMS Volunteer was

wrecked on the Cape rocks which resulted in a                James Barnet (1827-1904)

large loss of cargo. By 1896, five wrecks had been

recorded along Byron’s beaches and in 1897, funds Born 1827, Barnet studied drawing, design and totalling £18,000 were allocated to the erection of a         architecture in London before he and his family lightstation on Cape Byron 8.                                 migrated to Australia c.1854. Appointed clerk of

The site, which was cleared of vegetation by mid             works for Sydney University, Barnet later joined 1898, was chosen due to its elevated position                 the Colonial Architect’s Office in 1860. By 1865, along the cape—approximately 113m above sea              he was named colonial architect, a position he level (1901 data). Newspaper articles of the time              held until his retirement in 1890. In that timeframe, announcing the lighthouse’s completion dictated that,      Barnet was responsible for the architectural

as the most easterly point in Australia, the position                  design of numerous public works including called for the erection of a light, while the stretch of                alledgedly 15 lighthouses. His design style, coast between the North Head of the Richmond and              adopted from Francis Greenway’s Macquarie the light at Fingal Point, near the tweed, was another              Light (1818), served as the quintessential NSW reason why it should be erected 9.                                   style until the end of the 19th century.

 

4  Stubbs, B. J., History of the Cape Byron Lightstation Precinct, (2008) pg. 1.

5  Brooks, G and Associates Pty Ltd, Cape Byron Lighthouse: Supplementary Information, (2001) pg. 5.

6  “A lighthouse for Cape Byron,” The Northern Star, Dec 1st, 1897, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/71758856?searchTerm=Cape%20Byron%20lighthouse%20&searchLimits=dateFrom=1897-01-01|||dateTo=1901-12-31

7    Brooks, G., and Associates Pty Ltd, Cape Byron Lighthouse: Supplementary Information, (2001), pg. 5.


 

 

 

blueprints for cape byron lighthouse

 

Figure 15. Blueprints for Cape Byron Lighthouse tower and attached pavilions (c.1899)


 

 

design plan of cape byron lighthouse

 

 

Figure 16. Design plan of Cape Byron’s lens and lantern room (1982)


 

 

 

 


 

Construction

Tenders for the construction of Cape Byron Lighthouse were called in March 1900 and Mitchell and King were successfully chosen as contractors for the project at a cost of £9970.

Construction started in July of 1900 where the area was levelled (undertaken by day labour) and plots were outlined for:

     the lighthouse tower

     workroom

     kerosene store room

     two lighthouse keeper’s cottages

     a signal station.

 

However, construction was reportedly delayed temporarily owing to the lack of a nearby water source 11. Once construction  commenced,  the main tower was built out of pre-cast concrete units placed in a cylindrical formation with the workroom and storeroom at its base. A mercury floatation mechanism was installed in the light tower (see Sub-section ‘Equipment when built’ below) which was designed by lighthouse engineer Mr. Douglass


and erected under the supervision of Mr. HC Cooper (engineer representative of WF Douglass Victoria Street Firm, London). The lighthouse keeper’s quarters were constructed from concrete and tiled roofs.

The lighthouse was connected telephonically to the Telegraph Office in Byron Bay by means of electric bells.

Construction was complete by 1901 and it was intended that the Lighthouse be officially opened by the Honourable John See, Premier of New South Wales on Saturday evening, 30 November.

However, due to inclement weather, the government steamer Victoria carrying the ministerial party was delayed and the Cape Byron Lighthouse was not officially opened until midday the following day on Sunday 1 December. The light was first lit that night.

 

 

Equipment when built

The completed lighthouse was regarded highly for

its modern fittings and composition.

As reported by The Northern Star (local newspaper) on 4 December 1901,


 

ministerial part at official opening of cape byron lighthouse        official opening of cape byron lighthouse

 

Figure 15. a) Ministerial Party at official opening (1901), b) view of Cape Byron lighthouse (1901)


 

8    Stubbs, B. J., History of the Cape Byron Lightstation Precinct (2008), pg. 6.

9    “The Cape Byron lighthouse,” The Northern Star, Dec 4th, 1901, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/72080223?searchTerm=Byron%20Lighthouse%20construction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20 &searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHandler|||dateFrom=1899-01-01|||dateTo=1901-12-31|||sortby


 

 

 


The light consists of a first-order lantern 12 feet internal diameter, and a first order revolving bi- valve double floating, “feu eclair” optical apparatus, manufactured by the Societie des Establiesement Henry Lepaute of Paris. The intensity of the flash is

145,000 standard English candles, and the apparatus rotates in a mercury bath at the rate of one complete revolution in 10 seconds 12.

 

The article also detailed the unique mercury float mechanism the lighthouse operated in conjunction with the first of its kind in Australia:

The lamp takes six concentric wicks, the outer one five inches in diameter, and fed by kerosene oil…The occulting or revolving gear is worked by a clockwork arrangement, and winding up massive weights in

the centre of the tower. This gear, instead of working on rollers as with other revolving lights, is floated in a mass of 850 lbs of mercury and the weight of the machinery so floated is about four and half tons. A great deal of wear and tear and friction is avoided 13.

 

The equipment and mechanisms installed permitted rapid bursts of light from the tower which was reported as lasting one-fifth of a second, six times every minute.


3.6         Lighthouse keepers

 

The Cape Byron Lighthouse was manned from its construction in 1901 right up until 1989, thirty years after the introduction of electricity to the lighthouse. Alongside the chief lighthouse keeper and their family, there were also assistant lighthouse keepers who lived with their families on the precinct in their own cottages. The first chief lighthouse keeper stationed at Cape Byron  was William Warren  and he was accompanied by two assistant light keepers, one being Mr Richard Sullivan. Both men had previously worked on the Solitary Island light. A comprehensive list of the names of those stationed as keepers at Cape Byron has been collated

and a copy is available within the Cape Byron Lighthouse museum. In addition to their lighting duties, the keepers were required to carry out minor maintenance duties on the precinct such as painting structures and managing the roads.

By 5 December 1959, the same year the lighthouse was converted from kerosene to electricity, the role of 2nd assistant keeper was made redundant. Thirty years later in 1989, the lighthouse was officially

de-manned. The cottages which had hosted the keepers were repurposed. The assistant lighthouse keeper’s residence was converted into a tourism destination with  accommodation  services.  The chief lighthouse keeper’s quarters was converted into an office complete with meeting rooms, an interpretative centre and shop.


 

 

 

10  “The Cape Byron lighthouse,” The Northern Star, Dec 4th, 1901, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/72080223?searchTerm=Byron%20Lighthouse%20construction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20 &searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHandler|||dateFrom=1899-01-01|||dateTo=1901-12-31|||sortby

18  “Struck by lightning: Cape Byron lighthouse,” The Telegraph, Nov 23rd, 1920, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/179639297?searchTerm=byron%20lighthouse&searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHandler|||dateFr om=1901-01-01|||dateTo=2011-12-31|||sortby

19  “Byron Bay lighthouse damaged,” Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser, Feb 20th, 1929, https://trove.nla.gov.au/ newspaper/article/233837230?searchTerm=byron%20lighthouse&searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHan dler|||dateFrom=1901-01-01|||dateTo=2011-12-31|||sortby

20  “Lighthouse reserve banned,” Tweed Daily, Sep 5th, 1939, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/194657696?searchTerm=byron%20lighthouse&searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHandler|||dateFr om=1901-01-01|||dateTo=2011-12-31|||sortby

21  “Weather station at lighthouse,” The Northern Star, Dec 1st, 1948, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/ article/99036744?searchTerm=byron%20lighthouse&searchLimits=exactPhrase|||anyWords|||notWords|||requestHandler|||dateFr om=1901-01-01|||dateTo=2011-12-31|||sortby


 

 

 

 

 

3.7         Chronology of major events

 

The table below details the chronology of major events to have occurred at the Cape Byron Lighthouse.

 

 

Date

 

1901

Event Details

Construction of the Cape Byron Lighthouse completed.

Lightstation officially opened by Honourable John See, Premier of New South Wales

1915

Commonwealth takes control of state-owned lighthouses

 

1920

Lighthouse tower struck by lightning three times during electrical storm, extinguishing the light twice. The head keeper was struck by the second shock and badly stunned. Some damage was observed to the interior and woodwork of the lighthouse, to the wiring, and to the weathervane 14

1927

20 acres of adjoining land reserved for public recreation by lighthouse

 

1929

Lighthouse tower struck by lightning during electrical storm – suffered some damage to electrical

bells and telephonic communication devices inside the lighthouse 15

1939

Lighthouse Reserve closed to all unauthorised persons indefinitely 16

1948

Weather station installed at Cape Byron Lightstation 17

1959

The second assistant keeper position discontinued

1970s–1980s

Concrete retaining wall constructed onsite

1980

Cape Byron Lightstation added to Register of the National Estate

1985

First stage of Cape walking track opened

1986

Light extinguished manually for final time

1987

Second stage of Cape walking track opened

1988

Cape Byron Trust and Cape Byron Headland Reserve established

1989

Lighthouse officially de-manned

1995

Indigenous Land Use Agreement signed

2004

Cape Byron Lightstation added to Commonwealth Heritage List

 

 

2014

Local and international activists ‘occupy’ the Cape Byron Lighthouse in response to the G20 Summit held in the Queensland capital of Brisbane. Seeking to highlight concerns on climate change crisis, the lighthouse was allegedly chosen for it being “an iconic spot from which to broadcast our message” 18

2019

Cape Byron Lightstation added to NSW State Heritage Register


 

18    Prabhu, Harsha “Gee, 20 occupy lighthouse,” Echonetdaily, Nov 18th, 2014, https://www.echo.net.au/2014/11/gee-20-occupy-

lighthouse/


 

 

 


3.8         Changes and conservation over time

 

Cape Byron Lighthouse has undergone minimal changes since its construction in 1901.

The small changes made were largely in relation to the light source and electrical systems rather than the structure itself.

