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CASA 02/20 Instructions as made
This instrument contains instructions for the use of the Global Navigation Satellite System in certain aircraft operations, and remakes instrument number CASA 27/16, Instructions —Use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The instrument has been revised to reflect the latest international requirements for aircraft operations in the North Atlantic High Level Airspace (NAT HLA), which have been imposed by the foreign aviation regulators in the various foreign jurisdictions that comprise NAT HLA, and are contained in the incorporated document titled North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual, issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN agency that publishes international standards for civil aviation.
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 15
Registered 29 Jan 2020
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR04-Feb-2020
Tabled Senate04-Feb-2020
To be repealed 25 Mar 2021
Repealed by Self Repealing

Instrument number CASA 02/20

I, CHRISTOPHER PAUL MONAHAN, Executive Manager, National Operations & Standards, a delegate of CASA, make this instrument under regulations 174D and 179A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.

[Signed Christopher P. Monahan]

Christopher P. Monahan
Executive Manager, National Operations & Standards

28 January 2020

CASA 02/20 — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Instructions 2020

1          Name of instrument

                 This instrument is CASA 02/20 — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Instructions 2020.

2          Duration

                 This instrument:

(a)   commences on 31 January 2020; and

(b)   is repealed immediately after the commencement of the Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Part 91) Regulations 2018.

3          Instructions

        (1)     I issue the instructions in subsection (2) and Schedule 1.

        (2)     To avoid doubt, for regulations 174D and 179A of CAR, for the pilot in command of an aircraft, to which Schedule 1 applies, to use the GNSS, the pilot is instructed to:

(a)   carry the GNSS systems required for compliance with Schedule 1; and

(b)   navigate, or positive position fix, the aircraft in accordance with each applicable requirement and condition in Schedule 1.

Schedule 1          Instructions

Note   In this Schedule, certain terms and expressions have the same meaning as they have in the Civil Aviation Act 1988 and the regulations. These include: AIP, aircraft, air traffic control, airborne collision avoidance system, CASA, Chicago Convention, data service provider, EASA, ETSO, FAA, flight, flight crew, flight level, flight plan, ICAO, lowest safe altitude, operator, pilot in command, positive position fix, required navigational performance, TSO, and V.F.R.

1          Definitions

     (1)     In this Schedule:

ACAS II means an airborne collision avoidance system that provides resolution advisories and traffic advisories.

approved database means a database:

(a)   supplied by a person who:

             (i)  is a data service provider; or

            (ii)  has received a Type 1 LOA from either EASA or FAA relevant to the navigation database being supplied; and

(b)   on a medium approved by the manufacturer of the GNSS receiver as suitable for use with the receiver; and

(c)   incapable of modification by the operator or flight crew of an aircraft in which it is installed.

Note   A CASR Part 175 approval equates to an EASA or FAA Type 1 LOA.

area navigation or RNAV means a method of navigation which permits an aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage or the limits of capability of:

(a)   ground-based or space-based navigation aids (NAVAIDS); or

(b)   self-contained aids; or

(c)   a combination of the aids mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b).

Note   Area navigation includes performance-based navigation as well as other area navigation operations that do not meet the definition of performance-based navigation.

area navigation operations means aircraft operations using area navigation for the application of area navigation specifications, and includes the use of area navigation for operations which are not authorised under CAO 20.91 or Part 91.U of CASR.

area navigation system means a navigation system that permits an aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of station-referenced NAVAIDS or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.

Note   An area navigation system may be included as part of a flight management system.

ATC means air traffic control.

ATS means air traffic service, as defined in section 4 of the Air Services Regulations 2019.

automatic dependent surveillance — contract (ADS‑C) has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

CAO 20.91 means Civil Aviation Order 20.91 (Instructions and directions for performance-based navigation) Instrument 2014.

CASA 33/18 means CASA 33/18 — Required Communication Performance and Required Surveillance Performance (RCP 240 and RSP 180) Capability Declarations — Direction 2018.

Controller-pilot datalink communication (CPDLC) has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

en route aircraft means an aircraft engaged in an oceanic, remote area or domestic en route phase of flight.

