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Part 139 (Aerodromes) Manual of Standards 2019

Authoritative Version
Standards/Other as made
This instrument sets out the standards for the construction, maintenance and operation of certified aerodromes, and the standards for radio communications facilities at all aerodromes.
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Cities and Regional Development
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 15
Registered 06 Sep 2019
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR11-Sep-2019
Tabled Senate12-Sep-2019
Table of contents.

 

Part 139 (Aerodromes) Manual of Standards 2019

 

I, GRAEME MILLS CRAWFORD, Acting Director of Aviation Safety, on behalf of CASA, make this instrument under regulation 139.005 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998, and section 4 of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

[Signed G.M. Crawford]

Graeme M. Crawford
Acting Director of Aviation Safety

5 September 2019


 


Contents

Note   This Table of Contents is not part of the Part 139 (Aerodromes) Manual of Standards 2019 (the MOS). It is for guidance only and may be modified or edited in any published version of this instrument. See section 1.09 of the MOS.

Page

 

CHAPTER 1....... PRELIMINARY.. 1

Division 1.............. General 1

1.01      Name. 1

1.02      Commencement 1

1.03      Purpose. 1

1.04      Application. 1

1.05      Conflict between this MOS and an incorporated document 1

1.06      Tables, Figures and Notes. 1

1.07      References to ICAO and other documents. 2

1.08      References to intended, nominated, preferred and “should” in a Note. 2

1.09      Table of Contents. 3

Division 2.............. Empowerments. 4

1.10      General power to make a Part 139 Manual of Standards. 4

1.11      Specific regulations for which MOS provisions have been made. 4

CHAPTER 2....... APPLICATION OF STANDARDS. 8

2.01      Definitions. 8

2.02      Application — new aerodromes. 9

2.03      Application — Chapter 22. 9

2.04      Application — existing aerodromes etc. 9

2.05      Directions to upgrade a part of an existing aerodrome or facility. 10

2.06      Non-application of the standards. 11

CHAPTER 3....... DEFINITIONS ETC. 12

3.01      Definitions etc. 12

CHAPTER 4....... AERODROME REFERENCE CODE AND DETERMINATION OF AERODROME STANDARDS. 29

4.01      Aerodrome Reference Code. 29

CHAPTER 5....... AERODROME INFORMATION FOR THE AIP AND THE AERODROME MANUAL   31

Division 1.............. Information. 31

5.01      Information for the AIP through an AIS provider 31

5.02      Information to be included in aerodrome manual 31

5.03      Aerodrome information. 31

5.04      Movement area information. 32

5.05      Visual aids. 33

5.06      Navigation aids. 34

5.07      Rescue and firefighting services. 34

5.08      Ground services. 34

5.09      Aerodrome operational procedures. 35

Division 2.............. Standards for information. 36

5.10      Standards for information published in the AIP through an AIS provider 36

5.11      Standards for information to be included in aerodrome manual 36

5.12      Movement area – runways – declared distances information. 36

5.13      Movement area — taxiways. 39

5.14      Movement area — aprons. 40

5.15      Visual aids. 40

5.16      Navigation aids. 41

5.17      Additional hazard information. 41

CHAPTER 6....... AERODROME PLANNING, DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE — PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOVEMENT FACILITIES. 42

Division 1.............. Runways. 42

6.01      Location of runway threshold. 42

6.02      Runway width. 42

6.03      Runway turn pad and runway bypass pad. 43

6.04      Runway starter extension. 45

6.05      Parallel runways. 45

6.06      Runway longitudinal slope. 46

6.07      Runway sight distance. 47

6.08      Transverse slopes on runways. 48

6.09      Runway surface. 49

6.10      Runway bearing strength. 51

6.11      Runway shoulders. 51

6.12      Characteristics of runway shoulders. 52

6.13      Transverse slope on runway shoulder 52

6.14      Provision of runway strip. 52

6.15      Composition of runway strip. 53

6.16      Runway strip length. 53

6.17      Runway strip width. 53

6.18      Longitudinal slope on graded area of runway strip. 54

6.19      Longitudinal slope changes on graded area of runway strip. 55

6.20      Radio altimeter operating area. 55

6.21      Runway strip transverse slope. 55

6.22      Surface of graded area of runway strips. 56

6.23      Composition of runway strips. 56

6.24      Objects or structures on runway strips. 56

6.25      Runway strip availability. 57

6.26      Runway end safety area (RESA) 57

6.27      Clearways. 58

6.28      Location of clearways. 58

6.29      Dimensions of clearways. 58

6.30      Slopes on clearways. 58

6.31      Objects or structures on clearways. 58

6.32      Stopways. 59

6.33      Dimensions of stopways. 59

6.34      Surface of stopways. 59

6.35      Stopway slopes and slope changes. 59

6.36      Bearing strength of stopways. 59

Division 2.............. Taxiways. 60

6.37      Taxiway width. 60

6.38      Taxiway edge clearance. 61

6.39      Taxiway curves. 61

6.40      Taxiway longitudinal slope. 61

6.41      Taxiway transverse slope. 62

6.42      Taxiway sight distance. 62

6.43      Taxiway bearing strength. 63

6.44      Taxiway shoulders. 63

6.45      Width of taxiway shoulders. 63

6.46      Surface of taxiway shoulders. 63

6.47      Taxiway strips. 64

6.48      Width of taxiway strip. 64

6.49      Width of graded area of taxiway strip. 65

6.50      Slope of taxiway strip. 65

6.51      Objects or structures on a taxiway strip. 65

6.52      Taxiways on bridges. 66

6.53      Taxiway minimum separation distances. 66

Division 3.............. Holding bays, runway holding positions, intermediate holding positions  and road‑holding positions. 70

6.54      Provision of a holding bay, runway holding position, intermediate holding position and road‑holding position  70

6.55      Location of a holding bay, runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road‑holding position  70

6.56      Distance from runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road‑holding position, to runway centreline. 70

Division 4.............. Aprons. 72

6.57      Location of apron. 72

6.58      Separation distances on aprons. 72

6.59      Alternative aircraft parking position separation. 73

6.60      Slopes on aprons. 73

6.61      Apron bearing strength. 74

6.62      Apron roads. 74

Division 5.............. Blast and wash from aircraft propulsion systems. 75

6.63      General 75

6.64      Jet blast, propeller wash and rotor wash air velocity. 75

Division 6.............. Glider facilities. 76

6.65      General 76

6.66      Dimensions of glider runway strips. 76

6.67      Glider parking areas. 77

6.68      Glider runway strip standards. 77

CHAPTER 7....... OBSTACLE RESTRICTION AND LIMITATION.. 78

Division 1.............. General 78

7.01      Introduction. 78

7.02      Obstacle restriction area. 78

Division 2.............. Obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) 79

7.03      Introduction. 79

7.04      Reference elevation datum.. 79

7.05      Outer horizontal surface of the OLS. 79

7.06      Conical surface. 79

7.07      Inner horizontal surface. 80

7.08      Approach surface. 81

7.09      Transitional surface. 82

7.10      Inner approach surface. 83

7.11      Inner transitional surface. 83

7.12      Baulked landing surface. 84

7.13      Obstacle-free zone. 84

7.14      Take-off climb surface. 85

7.15      Approach runways — physical dimensions of the OLS. 85

7.16      Take-off runways — physical dimensions of the take-off climb surface. 87

7.17      Establishment of the OLS. 88

7.18      Procedures for aerodrome operators to deal with obstacles in the OLS. 89

7.19      Objects or structures that could become obstacles in the OLS. 89

7.20      Monitoring of obstacles associated with instrument runways. 90

Division 3.............. Aerodrome obstacle and terrain charts. 91

7.21      Type A charts. 91

7.22      Type B charts. 92

7.23      Precision Approach Terrain Charts — ICAO.. 92

7.24      Aerodrome Terrain and Obstacle Charts — ICAO (Electronic) 92

Division 4.............. Principles of shielding. 93

7.25      General 93

CHAPTER 8....... VISUAL AIDS PROVIDED BY AERODROME MARKINGS, MARKERS, SIGNALS, SIGNS, WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS ETC. 94

Division 1.............. General 94

8.01      General 94

8.02      Permanent aerodrome or partial movement area closure. 94

8.03      Colours. 94

8.04      Visibility of markings and markers. 95

8.05      Dimensions and tolerances of markings. 95

Division 2.............. Markers. 96

8.06      Introduction. 96

8.07      Cones. 96

8.08      Works limit markers. 97

8.09      Gable markers. 98

8.10      Flush runway strip markers. 98

8.11      The use of markers on a runway strip. 98

8.12      The use of markers on an unsealed runway. 100

8.13      The use of markers on an unsealed taxiway. 101

8.14      The use of markers on an unsealed apron. 101

Division 3.............. Runway markings. 102

8.15      Introduction. 102

8.16      Pre-threshold area markings. 102

8.17      Runway threshold markings. 103

8.18      Runway designation markings. 104

8.19      Runway centreline markings. 107

8.20      Runway end markings. 108

8.21      Runway side-stripe markings. 108

8.22      Aiming point markings. 109

8.23      Touchdown zone markings. 111

8.24      Touchdown zone markings – ICAO “A” – basic pattern. 111

8.25      Touchdown zone markings — simple touchdown pattern. 113

8.26      Permanently displaced threshold markings. 114

8.27      Temporarily displaced threshold markings. 115

8.28      Temporarily displaced threshold markings — more than 30 days. 116

8.29      Temporarily displaced threshold markings — more than 5 days to 30 days or less. 117

8.30      Temporarily displaced threshold markings — 5 days or less. 118

8.31      Temporarily displaced threshold markings — large displacements for 30 days or less. 119

8.32      Runway land and hold short position markings. 122

8.33      Runway turn pad markings. 122

8.34      Runway starter extension markings. 123

Division 4.............. Taxiway markings. 124

8.35      Introduction. 124

8.36      Taxi guideline markings. 124

8.37      Taxi guidelines on runways. 124

8.38      Enhanced taxi guidelines. 125

8.39      Runway holding position markings. 126

8.40      Mandatory instruction markings. 128

8.41      Information markings. 129

8.42      Intermediate holding position markings. 130

8.43      Taxiway edge markings. 131

8.44      Holding bay markings. 131

8.45      Taxiway limit markings. 132

Division 5.............. Apron markings. 134

8.46      Introduction. 134

8.47      Apron taxi guidelines. 134

8.48      Apron edge markings. 134

8.49      Aircraft type designator markings. 135

8.50      Parking clearance line. 136

8.51      Aircraft apron limit line markings. 137

8.52      Equipment clearance (staging) line markings. 137

8.53      Equipment storage markings. 138

8.54      Vehicle service road markings. 138

8.55      Aircraft parking position markings. 141

8.56      Lead-in lines. 142

8.57      Aircraft parking position designation markings — apron taxiway and taxilane. 142

8.58      Aircraft parking position designations — parking position. 143

8.59      Aircraft type parking restriction designator markings. 144

8.60      Aircraft parking position limit designators. 145

8.61      Pilot turn line markings. 146

8.62      Primary aircraft parking position markings. 147

8.63      Marshaller stop lines. 148

8.64      Pilot stop line markings. 148

8.65      Alignment lines. 149

8.66      Secondary aircraft parking position markings. 150

8.67      Keyhole markings. 151

8.68      Lead-out lines. 151

8.69      Designation characters for taxi and apron markings. 152

8.70      Push-back operator guidance markings. 157

8.71      Aircraft push-back lines. 158

8.72      Tug push-back vehicle parking position line markings. 158

8.73      Towbar disconnect markings. 159

8.74      Push-back limit markings. 159

8.75      Push-back alignment bar markings. 160

8.76      Passenger path markings. 160

8.77      Miscellaneous area line markings. 161

8.78      Hazardous area markings. 161

Division 6.............. Movement area guidance signs (MAGS) 163

8.79      Introduction. 163

8.80      Naming of taxiway location signs. 163

8.81      Dimensions and location. 164

8.82      Sign size and location distances, including runway exit signs. 164

8.83      The face width of a sign. 172

8.84      Structural 173

8.85      Illumination. 173

8.86      MAGS with mandatory instructions. 174

8.87      Runway designation signs. 174

8.88      CAT I, II or III runway designation signs. 175

8.89      Runway holding position signs. 175

8.90      Aircraft NO ENTRY signs. 176

8.91      Vehicle STOP signs. 176

8.92      Runway/runway intersection signs. 176

8.93      MAGS with information. 177

8.94      Taxiway location signs. 177

8.95      Taxiway direction signs. 177

8.96      Destination signs. 178

8.97      Take-off run available signs. 179

8.98      Runway exit signs. 179

8.99      LAHSO distance-to-go signs. 180

8.100    Parking position identification signs. 180

Division 7.............. Wind direction indicators. 181

8.101    Requirements. 181

8.102    Standards for wind direction indicators. 182

Division 8.............. Ground signals. 184

8.103    Signal areas. 184

8.104    Ground signals in signal areas. 184

Division 9.............. Markings for unserviceable areas and works areas. 186

8.105    Introduction. 186

8.106    Markings for unserviceable runways, taxiways and other movement areas. 186

8.107    When unserviceability markings are not required. 188

8.108    Use of unserviceability markers. 189

Division 10............ Obstacle markings. 190

8.109    Obstacles and hazardous obstacles. 190

8.110    Marking of hazardous obstacles. 190

8.111    Marking of hazardous transient obstacles. 193

Division 11............ Frangibility of markers and signs. 194

8.112    Markers. 194

8.113    Movement area guidance signs. 194

Division 12............ Helicopter areas on aerodromes. 195

8.114    Introduction. 195

8.115    Helicopter touchdown and lift-off area markings — non-runway type FATO area. 195

8.116    Helicopter touchdown and lift-off area markings — runway type FATO area. 196

8.117    FATO area perimeter markings — non-runway type. 198

8.118    FATO area perimeter markings — runway type. 199

8.119    Helicopter taxiway markings. 199

8.120    Helicopter apron markings. 200

8.121    Helicopter taxi guideline designations. 200

8.122    Helicopter parking position designation markings. 201

8.123    Helicopter parking position markings — shoulder-line type. 201

8.124    Helicopter parking position markings — touchdown/positioning circle type. 203

8.125    Helicopter apron edge markings. 205

Division 13............ Marking of glider runway strips on an aerodrome. 207

8.126    General 207

CHAPTER 9....... VISUAL AIDS PROVIDED BY AERODROME LIGHTING.. 209

Division 1.............. Lighting requirements. 209

9.01      Minimum lighting system requirements. 209

9.02      Electrical circuitry. 209

9.03      Primary electrical power supply. 210

9.04      Secondary electrical power supply. 210

9.05      Switch-over time for secondary power supply. 211

9.06      Stand-by power supply. 212

9.07      Portable runway lights. 212

9.08      Portable lights on taxiways and apron edges. 213

9.09      Light fixtures and supporting structures. 214

9.10      Standardisation of aerodrome lighting. 214

9.11      Elevated and inset lights. 215

9.12      Lighting intensity and control 216

9.13      Colours for aeronautical ground lights. 218

9.14      Chromaticity for incandescent lights. 218

9.15      Chromaticity for solid state (LED) lights. 220

9.16      Discrimination between incandescent coloured lights. 223

Division 2.............. Commissioning. 224

9.17      Commissioning of lighting systems — ground checks. 224

9.18      Commissioning of lighting systems — flight checks. 225

Division 3.............. Pilot-activated lighting systems. 227

9.19      General 227

9.20      VHF carrier activation code. 228

9.21      VHF carrier receiver technical requirements. 228

9.22      Inputs to the PAL.. 229

9.23      Fail-safe arrangements with the PAL.. 229

9.24      Access to manual switches. 229

9.25      Receiving antenna. 229

9.26      PAL with audio acknowledgment 230

Division 4.............. Obstacle lighting. 231

9.27      Artificial objects and structures. 231

9.28      Natural obstacles. 232

9.29      Temporary artificial obstacles. 232

9.30      Types of obstacle lighting and their use. 232

9.31      Location of obstacle lights. 233

9.32      Characteristics of low-intensity obstacle lights. 237

9.33      Characteristics of medium-intensity obstacle lights. 238

9.34      Characteristics of high-intensity obstacle lights. 238

9.35      Floodlighting of hazardous obstacles. 239

9.36      Serviceability of obstacle lights. 240

Division 5.............. Aerodrome lighting systems. 242

9.37      Aerodrome beacons. 242

9.38      Illuminated wind direction indicators. 242

Division 6.............. Simple approach lighting. 244

9.39      Simple approach lighting system.. 244

9.40      Simple approach lighting system — additional requirements. 246

Division 7.............. Precision approach CAT I, II and III lighting systems. 247