 

The Brewis Report (1913)

Commander CRW Brewis, retired naval surveyor,


was commissioned in 1911 by the Commonwealth Government to report on the condition of existing lights and to recommend any additional ones.

Brewis visited every lighthouse in Australia between June and December 1912 and produced a series of reports published in their final form in March 1913. These reports were the basis for future decisions made in relation to the individual lighthouses.

Brewis’s recommendations for Cape Byron included increasing the power of the light from 145,000 candlepower (cp.) to 545,000 cp. by installing an incandescent mantle.


 

Cape Byron Light 19

27 miles from Cook Island.

Lat. 28º 38’ S., Long. 153º 39’ E., Chart No. 1028. – Established 1901.

Character– Main Light: One white, dioptric, 145,000 c.p. Flashing, showing one flash of one-fifth of a second duration every five seconds. Illuminant, kerosene; six-wick burner.

Circular concrete tower, 60 feet, painted white. Height of focal plane, 371 feet.

Subsidiary Light: One red, dioptric, fixed. About 200 c.p. Exhibited from same tower as main light, at a height of 350 feet.

Visibility – Main Light: From seaward, in clear weather, for a distance of about 26 nautical miles.

Subsidiary Light: Only over Juan and Julia Rocks, for a distance of about 8 nautical miles.

Optical Apparatus – Main Light: Henri Lepaute, France, 1901. Two panels. Focal radius, 36 inches. Mercury float. One complete revolution every ten seconds.

Subsidiary Light: Chance Bros., 1889. Fixed lens, 15 inches diameter.

Condition and State of Efficacy: The tower, apparatus, quarters, and equipment are in good condition.

An incandescent installation is necessary to bring the light up to date. This will produce 545,000 c.p., and effect a

considerable economy in the consumption of oil.

Three light-keepers are stationed here.

Communication: By road with Byron Bay, distance 3 miles. Railway and steamer communication.

Connected by telephone with Byron Bay.

Mails daily. Government stores by coastal steamer once a year. Illuminating oil, provisions, &c., as required.

Electric Morse Lamp.

Fogs: Very few fogs are experienced in this locality.

Soundings: The soundings on the Chart are of a complete and suitable nature, and a vessel maintaining a depth of over 30 fathoms will pass at least 2 miles of Cape Byron and well clear of all dangers.

RECOMMENDED: The power of the light be increased from 145,000 c.p. to 545,000 c.p., and economy effected in the consumption of oil, by installing a 55 mm incandescent mantles. Illuminant, vaporized kerosene.

 

19 Brewis, C.R.W., Lighting of the East Coast of Australia: Cape Moreton to Gabo Island (Including Coast of New South Wales), (1913). Page 12.


 

 

 

 


 

Alterations to the light

Major alterations made to the Cape Byron Light are listed below:

 

Date

 

31 Jul 1905

Alteration

Occulting mechanism removed –

light’s character altered.

 

24 Mar 1914

6-wick burner removed, 55 mm IOV kerosene-powered light installed.

Intensity: 545,000 candlepower.

 

Aug 1922

3 x 55 mm incandescent kerosene

burner installed.

Intensity: 1,000,000 candlepower.

 

28 Aug 1959

Light converted from kerosene to electricity.

Intensity: 3,000,000 candlepower.

 

Prior to 1974

100V 2250W Tungsten halogen

globe installed.

Intensity: 2,200,000 candlepower.

1985

Direct-drive motor installed.

 

 

10 Dec 1986

Lighthouse fully automated. Chance Bros 185 millimetres drum lens (auxiliary) replaced by a Tideland ML-300 plastic lens (600 candlepower).

1989

Lighthouse de-manned.

 

2015

Light source changed to Sealite

Light-emitting diode (LED).


Conservation works

Large refurbishments have been undertaken at the Cape Byron Lighthouse in recent years in an effort to take proactive measures to preserve the tower’s fabric and materials.

 

Date

 

 

1990

Works Completed

Refurbishments carried out by AMSA on pavilion roof (fitted with fibreglass).

2015

All interior lead-based paint coatings stripped from lighthouse tower.

Resealing of the:

       dome

       internal floors

       balcony

       timber windows

       tower base

       murette and catwalk

       glazing cage

       guttering

       internal steel work

       tower external flat roof

2019

       Pavilion roof door replaced

 

 

 

3.9         Summary of current and former uses

 

From its construction in 1901, the Cape Byron Lighthouse has been utilised as a marine aid to navigation for mariners at sea. Its AtoN capabilities remains its primary utilisation.

The Cape Byron Lighthouse as a key tourism site developed over recent decades following the de- manning of the light. This provided the opportunity  to transform the original assistant keeper’s cottage into a visitor information centre, and to commence guided tours inside the lighthouse.  The  guided tours remain secondary to the lighthouse’s use as a working AtoN.


 

 

 


3.10      Summary of past and present community associations

 

The Cape Byron Lighthouse is firmly embedded within the Byron Bay community and surrounding areas.

 

Indigenous associations – Bundjalung/Arakwal People

The site continues to hold immense value to the Bundjalung of Byron Bay Arakwal People, who are the native title holders which hold Native Title under the recent Consent Determination from the Federal Court of Australia in April 2019. The Consent Determination established that native title holders are to be exclusively consulted regarding protection and management of Aboriginal cultural heritage within the native title claim area, which includes the Cape Byron Lighthouse.

Arakwal people recognise the site to be one of ceremony, learning, spiritual inspiration, and a key part of many dreaming stories. Arakwal people maintain a critical role in the management of

the Cape Byron Marine Park due to their strong connection to country. The relationship with this country is more than just a place to live. It’s the  living, breathing source of all life, their spiritual home and home of their ancestors’ spirits.

Arakwal National Park is the first national park in Australia to be created under an Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) with traditional owners. A joint management agreement between Bundjalung of Byron Bay Arakwal people and NPWS allows both parties to jointly manage and care for country. Through this agreement, a commitment for Arakwal people to be employed and working on country

has been a success - many Arakwal people are employed in a variety of positions working on  country and are on the management committees for the park and the Cape Byron State Conservation Area.


The Arakwal National Park, which surrounds the lightstation, remains a significant cultural landscape for Arakwal people. The heathland that forms the park was maintained through back-burning to regenerate plant-growth.

Further consultation with the traditional owners

- Bundjalung of Byron Bay Arakwal  people  of Cape Byron will be undertaken to gain a greater understanding of the past and present connections on surrounding country.

For more information on Bundjalung of Byron Bay Arakwal people, go to their website: http://arakwal.com.au

 

 

Local, national, and international associations

Due to its prominent coast position, the Cape Byron Lightstation maintains a number of local, national and international associations.

The NSW Marine Rescue operates within the Cape Byron Lighthouse precinct with an  office  onsite, and the Bureau of Meteorology operates a weather station onsite.

With its position as the most easterly point on the Australian mainland, and its proximity to the Pacific Highway, the Cape Byron Lighthouse site is an established tourist destination.

Events (for example, weddings and parties) are frequent on the site due to the scenic views and the catering/celebrant facilities that have been made available in recent decades. Additionally, the annual whale migration in the winter months attracts a large number of tourists and locals.


 

 

 

 

 

3.11      Unresolved questions or historical

conflicts

 

Any unresolved questions and historical conflicts concerning the history of the Cape Byron Lighthouse discovered will be included in this section in future versions of this plan.

 

 

3.12      Recommendations for further research

 

Research is currently being undertaken by local NPWS discovery education staff on the past lighthouse keepers at Cape Byron. Such work will  be benefical in determining the full extent of the social value placed on the site within the Byron Bay community.

Additionally, archaeological investigation of the site may reveal further information on prehistoric and historic uses of Cape Byron to broaden understandings of the site’s intrinsic value 20.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


20     Heritage approvals are essential in undertaking archaeological excavations/investigations within the site.


4.   Fabric

 


 

4.1         Fabric register

The cultural significance of the lighthouse resides in its fabric, and also in its intangible aspects,   such as the meanings people ascribe to it, and the

connections to other places and things. The survival of its cultural value depends on a well-informed understanding of what is significant, and on clear thinking about the consequences of change. The Burra Charter sets out good practice for conserving cultural significance.

Criterion listed  under  ‘Heritage  Significance’ refer to the criterion satisfied within the specific Commonwealth heritage listing (see section 5.1).

 


 

Description and condition

 

1901 French-made part-spherical dome of copper

sheets lapped and screwed.

       Ribs – Not visible but presumed to be cast iron

radial ribs.

       Inner skin Copper sheets screw fixed to ribs.

       Ventilator Drum type with wind vane attached.

       Wind vane – Intact and complete with cardinal direction indicators, spindle, gears, and internal pointer (no index).

       Lightning conductor Vertical pole beside ventilator, with four spikes at top, and two braces to ventilator. Eight vertical spikes attached near the gutter.

       Gutter – Circular ring of cast iron pieces bolted

together.

       Handrails – One circular hand rail attached to lantern roof, another attached to top of ventilator drum.

       Ladder rail Attached to underside of gutter.

       Curtain rail None; curtain hooks fixed to the

top of each vertical astragal.

       Drip tray – Copper dish suspended under ventilator, with central hole for heat tube closed off.


       Heat tube support – Framework with eight radial members of rolled ferrous T section, attached to gutter and to central ring.

 

Finish

painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service; prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

Heritage significance: High

The lantern roof is an original and essential part  of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The lantern roof contributes to the aesthetic value of

the lighthouse (criterion e).

 

 

weather vain ,inside of lantern roof

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

lantern windows Description and condition

 

1901 French-made, cylindrical in form.

       Panes Curved rectangular glass, three tiers.

       Astragals Vertical and horizontal astragals of rectangular section iron, bolted to gutter ring at top, and to lantern base below.

       Downpipes Two copper downpipes. Four

short spitters inserted in bottom of  gutter.

       lantern windows from the inside Handholds – Three cast metal handholds bolted to each vertical astragal, except where downpipes are/were fitted.