FANS 1/A has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

GPS means the United States Department of Defence satellite navigation system known as the Global Positioning System.

ground-based navigation aid means:

(a)   a non-directional beacon (NDB); or

(b)   a VHF omni-directional radio range (VOR); or

(c)   distance-measuring equipment (DME).

minimum equipment list (MEL) has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

NAT Data Link Mandate means the North Atlantic Data Link Mandate, within the meaning of NAT Doc 007.

NAT Doc 007 means the document titled North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual, dated July 2019, published by ICAO, as it exists from time to time.

Note   A copy of Nat Doc 007 is available at www.icao.int/EURNAT.

NAT HLA means the North Atlantic High Level Airspace, being the volume of airspace described in paragraph 1.1.1 of Nat Doc 007.

Note   The routes and structures within NAT HLA are set out in Figure 3-1 of Nat Doc 007.

performance-based communications and surveillance (PBCS) has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

RAIM means Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring or another method of monitoring satellite signals approved by CASA, in writing, under regulation 79A of CAR.

RAIM loss means an indication that the RAIM system is unable to monitor compliance with the applicable horizontal integrity limit.

RAIM warning means an indication that the RAIM system has detected an anomalous condition causing position uncertainty to exceed the applicable horizontal integrity limit.

RCP 240 has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

resolution advisory means an alert providing information to a pilot in command of an aircraft on how to modify, or otherwise regulate, the vertical speed of the aircraft to avoid a potential mid-air collision.

RNP means required navigational performance.

RSP 180 has the meaning given by section 3 of CASA 33/18.

RVSM means reduced vertical separation minimum and is the reduction of vertical space between aircraft from 2 000 ft to 1 000 ft at flight levels from 29 000 ft to 41 000 ft, in order to increase airspace capacity and give access to more fuel-efficient flight levels.

space-based navigation aid means a navigation system in which the user receives information from a satellite-based transmitter.

traffic advisory means an alert providing information to a pilot in command of an aircraft that warns of the presence of another aircraft that may become a collision threat.

Type 1 LOA has the meaning given by paragraph 4.2 of CAO 20.91.

     (2)     In this Schedule, the applicable horizontal integrity limit is:

(a)   in an en route phase of flight — 2 nautical miles; or

(b)   within 30 nautical miles of the departure or destination aerodrome (GNSS terminal mode) — 1 nautical mile; or

(c)   during an approach — 0.3 nautical mile.

2        Application

     (1)     These instructions are not applicable to operations conducted under CAO 20.91 or Part 91U of CASR.

     (2)     This Schedule applies to the following levels of GNSS equipment specification:

(a)   TSO C129/C129a, as it exists at the commencement of this instrument;

(b)   TSO C145a/C146a or later version;

(c)   TSO C196a or later version;

(d)   ETSO C129a, as it exists at the commencement of this instrument;

(e)   ETSO C145/C145c or later version;

(f)    ETSO C146/C146c or later version;

(g)   ETSO C196a or later version;

(h)   TSO C115 or ETSO C115, as it exists at the commencement of this instrument, for multi-sensor navigation systems where the primary input sensor is GNSS meeting any of the requirements of paragraphs (a) to (g).

Note   Where the equivalent levels of RNP capability can be demonstrated, the same level of approval may be given by CASA.

3        Use of GNSS

     (1)     The pilot in command may use GNSS in accordance with these instructions as a navigation system for:

(a)   an oceanic, remote continental area, or domestic en route, phase of flight; or

(b)   operations in NAT HLA, in accordance with NAT Doc 007; or

(c)   V.F.R. operations.

     (2)     For an operation mentioned in subclause (1), the operator must ensure that the aircraft meets the equipment requirements set out in:

(a)   1 or more of the levels of GNSS equipment specification mentioned in subclause 2 (2); and

(b)   Table 1 for the operation.

Note   Table 1 contains mandatory requirements, as well as options and recommendations.

4          Procedures for using GNSS for oceanic, remote continental area, or domestic en route, phase of flight

     (1)     The pilot in command may use GNSS as a navigation aid for descent below the relevant lowest safe altitude (LSALT) or minimum safe altitude (MSA) only in accordance with:

(a)   CAO 20.91; or

(b)   clause 7 or 8 of this Schedule.