9.41      Precision approach CAT I lighting system.. 247

9.42      Precision approach CAT II and CAT III lighting system.. 249

Division 8.............. Isocandela diagrams of approach lighting. 253

9.43      Isocandela diagrams of approach lighting. 253

Division 9.............. Visual approach slope indicator systems. 255

9.44      Visual approach slope indicator systems (VASISs) 255

9.45      Obstacle assessment surfaces. 255

9.46      T-VASIS and AT-VASIS. 257

9.47      Characteristics of T-VASIS light units. 258

9.48      Precision approach path indicator system (PAPI) 261

9.49      Approach slope and elevation setting of light units. 262

9.50      Siting a PAPI or a double-sided PAPI. 263

Division 10............ Runway lights. 267

9.51      Runway edge lights. 267

9.52      Characteristics of runway edge lights — non-instrument or non-precision approach
runway. 268

9.53      Characteristics of runway edge lights — precision approach runway. 269

9.54      Runway threshold lights. 269

9.55      Pattern of runway threshold lights — non-instrument or non-precision approach
runway. 270

9.56      Pattern of runway threshold lights — precision approach runway. 270

9.57      Characteristics of runway threshold lights — non-instrument or non‑precision
approach runway. 270

9.58      Characteristics of runway threshold lights — precision approach runway. 270

9.59      Additional lighting to enhance threshold location — threshold wing bars and runway threshold identification lights. 271

9.60      Temporarily displaced threshold lights for use at night 272

9.61      Location of temporarily displaced threshold lights. 272

9.62      Characteristics of temporarily displaced threshold lights. 272

9.63      Runway lighting before a displaced threshold. 273

9.64      Runway end lights. 273

9.65      Characteristics of non-instrument and non-precision approach runway end lights. 274

9.66      Characteristics of precision approach runway end lights. 275

9.67      Runway turn pad, runway bypass pad and runway starter extension edge lights. 275

9.68      Stopway lights. 275

9.69      Hold short lights. 276

9.70      Runway centreline lights. 277

9.71      Simple touchdown zone (TDZ) lights. 277

9.72      Runway TDZ lights. 278

9.73      Photometric characteristics of runway lights and calculation method. 279

9.74      Installation and aiming of light fittings. 279

9.75      Isocandela diagrams of runway lighting. 280

9.76      Illustrations of runway lighting. 293

Division 11............ Taxiway lights. 299

9.77      Provision of taxiway centreline lights. 299

9.78      Provision of taxiway edge lights. 299

9.79      Taxiway markers. 300

9.80      Apron taxiway lighting. 300

9.81      Use of different types of taxiway lights. 300

9.82      Control of lights on taxiways. 301

9.83      Location of taxiway centreline lights. 301

9.84      Spacing of taxiway centreline lights. 301

9.85      Location of taxiway centreline lights on entry and exit taxiways. 302

9.86      Location of taxiway centreline lights on exit taxiways other than rapid exit taxiways. 303

9.87      Location of taxiway centreline lights on rapid exit taxiways. 303

9.88      Characteristics of taxiway centreline lights. 303

9.89      Rapid exit taxiway indicator lights. 304

9.90      Beam dimensions and light distribution of taxiway centreline lights. 305

9.91      Location of taxiway edge lights. 305

9.92      Spacing of taxiway edge lights. 306

9.93      Characteristics of taxiway edge lights. 307

9.94      Taxiway edge markers. 308

9.95      Characteristics of taxiway edge markers. 308

9.96      Taxiway centreline markers. 308

9.97      Characteristics of taxiway centreline markers. 308

9.98      Provision of runway guard lights. 308

9.99      Pattern and location of runway guard lights. 309

9.100    Characteristics of runway guard lights. 309

9.101    Control of runway guard lights. 310

9.102    Provision of intermediate holding position lights. 310

9.103    Pattern and location of intermediate holding position lights. 310

9.104    Characteristics of intermediate holding position lights. 311

9.105    Stop bars. 311

9.106    Location of stop bars. 312

9.107    Characteristics of stop bar lights. 312

9.108    No entry bars. 312

9.109    Photometric characteristics of taxiway lights. 313

9.110    Installation and aiming of light fittings. 313

9.111    Isocandela diagrams for taxiway lights. 314

9.112    Illustrations of taxiway lighting. 318

Division 12............ Apron lights. 322

9.113    Apron floodlighting. 322

9.114    Provision of apron floodlighting. 322

9.115    Location of apron floodlighting. 322

9.116    Characteristics of apron floodlighting. 323

Division 13............ Aircraft parking position lighting. 326

9.117    Visual docking guidance systems. 326

9.118    Characteristics of visual docking guidance systems. 326

9.119    Azimuth guidance unit — location. 326

9.120    Azimuth guidance unit — characteristics. 327

9.121    Stopping position indicator — location. 327

9.122    Stopping position indicator — characteristics. 327

9.123    Advanced visual docking guidance system (A-VDGS) 327

9.124    Characteristics of an A-VDGS. 328

9.125    Aircraft parking position manoeuvring guidance lights. 330

9.126    Parking position identification signage. 330

Division 14............ Works and unserviceable area lighting. 331

9.127    Lighting associated with closed and unserviceable areas. 331

9.128    Lighted visual aid to indicate a temporary complete runway closure. 331

9.129    Characteristics of a lighted visual aid to indicate a temporary complete runway closure. 332

9.130    Isocandela diagram for lighted visual aid to indicate temporary runway closure. 333

9.131    Movement area access in the vicinity of unserviceable areas. 334

9.132    Characteristics of unserviceability lights. 335

Division 15............ Other lights on an aerodrome. 336

9.133    Works limit lights. 336

9.134    Road and car park lighting. 336

9.135    Road-holding position light 336

Division 16............ Monitoring, maintenance and serviceability of aerodrome lighting. 337

9.136    General 337

9.137    Reporting of aerodrome lighting outage. 337

9.138    Standards for apron lighting unserviceability. 339

9.139    T-VASIS standards for unserviceability. 339

9.140    PAPI unserviceability standards. 340

9.141    Interleaved circuitry. 340

9.142    Movement area guidance signs. 340

9.143    Other lighting on the aerodrome. 341

9.144    Lights — requirements for zones. 342

CHAPTER 10..... AERODROME MANUAL.. 344

10.01    Requirement for an aerodrome manual 344

10.02    Form, contents and updating of the aerodrome manual 344

10.03    Version control and changes to an aerodrome manual 345

10.04    Application or adoption of other material by the aerodrome manual 345

CHAPTER 11..... INFORMATION THAT MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE
AERODROME MANUAL.. 346

11.01    Aerodrome information. 346

11.02    Aerodrome administration. 346

11.03    Aerodrome serviceability inspections. 347

11.04    Aerodrome lighting. 347

11.05    Aerodrome reporting. 348

11.06    Obstacle control 348

11.07    Aerodrome works safety. 349

11.08    Wildlife hazard management 350

11.09    Aerodrome safety management 350

11.10    Aerodrome technical inspections. 350

11.11    Unauthorised entry to aerodrome. 351

11.12    Aerodrome emergency response. 351

11.13    Disabled aircraft removal 352

11.14    Airside vehicle control 352

11.15    Aircraft parking control 353

11.16    Protection of communication, navigation, surveillance and meteorological facilities. 353

11.17    All-weather operations. 353

CHAPTER 12..... INSPECTING AND REPORTING AERODROME CONDITION
AND COMPLIANCE.. 355

Division 1.............. Serviceability inspections. 355

12.01    General 355

12.02    Timing of inspections. 355

12.03    Serviceability inspection requirements. 356

12.04    What to report 358

Division 2.............. Aerodrome technical inspection programs. 360

12.05    Content of aerodrome technical inspection programs. 360

12.06    Inspections at higher volume movement aerodromes. 360

12.07    Inspections at lower volume movement aerodromes. 360

12.08    Other requirements for aerodrome technical inspection programs. 361

12.09    Inspection requirements. 363

12.10    Conduct of aerodrome technical inspections. 364

12.11    Annual aerodrome manual validation and report 365

CHAPTER 13..... AERODROME PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS. 368

13.01    Introduction. 368

13.02    Accountable manager 368

13.03    Reporting officer 368

13.04    Works safety officer 369

CHAPTER 14..... CONTROL OF AIRSIDE ACCESS AND VEHICLE CONTROL.. 371

14.01    Airside access and operation of vehicles — training. 371

14.02    Airside access permits. 371

14.03    Airside vehicle requirements. 371

14.04    Surveillance equipment installed on an airside vehicle. 373

14.05    Airside vehicle lighting requirements. 373

CHAPTER 15..... AERODROME WORKS. 375

15.01    General 375

15.02    Method of working plans (MOWPs) 376

15.03    Time-limited works. 377

15.04    Management and control of aerodrome works. 378

15.05    Runway pavement overlay, reconstruction, resealing or widening works. 378

15.06    Works on runway strips. 379

CHAPTER 16..... METHOD OF WORKING PLANS. 380

16.01    Introduction. 380

16.02    Works information. 380

16.03    Restrictions to aircraft operations. 381

16.04    Personnel and equipment 382

16.05    Aerodrome markers, markings and lights. 382

16.06    Special requirements. 382

16.07    Administration. 382

16.08    Authority. 382

16.09    Drawings. 383

16.10    Distribution list 383

CHAPTER 17..... WILDLIFE HAZARD MANAGEMENT.. 384

17.01    Detection, monitoring and observation. 384

17.02    Wildlife hazard assessment and trigger criteria. 384

17.03    Wildlife hazard management plan triggers. 384

17.04    Preparation of a wildlife hazard management plan. 385

17.05    Wildlife hazard reporting. 386

17.06    Wildlife hazard mitigation. 387

17.07    Training. 387

CHAPTER 18..... PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE.. 388

18.01    Pavement cleanliness. 388

18.02    Runway surface friction or texture. 388

CHAPTER 19..... COMMUNICATION, NAVIGATION, SURVEILLANCE (CNS) AND METEOROLOGICAL (MET) FACILITIES. 389

Division 1.............. General 389

19.01    General 389

19.02    Maintenance. 390

19.03    Installation requirements. 390

Division 2.............. CNS facilities. 391

19.04    Protection of VOR facilities. 391

19.05    Protection of DME facilities. 391

19.06    Protection of instrument landing systems (ILS) 392

19.07    Protection of marker beacons. 393

19.08    Protection of non-directional beacons (NDBs) 393

19.09    Protection of ground-based augmented systems (GBASs) 393

19.10    Protection of radar sensor sites. 394

19.11    Protection of wide area multilateration (WAM) and automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast (ADS-B) sensors. 395

19.12    Protection of VHF/UHF communication facilities. 395

19.13    Protection of HF communication facilities. 396

19.14    Protection of satellite ground stations (SGSs) 397

19.15    Protection of microwave links. 398

19.16    Siting requirements for CNS facilities. 399

Division 3.............. Meteorological facilities. 401

19.17    Protection of meteorological facilities. 401

19.18    Siting requirements for meteorological facilities. 401

CHAPTER 20..... EARTHING POINTS. 403

20.01    Ground earthing points. 403

CHAPTER 21..... LIGHT AIRCRAFT TIE-DOWN FACILITIES. 404

21.01    Tie-down facilities. 404

CHAPTER 22..... RADIO COMMUNICATION FACILITIES. 405

22.01    Certified air/ground radio service (CA/GRS) 405

22.02    Aerodrome frequency confirmation system (AFCS) 406

22.03    Operation of UNICOM or CA/GRS. 407

22.04    Aerodrome frequency response unit 407

22.05    Power supply and changeover indications. 408

22.06    UNICOM services. 408

CHAPTER 23..... LOW-VISIBILITY OPERATIONS. 410

23.01    Introduction. 410

23.02    Development of low-visibility procedures (LVP) 410

23.03    Implementation of low-visibility procedures. 411

23.04    Review of low-visibility procedures. 411

23.05    Runway visual range equipment 412

23.06    Standards for runways supporting certain precision approach operations. 412

23.07    Facilities and procedures for conducting runway visibility assessments. 413

23.08    Appointed persons conducting runway visibility assessments. 414

23.09    Conducting runway visibility assessments. 414

CHAPTER 24..... AERODROME EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE.. 416

24.01    Emergency committee. 416

24.02    Aerodrome emergency plan. 416

24.03    Other emergency response arrangements. 418

24.04    Aerodrome location details or maps for emergency agencies. 418

24.05    Emergency preparedness — operators to whom section 24.02 applies. 419

24.06    Emergency preparedness — operators to whom section 24.02 does not apply. 420

CHAPTER 25..... SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. 421

25.01    Introduction. 421

25.02    Requirement for an SMS. 421

25.03    Matters which must be addressed in an SMS. 422

25.04    Particular SMS matters for aerodromes with scheduled international air transport
operations. 423

CHAPTER 26..... RISK MANAGEMENT PLANS. 427

26.01    Introduction. 427

 

 


CHAPTER 1             PRELIMINARY

Division 1     General

1.01     Name

        (1)     This instrument is the Part 139 (Aerodromes) Manual of Standards 2019.

        (2)     This instrument may also be cited as the Part 139 MOS.

        (3)     In this instrument, unless the contrary intention appears, references to “the MOS” or “this MOS” are references to the Part 139 MOS.