 

 

Finish

astragals and glazing strips painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

 

Maintenance

keep in service; reglaze as necessary, prepare and repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

lantern view through windows Heritage significance: High

 

The lantern glazing is an essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

internal catwalk Description and condition

 

1901 cast iron lattice floor panels supported on solid

cast iron brackets bolted to lantern base.

       Ladder – Fixed ladder with cast iron treads on

stairs to internal catwalk wrought iron strings.

 

 

Finish

painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The internal catwalk is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development

of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast

(criterion a).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wide angle view of internal catwalk


 

 

 

 

 

 

external catwalk Description and condition

 

1901 cast iron lattice floor panels supported on openwork cast iron brackets bolted to lantern base with modern socket head bolts.

       latice of external catwalk Handrail Rectangular section metal stanchions, round topped section rail, bolted to floor panels.

 

 

Finish

painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The external catwalk is an original and essential  part of a lighthouse associatd with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The external catwalk contributes to the aesthetic

value of the lighthouse (criterion e).


 

 

 

 

 

plaque reads replacement of turret roof carried out 26/9/09 Description and condition

 

1901, cylindrical in form. Curved panels of cast iron bolted together with flanged joints.

       stairs to lantern room Internal lining Curved iron plates screwed to

the outer cast iron panels.

       Vents Horizontal slot near the middle of exterior of each panel, covered with cast metal cowl with opening in the bottom, feeding air into the void behind the internal lining. Large round copper alloy regulators below internal catwalk, small ones above.

       Door 2009, fibreglass door re-fitted with internal brass vent and door handle (a replica of original iron framed and sheeted door) hung on copper alloy hinges.

 

Finish

painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

medium – high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

door to lantern room Heritage significance: High

 

The lantern base is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

 

external door to lantern room


 

 

 

 

 

 

pedestal Description and condition

 

threshold to lantern room 1901 cast iron panels supported on rolled steel joists.

 

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

pedestal floor The lantern floor is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

 

 

 

 

lantern room floor underside of lantern room floor


 

 

 

 

 

lens Description and condition

 

Sealite SL-LED-324-W; 12 sided – 36 Light-emitting diode (LED) light source mounted on original cast iron pillar.

 

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

 

Significance

original pillar – high other parts – low

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint pillar at normal intervals.

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The pillar is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

 

lens close-up Description and condition

 

1901 Henry-Lepaute assembly of Fresnel central lenses and surrounding prisms set in gunmetal frame. A rotating bi-valve assembly.

 


Condition                 intact and sound

Integrity                    high


glass prisms of lens intervalsSignificance            high

Maintenance           keep in service, clean at normal

 


Rectification

works


none


 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The lens assembly is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated  with  the  development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The lighthouse’s Henry-Lapaute lens is the only example within Australia (criterion b; criterion f).

The lens assembly contributes to the aesthetic

glass prisms of lens value of the lighthouse (criterion e).


 

 

 

 

 

mercury pedestal Description and condition

 

1901 Henry-Lepaute mercury-float pedestal, in the form of a large cylinder supporting the mercury trough.

       Mercury trough – Cast iron circular trough, still

in service.

       Mercury float Cast iron annular float supported by mercury inside the trough. Three screw jacks are attached to the pedestal for lifting the float out of the mercury.

       Lamp platform Cast iron platform.

       signage for mercury use Drive mechanism Electric motor and gearbox. Original clock removed to ground floor.

 

 

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

plaque  The pedestal is an original and essential part of  a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pedestal’s first order mercury float mechanism is only one of six (6) found in Australian lighthouses (criterion b; criterion f).


 

 

 

 

 

 

balcony floor Description and condition

 

1901 stone slab floor, with integral gutter and spitters. Recent built up waterproof membrane. Perpend joints are aligned with the spitters, and are vulnerable to water penetration. These joints were repointed in 2008.

 

 

Finish

membrane painted; other visible

surfaces are bare stone

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

medium

Significance

high

 

 

Maintenance

keep in service, maintain paint coating and monitor for failure of membrane, replace membrane as necessary. Monitor pointing integrity in spitters

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The balcony floor is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

balcony balustrade brickwork Description and condition

 

1901 Solid stone wall of Bowral trachyte, with sunk panels and engaged piers and moulded coping showing to outside.

       balcony brickwork Finish – Bare stone.

 

 

Condition

intact and sound.

Re-pointed in 2008

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service; monitor for failure of pointing; repoint as necessary

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The balcony balustrade is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the

development of marine aids to navigation along the

NSW coast (criterion a).

The balcony balustrade contributes to the aesthetic

value of the lighthouse (criterion e).

 

 

 

balcony balustrade detail of brickwork


 

 

 

 

 

 

tower walls Description and condition

 

1901 cylindrical tower of precast concrete units with joints expressed externally.

       close up of tower walls with window Lightning conductor.

 

 

Finish

painted

 

Condition

intact and sound, some cracking showing in concrete walls just below lantern floor

Integrity

medium

Significance

high

 

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and repaint at normal intervals – monitor cracks below lantern floor for movement and ingress of water

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The walls are an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

base of tower wall The form, fabric and height of the tower walls contribute to the aesthetic value of the lighthouse (criterion e).

The walls are an early example of concrete  block

construction in Australian lighthouses (criterion  f).

 

lighthouse walls looking from ground up to the tower and the sky


 

 

 

 

 

window of tower Description and condition

 

arch window of tower 1901 cast copper alloy metal frames set into  masonry. Cast copper alloy sashes, opening inwards with copper alloy hinges and locking handles.

 

 

Finish

painted, except for inside of sashes

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The window openings are original and essential parts of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The windows contribute to the aesthetic value of the

lighthouse (criterion e).


 

 

 

 

 

 

auxiliary light in foyer Description and condition

 

Window is similar to other tower windows, except

for widely splayed embrasure.

       Beacon Tideland ML-300 self-contained fixed beacon with red lens, on a fabricated steel post.

 

 

Condition

sound and intact

Integrity

high

Significance

window – high beacon – low

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: Moderate

 

The auxiliary light is an essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

cedar door into tower foyer Description and condition

 

The door into the tower at ground floor is 1901 cedar four-panel framed door with bolection moulds and fielded panels.

       Clear glazed fanlight

       Original brass door furniture and mortise lock.

Added modern cylinder rim lock.

 

 

Finish

polished

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and

maintain polish at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

door into tower Heritage significance: High

 

The door is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The door contributes to the aesthetic value of the

lighthouse (criterion e).


 

 

 

 

 

 

bottom of stairwell Description and condition

 

1901 reinforced concrete, topping of square black and white ceramic tiles, rendered on other surfaces.

 

 

Finish

render bare

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service

Rectification

works

none

 

 

top of staircase, looking down Heritage significance: High

 

The intermediate floors are an original and  essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

 

 

 

 

 

view looking down from top floor to bottom floor, with pedestal, staircase and chequered floor chequered floor in tower foyer


 

 

 

 

 

bottom stairs Description and condition

 

1901 precast concrete, topping of slate, rendered

on other surfaces.

       bottom stairs on intermediate level Balustrade Copper alloy tubular hand rail on wrought iron balusters. Later barrier of clear plastic sheet reversibly fixed to balusters with clamps.

 

 

 

 

Finish

Render – Bare Balusters – Painted Slate treads – Bare

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and repaint

balusters at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

staircase from ground floor to intermediate floor The stairs are an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

 

ground floor balustrade Description and condition

 

1901 reinforced concrete slab, topped with black

and white square ceramic tiles.

       Clockwork mechanism – The clockwork mechanism is kept at the ground floor level adjacent to the visible clock weights to form  a display for lighthouse tours. The clockwork

mechanism has had the crank handle removed

ground floor clockwork mechanism, cedar door and writing desk and the gears fixed to make it inoperable.

 

 

Finish

ceramic tiles

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, clean at normal

intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

The ground floor is an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

 

 

 

black and white ceramic tiles, clockwork mechanism writing desk


 

 

 

 

 

weight tube looking up to intermediate floor Description and condition

 

Iron circular trunk running up the centre of the tower

from the ground floor to the lantern floor.

The curved door into the weight tube at ground floor level has been removed, and the opening covered with clear plastic sheeting to allow the clock weights to be seen.

 

 

 

Finish

painted

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, maintain and

repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

weight tube looking up to lantern room Heritage significance: High

 

The weight tube is a historic and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 

 

 

 

external pavilion wall Description and condition

 

1901 walls of pre-cast concrete units with joints

expressed externally. Rendered inside.

 

 

 

Finish

painted externally, bare internally

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and repaint

external face at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

external pavilion wall with window and portico Heritage significance: High

 

The pavilion room walls are an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pavilion room walls contribute to the aesthetic

value of the lighthouse (criterion e).

 

 

external pavilion wall


 

 

 

 

 

pavilion roof door Description and condition

 

Flat roof of reinforced concrete, topped with recent built-up waterproof membrane.

 

 

 

Finish

membrane

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

roof and parapets: high roof door: low

 

Maintenance

keep in service, monitor membrane; prepare and re-apply at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

balustrade of pavilion roof Heritage significance: High

 

The pavilion roof is an essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pavilion roof contributes to the aesthetic value

of the lighthouse (criterion e).

balustrade of pavilion roof


 

 

 

 

 

 

pavilion cedar door with arched windows Description and condition

 

1901 cedar doors.

       Entrance door Half-glazed cedar door in timber frame with sidelights and fanlight glazed with etched glass. External faces of glazing  fitted with clear plastic sheets as anti-vandalism measure.

       etched glass detail of pavilion door Room doors – 4 panel doors.

 

 

 

Finish

polished

Condition

intact and sound

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare and polish

at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

cedar door details The pavilion doors are original and essential parts of a lighthouse associated with the development  of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pavilion doors contribute to the aesthetic value

of the lighthouse (criterion e).