     (2)     The pilot in command may use a navigation database that is not current provided that:

(a)   any data used for the navigation of the aircraft is verified as correct by checking it against other current aeronautical information, for example, maps and charts carried in the aircraft in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR; and

(b)   if the navigation system affected by the out-of-date navigation data has a radio updating capability — the radio updating capability has been deselected.

     (3)     The pilot in command may use GNSS with data that has been manually entered in a database only if the data entries:

(a)   have been crosschecked for accuracy by at least 2 flight crew members; or

(b)   for a single-pilot operation — have been checked independently against other current aeronautical information, such as maps and charts carried in the aircraft in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR.

     (4)     The pilot in command of an en route aircraft must ensure that GNSS-derived position and tracking information is checked:

(a)   at, or before, each compulsory reporting point designated under regulation 158 of CAR; and

(b)   at, or before, each en route waypoint; and

(c)   at hourly intervals during area navigation; and

(d)   after the insertion of new data relating to the flight, such as a new flight plan or alteration of an existing flight plan.

     (5)     The pilot in command may use GNSS as a navigation aid for an oceanic, or remote continental area, phase of flight if:

(a)   the GNSS equipment has fault detection and exclusion (FDE) capability in accordance with:

             (i)  FAA Notice 8110.60, as it exists at the commencement of this instrument; or

            (ii)  FAA Advisory Circular 20‑138A, Appendix 1 or later version; or

           (iii)  TSO C145/TSO C146 or later version; or

           (iv)  ETSO C145/C146 or later version; or

            (v)  TSO C196 or later version; or

           (vi)  ETSO C196a or later version; and

(b)   an appropriate en route prediction analysis conducted before the flight ensures that GNSS availability will provide a useable service.

5          Use of GNSS in V.F.R. operations

     (1)     GNSS may be used under the V.F.R.:

(a)   to supplement map reading and other visual navigation techniques; or

(b)   for area navigation operations at night — for:

             (i)  position fixing and long-range navigation in accordance with AIP Part 2, En Route (ENR) 1.1, General Rules, Navigation requirements; or

            (ii)  operations on designated area navigation (RNAV or RNP) routes, including application of route designated LSALT; or

           (iii)  deriving distance information for en route navigation, traffic separation and ATC separation; or

           (iv)  meeting the night V.F.R. requirements for radio navigation systems mentioned in AIP Part 1, General (GEN) 1.5, Aircraft Instruments, Equipment and Flight Documents, Radio Navigation Systems, and the alternate aerodrome requirements in accordance with AIP ENR 1.1, General Rules.

Note   ATC may apply area navigation-based separation standards to aircraft meeting the requirements for night V.F.R. RNAV.

     (2)     If GNSS is used for night V.F.R. RNAV applications, the flight crew must be appropriately qualified.

6          Operating without RAIM on domestic en route phase of flight

     (1)     If there is RAIM loss or loss of integrity on a domestic en route phase of a flight while using GNSS, the pilot in command must:

(a)   monitor the aircraft’s track by reference to other navigation aids with which the aircraft is equipped; or

(b)   carry out procedures appropriate to the loss of navigation equipment.

     (2)     If the pilot in command of an aircraft on a domestic en route phase of flight is using GNSS within a control area, he or she must advise ATS if:

(a)   there is RAIM loss or loss of integrity for more than 5 minutes; or

(b)   RAIM or data integrity is not available when ATS requests the provision of GNSS-derived information; or

(c)   RAIM or data integrity is not available when ATS grants a clearance or imposes a requirement, based on GNSS-derived information; or

(d)   the GNSS receiver is in dead reckoning mode, or experiences loss of its navigation function, for more than 1 minute; or

(e)   the indicated displacement of the aircraft from the centreline of its track is found to exceed 2 miles (but not if the indicated displacement briefly exceeds 2 miles during waypoint transitions).

     (3)     If valid position information is lost, with the GNSS receiver being placed in 2‑dimensional or dead reckoning mode, or if there is RAIM loss for more than 5 minutes, the pilot in command must use another means of navigation until RAIM is restored and the aircraft is re-established on track.

     (4)     If RAIM has been lost for more than 5 minutes, the pilot in command:

(a)   must not use GNSS-derived information or supply it to ATS; and

(b)   after RAIM is restored — must notify ATS before using or supplying information of that kind.