1.02     Commencement

                 This MOS commences immediately after the commencement of the Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Part 139) Regulations 2019.

Note   New Subparts 139.A to 139.F of CASR are contained in the Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Part 139) Regulations 2019.

1.03     Purpose

                 This MOS sets out:

(a)   the standards for certified aerodromes; and

(b)   in Chapter 22 only — certain standards for all aerodromes.

1.04     Application

                 This MOS applies only in accordance with Chapter 2.

Note 1   The standards in this MOS are the compliance requirements that must be met for the certification of an aerodrome as a certified aerodrome, or for the continued certification of an aerodrome after an upgrade or replacement of an existing aerodrome facility. When developing new aerodromes, or upgrading or replacing existing facilities, aerodrome operators should consider the aircraft types and operations to be accommodated by the facilities in order to apply the appropriate design, operating and reporting standards for the facility.

Note 2   Without affecting the operation of Chapter 7, for objects or structures which CASA determines are hazardous under regulations 139.175 and 139.180 of CASR, CASA may recommend in writing to the person who owns, or is in occupation or control of, the object or structure that the standards in Chapter 8, Division 10 and Chapter 9, Division 4 should be observed.

1.05     Conflict between this MOS and an incorporated document

                 Where a provision of this MOS is inconsistent with a provision of an incorporated document the MOS provision takes priority and the incorporated provision applies only insofar as it may do so consistently with the MOS provision.

1.06     Tables, Figures and Notes

                 In this instrument:

(a)   if a numbered Figure, in the form of a drawing, diagram or similar representation, is expressed as illustrating matters, it is guidance that is to be taken into account in interpreting the provision which refers to the Figure; and

(b)   if a numbered Figure, in the form of a drawing, diagram or similar representation, is expressed as showing matters, it is to be read with, and may supplement, the information in the provision which refers to the Figure; and

(c)   a Note provides information and does not contain standards unless the contrary intention is expressed in a provision for the Note.

Note   Tables and Figures are not numbered sequentially. For ease of reference, they are numbered by reference to the section or subsection which first refers to the Table or Figure.

1.07     References to ICAO and other documents

        (1)     In this MOS, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference to an ICAO document (however described) is a reference to the document as in force or existing from time to time.

        (2)     In this MOS, reference to a numbered ICAO Annex is a reference to the Annex of that number, as in force or existing from time to time, and as contained in the Chicago Convention.

        (3)     In this MOS, reference to a numbered ICAO Manual is a reference to the Manual of that number, or subsequent version, as in force or existing from time to time and issued by ICAO.

        (4)     In this MOS, reference to a numbered ICAO Circular is a reference to the Circular of that number, or subsequent version, as in force or existing from time to time and issued by ICAO.

        (5)     If a provision of this MOS refers to an ICAO document, then, unless the contrary intention appears, the document, as in force or existing from time to time, is taken to be applied, adopted or incorporated for this MOS.

Note 1   Relevant ICAO documents for this MOS may be accessed by navigating from the following link: http://www.icao.int/publications/Pages/default.aspx.

Note 2   A reference to an ICAO document, including an ICAO Annex, which only occurs in a Note to a provision does not have the effect that the document is taken to be applied, adopted or incorporated for this MOS, unless the contrary intention appears. Such references in Notes are to documents which may be used as guidance or background information.

        (6)     In this section, a reference to any ICAO document is to be taken as a reference to the document as affected by any difference that Australia has filed with ICAO in relation to the document.

Note   Details of differences that Australia has filed with ICAO are in Section 1.7 of the Aeronautical Information Publication, General, which may be accessed by navigating from the following link: http://www.airservicesaustralia.com/aip/aip.asp.

        (7)     In this MOS, a reference to any Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular is a reference to the document in the version as in force or existing from time to time.

        (8)     In this MOS, a reference to any CASA Advisory Circular is a reference to the document in the version as in force or existing from time to time.

        (9)     In this MOS, a reference to any legislative instrument is a reference to the instrument as in force or existing from time to time.

1.08     References to intended, nominated, preferred and “should” in a Note

        (1)     In this instrument, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference (however formulated) to a matter or thing intended by an aerodrome operator to be for a purpose, is a reference to the operator’s intention as reasonably deduced or inferred from the following:

(a)   the operator’s expressed intention (if any);

(b)   the nature and factual circumstances of the matter, whether or not any intention is expressed.

        (2)     In this instrument, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference to a matter or a thing that is nominated means nominated by an aerodrome operator, and the nomination of the matter or thing must be recorded in the aerodrome manual.

        (3)     In this instrument, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference (however formulated) in a provision or a Table to a matter, thing or value that is preferred means that, as far as practicable, the use of the matter, thing or value is required in priority to another matter, thing or value expressed in the provision or Table, or in a related provision or Table, although the other matter, thing or value expressed must be used or observed if the preferred matter, thing or value is not used because it is impracticable to do so.

Note   The preferred outcome is mandated, but if it is impracticable, the prescribed lesser option must still be complied with.

        (4)     For subsection (3), if the preferred matter, thing or value is not complied with, the aerodrome manual must contain:

(a)   a statement to that effect; and

(b)   the reasons for non-compliance; and

(c)   the alternative matter, thing or value that is complied with.

Note   See also paragraph 11.01 (3) (d).

        (5)     In this instrument, unless the contrary intention appears:

(a)   where a maximum value is mentioned for something — that value must not be exceeded; and

(b)   where a minimum value is mentioned for something — at least that value must be achieved.

        (6)     Unless the contrary intention appears, if a Note at the end of a provision states that some matter “should” be the case, the Note is to be read as a CASA recommendation but without affecting the meaning of the relevant provision.

Note   CASA recommendations are usually expressly identified as such. Other uses of the word “should” in a Note are usually for the purpose of assisting readers to understand the meaning of the related provision.

1.09     Table of Contents

                 The Table of Contents at the front of this MOS is not part of this instrument. It is for guidance only and may be modified or edited in any published version of this instrument.


CHAPTER 1             PRELIMINARY

Division 2     Empowerments

1.10     General power to make a Part 139 Manual of Standards

                 This MOS and all of its provisions are made under the powers conferred on CASA by regulation 139.005 of CASR.

1.11     Specific regulations for which MOS provisions have been made

                 Aerodrome manuals

        (1)     The requirements in this MOS relating to aerodrome manuals for an aerodrome are made for regulation 139.045 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17 and 23.

                 Aerodrome facilities etc.

        (2)     The requirements in this MOS relating to aerodrome facilities and equipment for certified aerodromes are made for regulation 139.065 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22.

                 Planning etc.

        (3)     The requirements in this MOS relating to planning aerodrome works, giving notice of planned aerodrome works, and carrying out aerodrome works, at a certified aerodrome are made for regulation 139.070 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 8, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 16.

                 Inspections

        (4)     The requirements in this MOS relating to aerodrome inspections are made for regulation 139.075 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 11 and 12.

                 Reporting to AIS provider

        (5)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the operator of a certified aerodrome reporting information to an AIS provider are made for regulation 139.080 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 5, 11 and 17.

                 Reporting changes etc.

        (6)     The requirements in this MOS relating to reporting changes or occurrences at certified aerodromes are made for regulation 139.085 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19.

                 Monitoring airspace etc.

        (7)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   monitoring the airspace around a certified aerodrome for infringements, or potential infringements, of the airspace;

(b)   reporting such infringements, or potential infringements;

(c)   reporting changes or occurrences at certified aerodromes;

                 are made for regulation 139.090 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 7 and 12.

                 Safety management systems and risk management plans

        (8)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   the circumstances in which a certified aerodrome must have a safety management system (SMS);

(b)   safety management systems for aerodromes;

(c)   the circumstances in which a certified aerodrome must have a risk management plan;

(d)   risk management plans for aerodromes;

                 are made for regulation 139.095 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 25 and 26.

                 Emergency preparedness etc.

        (9)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   emergency preparedness of aerodromes;

(b)   the circumstances in which a certified aerodrome must have an aerodrome emergency plan;

(c)   aerodrome emergency plans for aerodromes;

                 are made for regulation 139.100 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 11 and 24.

                 Other aerodrome systems

      (10)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   the kind of systems (other than an SMS) that an aerodrome must have;

Note   Systems include the following:

(a)    wildlife hazard management systems;

(b)    airside vehicle control systems;

(c)     aircraft parking control systems.

(b)   the circumstances in which a certified aerodrome must have a relevant system;

(c)   the relevant system;

                 are made for regulation 139.105 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 11, 14, 17.

                 Aerodrome personnel

      (11)     The requirements in this MOS relating to additional personnel that an operator of a certified aerodrome must have are made for regulation 139.110 of CASR.

                 Training aerodrome personnel

      (12)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the training, knowledge, qualifications and experience of personnel carrying out the responsibilities of the following positions:

(a)   accountable manager;

(b)   reporting officer;

(c)   if aerodrome works are being carried out at the aerodrome—works safety officer;

(d)   any other position to which subsection (11) applies;

                 are made for regulation 139.115 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 13, 17 and 23.

                 Personnel responsibilities

      (13)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the personnel mentioned in subsection (12) carrying out the responsibilities of their positions are made for regulation 139.120 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 13, 17 and 23.

                 Ground surveillance systems

      (14)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   aerodrome ground surveillance systems;

(b)   surveillance equipment installed on an airside vehicle;

(c)   airside vehicle control in conjunction with ground surveillance systems;

                 are made for regulation 139.130 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapters 14 and 23.

                 Aircraft movement data from aerodrome operators

      (15)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the kinds of aircraft movement data that an aerodrome operator must give to CASA upon request are made for regulation 139.140 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, relevant definitions in Chapter 3.

                 Aircraft movement data from ATS provider

      (16)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the kinds of aircraft movement data that an air traffic service (ATS) provider must give to CASA upon request are made for regulation 139.145 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, relevant definitions in Chapter 3.

                 Frequency confirmation systems

      (17)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the following:

(a)   the circumstances in which a certified aerodrome must have a frequency confirmation system for the aerodrome;

(b)   frequency confirmation systems for aerodromes;

                 are made for regulation 139.150 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapter 22.

                 CA/GRS

      (18)     The requirements in this MOS relating to the operation of a certified air/ground radio service (CA/GRS) are made for regulation 139.160 of CASR.

Note   See also regulation 139.155 of CASR and Chapter 22 of this MOS.

                 Proposals to construct structures etc.

      (19)     The requirements in this MOS relating to any person’s proposal for the construction and erection of additional objects and structures are made for regulation 139.165 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapter 7.

                 Information for CASA about proposed construction etc.

      (20)     The requirements in this MOS relating to other information to be given to CASA in relation to a person’s proposal for the construction and erection of objects and structures that:

(a)   will have a height of 100 metres or more above ground level; or

(b)   will include an emissions source that generates a gaseous efflux with a velocity exceeding 4.3 metres per second at the point of emission; or

(c)   are of a kind mentioned in subsection (19);

                 are made for regulation 139.165 of CASR.

Note   See, in particular, Chapter 7.

                 Proposals to create an emissions source

      (21)     The requirements in this MOS relating to any person’s proposal for other activities to be undertaken that will create an emissions source are made for regulation 139.170 of CASR.

                 Information for CASA about proposed emissions sources

      (22)     The requirements in this MOS relating to other information to be given to CASA in relation to a person’s proposal:

(a)   to generate a gaseous efflux with a velocity exceeding 4.3 metres per second at the point of emission; or

(b)   of a kind mentioned in subsection (21);

                 are made for regulation 139.170 of CASR.

                 What constitutes a hazard

      (23)     For regulations 139.175, 139.180 and 139.185 of CASR, this MOS prescribes the kinds of objects, structures, and emissions sources, that constitute a hazard to aircraft operations.

Note   See, in particular, Chapter 7.

                 Obstacle limitation surface

      (24)     The requirements in this MOS for ascertaining a surface associated with an aerodrome

                 are prescribed for the definition of obstacle limitation surface in the CASR Dictionary.

Note   See, in particular, Chapter 7.

 


CHAPTER 2             APPLICATION OF STANDARDS

2.01     Definitions

                 In this Chapter:

CASR means the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

certified aerodrome means an aerodrome that was a certified aerodrome under Part 139 of CASR immediately before the commencement of this MOS.

existing aerodrome means an aerodrome that was in service as a certified aerodrome or a registered aerodrome under the document called ‘Manual of Standards (MOS) – Part 139 Aerodromes’ as in force immediately before the commencement of this MOS.

existing aerodrome facility means a facility that would have fallen within the definition of an aerodrome facility immediately before the commencement of this MOS had the definition of aerodrome facility then been in force.

Note   Aerodrome facility is defined in subsection 3.01 (2).

grandfathered facility means an existing aerodrome facility (the facility) and the obstacle limitation surfaces associated with an existing runway that is part of the existing aerodrome facility (the OLS) that, on and after the commencement of this MOS, do not comply with the standards in this MOS, provided that:

(a)   the facility and the OLS complies, and continues to comply, with the standards which applied to the facility and the OLS immediately before the commencement of this MOS; and

Note   CASA guidance documents identify the range of previous standards that may have applied.

(b)   the aerodrome operator’s aerodrome manual:

             (i)  identifies the facility and the OLS; and

            (ii)  sets out in detail how the facility and the OLS do not comply with this MOS.

opted-in means that:

(a)   an aerodrome operator voluntarily tells CASA in writing that from a specified date after the commencement of this MOS, a specified grandfathered facility will comply with the requirements of this MOS for the facility; and

(b)   the aerodrome operator’s aerodrome manual specifies the date and the facility; and

(c)   CASA acknowledges, in writing, that the operator has opted-in.

registered aerodrome means an aerodrome that was a registered aerodrome under Part 139 of CASR immediately before the commencement of this MOS.

replacement, for an existing aerodrome facility, means completion of any activity in relation to the facility which, not being merely maintenance, results in the substitution of a new aerodrome facility for the existing aerodrome facility.

upgrade, for an existing aerodrome facility, means any change to the facility which, for the first time after the commencement of this MOS, enables any of the following changes to aircraft operations using the facility, namely, a change:

(a)   from day VFR operations, to night VFR operations;

(b)   from non-instrument approaches, to non-precision instrument approaches;

(c)   from non-precision instrument approaches, to precision instrument approaches;

(d)   from precision CAT I approaches, to precision CAT II or CAT III approaches;

(e)   which enables aircraft take-offs and aerodrome surface movements in runway visibility or RVR conditions of less than 550 m;

(f)    which enables the aerodrome to accommodate aircraft of a higher category specified in the ARC under section 4.01 of this MOS than was the case before the change;

(g)   which enables the aerodrome to accommodate aircraft on scheduled international operations.

Note   The upgrade of a particular aerodrome facility that previously was not compliant with the relevant standards in the MOS is the trigger for the particular facility to be brought into compliance with the MOS. Since the timing and budgeting of an upgrade is under the aerodrome operator’s control, so too is the timing of works necessary to bring the non-compliant facility into compliance with this MOS.