 

 

 

 

 

pavilion window external Description and condition

 

Early timber double hung sashes in timber frames.

 

 

 

Finish

painted

 

 

Condition

Intact and sound. Repairs and replacement of parts during the period 2009–2015. Sash cords in museum room windows reinstated in 2017

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, prepare, re-seal

and repaint at normal intervals

Rectification

works

none

 

 

Heritage significance: High

 

pavilion window internal The pavilion window openings are an essential part of a lighthouse associated with development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pavilion windows contribute to the aesthetic

value of the lighthouse (criterion e).

 

 

pavilion window external


 

 

 

 

 

 

museum room on ground floor of tower Description and condition

 

The pavilion adjoining the base of the tower is divided into three separate rooms. The foyer divides the northern and southern rooms and provides an access thoroughfare to the tower.

       Southern room – Set up as a museum, currently

being used by the tourism operator.

       detail of door threshold and ceramic tile border Northern room – Open as part of the museum,

also houses equipment.

Finish	Ceilings are painted; walls are bare masonry, floors in northern and southern rooms are painted,
foyer floor is tiled in black and white
square ceramic tiles as is tower. All timber work shelving has been prepared and clear coated.

Condition	Intact and sound.
Early settlement cracks showing from window corners on internal walls.
Integrity	high
Significance	high

Maintenance	Keep in service, prepare and repaint at normal intervals. Monitor wall cracks for movement and moisture ingress.
Rectification
works	none

Both rooms are open to the general public.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heritage significance: High                                         equipment room on ground floor

equipmen room shelves on ground floor The pavilion rooms are an original and essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).

The pavilion rooms contribute to the aesthetic value

of the lighthouse (criterion e).

Public accessibility to the pavilion rooms contributes to the social value of the lighthouse (criterion g).

Note: The curved timber desk within the pavilion    is original and listed as a moveable artefact on the Cape Byron Lightstation NSW State Heritage List.


 

 

 

 


diotropic lens on display       information on lighthouse tower

door to equipment room ,ceiling and architraves in equipment room generator ,window in equipment room

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

apron paving around pavilion Description and condition

 

1901 cast concrete paving border around lighthouse perimeter.

 

 

 

Finish

trowelled bare concrete

Condition

intact and sound with minor cracks visible

Integrity

high

Significance

high

Maintenance

keep in service, carry out minor

repairs as required

Rectification

works

none

 

 

apron paving around tower Heritage significance: High

 

The apron paving is an essential part of a lighthouse associated with the development of marine aids to navigation along the NSW coast (criterion a).


 

 

 


4.2         Related object and associated AMSA artefact

There is a collection of related objects/associated artefacts that are currently on display at the Cape Byron museum. This museum is located within the tower itself.

 

Phone in Lantern Room

 

phone in lantern room

 

 

 

Maximo ID

 

AR0624

 

Location in lighthouse

 

Mounted on the internal lantern pedestal wall.

 

Condition

 

Good condition.

 

 

Diesel lister SR3 genera

 

diesel generator

tor set Ex Cape Byron

 

Maximo ID

AR0234

Location in lighthouse

Ground floor – engine

room on plinth as a display.

Condition

Good, decommissioned

– set up at ground floor of lighthouse for tourist viewing.

 

 


4.3         Comparative analysis

In terms of design, the Cape Byron Lighthouse closely resembles that of Point  Perpendicular Light (first lit 1899) diverging only in lens and lantern manufacture. Cape Byron’s unique Henry- Lepaute lens differed from Point Perpendicular’s

1st Order Fresnel lens. Cape Byron’s mercury bath mechanism allowed the lens to revolve at a faster rate (once every 10 seconds as opposed to Pt.

Perpendicular’s rate of once every 90 seconds).

cape byron lightouse ,point perpendicular lighthouse ,norah head lighthouse

 

 

Original clockwork mec

 	hanism

Maximo ID	
	AR0688	
	Location in lighthouse	
	Ground floor inside tower
adjacent to weight tube.	
	Condition	
	Good, mechanism fixed
inoperable for public safety
– set up at ground floor of lighthouse for tourist viewing.	

Figure 17. a) Cape Byron Lighthouse (lit 1901)

b) Point Perpendicular Lighthouse (lit 1899)

c) Norah Head Lighthouse (lit 1903).


 

 

 

 

 


Cape Byron Lighthouse also shares design

similarities with Norah Head Light (first lit 1903).


Both Point Perpendicular and Norah Head were

designed by James Barnet.


 

cape byron elevation blueprint

 

Figure 18. Cape Byron elevation blueprint (1899)

 

 

point perpendicular elevation blueprint

 

Figure 19. Point Perpendicular elevation blueprint (1897)


5.   Heritage significance

 


 

5.1         Commonwealth heritage list Cape Byron Lighthouse

 

Statement of Commonwealth heritage

significance

The following statement of significance is taken from the Cape Byron Lighthouse listing on the Australian Heritage Database (Place ID: 105599):

Cape Byron Lighthouse, opened  in  1901, is significant as an important element in the establishment of marine aids to navigation along the New South Wales coast, and is important for its association with east coast

shipping since the beginning of the twentieth century. (Criterion a.) (Themes: 3.8.1 Shipping to and from Australian ports, 3.16.1 Dealing with hazards and disasters)

The Lighthouse is technically important for its early concrete block construction, for having been the first Australian  installation of a mercury float mechanism pedestal, and for being the only Henry-Lepaute optic in Australia. (Criteria f. and b.)

The Lighthouse is dramatically located on

the top of a windswept cliff and is a dominant landscape feature free of modern intrusions. It has notable aesthetic values. (Criterion e.)


The place, located at the most easterly point of the Australian mainland, is visited by large numbers of people each year and has a high profile in the public imagination. It is well known as a key whale-watching spot. Its social value is considerable. (Criterion g.)

 

 

Commonwealth heritage values – criteria

There are nine criteria for inclusion in the Commonwealth Heritage List – meeting any one of these is sufficient for listing a place. These criteria are similar to those used in other commonwealth, state and local heritage legislation, although thresholds differ. In the following sections, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is discussed in relation to each of the criteria as based on the current Commonwealth heritage listing.


 

 

 

Criterion

 

Criterion A – Processes

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia’s natural or cultural history.

Relevant attributes identified

Explanation

All of the historic fabric and detail associated with construction, personnel and operation of the Lighthouse and beacon.

Cape Byron Lighthouse, opened 1901, is significant as an important element in the establishment of marine aids to navigation along the New South Wales coast, and is

important for its association with east coast shipping since the beginning of the twentieth century.

Criterion B – Rarity

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia’s natural or cultural history.

The optical apparatus including the Henry-Lepaute optic lens and the mercury float rotating pedestal.

The Henry-Lepaute optic is the only one installed in a lighthouse in Australia.


 

 

 

 

Criterion

 

Criterion C – Information

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] importance

in demonstrating the principal characteristics of Australia’s natural or cultural history.

Relevant attributes identified

Explanation

No attributes identified

 

Criterion D – Typicality

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage values because of [their] importance

in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of Australia’s natural or cultural history.

No attributes identified

 

Criterion E – Aesthetics

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics values by a community or cultural group.

Its setting, location, and its ability to be seen from a distance free of modern intrusions.

The lighthouse is dramatically located

on the top of a windswept cliff and is dominant landscape feature free of modern intrusions. It has notable aesthetic values.

Criterion F – Achievement

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period.

Concrete block construction and

mercury float mechanism pedestal.

 

The installation of the Henry-Lepaute

optic.

The lighthouse is technically important for its early concrete block construction, and for its use of the mercury float mechanism pedestal and the Henry-Lepaute optic.

Criterion G – Community

This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] strong or

special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

Accessibility by the visiting public.

The place, located at the most easterly point of the Australian mainland, is visited by large numbers of people each year and has a high profile in the public imagination. It is well known as a key whale-watching spot. Its social value is considerable.

Criterion H – Significant people This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in Australia’s cultural history.

No attributes identified

 

Criterion I – Indigenous tradition This criterion is satisfied by places that have significant heritage value because of [their] importance as part of indigenous tradition.

No attributes identified

 


 

 

 


5.2         NSW State Heritage Register Cape Byron Lightstation

 

The following information details the Cape Byron Lightstation listing on the NSW State Heritage Register.

 

 

NSW State Heritage Register – statement of

heritage significance

The following statement is taken from the Cape Byron Lightstation listing on the NSW State heritage register (place ID: 02023):

The Cape Byron Lightstation (including moveable items) is of state heritage significance as one of the last major lightstations that completed the ‘highway of lights’ that has illuminated the NSW

coastline since the 19th century. Among the final components of the string of lights that provided protection, navigational  guidance and safe passage to the important colonial shipping industry, the Cape Byron Lightstation is a representative example of the system

of lightstations that collectively reflect the logistical management and technical evolution of coastal infrastructure in NSW.

The design and layout of the Cape Byron Lightstation is architecturally consistent with the earlier stations but implemented technical advancements, such as precast  concrete block construction and the Henry-Lepaute feu eclair lens system on a rotating mercury float mechanism, which were available at the turn  of the 20th century. Today, these aspects of the Cape Byron Lightstation are considered to be rare in NSW.

The Cape Byron Lightstation includes three original moveable items which contribute  to the significance of the site, including the 15 inch Chance Bros & Co red sector light (1889) on a cast iron pedestal; original curved timber desk (1899-1901); and clockwork winch used to drive the lens carriage (1901).


The spectacular scenery and beauty of the Cape Byron Lightstation, its siting on the most eastern point of the Australian mainland and the convergence of the natural and cultural environment on the headland is of great aesthetic significance. The  evocative  image of the tower standing against the expanse

of the Pacific Ocean resonates with the  NSW community, making the lightstation an important landmark and tourist destination in

the state. What is now a recognisable and well known image both locally and internationally, the Cape Byron Lightstation is the most highly visited lightstation in Australia.