     (5)     After RAIM or data integrity is restored, the pilot in command must notify ATS of the restoration before GNSS-derived information is used.

   (6)     When advising ATS of the loss for more than 5 minutes of RAIM or of its subsequent restoration, the pilot in command must use the expression “RAIM failure” or “RAIM restored”.

     (7)     If GNSS-derived information is supplied to ATS when RAIM has been unavailable for less than 5 minutes, the pilot in command must conclude the report with the expression “Negative RAIM”.

7          Use and supply of GNSS-derived distance information

     (1)     This clause applies if the pilot in command is using GNSS.

     (2)     If ATS asks for distance information without specifying the source of the information, the pilot in command may provide GNSS-derived distance information.

     (3)     If ATS asks for a DME distance, the pilot in command may provide GNSS‑derived distance information instead if a DME distance is not available.

     (4)     When supplying GNSS-derived distance information to ATS, the pilot in command must include the source and the point of reference.

Examples   “115 GPS ML VOR”, “80 GPS CTM NDB”, “267 GPS BEEZA”.

     (5)     The pilot in command must only supply GNSS-derived distance information:

(a)   by reference to waypoints and navigation aids shown in maps and charts carried in the aircraft in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR; and

(b)   from a current approved database.

8          GNSS arrivals and DME arrivals

     (1)     The pilot in command may use GNSS in a GNSS arrival, or a DME arrival only if:

(a)   the coordinates of the destination VOR or NDB to which the procedure relates are obtained from a current approved database; and

(b)   RAIM or data integrity is available at the time of descending below the applicable LSALT or MSA.

     (2)     During a GNSS arrival, or DME arrival, the pilot in command must:

(a)   use the destination VOR or NDB to provide the primary track guidance; and

(b)   if there is a significant disparity between the track guidance provided by the destination VOR or NDB and the GNSS track indication — discontinue the arrival procedure.

     (3)     If, at any time during the approach, there is doubt as to the validity of the GNSS information, or if GNSS integrity is lost, the pilot must conduct a missed approach.

Note   For example, an RAIM warning may cast doubt as to the validity of the GNSS information, and GNSS integrity may be lost if RAIM is not available.

     (4)     For this clause, a significant disparity is:

(a)   for an NDB — a divergence of more than 6.9°; and

(b)   for a VOR — a divergence of more than 5.2°.

9          GNSS navigation equipment standards

     (1)     A GNSS receiver must be installed in an Australian aircraft in accordance with:

(a)   if fitted before 2 November 2005 — CAAP 35-1 or Advisory Circular (AC) 21-36; or

(b)   if fitted on or after 2 November 2005 — AC 21-36; or

(c)   for multi-sensor systems — AC 21-37; or

(d)   a design that provides an equivalent level of safety and that is:

             (i)  approved in writing, by CASA or an authorised person, under Part 21 of CASR; or

            (ii)  acceptable to CASA as conforming to the requirements for technical data under Part 21 of CASR.

     (2)     The automatic barometric aiding options as specified in TSO C129a, C145a, C146a or C196a or later versions, if provided in the GNSS unit, must be connected.

10        NAT HLA operations

     (1)     All operations in NAT HLA must be approved by CASA in writing.

     (2)     For approval to operate in NAT HLA, an operator must demonstrate compliance with all relevant requirements in Nat Doc 007, and demonstrate:

(a)   that the aircraft is

             (i)  approved by CASA, in writing, for RVSM, and RNP 10 or RNP 4; or

            (ii)  approved by another entity for RVSM, and RNP 10 or RNP 4, under an approval that is recognised by CASA; and

(b)   the aircraft is equipped with:

             (i)  FANS 1/A avionics supporting CPDLC and ADS-C data link applications for operations in specific portions of NAT HLA, as specified in the NAT Data Link Mandate; and

Note   Currently the NAT Data Link Mandate incorporates FL350 to FL390.

            (ii)  ACAS II, in accordance with Annex 6 to the Chicago Convention, as existing at the time this instrument commences; and

           (iii)  radiocommunication equipment that is required for compliance with Nat Doc 007; and

(c)   the adequacy of the following for flight operations:

             (i)  flight crew training for, and competency in conducting, NAT HLA operations;

            (ii)  pre‑departure procedures;

           (iii)  en route procedures;

           (iv)  post-flight procedures; and

(d)   that records of the continuing airworthiness of onboard equipment have been kept up‑to‑date; and

(e)   that information relevant to required onboard equipment is included in the MEL.