2.02     Application — new aerodromes

                 This MOS applies:

(a)   for an aerodrome that comes into operation for the first time after the commencement of this MOS (a new aerodrome); and

(b)   to the operator of a new aerodrome.

2.03     Application — Chapter 22

                 Despite anything else in this MOS, Chapter 22 applies to and for all aerodromes.

2.04     Application — existing aerodromes etc.

        (1)     Subject to subsection (3), this MOS applies to the operator of an existing aerodrome.

        (2)     Subject to subsection (3), this MOS applies for an existing aerodrome facility.

        (3)     The standards in this MOS for an aerodrome facility and the obstacle limitation surfaces associated with a runway (the OLS) do not apply to a grandfathered facility of the same kind if the grandfathered facility:

(a)   complies, and continues to comply, with the standards which applied to the aerodrome facility and the OLS immediately before the commencement of this MOS; and

(b)   is not:

             (i)  replaced; or

            (ii)  upgraded; and

(c)   is maintained in accordance with the requirements of this MOS for the same kind of facility.

Note   Subsection 2.04 (3) indicates when this MOS does not apply to the aerodrome facilities of an existing aerodrome with grandfathered status. Without grandfathered status, all of the requirements of this MOS apply. With grandfathered status, only the standards in this MOS for an aerodrome facility (as defined), and for the obstacle limitation surfaces associated with a runway that is, or is part of, such a facility, do not apply. Instead, the standards for the aerodrome facility and runway-associated obstacle limitation surfaces that previously applied continue to apply. Processes or systems are not aerodrome facilities (as defined) and the standards for these in this MOS apply to the operators of all existing aerodromes from the commencement of this MOS, subject to any relevant transitional provisions that may be included in Part 202 of CASR after the making of this MOS but before it commences.

        (4)     Subject to subsection (5), for subparagraph (3) (b) (ii), the standards in this MOS:

(a)   apply only to the upgrading of the specific elements of the facility that are being upgraded; and

(b)   do not apply to any other elements of the facility which are not being changed and which, therefore, remain grandfathered until they are either replaced or upgraded.

Note   See CASA Advisory Circular (AC) 139.A-03: Application of aerodrome standards, as existing from time to time and freely available on the CASA website, for examples of how subsection (4) operates.

        (5)     Without otherwise affecting subsection (4):

(a)   if a runway is upgraded, the associated OLS must then also comply with the requirements of this MOS for the upgraded runway; and

(b)   if the aerodrome reference code of the OLS associated with a runway that is part of a grandfathered facility is changed, the aerodrome reference code of that runway may remain the same but only as long as:

             (i)  the aerodrome reference code of the OLS associated with the runway is not less than the aerodrome reference code for that runway; or

            (ii)  the changed aerodrome reference code of the OLS associated with the runway does not result in 1 of the changes mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (g) of the definition of upgrade for that runway.

        (6)     Despite anything else in this section, this MOS applies to a grandfathered facility if, before the facility is replaced or upgraded, the aerodrome operator has opted-in.

Note   For the definition of opted-in, see section 2.01.

2.05     Directions to upgrade a part of an existing aerodrome or facility

        (1)     Subject to subsection (2), if CASA considers that an activity at an existing aerodrome or an existing aerodrome facility would have an adverse effect on aviation safety if it were not considered to be, or deemed to be, a replacement or an upgrade, CASA may use its powers under regulation 11.245 of CASR to direct the aerodrome operator to do 1 or more of the following:

(a)   apply this MOS to the activity as if the activity were a replacement or an upgrade;

(b)   apply this MOS to another part of the aerodrome or facility as if that other part were directly and significantly affected by the activity.

        (2)     For subsection (1), CASA must notify an aerodrome operator:

(a)   of any proposal to issue a direction under subsection (1); and

(b)   that the operator may object to the proposal.

        (3)     CASA must not issue a direction unless it has considered any objections from the operator that are received within 28 days (or such longer period as CASA permits) after the notification mentioned in subsection (2).

        (4)     CASA may specify a shorter period than the 28 days mentioned in subsection (3) if CASA determines that aviation safety requires sooner consideration of the matter.

        (5)     A direction, notification, permission, objection or determination mentioned in this section must be in writing.

        (6)     If a direction referred to in this section is issued under regulation 11.245 of CASR, the direction ceases to be in force in accordance with regulation 11.250 of CASR.

Note   Under regulation 11.250 of CASR, a direction ceases to be in force:

(a)    if it specifies a day on which it ceases to be in force — on the specified day; or

(b)    if it does not specify a day for that purpose — 1 year after the day it commences.

        (7)     This section:

(a)   applies subject to, and without prejudice to, CASA’s powers under Subpart 11.G of CASR; and

(b)   may be applied only insofar as it is consistent with Subpart 11.G of CASR.

2.06     Non-application of the standards

        (1)     CASA may approve in writing that an operator is not required to meet a standard specified in this MOS.

        (2)     An approval under subsection (1) must specify the provisions to which the approval applies, and may be 1 or more of the following:

(a)   time-limited or open-ended as to its duration;

(b)   made subject to conditions.

(3)     For subsection (1), CASA may grant an approval if the aerodrome operator:

(a)   applies in writing for an approval; and

(b)   identifies each of the relevant standards, by reference to the specific provision in the MOS, which it is proposed will not be met, and explains why it will not be met; and

(c)   states the length of the period during which each relevant standard will not be met; and

(d)   sets out in an accompanying safety assessment:

             (i)  the effect on aerodrome and aviation safety of not meeting each of the relevant standards; and

            (ii)  either:

(A)    the measures proposed to mitigate those effects; or

(B)    the measures proposed to achieve the same safety outcome as the relevant standards in the MOS would achieve; and

(e)   satisfies CASA that the approval will not have any adverse effect on aviation safety.


CHAPTER 3          DEFINITIONS ETC.

3.01     Definitions etc.

        (1)     In this instrument:

(a)   approval means approval in writing by CASA, unless the contrary intention appears; and

(b)   words and phrases have the same meaning as in Part 139 of CASR, unless the contrary intention appears in subsection (2).

Note   Various other words and expressions used in this MOS have the same meaning as in the CASR Dictionary.

        (2)     In this instrument:

AAIS means automatic aerodrome information service.

accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA) is the length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the length of any stopway (SWY).

Note 1   ASDA = TORA + SWY.

Note 2   Any available clearway (CWY) or runway end safety area (RESA) is not included.

Act means the Civil Aviation Act 1988.

ADS-B means automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast.

AEP means aerodrome emergency plan.

aerodrome has the same meaning as in the Act.

aerodrome beacon means an aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.

aerodrome elevation means the elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

aerodrome facility means any of the following physical things at an aerodrome as mentioned in this MOS for an aerodrome:

(a)   the physical characteristics of any movement area including runways, taxiways, taxilanes, shoulders, aprons, primary and secondary parking positions, runway strips and taxiway strips;

(b)   infrastructure;

(c)   structures;

(d)   equipment;

(e)   earthing points;

(f)    cables;

(g)   lighting;

(h)   signage;

(i)    markings;

(j)    visual approach slope indicators;

(k)   any other similar thing that is physical matter and is used for the operation of aircraft at the aerodrome.

Note 1   Aerodrome facilities are physical matter. For example, a safety management system is not an aerodrome facility. Management and administrative processes do not constitute an aerodrome facility.

Note 2   The expression aerodrome facilities and equipment is defined in the CASR Dictionary. The different expression aerodrome facility is defined in this MOS and has a different meaning.

aerodrome frequency confirmation system means a system which:

(a)   responds automatically when a radio transmission is broadcast on an assigned aerodrome frequency; and

(b)   is used to confirm that the correct aerodrome frequency has been selected on the air‑band radio.

aerodrome layout is the number of runways, taxiways and aprons at an aerodrome that are provided with lighting, in 1 of the following categories of aerodrome:

(a)   basic — an aerodrome with 1 runway, with 1 taxiway to 1 apron area;

(b)   simple — an aerodrome with 1 runway, having more than 1 taxiway to 1 or more apron areas;

(c)   complex — an aerodrome with more than 1 runway, having more than 1 taxiway to 1 or more apron areas.

aerodrome movement, for an aircraft, means a take-off, a landing, or a touch-and-go manoeuvre at an aerodrome.

aerodrome reference code (ARC) has the meaning given to it in Chapter 4 of this MOS.

aerodrome reference point (ARP) means the designated geographical location of an aerodrome.

aerodrome technical inspection means an inspection of the facilities, equipment and operation of a certified aerodrome, conducted by, or on behalf of, the aerodrome operator to ensure detection of any deterioration that could make any of the facilities, equipment or operations unsafe for aircraft operations.

Aerodrome Terrain and Obstacle Chart — ICAO (Electronic) means an electronic chart that portrays such terrain, obstacle and aeronautical data for an aerodrome as is reasonably required to:

(a)   enable an operator to:

             (i)  carry out operating limitations analysis for aircraft using the aerodrome; and

            (ii)  know whether the operator’s aircraft may land at, and take off from, the aerodrome within the operating limitations of the aircraft; and

           (iii)  develop procedures for use in the event of:

(A)    a missed approach or take-off; or

(B)    an emergency during landing or take-off; and

(b)   support the following activities for the safety of air navigation:

             (i)  instrument procedure design (including circling procedures);

            (ii)  aerodrome obstacle restriction and removal;

           (iii)  provision of source data for the production of other aeronautical charts.

Note   See sections 7.21 and 7.24.

aerodrome traffic density means the number of aircraft movements in the mean busy hour, in 1 of the following categories:

(a)   light — not greater than 15 movements per runway, or typically less than 20 total aerodrome movements;

(b)   medium — 16 to 25 movements per runway, or typically between 20 to 35 total aerodrome movements;

(c)   heavy — 26 or more movements per runway, or typically more than 35 aerodrome movements.

aeronautical beacon means an aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the Earth.

aeronautical ground light means any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft.

aeronautical study means an investigation of a problem concerned with aircraft operations, aimed at identifying:

(a)   possible solutions (if any); and

(b)   the solution (if any) which best preserves an acceptable level of aviation safety.

Note   CASA guidance on aeronautical studies is contained in CASA Advisory Circular (AC) 139.A-04: Applying for aerodrome authorisations, exemptions and approvals, as existing from time to time and freely available on the CASA website.

aeroplane reference field length means the minimum field length required for an aeroplane to take off at maximum certificated take-off mass, at sea level, in standard atmospheric conditions, in still air and with zero runway slope, as shown in:

(a)   the aeroplane’s aircraft flight manual approved by the national aviation authority which issued the initial type certificate for the aeroplane; or

(b)   equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer.

AFRU means aerodrome frequency response unit and is the abbreviation used for an aerodrome frequency confirmation system.

AIP means Aeronautical Information Publication.

AIP-ERSA means Aeronautical Information Publication - En Route Supplement of Australia.

aircraft classification number (ACN) means a number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a specified standard subgrade category.

Note   For guidance see CASA Advisory Circular (AC) 139.C-07: Strength rating of aerodrome pavements, as existing from time to time and freely available on the CASA website.

aircraft movement means 1 of the following:

(a)   the landing of an aircraft at an aerodrome;

(b)   the take-off of an aircraft from an aerodrome;

(c)   a touch-and-go manoeuvre of an aircraft at an aerodrome.

aircraft movements, when referred to numerically for an aerodrome, for a financial year, means the numbers of aircraft movements at the aerodrome during the financial year, as compiled by the aerodrome operator or the ATS provider.

Note   CASA may require an aerodrome operator or an ATS provider to provide it with aircraft movement data: see regulations 139.140 and 139.145 of CASR.

aircraft parking position means an open-air designated area on an apron for parking an aircraft.

Note 1   An aircraft parking position is also known as an aircraft stand.

Note 2   An aircraft parking position does not include any area that is within a fully or partially‑enclosed aircraft hangar.

Note 3   An area designated on an apron as being available for the parking of aircraft is considered to be an aircraft parking position.

airline means an aircraft operator operating aircraft in regular public transport operations.

airside means the following areas, access to which is restricted by the aerodrome operator, or by a Federal or State authority, to authorised persons only:

(a)   the movement area of the aerodrome;

(b)   where their purpose and use is to directly support aircraft operations — the terrain and buildings adjacent to the movement area, or particular portions of such adjacent terrain and buildings.

Note   The word “landside” is used colloquially to denote areas of an aerodrome that are not airside, for example, passenger terminals.

airside driver means a person who drives or operates an airside vehicle.

airside vehicle means a vehicle, including equipment that is mobile under its own power, that is operated airside under the authorisation of the aerodrome operator.

air transport operation has the same meaning as in clause 3 of Part 2 of the CASR Dictionary.

Note   An aerial work operation is not an air transport operation.

air transport passenger means a passenger in an air transport operation.

air transport passenger movement numbers, for an aerodrome, for a financial year, means the numbers, published by the Department, of air transport passenger movements at the aerodrome during the financial year, and any reference to air transport passenger movements is a reference to the movements compiled in these numbers.

AIS provider means a person who holds a certificate under regulation 175.055 of CASR.

APEI means the official publication known as Airport Engineering Instructions issued:

(a)   by CASA or its predecessors, before the Rules and Practices for Aerodromes (RPA) was first issued; or

(b)   otherwise by or under the authority of the Commonwealth.

API means the official publication known as Airport Instructions issued:

(a)   by CASA or its predecessors, before the Rules and Practices for Aerodromes (RPA) was first issued; or

(b)   otherwise by or under the authority of the Commonwealth.

approved means approved by CASA, whether with or without conditions, unless the contrary intention appears.

apron means a defined area on a land aerodrome to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking, or maintenance.

apron taxiway means a portion of a taxiway system located on an apron to provide a through taxi route for aircraft across the apron to another part of the taxiway system.

ARC means aerodrome reference code.

ARFF unit, for an aerodrome, means the aviation rescue and firefighting unit at the aerodrome.

ARFFS means aviation rescue and firefighting service.

artificial, in relation to an obstacle, object or structure, means an obstacle, object or structure made by human skill and labour.

ATC means air traffic control.

ATS means air traffic service.

AT-VASIS means abbreviated T visual approach slope indicator system.

Australian Height Datum means the datum that sets mean sea level as zero elevation.

A-VDGS means advanced visual docking guidance system.

barrette means 3 or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a transverse line so that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light.

Note   Transverse means transverse to the runway centreline.

becomes aware means:

(a)       in relation to an aerodrome operator’s awareness of the numbers of aircraft movements at the aerodrome within a period — the operator is taken to know the relevant number of such movements as soon as a reasonable operator, monitoring such movements in any way, would know; and

(b)   in relation to an aerodrome operator’s awareness of the numbers of aircraft passenger movements at the aerodrome within a period — the operator is taken to know the relevant number of such movements at the earlier of the following:

             (i)  the date of publication, if any, by the Department, of the aircraft passenger movement numbers for the aerodrome for the period;

            (ii)  as soon as a reasonable operator, monitoring such movements in any way, would know.

bypass pad means a pad resembling a runway turn pad except that:

(a)       it is extended beyond the declared end of the runway; and

(b)      it allows an aircraft to go around the runway end stripe and runway end lights before turning around 180 degrees to use the runway in a reciprocal direction.