The Cape Byron headland is also of great traditional and  contemporary  significance to the Arakwal people. As custodians of their country, the Arakwal people hold an important and active role in the joint care and management of the reserve (which incorporates the lightstation) and undertake educational initiatives at the site to promote and raise awareness of the Aboriginal

cultural heritage of the cape. Named Walgun (meaning ‘The Shoulder’), today the Cape Byron headland is a place where both the traditional and contemporary cultural of the Arakwal people is practiced and celebrated.

 

 

NSW State heritage values – criterion

Information from the table below was taken from the Cape Byron Lightstation listing on the New South Wales State heritage register (Place ID: 02023):


 

 

 

 

State Heritage Register criterion (SHR)

 

SHR Criterion A – historical significance

 

An item is important in the course, or pattern, of NSW’s cultural or natural history.

Evidence/Explanation

The Cape Byron headland is of state heritage significance:

  for its occupation by the Bundjalung people of the Byron Bay area for many thousands of years prior to European settlement. The cape and its environment provided the local aboriginal people with physical and spiritual resources which sustained both life and culture.

  as one of the last major lightstations to complete the ‘highway of lights’ along the NSW coastline. Coastal transport of produce, goods and passengers was a booming industry and critical colonial service during the mid-to-late 19th century and installing a consistent and comprehensive network of lightstations to illuminate the coastline and provide navigational guidance to the growing maritime industry was a highly ambitious project.

  with its retention, display and interpretation of the significant moveable items within the lighthouse, including the 15 inch Chance Bro & Co red sector light (1889) on a cast iron pedestal; original curved timber

desk (1899-1901); and clockwork winch used to drive the lens carriage (1901).

Ultimately successful and unique to NSW, the string of coastal lights operated throughout the 20th century and the Cape Byron Lightstation, amongst the suite of stations, continues to guide and provide safe passage to maritime industries and traffic along the NSW coastline today.

SHR Criterion B – associative

significance

 

An item has strong or special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in NSW’s cultural or natural history.

The Cape Byron headland is of local heritage significance for its

association with:

  the Bundjalung people of Byron Bay. Traditionally known as Cavanba, the cape and its environment provided the local Aboriginal people with physical and spiritual resources which sustained both life and culture, Today, this association continues with the Arakwal people who have an important role in the joint management, care and control of the Cape Byron Headland Reserve;

  Charles Assinder Harding, specialist lighthouse architect for the Harbour and River Navigation Branch of the Public Works department;

  Cecil W Darley, engineer-in-chief of the Public Works Department.

As colonial architect James Barnet had retired and the Marine Board of NSW disbanded, Harding and Darley were responsible for the design and construction of the last lightstations that would complete the ‘highway of lights’.

A significant, ambitious and ultimately successful project of Francis Hixon and Barnet in the mid-late nineteenth century, Harding designed the Cape Byron Lightstation with architectural styling that was consistent with Barnet’s earlier stations but incorporating technological advancements of the period.

In the design and construction of the Cape Byron Lightstation, Harding and Darley made an important contribution to the completion of Hixon and Barnet’s plan to illuminate the NSW coastline with lights and navigational aids.


 

 

 

State Heritage Register criterion (SHR)

 

SHR Criterion C – aesthetic significance

 

An item is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in NSW.

Evidence/Explanation

The Cape Byron Lighthouse (including moveable items) is of state heritage significance for its aesthetic and technical values.

Located within the Cape Byron Headland Reserve and sited prominently on the most eastern point of the Australian mainland, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is a relatively small but well-proportioned tower that reflects the consistent architectural design of the stations making up the ‘highway of lights’ along the NSW coastline. Retaining its unique French manufactured Henry-Lepaute first order lantern, bi-valve two panel lens and rotating mercury float mechanism, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is flanked by a compact group of simple Victorian Georgian buildings (including head keeper’s and assistant keeper’s quarters) that are visually complementary in alignment, scale, proportion and material.

It is the spectacular scenery and beauty of its location, however, that gives the Cape Byron Lightstation its great aesthetic appeal. The convergence of the natural and cultural environment and the evocative image of the tower standing against the expanse of the Pacific Ocean resonates with the NSW community, making it a landmark in the state.

Technically, the Cape Byron Lightstation is also of state heritage significance as it contains Australia’s only Henry-Lepaute lantern and optic on a rotating mercury float mechanism. Considered leading optical technology at the turn of the 20th century, this optical system is still in operation as a marine aid to navigation today and its retention is of great value to the significance of the Cape Byron Lightstation.

SHR Criterion D – social significance

 

An item has strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in NSW for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

The Cape Byron Lightstation (including moveable items) is of state heritage significance for its social values.

As well as historic social value to the Bundjalung people of Byron Bay, the Cape Byron headland has a thriving contemporary social significance for the Arakwal people. With a formal and active role in the joint care and management of the Cape Byron Headland Reserve (which incorporates the lightstation), the Arakwal people continue their custodianship of country and cultural practice on the site. Although the construction of the

lightstation destroyed traditionally sacred and cultural sites, today’s Arakwal community run educative initiatives at the headland which raise public awareness and appreciation for the Aboriginal cultural heritage of the cape. Named Walgun by the local Arakwal people (meaning the shoulder), these initiatives aim to explore the traditional ownership of the headland by the Bundjalung people and how the Aboriginal cultural heritage values of the site or not confined to the past but are flourishing due to the joint care, control and custodianship of the reserve by the Arakwal people.

The Cape Byron Lightstation is also of state heritage significance for the local, national and international visitors who value the site. Today, the Cape Byron Lightstation is the most well-known and highly visited lightstation in Australia. The dramatic location and picturesque nature of the lightstation has made the site a tourist destination and the image of the tower

standing against the dramatic coastal environment serves as a potent and resonating symbol of human activity in an often wild and treacherous environment.


 

 

 

 

State Heritage Register criterion (SHR) SHR Criterion E – research potential

An item has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of NSW’s cultural or natural history.

Evidence/Explanation

Within the Cape Byron Lightstation, there are opportunities to uncover further heritage values that may be of heritage significance.

The Cape Byron headland, more broadly, has the ability to demonstrate the occupation of the area by the Bundjalung people of Byron Bay prior to European occupation. There is recorded evidence in the area of middens, camp sites and artefact scatters, a bora ring and possible burial sites and there is further scope to elaborate on archaeological investigations of Aboriginal cultural heritage values to reveal new information on how the Bundjalung people interacted with the landscape.

Elements associated with the design, construction, early operation and occupation of the site as a lightstation may be of heritage significance.

Areas of substantial historical use which have undergone little to no disturbance (such as subfloor areas, privies and tips) may retain archaeological information.

The Cape Byron Lightstation includes the only example of a Henry- Lepaute feu éclair (lightning flasher) lens system on a rotating mercury float mechanism in Australia. Representing the best optical technology at the turn of the nineteenth century, the apparatus has technical value and could contribute to an understanding of the operation of lighthouses of the period.

SHR Criterion F – rarity

 

An item possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of NSW’s cultural or natural history.

The Cape Byron Lightstation (including moveable items) is of state heritage significance for its rarity values as it was only the second lightstation in NSW to be built of precast concrete blocks rather than the traditional stone material. Due to the success of the prototype at Point Perpendicular Lightstation in 1899 (although the first example was built at Point Hicks in Victoria in 1888) and the benefits and cost savings it made to the lighthouse construction, the design of the Cape Byron Lightstation is almost an identical copy of that constructed at Point Perpendicular.

The Cape Byron Lightstation (including moveable items) is also of state heritage significance for the rarity of its optical system. Still in operation and use today, the Henry-Lepaute 2 sided (Bi-valve) lens system on a rotating mercury float mechanism was considered to be leading optical technology of the period and its retention is of great value to the significance of the Cape Byron Lightstation.


 

 

 

 

State Heritage Register criterion (SHR)

Evidence/Explanation

SHR Criterion G – Representativeness

 

An item is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of NSW’s:

  Cultural or natural places; or

  Cultural or natural environments

The Cape Byron Lightstation (including moveable items) is of state heritage significance as a representative station along the NSW’s ‘highway of lights’, a system of navigational aids installed along the coastline in the mid-to-late 19th century. Important to the safe passage of shipping in NSW, the system of lightstations has a collective significance that reflects the logistical management for installing coastal infrastructure and the technical evolution of the stations.

There is also an architectural coherency between lightstations across NSW, particularly those designed by James Barnet as the Colonial Architect (1865-1890). Cape Byron Lightstation was designed by Barnet’s successor, Charles Assinder Harding, who contributed the strong architectural styling of Barnet while designing a tower and precinct for the Cape Byron headland that was distinctive and contemporary in its use of developing technology and construction techniques.

As a representative example, the design and compact nature of the building group at Cape Byron reflects the typical layout of regional lightstation complexes around Australia.

 

 

These heritage values, identified and explained within the Commonwealth Heritage List and the State Heritage Register, will form the basis of the management of the Cape Byron  Lighthouse.  In the event of necessary works, all criterions will be consulted to inform best practice management of the values associated with the lightstation. (See Section 7 – Conservation management policies for further information on strategies to conserve Cape Byron Lighthouse’s heritage values).


 

 

 

 


 

5.3         Condition and integrity of the Commonwealth heritage values

 

A heritage monitoring program was implemented in 2016. Each site is visited and reviewed every two years where the heritage fabric and values of the site is evaluated. Assessment of the condition and integrity of lighthouse’s values are derived from the latest available Heritage Asset Condition Report produced by AMSA’s maintenance contractor.


As a whole, the Cape Byron Lighthouse demonstrates fair-good condition. Minor  cracking is visible within the concrete walls of the tower and pavilion rooms (routine monitoring of these cracks are carried out periodically). The lighthouse also

demonstrates medium-high integrity. Some changes to the lighthouse, such as the removal/alteration of

a) the weight tube clockwork mechanism, and b) the occulting mechanism, have had a slight impact on integrity.