Note   Special arrangements exist for non‑NAT HLA or non‑RVSM approved aircraft, as detailed in NAT Doc 007.

     (3)     In addition to the requirements set out in subclause (2), the following requirements apply to operations in NAT HLA, for which PBCS is prescribed:

(a)   the aircraft must be:

             (i)  approved by CASA, in writing, for RNP 4; or

            (ii)  approved by another entity for RNP 4, under an approval that is recognised by CASA;

(b)   the aircraft’s operator must be authorised to declare, under section 6 of CASA 33/18, that the aircraft has:

             (i)  RCP 240 capability for CPDLC; and

            (ii)  RSP 180 capability for ADS-C.

Note   CASA 33/18 provides directions for operators to assess their compliance with the relevant requirements and declare that an aircraft has RCP 240 and RNP 180 capabilities. Further guidance material on PBCS can be found in AC 91‑06v1.0.


Table 1     Equipment requirements                                                                                                   (subclause 3 (2))

Phase of flight

Equipment requirement

Automatic barometric aiding

Manually entered data

RAIM prediction service

Loss RAIM

Alternate requirements

Visual navigation

Any GNSS receiver may be used

If GNSS receiver is installed, barometric aiding must be connected if the receiver has the capability

Permitted

Recommended

Not applicable

Not applicable

Night V.F.R. RNAV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Night V.F.R. RNAV (continued)

Any of the following TSOed equipment:

C129
C129a
C145a
C146a
C196a

Equivalent equipment may be approved

Must be connected if receiver has the capability

1  Crosschecked by at least 2 crew members

2  In single-pilot operations, crosschecked against other aeronautical information such as current maps and charts carried in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR

Recommended

1  Monitor the aircraft’s track by reference to other navigation aids with which the aircraft is equipped

2  Advise ATS and use an alternative means of navigation if there is RAIM loss or loss of integrity for more than 5 minutes

3  Use the phrases “RAIM failure” and “RAIM restored” as appropriate to advise ATS of RAIM status when required

4  Advise ATS if RAIM is not available when ATS requests GNSS‑derived information

 

5  Use the phrase “negative RAIM” to indicate that the position is based on non‑RAIM information

6  Advise ATS if RAIM or data integrity is not available when ATS grants a clearance or gives instructions based on GNSS‑derived information

7  Advise ATS if the GNSS receiver is in dead reckoning mode for more than 1 minute

8  Advise ATS if the indicated displacement of the aircraft from the centreline of its track is found to exceed 2 miles

Not applicable

Oceanic RNAV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oceanic RNAV
(continued)

Any 2 of the following TSOed equipment with FDE and certified as compliant with FAA Notice 8110.60:

C129
C129a
C145a
C146a
C196a

Must be connected if receiver has the capability

RNAV

1  Crosschecked by at least 2 crew members

2  In single-pilot operations, crosschecked against other aeronautical information such as current maps and charts carried in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR

Mandatory

RNAV

1  Monitor the aircraft’s track by reference to other navigation aids with which the aircraft is equipped

2  Advise ATS and use an alternative means of navigation if there is RAIM loss or loss of integrity for more than 5 minutes

3  Use the phrases “RAIM failure” and “RAIM restored” as appropriate to advise ATS of RAIM status when required

4  Advise ATS if RAIM is not available when ATS requests GNSS‑derived information

5  Use the phrase “negative RAIM” to indicate that the position is based on non-RAIM information

6  Advise ATS if RAIM or data integrity is not available when ATS grants a clearance or gives instructions based on GNSS‑derived information

7  Advise ATS if the GNSS receiver is in dead reckoning mode for more than 1 minute

8  Advise ATS if the indicated displacement of the aircraft from the centreline of its track is found to exceed 2 miles

 

NAT HLA

Dual Long Range Navigation Systems

Must be connected if receiver has the capability

RNAV

1  Crosschecked by at least 2 crew members

2  In single-pilot operations, crosschecked against other aeronautical information such as current maps and charts carried in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of CAR

Mandatory

As required for navigation systems failure in NAT Doc 007

Not applicable