CA/GRO means a certified air/ground radio operator.

CA/GRS means a certified air/ground radio service.

CAR means the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.

CASR means the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

CAT, when referring to an instrument approach, means category.

CAVOK means that cloud, visibility and present weather are better than the prescribed values or conditions.

Note   CAVOK is sometimes referred to as “ceiling and visibility OK”.

Chicago Convention means the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

civil aviation safety legislation means the Civil Aviation Act 1988, the regulations made under the Act, and instruments, including Civil Aviation Orders and Manuals of Standards, made under the Act or the regulations, and other instruments made under any of the foregoing.

clearway (CWY) means a defined area at the end of the TORA, on the ground or water under the control of the aerodrome operator, that is selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.

CNS means communications, navigation, surveillance.

Configuration A, for runway guard lights, has the meaning given in subsection 9.99 (1).

Configuration B, for runway guard lights, has the meaning given in subsection 9.99 (1).

critical obstacle means the obstacle within the take-off climb area, or within the approach area, or within both areas, which subtends the greatest vertical angle when measured from the inner edge of the take-off climb surface and/or the approach surface.

CTAF means common traffic advisory frequency.

CVOR means conventional VOR.

daylight means the period between the beginning of morning civil twilight and the end of evening civil twilight.

declared distances means the following:

(a)   take-off run available (TORA), being the length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off;

Note   TORA may include additional length available from a starter extension if provided.

(b)   take-off distance available (TODA), being the length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided;

(c)   accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA), being the length of the take-off run available plus the length of the stopway, if provided;

(d)   landing distance available (LDA), being the length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.

Department has the meaning given in item 1 in subsection 19A (1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

Note   “Department” means the Department of State of the Commonwealth that is administered by the Minister who, from time to time, administers CASR. At the date of making, this is the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities but may change from time to time in accordance with Administrative Arrangements Orders made by the Governor-General.

dependent parallel approaches means simultaneous approaches to parallel or near‑parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centrelines are prescribed.

design slope, for any aerodrome facility, means that, at the design stage of construction, the design of the slope must fall within the range of values expressed in the relevant Table or provision of this MOS for the design slope.

displaced threshold means a threshold not located at the extremity of a runway.

DME means distance measuring equipment.

D value, for a rotorcraft, is the rotorcraft’s maximum dimension when rotors are turning, and is the distance in metres measured from:

(a)   the most forward position of the main rotor tip path plane of the rotorcraft;

to:

(b)   the most rearward position of the tail rotor tip path plane or of the rotorcraft’s fuselage.

Note   “D value” is a common design term used in ICAO Annex 14, Aerodromes, Volume II, Heliports. For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

DVOR means the Doppler VOR.

earth mat area means the area of virgin ground that is directly underneath, and in immediate proximity to, a communications, navigation, surveillance site.

effective intensity, for a flashing light, is equal to the intensity of a fixed light of the same colour, which will produce the same visual range under identical conditions of observation.

elevation means the vertical distance of a point or a level, on or affixed to the surface of the Earth, measured from mean sea level.

exit taxiway means a taxiway connected to a runway to enable landing aeroplanes to turn off the runway.

facility has the same meaning as aerodrome facility.

FATO area means a final approach and take-off area of an aerodrome used for helicopter operations.

fixed light means a light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point.

FOD means foreign object debris, which may result in foreign object damage to an aircraft.

frangible object means an object of low mass designed to break, distort or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft.

GBAS means a ground-based augmentation system comprised of a VHF data broadcast (VDB) antenna and (typically) 4 remote satellite measurement unit (RSMU) antennas, with each of these components:

(a)   separately located; and

(b)   performing specific functions; and

(c)   with different siting requirements and restrictions.

GLS means GBAS landing system, and is a GNSS alternative to an ILS for approach and landing operations using a GBAS as the primary navigational reference.

GNSS means Global Navigation Satellite System.

gravel, for a surface, means that the surface is comprised of gravel and any binding additives but is not sealed.

hazard beacon means an aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation.

HF means the high frequency band, that is radio frequencies in the range 3 000 to 30 000 kHz.

holding bay is a defined area where aircraft can be held or bypassed to facilitate efficient surface movement of aircraft.

Note    Generally, such an area is offset from the taxiway so that clearance for passing aircraft is maintained.

homogeneous runway surface means a runway surface that has a consistent surface finish across its full width.

Note   A non-homogeneous runway surface means a runway surface that has different surface finishes across its full width. A non-homogeneous runway surface may result in differing friction, loading, and wet weather characteristics. Thus, it may limit the operations of some aircraft types depending on the requirements of the aircraft flight manual.

IATA means International Air Transport Association.

ICAO means the International Civil Aviation Organization established under the Chicago Convention.

Note   For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

ICAO Annex, for a numbered ICAO document, means the Annex, of that number, to the Chicago Convention.

ICAO Annex 4 means Annex 4, Aeronautical Charts.

IFR means instrument flight rules, and has the same meaning as that given in CAR for I.F.R.

ILS means an instrument landing system comprised of the following components:

(a)   VHF localizer equipment;

(b)   UHF glide path equipment;

(c)   VHF marker beacons or distance measuring equipment (DME);

(d)   localizer far field monitor antennas.

Note   Each component of an ILS performs specific functions, and is separately located along the longitudinal axis of, or alongside, the runway. Different siting requirements, and restrictions to access and movement, apply to each site.

ILS critical area means an area about the localizer and glide path antennas where vehicles and aircraft must be excluded during all ILS operations because the presence of vehicles or aircraft inside the area will cause unacceptable disturbance to the ILS signal-in-space.

ILS sensitive area means an area extending beyond the ILS critical area:

(a)   where the parking and movement of vehicles and aircraft is controlled to prevent the possibility of unacceptable interference to the ILS signal during ILS operations; and

(b)   which is protected against interference caused by large moving objects outside the ILS critical area but still normally within the airfield boundary.

independent parallel approaches means simultaneous approaches to parallel or near‑parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centrelines are not prescribed.

independent parallel departures means simultaneous departures from parallel or near‑parallel instrument runways.

instrument approach procedures means a series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix or, where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en route obstacle clearance criteria apply.

instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) means meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minimum specified for visual meteorological conditions.

instrument runway means 1 of the following types of runway nominated for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures:

(a)   non-precision approach runway, being a runway, served by visual aids and non‑visual aids, intended for landing operations following an instrument approach operation with a minimum descent height or decision height (DH) at or above 250 ft (a type A operation) in runway visibility of not less than 1 000 m;

(b)   precision approach runway, Category (CAT) I, being a runway, served by visual aids and non-visual aids, intended for landing operations following an instrument approach operation with a DH lower than 250 ft (a type B operation) but not lower than 200 ft, and either:

             (i)  in visibility of not less than 800 m; or

            (ii)  with an RVR of not less than 550 m;

(c)   precision approach runway, Special Authorisation Category I (SA CAT I), being a runway, served by visual aids and non-visual aids, nominated for landing operations following an instrument approach type B operation with a DH lower than 200 ft but not lower than 150 ft, and an RVR of not less than 450 m;

(d)   precision approach runway, Special Authorisation Category II (SA CAT II) being a runway, served by visual aids and non-visual aids, nominated for landing operations following an instrument approach type B operation with a DH lower than 200 ft but not lower than 100 ft, and an RVR of not less than 350 m;

(e)   precision approach runway, CAT II, being a runway, served by visual aids and non‑visual aids, nominated for landing operations following an instrument approach type B operation with a DH lower than 200 ft, but not lower than 100 ft, and an RVR of not less than 300 m;

(f)    precision approach runway, CAT III, being a runway, served by visual aids and non‑visual aids, for landing operations following an instrument approach type B operation to and along the surface of the runway and:

             (i)  for CAT IIIA — nominated for operations with a DH lower than 100 ft or with no decision height, and an RVR of not less than 175 m; and

            (ii)  for CAT IIIB — nominated for operations with a DH lower than 50 ft or with no decision height, and an RVR of less than 175 m but not less than 50 m; and

           (iii)  for CAT IIIC — nominated for operations with no DH or RVR limitations.

Note 1   Instrument approach procedures are classified as follows:

(a)    Non-precision approach (NPA) procedure: an instrument approach procedure designed for 2D instrument approach type A operations.

(b)    Approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV): a performance-based navigation (PBN) non-precision instrument approach procedure designed for 3D instrument approach type A operations.

(c)     Precision approach (PA) procedure: an instrument approach procedure based on navigation systems (ILS, MLS, GLS and SBAS CAT I) designed for 3D instrument approach type A or B operations.

Note 2   When preparing or nominating their infrastructure to support the desired aircraft operation, the aerodrome operator determines the classification of instrument runway for which the runway is to be nominated provided that the relevant standards in this MOS are achieved. A certified designer under Part 173 of CASR may then be tasked to design the optimal terminal instrument flight procedure to the capabilities of the instrument runway.

Note 3   Special Authorisation Category operations may only be utilised by aircraft operators who meet specific requirements for flight crew competency, aircraft capability and any conditions relevant to the terminal instrument flight procedure.

Note 4   The visual aids provided need not necessarily be matched to the scale of the non-visual aids provided. CASA recommends that visual aids should be determined based on the requirements for the intended classification of operation and in consultation with the aircraft operators for whom it is intended to be utilised.

intermediate holding position means a designated holding position for traffic control, at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles:

(a)       must stop and hold only if so instructed by the aerodrome control tower; and

(b)      if so stopped, must not proceed until given clearance by the aerodrome control tower.

international aerodrome means an aerodrome:

(a)   designated by the Department as an international airport in Australia (a designated international airport in Australia); and

(b)   identified as a designated international airport in Australia on the Department’s website.

Note   Generally, scheduled international air transport operations are conducted only at international aerodromes. The list of designated international airports in Australia may be accessed by navigating from the following link: https://infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/international/icao/desig_airports.aspx.

international air transport operation means an international air transport operation whether or not it is conducted in accordance with a published schedule.

jet blast means the thrust force from an aircraft jet or turbofan engine when the aircraft is on or close to the ground.

LAHSO means land and hold short operations.

landing area means that part of a movement area for the landing or take-off of aircraft.

landing distance available (LDA) means the length of runway (RWY) available for the ground run of a landing aeroplane. The LDA commences at the runway threshold.

Note 1   LDA = length of RWY (if threshold is not displaced).

Note 2   The stopway (SWY) and clearway (CWY) are not part of the LDA.

light failure means that:

(a)   the light is deemed to be unserviceable (that is, in a failed state) when the main beam average intensity:

             (i)  is less than 50% of the value specified in the appropriate figure showing the isocandela diagram; or

            (ii)  ceases to illuminate; and

(b)   for paragraph (a), for light units with the designed main beam average intensity higher than the value shown in the isocandela diagram — the 50% value must be related to that higher design value; and

(c)   when assessing the main beam — specified angles of beam elevation, toe-in and beam spread must be taken into consideration.

lighting system outage means that a light or lighting system is experiencing a deteriorated performance level (including total failure) which requires:

(a)   the fixing of the light or lighting system as soon as possible; and

(b)   a report to be made to AIS provider requesting that a NOTAM be issued.

lighting system reliability means the probability that the complete installation operates within the specified tolerances and that the system is operationally usable.

low-visibility procedure (LVP) means a procedure applied at an aerodrome for protecting aircraft operations during conditions of reduced visibility or low cloud.

LVP means low-visibility procedure.

MAGS means movement area guidance sign.

manoeuvring area means that part of the aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.

marked:

(a)   when used in relation to a marking — refers to the marking; and

(b)   when used in relation to a marker — refers to the marker.

marker means an object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary.

marking means a symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area of an aerodrome to convey surface movement, or aeronautical, information.

mass and weight, as used in this MOS, have the same meaning.

MAUM means maximum all-up mass.

MET means meteorological.

method of working plan (MOWP) means a plan to ensure that aerodrome works do not present a hazard to aircraft operations.

MLS means microwave landing system.

movement area means that part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the aprons.

movements, for the definition of aerodrome traffic density, means the sum of the following:

(a)   each take-off of an aircraft with passengers on board;

(b)   each landing of an aircraft with passengers on board;

(c)   each aerodrome movement that is a touch-and-go manoeuvre.

MTOM means maximum take-off mass.

MTOW means maximum take-off weight.

NDB means non-directional beacon.

near-parallel instrument runways means non-intersecting runways whose extended centrelines have an angle of convergence/divergence of 15 degrees or less.

nominated, for an ARC, means nominated by the aerodrome operator.

non-instrument runway means a runway for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures.

non-precision approach runway has the meaning given to it in paragraph (a) of the definition of instrument runway.

NOTAM means Notice to Airmen, and is a notice issued by the NOTAM Office containing information or instructions concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to persons concerned with flight operations.

obstacle-free zone (OFZ) means the airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional surface, baulked landing surface, and that portion of the runway strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not infringed by any fixed obstacle other than a low mass and frangibly mounted one required for air navigation purposes.

obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) means a series of planes, associated with each runway at an aerodrome, that defines the desirable limits to which objects or structures may project into the airspace around the aerodrome so that aircraft operations at the aerodrome may be conducted safely. The obstacle limitation surfaces are as follows:

(a)   the outer horizontal surface;

(b)   the conical surface;

(c)   the inner horizontal surface;

(d)   the approach surface;

(e)   the inner approach surface;

(f)    the transitional surface;

(g)   the inner transitional surface;

(h)   the baulked landing surface;

(i)    the take-off climb surface.

obstacle restriction area consists of the runway strips, runway end safety areas, clearways and taxiway strips.

obstacles means fixed (whether temporarily or permanently) and mobile objects, structures, and parts of such objects and structures, that:

(a)   are located on an area provided for the surface movement of aircraft; or

(b)   extend above a defined surface designated to protect aircraft in flight; or

(c)   stand outside the defined surfaces mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) and that have been assessed as being a hazard to air navigation.

OMGWS means outer main gear wheel span.

PAL means pilot-activated lighting system.

PANS-OPS means Doc.8168-OPS/611 Volume II (Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Construction of Visual and Instrument Flight Procedures) approved and published by decision of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization, as in force or existing from time to time.

PAPI means precision approach path indicator.

passenger movement numbers, in relation to an aerodrome for a period, means the sum of the total numbers of passengers who arrive at, or depart from, the aerodrome for the period:

(a)       as published by the Department; or

(b)      if paragraph (a) does not apply — as calculated in accordance with a method approved in writing by CASA.

paved, for a surface, means that the surface is prepared as a pavement.

pavement means a surface that is constructed from a combination of a sub-base, a base course, and a surface course, placed on a subgrade to support the traffic load and distribute it to the subgrade.