 

 

Criteria

 

Criterion A - Process

Attributes

Condition

Integrity

All of the historic fabric and detail associated with construction, personnel and operation of the Lighthouse and beacon.

Fair – Good

Medium – High

Criterion B – Rarity

The optical apparatus including:

 

  the Henry-Lepaute optic lens

 

  Mercury float rotating pedestal.

 

 

Good Good

 

 

High High

Criterion E – Aesthetics

It is setting, location, and its ability to be seen from a distance free of modern intrusions.

Good

High

Criterion F – Achievement

  Concrete block construction.

 

  Mercury float mechanism pedestal.

 

  The installation of the Henry-

Lepaute optic.

Good Good Good

Medium High High

Criterion G – Community

Accessibility by the visiting public.

Good

High

 

 

 

 

5.4         Gain or loss of heritage values

 

Evidence for the potential gain or loss of heritage values will be documented within this section of future versions of this heritage management plan.


6.   Opportunities and constraints

 


6.1         Implications arising from

significance

 

The statement of significance (section 5.1 above) demonstrates that the Cape Byron Lighthouse is  a place of considerable heritage value due to its contribution to the establishment of New South

Wales’ ‘highway of lights’, and its assistance to east

coast shipping at the turn of the twentieth century.

The implication arising from this assessment is that key aspects of the place should be conserved to retain this significance. The key features requiring conservation include:

       the continued use of the lighthouse as an AtoN

       the architectural quality of the building

       the Henry-Lepuate lens, and rotating  mercury

pedestal

       the moveable artefacts (Diesel lister SR3 generator ex Cape Byron, original clockwork mechanism, phone in lantern room, and original curved visitors desk)

       the interior spaces and features (which are notable for their design, details, and/or their original lighthouse function). These include:

-  North and south pavilion rooms

-  Intermediate floors

-  Ground floor

-  Spiral staircase and weight tube

-  Lantern room

-  Lens assembly

       the external spaces and features (which are notable for their design, details, and/or their original lighthouse function). These include:

-  Lantern roof and glazing

-  External catwalk, and balcony

-  Lighthouse walls, windows

-  Pavilion room walls and windows

-  Pavilion roof

-  Pavilion doors

- Apron paving


Referral and approvals of action

The EPBC Regulations 2000 requires approval from the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water,

Population and Communities for all actions likely  to have a significant impact on matters of National Environmental Significance (NES).

The Regulations provides that actions:

       taken on Commonwealth land which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment will require the approval of the Minister

       taken outside Commonwealth land which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment on Commonwealth land, will require the approval by the Minister

       taken by the Australian Government or its agencies which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment anywhere will require approval by the Minister.

The definition of ‘environment’ in the EPBC Regulations 2000 includes the cultural heritage values of places.

 

 

Heritage Strategy

If an Australian Government agency owns or controls one or more places with Commonwealth heritage values, it must prepare a heritage strategy within two years from the first time they own or control a heritage place (section 341ZA).

A heritage strategy is a written document that integrates heritage conservation and management within an agency’s overall property planning and management framework. Its purpose is to help an agency manage and report on the steps it has taken to protect and conserve the commonwealth heritage values of the properties under its ownership or control.

The heritage strategy for AMSA’s AtoN assets was completed and approved by the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment in 2018 and is available online.i


 

 

 

 

 


Heritage Asset Condition Report

A heritage asset condition report is a written document that details the heritage fabric of a site with an in-depth description of each architectural  and structural element. The document includes: a brief history of the site, the Commonwealth Heritage statement of significance and value criteria, a heritage significance rating for each individual element, and a catalogue of artefacts on-site.

The document is also accompanied by up-to-date

photos of each structural element.

 

This document operates as a tool for heritage

monitoring, and is reviewed and updated biennially.

 

 

 

6.2         Framework: sensitivity to change

 

Owing to the site’s desired intactness and aesthetic qualities, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is of high significance. Therefore, work actioned by AMSA

on the lighthouse’s fabric harnesses the potential to reduce or eradicate the significance of the site’s heritage values.

Conservation works, including restoration and reconstruction, or adaption works of the absolute minimum so as to continue the lighthouse’s usefulness as an AtoN are the only works that should be actioned by AMSA on Cape Byron Lighthouse. Some exceptions are made for health and safety requirements, however any and all work carried out must be conducted in line with heritage considerations and requirements of the EPBC Act.

The table below demonstrates the level of sensitivity attributed to the various elements of the fabric register in the face of change. These are measured on a high-moderate-low spectrum depending on the action’s possible threat to the site’s heritage values (definitions listed below).


High sensitivity

High sensitivity to change includes instances wherein a change would pose a major threat to the heritage value of a specific fabric, or the lightstation as a whole. A major threat is one that would lead to substantial or total loss of the heritage value.

 

 

Moderate sensitivity

Moderate sensitivity to change includes instances wherein a change would pose a moderate threat to the heritage value of a specific fabric, or would pose a threat to the heritage significance of a specific fabric in another part of the building. A moderate threat is one that would diminish the heritage value, or diminish the ability of an observer to appreciate the value.

 

 

Low sensitivity

 

Low sensitivity to change includes instances wherein a change would pose little to no threat to the heritage value of a specific fabric, and would pose little to no threat to heritage significance in another part of the building.


 

 

 

Component

 

Cape Byron Lighthouse structure (including pavilion buildings)

Level of sensitivity

Nature of change impacting heritage values

High

Changes to façade materials and design.

Reduction of the all-round visibility of the structure and its

setting on Cape Byron.

Low

Repainting of structure (in like colours).

Removal of asbestos/lead paint and/or other toxic materials.

Minor repairs to trowelled bare concrete apron paving.

Ground floor, and pavilion

rooms

 

High

 

Changes to façade materials and design.

 

Moderate

Permanent removal of museum objects from pavilion rooms and ground floor.

 

Low

Repainting of ground floor and pavilion rooms (in like-colours).

Stairs, and weight tube

 

High

 

Removal/replacement of stairs and weight tube.

 

Moderate

Permanent removal of clock weights from within weight

tube.

 

Low

 

Repainting of stairs and weight tube (in like colours).

Intermediate floors

 

Moderate

 

Removal of original 1901 black and white ceramic tiles.

 

Low

 

Repainting of intermediate floor levels (in like colours).

Balcony

 

High

 

Changes to façade materials and design.

 

Low

 

Repainting of balcony floor/balustrade (in like colours).

Lens assembly, pedestal, and auxiliary light

High

Removal of Henry-Lepaute lens and/or rotating mercury

bath pedestal.

Alterations to original material of lens and pedestal

(i.e. removal of mercury from pedestal).

Moderate

Building alteration that would cause obstruction of auxiliary beacon.

Low

Changing of the light’s character.

Alteration/replacement of Sealite SL-LED light source (not relating to supporting pillar).

Alteration of the auxiliary beacon.

Main light lens rotation change-out.

Lantern room

Low

Replacement of glazing.

Re-sealing of glazing.


 

 

 

 

 

6.3         Statutory and legislative requirements

The table below lists the relevant Acts, Regulations and Codes associated with the management of

AMSA’s Commonwealth heritage lightstations.

 

 

Act or Code

 

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

Description

The Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) requires agencies to prepare management plans that satisfy the obligations included in Schedule 7A and 7B of the EPBC Regulations 2000.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000

Schedule 7B

The Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Energy has determined

these principles as essential for guidance in managing heritage properties.

 

       The objective in managing Commonwealth Heritage places is to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit, to all generations, their Commonwealth Heritage values.

       The management of Commonwealth Heritage places should use the best available knowledge, skills and standards for those places, and include ongoing technical and community input to decisions and actions that may have a significant impact on their Commonwealth Heritage values.

       The management of Commonwealth Heritage places should respect all heritage values of the place and seek to integrate, where appropriate, any Commonwealth, state, territory and local government responsibilities for those places.

       The management of Commonwealth Heritage places should ensure that their use and presentation is consistent with the conservation of their Commonwealth Heritage values.

       The management of Commonwealth Heritage places should make timely and

appropriate provision for community involvement, especially by people who:

(a)  have a particular interest in, or associations with, the place; and

(b)  may be affected by the management of the place;

       Indigenous people are the primary source of information on the value of their heritage and that the active participation of indigenous people in identification, assessment and management is integral to the effective protection of indigenous heritage values.

       The management of Commonwealth Heritage places should provide for regular monitoring, review and reporting on the conservation of Commonwealth Heritage values.

AMSA Heritage Strategy 2018

As the custodian of many iconic sites, AMSA has long recognised the importance

of preserving their cultural heritage.

This Heritage Strategy is in response to section 341ZA of the EPBC Regulations which obliges AMSA to prepare and maintain a heritage strategy, along with obliging AMSA to:

       Assist in identification, assessment and monitoring of places of heritage value in its care;

       Prepare and maintain a register of its places of heritage value;

       Protect the heritage value of places when they are sold or leased;

       Provide this heritage strategy, and any subsequent major updates, to the

relevant minister.

The strategy derives from the AMSA Corporate Plan and achievements are reported through the AMSA Annual Report. The 2018-19 AMSA Annual report can be found online.j


 

 

 

Act or Code

 

Navigation Act 2012

Description

Part 5 of the Act outlines AMSA’s power to establish, maintain and inspect marine aids to navigation (such as the Cape Byron Lighthouse).

(1) AMSA may:

(a) Establish and maintain aids to navigation; and

(b) Add to, alter or remove any aid to navigation that is owned or controlled by AMSA; and

(c)   Vary the character of any aid to navigation that is owned or controlled by

AMSA.

(2) AMSA, or person authorised in writing by AMSA may, at any reasonable time

of the day or night:

(a) Inspect any aid to navigation or any lamp or light which, in the opinion of AMSA or the authorised person, may affect the safety or convenience of navigation, whether the aid to navigation of the lamp or light is the property of:

(i)   A state or territory; or

(ii)  An agency of a state or territory; or

(iii) Any other person; and

(b) Enter any property, whether public or private, for the purposes of an inspection under paragraph (a); and

(c) Transport, or cause to be transported, any good through any property, whether public or private, for any purpose in connection with:

(i)  The maintenance of an aid to navigation that is owned or controlled by AMSA; or

(ii) The establishment of any aid to navigation by AMSA.

Australian Heritage Council Act 2003

This Act establishes the Australian Heritage Council, whose functions are:

       To make assessments under Division 1A and 3A of Part 15 of the EPBC Act 1999;

       To advise the Minister on conserving and protecting places included, or being considered for inclusion, in the National Heritage List or Commonwealth Heritage List;

       To nominate places for inclusion in the National Heritage List or

Commonwealth Heritage List;

       To promote the identification, assessment, conservation and monitoring of heritage;

       To keep the Register of the National Estate;

       To organise and engage in research and investigations necessary for the

performance of its functions;

       To provide advice directly to any person or body or agency either if its own

initiative of at the request of the Minister; and

       To make reports as outlined in the Act.


 

 

 

 

Act or Code

 

New South Wales Heritage Act 1977

Description

This Act intends to:

       Promote understanding and conservation of the state’s heritage;

       Provide for identifying and registering items of state heritage significance;

       Provide for the interim protection of items, pending an assessment of their state heritage significance;

       Encourage the adaptive reuse of items of state heritage significance;

       Help owners conserve items of state heritage significance.

New South Wales Heritage

Regulation 2012

This Regulation:

       Prescribes the forms to be used and fees applicable when making applications;

       Prescribes the minimum standard of maintenance and repair of buildings, works and relics, ruins and moveable objects listed on the State Heritage Register or located in a precinct listed on the Register;

       Prescribes classes of items that are required to be entered in a Heritage and Conservation Register;

National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974

Part 4, Division 2, Section 30F: Historic Sites

 

(1) The purpose of reserving land as a historic site is to identify, protect and conserve areas associated with a person, event or historical theme, or containing a building, place, feature or landscape of cultural significance so as to enable those areas to be managed in accordance with subsection (2).

(2) A historic site is to be managed in accordance with the following principles:

a)  The conservation of places, objects, features and landscapes of cultural value,

b)  The conservation of natural values,

c)   Provision for sustainable visitor or tourist use and enjoyment that is compatible with the conservation of the historic site’s natural and cultural values,

d)  Provision for the sustainable use (including adaptive reuse) of any buildings or structures or modified natural areas having regard to the conservation of the historic site’s natural and cultural values,

1.  provision for the carrying out of development in any part of a special area in the historic site that is permitted under section 185A having regard to the conservation of the historic site’s natural and cultural values,

e)  The promotion of public appreciation and understanding of the historic site’s natural and cultural values,

f)   Provision for appropriate research and monitoring.

Building Code of Australia

The Code is the definitive regulatory resource for building construction, providing a nationally accepted and uniform approach to technical requirements for the building industry. It specifies matters relating to building work in order to achieve a range of health and safety objectives, including fire safety.

 

As far as possible, Commonwealth agencies aim to achieve compliance with the Code, although this may not be entirely possible because of the nature of and constraints provided by existing circumstances, such as an existing building.


 

 

 

 

Act or Code

Description

Work Health and Safety Act 2011

The objectives of this Act include:

 

(1)  The main object of this Act is to provide for a balanced and nationally consistent framework to secure the health and safety of workers and workplaces by:

 

a) protecting workers and other persons against harm to their health, safety and welfare through the elimination or minimisation of risks arising from work; and

 

b) providing for fair and effective workplace representation, consultation,

co-operation and issue resolution in relation to work health and safety; and

 

c) encouraging unions and employer organisations to take a constructive role in promoting improvements in work health and safety practices, and assisting persons conducting businesses or undertakings and workers to achieve a healthier and safer working environment; and

 

d) promoting the provision of advice, information, education and training in relation to work health and safety; and

 

e) securing compliance with this Act through effective and appropriate compliance and enforcement measures; and

 

f) ensuring appropriate scrutiny and review of actions taken by persons exercising powers and performing functions under this Act; and

 

g) providing a framework for continuous improvement and progressively higher standards of work health and safety; and

 

h) maintaining and strengthening the national harmonisation of laws relating to work health and safety and to facilitate a consistent national approach to work health and safety in this jurisdiction.

 

(2)  In furthering subsection (1)(a), regard must be had to the principle that workers and other persons should be given the highest level of protection against harm to their health, safety and welfare from hazards and risks arising from work as is reasonably practicable.

 

[Quoted from Division 2 of Act]

 

This has implications for the Cape Byron Lighthouse of Australia as it is related

to AMSA staff, contractors and visitors.


 

 

 

 


 

6.4         Operational requirements and occupier needs


As a working AtoN, the operational needs of the Cape Byron Lighthouse are primarily concerned with navigational requirements. Below are the operational details and requirements of the Cape Byron light as outlined by AMSA.


 

1

Objective/rationale

An AtoN is required at Cape Byron to mark the conspicuous rocky peninsular and to provide both a landfall mark from seaward and a mark for coastal navigation.

It is also required by ships to check their position in relation to the Environmentally Sensitive Sea Area (ESSA) that extends for 3 nautical miles offshore.

An auxiliary light is required to guard over Julien Rocks that lie 1.5 nautical miles offshore to the north of Cape Byron. This assists ships in navigating to charted anchorage that lies to the north west of Cape Byron.

2

Required type(s) of AtoN

A fixed structure is required to act as a day mark.

A distinctive light is required for use at night.

An additional sector light arrangement is required to mark Julien Rocks.

3

Priority/significance

An AtoN at this site is critical for the navigation of commercial ships.

4

Required measure of performance

The service performance of the AtoN must comply with the IALA Availability

Target Category 2 (99.0%)

5

Primary and secondary means (if any) of identification

The day mark must be conspicuous. The existing white masonry tower with lantern and service rooms meets this requirement.

The light must comply with the requirements of rhythmic characters of light as per the IALA Navguide. The light must have distinct characteristics that are easy to recognise and identify. The present single flashing white light every 15 seconds meets this requirement.

The auxiliary fixed red light also meets the requirement to mark the hazard of

Julien Rocks.

6

Visual range

During daytime, the AtoN structure should be visible from at least 5 nautical

miles.

At night, the white light must have a nominal range of at least 15 nautical miles

and the red light at least 8 nautical miles.

7

Radar conspicuousness

As the cape can be easily identified on radar, no additional radar enhancement is

required.

 

 

 


The existing licence between AMSA and the NPWS for tour operation within the Cape Byron Lighthouse includes additional operational requirements.

Access is required by the licencee to conduct tours inside the lighthouse tower (in-keeping with AMSA work safety requirements). The tourism licencee must comply with any requirements, notices or


orders any government agency having jurisdiction or authority in respect of the land or the use of the land.

Tourism licencees must have an adequate understanding of the site’s heritage values, and  new staff must be educated in the site’s history and significance.


 

 

 


AMSA’s goals

AMSA is responsible, under the Navigation Act 2012, for maintaining a network of marine aids to navigation around Australia’s coastline assisting mariners to make safe and efficient passages.

AMSA’s present network of approximately 480 marine aids to navigation at 385 sites includes traditional lighthouses (like the Cape Byron Lighthouse), beacons, buoys, racons, differential global positioning system, and automatic identification system stations, MET-Ocean sensors including broadcasting tide gauges, current meter, directional wave rider buoys and a weather station.

Technological developments in the area of vessel traffic management have also contributed  to increase the safety of navigation and helped  promote marine environment protection. AMSA aims to meet international standards for the reliability

of lighthouses set by the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA).

At the time of preparing this management plan, the major goal for the Cape Byron Lighthouse primarily encompassed continuing its utilisation as an AtoN (for as long as necessary), while up-keeping the appropriate maintenance to conserve and preserve the heritage values of the lightstation.

 

 

Lighthouse performance standards

AMSA aims to meet international standards for the reliability of lighthouses set by the International Association of Marine AtoN and IALA. The Cape Byron light is designated as an IALA Availability Category 2 aid to navigation (within a scale of Category 1 to Category 3, Category 1 aids are most critical). Category 2 aids have an availability target  of 99.0 per cent.

 

 

Access to the lighthouse

One practical effect of this performance standard  is that the operational equipment and structure of the light need to be kept in good repair by regular preventative maintenance and that equipment that fails while in service is repaired quickly.


Routine maintenance and emergency repairs are carried out by AMSA’s maintenance contractor.  The contractor needs to have a reliable way to get access to the site for this work, and AMSA officers also need access for  occasional  inspections  of the site including for auditing of the contractor’s performance.

 

 

 

 

6.5         Proposals for change

 

Preventative maintenance works are carried out on the lightstation to maintain its status as a working marine AtoN and to assist in the site’s conservation.

A list of  scheduled  preventative  maintenance work is identified within the 08/03/2019 AMSG site inspection report. The information provided below was taken from this report:

 

 

Maintenance description

 

 

Cape Byron main light motor no. 1 changeout

Expected maintenance date

 

31/12/2020

 

Cape Byron main light motor no. 2

changeout

 

31/12/2020

 

Cape Byron reseal glazing

 

26/05/2021

 

Cape Byron lantern room paint

 

26/05/2021

 

Cape Byron auxiliary light lantern change

 

03/02/2022

 

Cape Byron LED array replacement

 

01/06/2024

 

Cape Byron structure paint

 

01/06/2025


 

 

 

 


 

6.6         Potential pressures

 

 

In the case of Cape Byron, the mercury float mechanism found within the lighthouse tower may create a hazardous environment in the event of a spill and the release of mercury vapours. AMSA continually reviews the presence of mercury on their sites.


AMSA’s long term strategy in maintaining heritage assets incorporates the future modification of the pedestal by removing the mercury when a suitable alternative is found. At the time of preparing this management plan, no plans have been made to modify the mercury float mechanism.