Note   A subgrade is a prepared foundation or the natural surface on which the pavement is constructed.

pavement classification number (PCN) means a number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operations by aircraft with aircraft classification number (ACN) less than or equal to the PCN.

Note   For guidance see CASA Advisory Circular (AC) 139.C-07: Strength rating of aerodrome pavements, as existing from time to time and freely available on the CASA website.

pilot, when used in relation to the location of a thing relative to the pilot of an aircraft, means the pilot in command of the aircraft, unless the contrary intention appears.

PPE means personal protective equipment.

precision approach runway means a runway described in paragraph (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f)  of the definition of instrument runway.

precision approach terrain chart — ICAO is a chart providing detailed terrain profile information for a defined portion of the final approach to a runway to enable an aircraft operator to assess the effects of the terrain when determining decision height using radio altimeters.

primary runway means a runway used in preference to other runways whenever conditions permit.

pushback vehicle includes a pushback unit.

QNH means altimeter subscale setting to obtain elevation (on the ground) or altitude.

rapid exit taxiway means a taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle, designed to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off the runway at higher speeds than are achieved on exit taxiways, thereby minimising runway occupancy times.

reference elevation datum has the same meaning as in section 7.04.

road holding position is a designated position at which vehicles may be required to hold.

RSM means remote satellite measurement.

RSMU means remote satellite measurement unit.

RTAO means restrictions to aircraft operations.

RTIL means runway threshold identification lights.

Rules and Practices for Aerodromes means the official publication known as Rules and Practices for Aerodromes issued:

(a)   by CASA or its predecessors, before the Manual of Standards (MOS) — Part 139 Aerodromes was first published by CASA on 1 May 2003; or

(b)   otherwise by or under the authority of the Commonwealth.

runway (RWY) means a defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

runway end safety area (RESA) means an area symmetrical about the extended runway centreline and adjacent to the end of the runway strip, primarily to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane which undershoots or overruns the runway.

runway guard light means a light system provided to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an active runway.

runway holding position means a designated position at a controlled aerodrome that is provided to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS or MLS critical or sensitive area, at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles must stop and hold, unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower.

Note   For the use of runway holding positions at non-controlled aerodromes, refer to CAAP 166-1.

runway inner shoulders means the portion of the runway shoulders immediately adjacent to the runway.

runway slope means the slope of a runway, presented as a percentage deviation from the horizontal. It is calculated by dividing the difference between the maximum and minimum deviations from the horizontal along the runway centreline, by the runway length, multiplying the quotient by 100 and expressing the product as a percentage deviation from the horizontal.

runway strip means a defined area, including the runway and stopway, provided to:

(a)   reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway; and

(b)   protect aircraft flying over the runway during take-off or landing operations.

runway type FATO means the final approach and take-off area of an aerodrome having characteristics similar in shape to a runway.

runway visibility (RV) means the distance along a runway over which a person can see and recognise a visibility marker or runway lights.

runway visual range (RVR) has the same meaning as in the CASR Dictionary.

SA means special authorisation.

SALS means a simple approach lighting system.

scheduled air transport operation means an air transport operation conducted in accordance with a published schedule.

scheduled domestic air transport operation means an air transport operation conducted in Australia in accordance with a published schedule.

scheduled international air transport operation means an international air transport operation conducted in accordance with a published schedule.

sealed, for a surface, means that the surface is wholly, or preponderantly, sealed with a surface treatment which may include bitumen, asphalt, concrete or another suitable treatment.

secondary power supply, for an aerodrome’s functionality, means an electrical power supply that:

(a)   is automatically connected to the relevant load when the primary power source fails; and

(b)   is derived from:

             (i)  the normal public electrical power supply, but in a way that:

(A)    supplies power for the aerodrome’s functionality from a special substation that is not the normal substation; and

(B)    supplies the power through a special transmission line that follows a route different from the normal power supply route; and

(C)    makes extremely remote the possibility of a simultaneous failure of the normal public electrical power supply and the power supply for the aerodrome; or

            (ii)  1 or more generators, batteries, or similar devices which deliver a constant, reliable and sufficient supply of electrical power for the relevant aerodrome service.

Note   See also sections 9.03 and 9.04.

segregated parallel operations means simultaneous operations on parallel or near‑parallel instrument runways in which 1 runway is used exclusively for approaches and the other runway is used exclusively for departures.

SGS means satellite ground station.

shoulders means an area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface.

signal circle means an area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

SMS means safety management system, and includes the statements and documents mentioned in Chapter 25 that describe and support the system.

stopway (SWY) means a defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of the take-off run available prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off.

STODA means supplementary take-off distance available.

Supply Authority means the body for an area that is approved, licensed or authorised by the State or Territory government of the area (the polity), or by the legislation of that polity, to supply electrical power to the general public of the area.

switch-over time, for a light, means the time required for the actual intensity of a light measured in a given direction to fall from 50% and recover to 50% during a power supply changeover when the light is being operated at intensities of 25% or above.

tabletop exercise means a theoretical discussion in which an emergency event is simulated, usually with timescales significantly compressed, and relevant persons verbally describe how they respond to the emergency but without any physical demonstration of the actual response.

take-off distance available (TODA) is the full length of the runway plus the length of any clearway. However, if there is no designated clearway, the part of the runway strip between the end of the runway and the runway strip end must be included as part of the TODA.

Note   TODA = TORA + CWY.

take-off run available (TORA) is the full length of the runway available in the relevant take-off direction.

Note 1   TORA = length of RWY.

Note 2   Neither stopway (SWY) nor clearway (CWY) are included in the TORA.

take-off runway means a runway designated for take-off only.

taxilane means a portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and for use only to provide access to, and egress from, aircraft parking positions.

Note   A fully or partially enclosed aircraft hangar is not within the meaning of aircraft parking position, as defined.

taxiway (TWY) means a defined path on an aerodrome on land, established for the taxiing of aircraft from 1 part of an aerodrome to another. A taxiway includes a taxilane, an apron taxiway and a rapid exit taxiway.

Note   Taxilane, apron taxiway, exit taxiway, rapid exit taxiway and taxiway system are also defined terms.

taxiway intersection means a junction of 2 or more taxiways.

taxiway strip means an area including a taxiway provided to protect an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft which accidentally runs off the taxiway.

taxiway system means a number of interconnecting taxiways.

threshold means the beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

time-limited works means aerodrome works that may be carried out if normal aircraft operations are not disrupted and the movement area can be restored to normal safety standards in not more than 30 minutes.

touchdown zone means the portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where landing aeroplanes are to first contact the runway.

traffic density has the same meaning as aerodrome traffic density.

transient obstacle includes a mobile obstacle.

T-VASIS means T visual approach slope indicator system.

Type A chart is a chart which contains information on all significant obstacles within the take-off area of an aerodrome up to 10 km from the end of the runway.

Type B chart is an obstacle chart which provides obstacle data from around the aerodrome.

UHF means the ultra high frequency band, that is radio frequencies in the range 300 to 3 000 MHz.

UNICOM (universal communications) means a non-air traffic control communication facility operated to provide an advisory service to enhance the value of information normally available at a non-controlled aerodrome.

unsealed, for a surface, means that the surface is not sealed.

VASI means visual approach slope indicator.

VASIS means a visual approach slope indicator system.

VDB means VHF data broadcast.

VDGS means a visual docking guidance system.

VFR means visual flight rules, and has the same meaning as that given in CAR for V.F.R.

VHF means the very high frequency band, that is radio frequencies in the range 30 to 300 MHz.

visibility (V) means visibility for aeronautical purposes and is the greater of the following:

(a)   the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognised when observed against a bright background;

(b)   the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1 000 candelas (cd) can be seen and identified against an unlit background.

Note 1   The 2 distances have different values in air of a given extinction coefficient, and the distance mentioned in paragraph (b) varies with the background illumination. The distance mentioned in paragraph (a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR).

Note 2   For international recognition and consistency, the definition of visibility is taken from ICAO Annex 3, Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, Chapter 1, Part 1. For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

visibility marker means a dark object of suitable dimensions for use as a reference in evaluating runway visibility.

visual aids means visual aids to navigation in the form of markers, markings, lights, signs, signals, displays or wind direction indicators, or combinations of these, which provide information to aircraft and vehicles on, or using, the movement area of an aerodrome.

visual meteorological conditions (VMC) means meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima.

VOR means VHF omnidirectional radio range.

WAM means wide area multilateration.

weight and mass, as used in this MOS, have the same meaning.

wheelbase means the distance from the nose gear to the geometric centre of the main gear.

Y location code means the international code prefix used to identify Australian aerodromes.

Example:  YMML identifies Melbourne Airport.


CHAPTER 4          AERODROME REFERENCE CODE AND DETERMINATION OF AERODROME STANDARDS

4.01     Aerodrome Reference Code

        (1)     The standards which an aerodrome facility must meet to be suitable for use by aeroplanes within a particular range of performance and size are determined by the aerodrome reference code (ARC) chosen by the aerodrome operator.

        (2)     The ARC is made up of 3 elements:

(a)   a code number determined by the aeroplane reference field length (code number or runway code number); and

(b)   a code letter determined by the aeroplane wingspan (code letter); and 

(c)   the outer main gear wheel span (OMGWS).

        (3)     The aerodrome operator must select from Table 4.01 (3) the code number corresponding to the highest value of the aeroplane reference field length of the aeroplanes which the aerodrome facility is nominated by the operator to serve.

Note   When making a selection, CASA recommends that an aerodrome operator should consider the aircraft types and operations to be accommodated because it is such considerations which dictate the appropriate design, and operating and reporting standards, for the facility.

            Table 4.01 (3)   ARC number (or runway code number)

Code element 1

Code number

Aeroplane reference field length

1

Less than 800 m

2

Not less than 800 m

3

Not less than 1 200 m

4

Not less than 1 800 m

Note   The minimum aeroplane reference field length determines the code number. However, provided it meets at least the minimum length required for a particular code number, the actual runway length does not otherwise dictate the code number selected by an operator. The practical minimum length for the runway, and the nominated ARC, are each selected by the aerodrome operator.

        (4)     The aerodrome operator must select from Table 4.01 (4) the code letter corresponding to the greatest wingspan of the aeroplanes which the aerodrome facility is nominated by the operator to serve.

Note   The choice of the greatest wingspan lies with the aerodrome operator. A failure to choose that which is the most demanding of applicable options may result in operational limitations for a particular aircraft type.

Table 4.01 (4)   ARC letter

Code element 2

Code letter

Wingspan

A

Up to but not including 15 m

B

15 m up to but not including 24 m

C

24 m up to but not including 36 m

D

36 m up to but not including 52 m

E

52 m up to but not including 65 m

F

65 m up to but not including 80 m

        (5)     The aerodrome operator must select from Table 4.01 (5) the greatest OMGWS of the aeroplanes that the aerodrome or facility is nominated by the operator to serve.

Table 4.01 (5)   OMGWS

Code element 3

OMGWS up to but not including 4.5 m

OMGWS 4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

OMGWS 6 m up to but not including 9 m

OMGWS 9 m up to but not including 15 m

Note   The choice of OMGWS lies with the aerodrome operator. A failure to choose that which is the most demanding of applicable options may result in operational limitations for a particular aircraft type.


CHAPTER 5          AERODROME INFORMATION FOR THE AIP AND THE AERODROME MANUAL

Division 1     Information

5.01     Information for the AIP through an AIS provider

        (1)     An aerodrome operator must report the information specified in subsection (2) to an AIS provider for publication in the AIP.

        (2)     The information for subsection (1) is information about the following, in accordance with, or as supplemented under, sections 5.03 to 5.09:

(a)   the aerodrome;

(b)   the movement area;

(c)   the visual aids;

(d)   the navigation aids;

(e)   the rescue and firefighting services;

(f)    the ground services;

(g)   the aerodrome operational procedures.

        (3)     The information mentioned in subsection (1) must be reported in the format specified by the AIS provider.

5.02     Information to be included in aerodrome manual

                 The aerodrome manual must contain all of the information mentioned in subsection 5.01 (2) that is reported to the AIS provider.

5.03     Aerodrome information

            An aerodrome diagram

        (1)     A single aerodrome diagram must illustrate the following:

(a)   the layout of runways, taxiways and aprons;

(b)   the nature of the runway surfaces;

(c)   the designations and lengths of the runways;

(d)   the designations of the taxiways;

(e)   the location of illuminated and non-illuminated wind direction indicators;

(f)    the location of the aerodrome reference point;

(g)   the location of the terminal buildings;

(h)   the location of any helicopter runway type FATO areas or helicopter aiming points;

(i)    the location of any glider runway strips, if located external to a runway strip;

(j)    the location and type of a VASIS, if provided.

            Aerodrome administration statement

        (2)     An aerodrome administration statement must include the following:

(a)   the aerodrome operator’s name, postal address, telephone number, email address, website and facsimile number (where applicable);

(b)   the name and telephone number of the person nominated by the operator to be the contact for any matters arising outside normal business hours;

Note   The relevant email address and facsimile number (where applicable) should also be provided.

(c)   whether the aerodrome is for part military use, public use, private use or a combination of these uses.

Note   Aerodrome use charges may also be included in the statement.

        (3)     For paragraphs (2) (a) and (b), the telephone numbers, email addresses and facsimile numbers must be numbers or addresses that are regularly monitored for incoming calls, emails or faxes.

            Aerodrome location statement

        (4)     An aerodrome location statement must include the following for the aerodrome:

(a)   its name;

(b)   the State or Territory in which it is located;

(c)   the latitude and longitude based on the aerodrome reference point;

(d)   the Y location code indicator;

(e)   the elevation;

(f)    the currency of any Type A and B charts.

5.04     Movement area information

            Runways

        (1)     For each runway designation, the information must include the following:

(a)   the runway code number;

Note   See paragraph 4.01 (2) (a).

(b)   the runway bearings, in degrees magnetic;

(c)   the length and width of the runway and its surface type, or, if non-homogeneous runway surfaces are provided across the length and width of the runway, the runway surface types;

Note   See also Note 4 under Table 6.02 (1).

(d)   for instrument runways:

             (i)  the geographic location coordinates of the threshold; and

            (ii)  the elevation of the midpoint of the runway threshold;

(e)   the strength rating of the runway pavement calculated using the ACN – PCN pavement rating system;

(f)    the length and width of the runway strip;

(g)   the runway slope;

(h)   the runway declared distances and STODA;

(i)    the established OLS for the runway;

(j)    if published — relevant:

             (i)  Type A charts for any significant obstacles within the take-off area up to 10 km from the end of the runway; and

            (ii)  Type B charts for any other obstacles around the aerodrome;

(k)   identification of any obstacle-free zone;

(l)    identification of any arrester system, its location and description.

            Runway strip availability

        (2)     If the aerodrome operator prepares the runway strip and makes it available for take-offs and landings, the information must include details of:

(a)   such availability; and

(b)   any limitations on such availability.

Note   The provision of a glider runway strip is an example of runway strip availability. See also Chapter 6, Division 6.

            Taxiways

        (3)     For each taxiway, the information must include the following:

(a)   the aerodrome reference code letter;

(b)   the width;

(c)   the surface type;

(d)   the designation.

            Aprons

        (4)     For each apron of an aerodrome with international operations, the information must include the following:

(a)   the surface type;

(b)   the location, elevation and designation of any aircraft parking position or stand;

(c)   details of any parking guidance provided.

        (5)     For each apron of an aerodrome that does not have international operations, the information:

(a)   must include the surface type; and

(b)   may include the location and designation of any aircraft parking position or stand.

5.05     Visual aids

            Approach and runway lighting systems

        (1)     The information must include details of the following (as applicable) for approach and runway lighting systems:

(a)   the type, length and intensity of the approach lighting system;

(b)   the runway threshold lights, colour and wing bars;

(c)   the type of visual approach slope indicator system;

(d)   the length of the runway touchdown zone lighting;

(e)   the length, longitudinal spacing, colour and intensity of the runway centreline lights;

(f)    the length, longitudinal spacing, colour and intensity of the runway edge lights;

Note   The references to intensity in paragraphs (a), (e) and (f), refer to the number of stages as described in the data product specification under Part 175 of CASR.

(g)   the colour of the runway end lights and wing bars;

(h)   the length and colour of the stopway lights;

(i)    the starter extension lighting;

(j)    runway threshold identification lights (RTIL);

(k)   pilot-activated lighting system (PAL).

            Other lighting and secondary power supply

        (2)     The information must include details of the following:

(a)   the location, characteristics and hours of operation of any aerodrome beacons;

(b)   the lighting systems for taxiways, including taxi holding positions and stop bars;

(c)   the lighting systems for aprons, including the location and type of VDGSs;

(d)   any other movement area lighting systems;

(e)   any obstacle lighting provided for OLS infringements;

(f)    any secondary power supply, including its switch-over time.

5.06     Navigation aids

                 The information must include details of any navigation aid provided by the aerodrome operator.

5.07     Rescue and firefighting services

                 The information must include the category of any rescue and firefighting service (ARFFS) provided by the aerodrome operator and based at the aerodrome.

5.08     Ground services

                 The information must include details of the following:

(a)   fuel suppliers and their contact details, including regularly monitored after-hours contact details;

(b)   any aerodrome weather information broadcasts provided by the aerodrome operator;

(c)   ground-to-air communication systems, for example UNICOM, aerodrome frequency response units (AFRU) and approved air-ground operator services provided by the aerodrome operator;

(d)   any other aviation-related services made available to pilots by the aerodrome operator.

5.09     Aerodrome operational procedures

            Standard taxi routes

        (1)     The information must include the location and designation of standard taxi routes determined by:

(a)   the aerodrome operator; or

(b)   the ATS provider.

            Special procedures

        (2)     The information must include any special procedures unique to the aerodrome which pilots would reasonably be expected to know in the interests of aviation safety.

            Notices

        (3)     The information must include cautionary or administrative information relating to the safe use of the aerodrome.

            Low-visibility procedures

        (4)     If low-visibility procedures are established at the aerodrome — the information must include the following:

(a)   the runways and equipment used under low-visibility procedures;

(b)   the defined meteorological conditions under which low-visibility procedures are initiated, used and terminated;

(c)   the ground markings and lighting used under low-visibility procedures.


CHAPTER 5

Division 2     Standards for information

5.10     Standards for information published in the AIP through an AIS provider

        (1)     In this section and section 5.11:

                 DPS means the AIS provider’s data product specification (as in force or existing from time to time) that is required under regulation 175.160 of CASR.

        (2)     The information mentioned in subsections 5.01 (1) and (2) must be determined and reported to the AIS provider in accordance with:

(a)   the DPS; and

(b)   regulation 175.460 for the DPS.

        (3)     The information mentioned in sections 5.12 to 5.17 must be reported or provided to the AIS provider in accordance with:

(a)   the DPS; or

(b)   if there is no DPS for the information — in accordance with the requirements (if any) specified in sections 5.12 to 5.17.

5.11     Standards for information to be included in aerodrome manual

        (1)     The information mentioned in section 5.02 must be determined and reported in the aerodrome manual in accordance with the DPS.

        (2)     The information mentioned in sections 5.12 to 5.17 must be reported in, or provided with, the aerodrome manual in accordance with:

(a)   the DPS; or

(b)   if there is no DPS for the information — in accordance with the requirements (if any) specified in sections 5.12 to 5.17.

5.12     Movement area – runways – declared distances information

            Runways

        (1)     For each runway direction, the following distances must be reported in metres, with feet equivalent shown in brackets:

(a)   take-off run available (TORA);

(b)   take-off distance available (TODA);

(c)   accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA);

(d)   landing distance available (LDA).

Note   The expressions used in this subsection are defined in section 3.01.

            Intersection departure take-off distances available

        (2)     At an aerodrome where air traffic procedures allow taxiway intersection departures, the TODA from each relevant taxiway intersection must be reported.

Note   The method of determining the take-off distances available at an intersection is similar to that used at a runway end. This is to ensure that the same performance parameters (for example, line-up allowance) are consistently applied for the line-up manoeuvre, whether entering the runway at the runway end or from some other intersection.

        (3)     Where a taxiway intersection is at right angles to the runway, the TODA from the taxiway intersection must be measured from the perpendicular line that:

(a)   continues the taxiway edge; and

(b)   is behind the aircraft when it commences its take-off roll.

Note   This is illustrated in Figure 5.12 (3).

        (4)     Where a taxiway intersection is not at right angles to the runway, the TODA from the taxiway intersection must be measured from the perpendicular line that is:

(a)   from the point where the continuation of the taxiway edge meets the runway edge; and

(b)   behind the aircraft when it commences its take-off roll.

Note   This is illustrated in Figure 5.12 (4).

Intdepcol

Figure 5.12 (3)   Calculation of intersection departure information for a perpendicular runway entry (illustrates matters)

Intdepcolhispdtwy

Figure 5.12 (4)   Calculation of intersection departure information for a non‑perpendicular runway entry (illustrates matters)

        (5)     Intersection departure information must be reported as follows:

(a)   RWY [runway designation] — TKOF from TWY [taxiway designation];

(b)   RWY remaining [in metres and feet] — Reduce all DIST by [reduced distance, in metres and feet].

Note   Here is an example of how to record the information:

(a)    RWY 14 — TKOF from TWY A;

(b)    RWY remaining 1085 (3560) — Reduce all DIST by 360 (1181).

        (6)     The code number of the OLS standard under section 7.16 for each runway must be reported in accordance with section 5.04.

                 Note   For the applicable aircraft code number, see Table 4.01 (3).

        (7)     The selection of the critical obstacle must be based on:

(a)   a survey of the full take-off surface in accordance with the nominated runway code number; and

(b)   the applicable OLS standards specified in Chapter 7 of this MOS.

        (8)     The gradient from the end of the TODA to the top of the critical obstacle within the take-off climb area must be reported as a percentage figure. However, if there is no obstacle, a value of 1.2% must be reported.

            Fences or levee banks

        (9)     If a fence or levee bank is located so close to a runway strip end that the take-off gradient is greater than 5%, the take-off gradient may be reported based on the next most critical obstacle within the take-off area provided that a note is added:

(a)   advising that the fence or levee bank has not been taken into account in the calculation of the TODA and STODA gradients; and

(b)   giving the location and height of the fence or levee bank.

            Supplementary take-off distance available (STODA)

      (10)     For a TODA having an obstacle clear gradient of more than 1.6%, the STODA must be reported for obstacle clear take-off gradients of 1.6%, 1.9%, 2.2%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%, up to the gradient associated with the TODA, unless the corresponding STODA for a particular gradient is less than 800 m.

Note   In calculating the STODA, care must be taken to ensure that a shielded object does not become critical for the lesser take-off distances, and that the slope of the runway is taken into account.

            Threshold elevation

      (11)     For an instrument runway, the elevation of the midpoint of the runway threshold must be reported, measured in feet to an accuracy of 1 foot, based on the Australian Height Datum (AHD).

            Aerodrome obstacle charts — Types A and B

      (12)     If a Type A or B chart is prepared, its currency must be reported by reference to:

(a)   its date of preparation; or

(b)   its sequential edition or issue number.

            Precision approach terrain chart

      (13)     If an aerodrome obstacle chart is provided by an aerodrome operator, it must be in accordance with the standards and procedures set out in ICAO Annex 4.

Note   For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

            Aerodrome Terrain and Obstacle Chart — ICAO (Electronic)

      (14)     If an aerodrome terrain and obstacle chart is provided by an aerodrome operator, it must be prepared and published as an Aerodrome Terrain and Obstacle Chart — ICAO (Electronic), in accordance with ICAO Annex 4.

Note   For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

            One-direction runways

      (15)     If a runway direction cannot be used for take-off or landing, the declared distance must be reported as “nil” and accompanied by an explanation.

Example:  “TKOF 14 and LAND 32 not AVBL due surrounding terrain.”

5.13     Movement area — taxiways

            Taxiway width

        (1)     The minimum width of the taxiway must be reported in metres.

            Nature of taxiway surface

        (2)     The taxiway surface type must be reported as 1 of the following:

(a)   bitumen seal;

(b)   asphalt;

(c)   concrete;

(d)   gravel;

(e)   grass;

(f)    natural surface.

Note   For example, “dirt” would be a natural surface.

        (3)     If only the central portion of the taxiway is sealed, this must be reported.

                       Note   This would relate to a non-homogeneous runway surface.

            Taxiway designation

        (4)     For the taxiway record:

(a)   each main taxiway and each short feeder taxiway must have a designation; and

(b)   subject to paragraph (c), the designation must be a single letter used without numbers; and

(c)   for each short feeder taxiway — an alpha-numeric designator may be used.

5.14     Movement area — aprons

            Nature of apron surface

        (1)     The apron surface type must be reported as 1 of the following:

(a)   bitumen seal;

(b)   asphalt;

(c)   concrete;

(d)   gravel;

(e)   grass;

(f)    natural surface.

Note   For example, “dirt” would be a natural surface.

        (2)     The location and coordinates of all primary and secondary parking positions must be reported:

(a)   for an aerodrome that has scheduled international air transport operations; and

(b)   for an aerodrome without scheduled international air transport operations — if the operator has supplied parking position designations to an AIS provider for publication in the AIP.

Note   See also subsections 5.04 (4) and 5.04 (5).

        (3)     For subsection (2):

(a)   a location must be reported in degrees, minutes, seconds and hundredths of seconds of latitude and longitude; and

(b)   elevation must be reported to the nearest foot.

5.15     Visual aids

            Lighting systems

        (1)     All aerodrome lighting systems must be reported using the abbreviations set out in the AIP.

Note   Runway lights include runway edge, threshold and runway end lights, and, where stopways are provided, stopway lights.

            Visual Docking Guidance System (VDGS) including Advanced Visual Docking Guidance System (A-VDGS)

        (2)     For an aerodrome apron of a kind mentioned in subsection 5.04 (4) or 5.04 (5), the type of guidance system must be reported as follows:

(a)   if a VDGS or A-VDGS is provided — the type of system;

(b)   if a pilot stop line is provided in lieu of a VDGS or A-VDGS — the word “Pilot”;

(c)   if a marshaller is provided in lieu of a VDGS or A-VDGS — the word “Marshaller”.

5.16     Navigation aids

                 If the aerodrome operator provides a navigation aid, the geographic location coordinates and operating frequency must be recorded.

5.17     Additional hazard information

                 Local hazards that may adversely affect aviation safety (local hazard data) must be recorded, including the following:

(a)   operating restrictions on the manoeuvring area;

(b)   continual wildlife hazards at the aerodrome or in its vicinity, including descriptions, locations, and times or seasonal information;

Note   Requirements for managing wildlife hazards are specified in Chapter 17. As a guide, the aerodrome vicinity, for the purposes of wildlife hazards, may be considered as being:

(a)    for sources of attractants and wildlife movements which present a hazard — within a radius of 3 km from all the runways of an aerodrome; and

(b)   for significant sources of attractants or hazardous wildlife movements across the aerodrome site — within a radius of 8 km from the aerodrome reference point.

(c)   apron or parking position restrictions outside daylight hours;

(d)   any activities within the circuit area that are hazardous to aviation;

Note   For example shooting ranges, explosive areas (such as mine sites or military ordinance practice areas), wind farms or sources of gaseous plumes (such as gas driven generators, refineries or furnaces).

(e)   other aviation activities such as helicopter, ultralight or glider operations within the circuit area.

Note   In general terms, for aircraft engaged in general aviation with an approximate climb rate of 500 ft per minute, the circuit area may be considered as being within a radius of 3 km of the aerodrome reference point. For higher performance turboprop or jet engine aircraft, CASA recommends that a larger area should be considered for the circuit or circling area.


CHAPTER 6          AERODROME PLANNING, DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE — PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOVEMENT FACILITIES

Division 1     Runways

6.01     Location of runway threshold

        (1)     Subject to this section, as far as possible, a runway threshold must be located at the extremity of a runway.

        (2)     A runway threshold must be located:

(a)   for a code 1 runway — not less than 30 m; or

(b)   in any other case — not less than 60 m;

                 after the point at which the approach surface for aircraft using the runway meets the extended runway centreline.

        (3)     Subject to subsection (2), a runway threshold may be displaced from the extremity of a runway if:

(a)   the OLS would otherwise be infringed by an obstacle; or

(b)   the PANS-OPS airspace would otherwise be infringed by an obstacle; or

(c)   an immoveable object or structure would otherwise extend above the approach surface.

Note 1   CASA Advisory Circular (AC) 139.A-04: Applying for aerodrome authorisations, exemptions and approvals, and AC 139.C-08: Aerodrome obstacle control, as existing from time to time and freely available on the CASA website, contain important guidance on the various safety factors that an aerodrome operator should consider before displacing a runway threshold.

Note 2   Thresholds should not be displaced without consideration of aircraft operational factors, such as approach angle and LDA. Large approach angles (above 3.5 degrees) can only be flown by aircraft that have been certified for steep approaches and where the aircraft operator has received approval. Furthermore, displaced thresholds will result in a reduced LDA which may affect the safety and efficiency of the operation even if the approach angle remains at 3 degrees.

        (4)     A runway threshold must be displaced from the extremity of a runway in accordance with a written direction by CASA given in the interests of aviation safety.

        (5)     If a runway threshold is temporarily displaced, the aerodrome operator must:

(a)   assess the revised approach splay for the OLS, and notify CASA in writing of any new obstacles in the approach surface; and

(b)   recalculate the TODA, the critical obstacle gradient, and the STODA in the reciprocal direction from the displacement; and

(c)   report any changes resulting from the recalculation to the AIS provider and request that a NOTAM be issued.

        (6)     The aerodrome operator must set out in the aerodrome manual the details of, and reasons for, any permanent runway threshold displacement.