The increasing amount of tourism identified at Cape Byron harnesses the potential to cause additional wear and tear to the precinct.


 

 

 


6.7         Process for decision-making


Processes for decision-making are required in the event of Incidents that impact the heritage values   of the site. The following Incidents are included due to their likelihood of occurrence at the Cape Byron Lighthouse.


 

Incident

Procedure

Damage to lighthouse’s fabric (heritage significance)

Assess extent of damage (carried out by AMSA or selected contractors)

  Seek heritage advice on restoration of heritage fabric impacted

  Identify possible loss of heritage value (at both State and Commonwealth level)

  Seek the appropriate approvals for restoration of heritage fabric impacted

  Implement best practice management of restoration work – in-keeping with the

original character of the place

  In the case of a loss of heritage value, prepare report for submission

  Update record-keeping of Incident and make available to relevant personnel.

Damage to lighthouse’s fabric (no heritage significance)

Assess extent of damage (carried out by AMSA or selected contractors)

  Identify possible impact on heritage fabric in any work carried out to restore fabric

  Implement best practice management of restoration work

  Update record-keeping of Incident and make available to relevant personnel.

Light upgrade

Assess possible loss of heritage value in the event of an upgrade

  Seek expert heritage advice on process of upgrade

  Seek heritage approvals for the upgrade of light

  Implement best practice management of light upgrade work

  Update record-keeping and make available to relevant personnel.

Modification to lighthouse (eg adding of attachment)

Assess possible obstruction to light

  Seek heritage approvals for attachment to tower

  Monitor attachment and update record-keeping.


 

 

 

Incident

 

Unforeseen discovery of

Indigenous artefacts on-site.

Procedure

  Immediate stop-work

  Notify Tweed-Byron Land Council and NPWS

  Delay work on site until artefacts have been appropriately extracted and further

investigations carried out in surrounding area

Update record-keeping of unforeseen discovery and make available to relevant

personnel

Divestment of lighthouse from

AMSA

  Transfer ownership/control of heritage assets to NSW State Government

  Terminate lease of Cape Byron site with NSW State Government

Transfer relevant records and historical information held by AMSA to the NSW Government.


 

7.   Conservation management policies

 


 

Policies

Note: The management of sensitive information is not relevant to AMSA’s heritage strategy and therefore bears no relevance in this management plan.

 

 

Fabric and setting

 

Policy 1 – Protect and conserve the significant external and internal fabric of the lightstation, including existing buildings, layout and setting.

 

AMSA’s main purpose is to facilitate ongoing operation of the site as a marine AtoN while preserving the site’s heritage values. As part of a heritage monitoring program, Heritage Asset

Condition Reports are produced for each site every two years which evaluates the condition of the heritage fabric and values. Routine servicing is also carried out by maintenance contractors. Regular written reports from these visits will be sent to AMSA for review and any work requirements identified will be scheduled accordingly.

Should for some unforeseen reason the site no longer be viable as a marine AtoN, ownership will be passed to an appropriate state of federal authority to ensure preservation of the heritage assets.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Continue scheduled periodic maintenance of the lighthouse and marine aid to navigation to ensure its condition is monitored for early warning of deterioration.

       Continue the scheduled heritage monitoring visits to Cape Byron and review Heritage Asset Condition Reports.

       Arrange for maintenance to be carried out on the lighthouse as required while continuing to operate as an AMSA marine aid to navigation.

       Continue replacement and upgrading of marine aid to navigation equipment in the lighthouse as required to meet AMSA’s service  commitment, in a manner that preserves the original fabric of the lighthouse.


       Maintain information on the heritage fabric of the lighthouse including any and all actions, treatments and inspection outcomes  within the heritage fabric register. See section 4.1 for fabric register.

       Conserve all the fabric elements identified as significant in the heritage fabric register.

       If necessary, seek expert materials conservation advice when considering repair, restoration and reconstruction of historic fabric.

       Conserve the distinctive character of the lightstation by:

– Collecting photographic evidence and

historical documentation of the original fabric.

 

 

Uses

 

Policy 2 – Install and operate equipment in the lighthouse, so that it continues to function as  an effective marine aid to navigation, in such a way as to impose the least possible harm to the significant fabric.

 

Cape Byron Lighthouse’s utilisation as a working marine aid to navigation is of high priority. The carrying out of maintenance (including upgrades to navigational equipment) is necessary to its function and to the continuation of marine safety along the NSW coast. In the event of the installation and/or upgrade to AtoN equipment, proper precaution will be taken to ensure the least possible harm is done to significant fabric.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Monitor Cape Byron’s AtoN equipment and propose maintenance in the instance of necessary installation/removal.

       Outline all possible risks to significant fabric (external and internal) associated with the installation/removal/operation of navigational equipment.

       Ensure works carried out are those that ensure

the least possible harm to significant fabric.


 

 

 


       When necessary, seek expert heritage conservation advice on best practice management of the site during installation/ removal/operation of AtoN equipment.

 

 

Policy 3 – Monitor possible impacts to the site resulting from tourism, and control appropriate access to the lighthouse for contractors and visitors.

 

The Cape Byron Lighthouse attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year and its location and layout allows relatively easy  public  access  both night and day. Although access inside the lighthouse is restricted to authorised personnel only (for  example contractors, AMSA employees), official tour groups also oversee the admittance of tourists from sunrise to sunset. AMSA personnel and contractors require easy access inside the lighthouse precinct and tower for periodical site visits to carry out inspections and routine maintenance.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Ensure control on access to all buildings within the precinct is maintained by periodically inspecting restricted-access areas on the precinct and enforcing security checks.

       Inspect lighthouse for signs of wear and tear attributed to visitor intake.

       The maintenance of the light holds priority over official tours being conducted inside the lighthouse (some delays in the tour guide

service may be required during inspections and

routine maintenance).

       Ensure access to the lightstation complies with workplace health and safety measures.

       Ensure general admittance inside the  lighthouse

is managed and monitored by NPWS.


Interpretation

 

 

Policy 4 – Accurate and relevant interpretation of the history and significance of the place should be made available to site users/visitors and for offsite external research.

 

 

AMSA will continue to have this information available through the maintenance of site interpretive signage and via its publicly accessible website.

Implementation strategy:

 

       All relevant information concerning the history and significance of the place will be checked for accuracy and updated appropriately.

       Information will be presented in the form of on- site interpretative signage and online resource files accessible to both relevant personnel and the general public.

       This information will be maintained and updated in accordance with changes to the history and significance of the place.

 

 

Management

 

Policy 5 – AMSA will continue to conserve the lighthouse in accordance with Commonwealth and NSW State listing requirements.

 

For work’s requiring heritage approval, AMSA will obtain permission from any relevant state or federal authorities. Conservation works will be undertaken as required.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Liaise with the relevant federal agencies when proposing work on the site.

       Approval in writing must be granted for any proposals for development.


 

 

 

 


 

Policy 6 – The cultural significance of the lightstation will be the basis for deciding how to manage it.

 

The heritage values (cultural significance) of

the place are to be conserved. This heritage management plan includes relevant background information to support this policy – in particular Section 3. ‘History’ above.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Conserve the lightstation to protect its heritage

values (cultural significance).

       When possible, strive to maintain the original

fabric of the lightstation.

       Utilise the Burra Charter as the primary guide for the treatment of fabric.

       Engage appropriately qualified heritage consultants when making decisions regarding impact on heritage values.

       Assess impacts on the heritage values of the place when considering proposed alterations or adaptations.

 

 

Policy 7 – Monitor, review and report the Commonwealth heritage values of the lightstation every five years or sooner if major changes to the lightstation occur.

 

The Commonwealth heritage values of the lighthouse are to be monitored and reported on a regular basis. A Heritage Asset Condition  report is updated for Cape Byron Lighthouse every two

years which records historical information, condition, and maintenance requirements for fabric within the lighthouse to ensure a gain and/or loss of heritage value is identified.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Regularly monitor the lightstation for possible impacts on the identified Commonwealth heritage values.


       Review the current Commonwealth heritage values at least once every five years and assess any gain/loss of values.

       This review must be undertaken in the event of any major alterations to the lightstation.

       Report any changes to the Commonwealth heritage values of the lightstation.

       Update AMSA’s Heritage Strategy and this plan

to reflect any changes identified.

 

       Review and update Heritage Asset Condition Report biennially.

 

 

Policy 8 – Maintain historical, management and maintenance records within AMSA and make available these records.

 

As part of the proper process for managing change  in significant places, the Burra Charter points out the importance of making records before any change, and advocates placing records in a permanent archive, and making them available where this

is appropriate. AMSA’s collection of records, which include documents pertaining to heritage intervention, management and maintenance, are

subjected to this process. Heritage Asset Condition Reports are routinely generated for each heritage lighthouse and are stored in AMSA’s record-keeping system. AMSA will continue to practice such processes via their records management systems.

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Maintain, review and update records through

existing AMSA record management system.

       Ensure records can be made available to the relevant personnel and parties.


 

 

 


Policy 9 – Provide appropriate training and resources to all relevant AMSA staff, contractors and licencees.

 

The management of a heritage place is outlined within the statutory requirements of the EPBC Act and EPBC Regulations. In order to ensure best practice management of AMSA-operated

lighthouses, all staff, contractors and licencees are required to have access to the appropriate training and resources in order to provide best practice conservation of the site.

 

 

Implementation strategy:

 

       Provide staff, contractors and licencees access to up-to-date versions of the AMSA heritage strategy, heritage management plans and fabric registers.

 

       AMSA representatives will attend commonwealth-run heritage workshops, programs and conferences for up-to-date information on statutory requirements and best practice management of sites of national and state heritage significance.

 

       All current and incoming tour guides operating within AMSA lighthouses will be required  to take the lighthouse tour guide safety induction e-learning module once every two years to stay informed on visitor safety and lighthouse duty- of-care and the site’s heritage values.