6.02     Runway width

(1)     For a runway with a code number mentioned in a row of column 1 of Table 6.02 (1), the minimum width of runway for an aircraft with an OMGWS mentioned in the same row in column 2, 3, 4 or 5, is the width in metres mentioned in the cell that is common to the code number and the aircraft’s OMGWS.

Table 6.02 (1)   Minimum runway width

Code number

OMGWS

Up to but not including 4.5 m

4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

6 m up to but not including 9 m

9 m up to but not including 15 m

1

18 m

18 m

23 m

2

23 m

23 m

30 m

3

30 m

30 m

30 m

45 m

4

45 m

45 m

Note 1   OMGWS means outer main gear wheel span.

Note 2   The combinations of code numbers and OMGWS for which widths are specified have been developed for typical aeroplane characteristics.

Note 3   The choice of minimum runway width lies with the aerodrome operator having regard to the aircraft type which the facility is nominated to serve, bearing in mind that an aircraft must be operated in accordance with its aircraft flight manual or supplement which specifies the required minimum runway width. The minimum runway widths presented in Table 6.02 (1) do not guarantee that all aircraft types correlating to a code number and the corresponding OMGWS will be able to utilise the runway in accordance with the aircraft flight manual or supplement. Aerodrome and aircraft operators should consult with each other to ensure that aircraft may safely utilise the runway width provided at the aerodrome.

Note 4  The runway width determined in accordance with this MOS is normally considered to be the width of a runway of homogeneous runway surface material. If an aerodrome operator choses to provide a runway width consisting of non-homogeneous runway surface material, aircraft operations to the reported runway width may be limited. For example, a runway with an 18 m centre-sealed surface and 2.5 m of adjacent rolled gravel on each side is not considered to be a 23 m runway for the purposes of minimum width determination as documented in the aircraft flight manual or supplement.

        (2)     A runway nominated as Code F for use by aircraft with at least 4 wing-mounted engines (that is, at least 2 engines on each wing) must:

(a)   have a minimum width of 45 m; and

(b)   have load-bearing shoulders in accordance with section 6.11.

        (3)     For a precision approach runway — the runway width must not be less than 30 m.

6.03     Runway turn pad and runway bypass pad

        (1)     If a runway turn pad or runway bypass pad is provided at any point on a runway, then, for an aircraft with an OMGWS mentioned in a row of column 1 of Table 6.03 (1):

(a)   the minimum clearance of the outer main gear wheels of the aircraft from the edge of the relevant pad when carrying out a turn must not be less than the clearance mentioned in the same row in column 2; and

(b)   the width of the relevant pad must be designed accordingly.

Table 6.03 (1)   Minimum clearance between outer main gear wheels and edge of turn pad or bypass pad on runway

OMGWS

Minimum clearance

Up to but not including 4.5 m

1.5 m

4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

2.25 m

6 m up to but not including 9 m

3 m on straight portions

3 m on curved portions — for aeroplanes with a wheelbase less than 18 m

4 m on curved portions — for aeroplanes with a wheelbase equal to or greater than 18 m

9 m up to but not including 15 m

4 m

Note   CASA recommends that the radius of the curve leading into and out of the runway turn pad or runway bypass pad should be compatible with the manoeuvring capability and normal taxiing speeds of the aeroplanes for which the relevant pad is intended. The intersection angle into the relevant pad should not be greater than 30 degrees. The relevant pad design should then guide the aeroplane in such a way as to allow a straight portion of taxiing before the point where a 180 degree turn is to be made. The straight portion of the relevant pad design, into and out of the relevant pad, should be parallel to the runway.

        (2)     Subject to subsection (3), a runway turn pad or a runway bypass pad must be located on the right-hand side of a runway as viewed when looking in the direction of take-off from that runway end (the normal side).

                 Note 1   This configuration would be viewed as being on the left-hand side by the pilot entering the runway turn pad or runway bypass pad, prior to the aircraft performing a reciprocal turn within the node, ready for take-off.

                       Note 2   See Figure 8.33 (1).

        (3)     A turn pad or bypass pad may be located on the opposite side of a runway from the normal side as described in subsection (2), but only if:

(a)   the presence of aerodrome facilities or infrastructure makes it impracticable to locate the turn pad or bypass pad on the normal side; and

(b)   the placement on the side opposite the normal side does not adversely affect safety for the take-off and landing of aircraft; and

(c)   the fact of placement on the side opposite the normal side is described and recorded in the aerodrome manual.

(4)       If:

(a)   a taxiway shoulder in accordance with section 6.11 is required for a taxiway serving a runway; and

(b)   an engine of an aeroplane using the turning node would otherwise travel outside the area defined by the turning node or the runway shoulder;

                 then a shoulder must be provided to a minimum distance of 3 m from the runway turn pad, or runway bypass pad, edge, and the shoulder must:

(c)   slope downwards and away from the relevant pad surface; and

(d)   be resistant to aeroplane engine blast erosion; and

(e)   be capable of supporting an aeroplane running off the relevant pad on to a shoulder without the aeroplane sustaining any structural damage; and

(f)    be capable of supporting emergency and service vehicles; and

(g)   either:

             (i)  preferably be flush to the relevant pad edge; or

            (ii)  if not flush with the relevant pad surface — not step down by more than 25 mm.

        (5)     A runway turn pad or runway bypass pad must ensure containment of the aircraft wingspan within the width of the applicable taxiway strip, as required under section 6.48.

        (6)     An additional runway turn pad or bypass pad may be provided on the opposite side to that of the pad required under subsection (2).

                 Note   Such a configuration may be required to allow an aircraft with a longer wheel base of oversteer characteristics to manoeuvre safely within the turning node or bypass node.

6.04     Runway starter extension

        (1)     For a runway with a starter extension not otherwise incorporated in a runway bypass pad, the starter extension design, and the associated aircraft taxi guidelines, must:

(a)   be not more than 150 m in length; and

(b)   provide the minimum distance from the wingtip of the aircraft to each of the following located in proximity to the starter extension:

             (i)  any object;

            (ii)  a runway holding position;

           (iii)  a vehicle access road; and

(c)   provide a minimum clearance of the outer main gear wheels of the aircraft from the edges of the starter extension that is not less than the clearance mentioned in the row in column 2 of Table 6.03 (1) that is for the OMGWS of the aircraft; and

(d)   achieve the runway surface requirements of section 6.09; and

(e)   achieve the runway strength requirements of section 6.10.

        (2)     For paragraph (1) (a), the minimum distance must be at least 20% of the maximum wingspan of an aircraft with the aircraft code letter for which the runway starter extension is intended.

Note   For the applicable aircraft code letter, see Table 4.01 (4).

6.05     Parallel runways

        (1)     For non-instrument runways that are parallel and for simultaneous use — the minimum separation distance between the runway centrelines must not be less than the following:

(a)   if the higher code number of the two runways is 3 or 4 — 210 m;

(b)   if the higher code number of the two runways is 2 — 150 m;

(c)   if the code number of the two runways is 1 — 120 m.

        (2)     For instrument runways that are parallel and for simultaneous use — the minimum separation distance between the runway centrelines must not be less than the following:

(a)   for independent parallel approaches — 1 035 m;

(b)   for dependent parallel approaches — 915 m;

(c)   for segregated parallel operations — 760 m;

(d)   for independent parallel departures — 760 m.

Note   CASA recommends that non-instrument runways built after the commencement of this MOS should conform to the standards set out in subsection (2) rather than subsection (1) because this would ensure they are able to support future instrument runway operations.

6.06     Runway longitudinal slope

        (1)     The overall longitudinal slope of a runway must not exceed:

(a)   for a code 3 or 4 runway — 1%; or

(b)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 2%.

        (2)     Subject to subsections (3), (4) and (5), the longitudinal slope along any individual 45 m segment of a runway with multiple slopes must not exceed:

(a)   for a code 4 runway — 1.25%; or

(b)   for a code 3 runway — 1.5%; or

(c)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 2%.

        (3)     For a code 4 runway, the longitudinal slope along the first and the last quarters of the runway must not exceed 0.8%.

        (4)     For a precision approach CAT II or CAT III code 3 runway — the longitudinal slope along the first and last quarters of the runway must not exceed 0.8%.

        (5)     If slope changes cannot be avoided, the change in longitudinal slope between any 2 adjoining 45 m segments of the runway must not exceed the following:

(a)   for a code 3 or 4 runway — 1.5%;

(b)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 2%.

        (6)     The transition from 1 longitudinal slope to another must be accomplished by a vertical curve with a rate of change not exceeding:

(a)   for a code 4 runway — 0.1% for every 30 m (with a minimum radius of curvature of 30 000 m); or

(b)   for a code 3 runway — 0.2% for every 30 m (with a minimum radius of curvature of 15 000 m); or

(c)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 0.4% for every 30 m (with a minimum radius of curvature of 7 500 m).

        (7)     The maximum runway longitudinal slope values expressed in subsections (1) to (6) do not apply at the intersection of a runway with another runway or a taxiway if:

(a)   there are conflicting drainage requirements or slope requirements; and

(b)   alternative runway longitudinal slope values are as follows:

             (i)  arrived at after a safety analysis using the safety management system and the risk management plan;

            (ii)  as close as practicable to values expressed in subsections (1) to (6);

           (iii)  demonstrably safe for aircraft operations;

           (iv)  recorded in the aerodrome manual.

        (8)     The distance between the points of intersection of 2 successive longitudinal slope changes must be at least the greater of:

(a)   45 m; or

(b)   the distance (D) in metres worked out using the formula:

D = k [|S1 - S2| + |S2 - S3|]/100.

        (9)     For subsection (8):

(a)   k means:

             (i)  for a code 4 runway — 30 000 m; or

            (ii)  for a code 3 runway — 15 000 m; or

           (iii)  for a code 1 or 2 runway — 5 000 m; and

(b)   “S1”, “S2” and “S3” are the 3 successive slopes expressed as percentage values and represented as absolute numerical values.

Note   Figure 6.06 (9) shows an example of that part of the calculation for the distance between the points of intersection of 2 successive longitudinal slope changes, that is required by subsection 6.06 (8), where the runway is the transverse line running from higher left to lower right.

If the runway code number is 3, and the slopes are S1 (+1%), S2 (-1.5%) and S3 (+1.5%), then the distance in metres between the 2 points of intersection must not be less than 15 000 x (2.5 + 3)/100, that is to say 825 m.

Drawing1

Figure 6.06 (9)   Part of the calculation for the distance between the points of intersection of 2 successive longitudinal slope changes (illustrates matters)

6.07     Runway sight distance

        (1)     For a runway with a code letter mentioned in a row of column 1 of Table 6.07 (1), the minimum unobstructed line of sight along the surface of a runway must not be less than the distance mentioned in the row of column 2 of the Table that is for the code letter.

Table 6.07 (1)   Runway line of sight

Code letter

Minimum unobstructed line of sight

A

From a point 1.5 m above the runway to any other point 1.5 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

B

From a point 2 m above the runway to any other point 2 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

C, D, E or F

From a point 3 m above the runway to any other point 3 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

Note   CASA recommends that runways for aircraft codes both above and below Code C should use the Code A minimum unobstructed line of sight. This would ensure superior visibility for aircraft with lower pilot eye heights when measured above the runway surface.

        (2)     If runway lighting is provided for a runway with a code letter mentioned in a row of column 1 of Table 6.07 (2), the minimum unobstructed line of sight to the runway end lights must not be less than the distance mentioned in the row of column 2 of the Table that is for the code letter, when viewed at the height mentioned in the row.

            Table 6.07 (2)   Line of sight to runway end lights

Code letter

Minimum unobstructed line of sight to runway end lights

A

200 m — when viewed at a height of 1.5 m above the surface.

B

400 m — when viewed at a height of 2 m above the surface.

C, D, E or F

600 m — when viewed at a height of 3 m above the surface.

6.08     Transverse slopes on runways

        (1)     The transverse slope on any part of a runway must not permit the pooling or ponding of water on the runway.

        (2)     For design purposes, a transverse slope on a runway shoulder must be within the range of the percentage figures in column 1 in Table 6.08 (2) but a construction tolerance above or below the range is allowed within the limits specified in column 2.

            Table 6.08 (2)   Runway transverse slope values

Design slope

Construction tolerance

1.0% - 2.0%

± 0.5%

        (3)     The runway transverse slope values expressed in Table 6.08 (2) do not apply at the intersection of a runway with another runway or a taxiway if:

(a)   there are conflicting drainage requirements or slope requirements; and

(b)   alternative runway transverse slope values are as follows:

             (i)  arrived at after a safety analysis using the safety management system and the risk management plan;

            (ii)  as close as practicable to the values expressed in Table 6.08 (2);

           (iii)  demonstrably safe for aircraft operations;

           (iv)  recorded in the aerodrome manual.

6.09     Runway surface

        (1)     The surface of a sealed runway:

(a)   must not have any irregularities that:

             (i)  excluding markings, impair the minimum runway surface friction required under paragraph (1) (b) or subsection (5); or

Note   CASA recommends that paint which, when applied, would leave a thick film, should be avoided, for example, paint normally used for vehicle road markings.

            (ii)  otherwise adversely affect the safety of take-off or landing; and

(b)   subject to subsection (5), must have:

             (i)  for an un-grooved surface — an average surface texture depth of at least that stated in column 1 of Table 6.09 (1)-1 over the full length and width of the runway, as measured using sand patch tests in accordance with subsection (2); or

            (ii)  for any surface — a minimum measured coefficient of friction level greater than the minimum friction level specified in Table 6.09 (1)-2; and

(c)   if the surface is grooved — must have grooves that are:

             (i)  perpendicular to the runway centreline; and

            (ii)  if compliance with subparagraph (i) is not physically possible — parallel to transverse joints that are not perpendicular to the runway centreline; and

           (iii)  extended as close as possible to the runway edge.

            Table 6.09 (1)-1   Average surface texture depth

Minimum average texture depth

Preferred average texture depth

0.625 mm

1 mm

Note   Average means the average of results within a test area, and not results averaged across multiple test areas.

(2)       Tests that satisfy paragraph (1) (b) must be carried out in accordance with ICAO Airport Services Manual, Part 2, Pavement Surface Conditions, triggered by any of the following:

(a)   as soon as possible after a newly constructed or overlayed surface is completed;

(b)   as soon as possible after the application of a surface treatment or surface enrichment to any part of the runway;

(c)   in accordance with a written direction from CASA;

(d)   so that not more than 10 years elapses between any 2 tests.

Note   For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

(3)       Tests that satisfy subparagraph (1) (b) (i) must be carried out as follows:

(a)   at intervals along the full length of the runway;

(b)   at locations no more than 10% of runway length apart;

(c)   at successive test locations on alternating sides of the runway centreline;

(d)   at locations offset 4 m from the runway centreline except that the third test location on each side must be 1 m from the runway edge.

        (4)     Grooving may be omitted within 100 m of the runway end provided paragraphs (1) (a) and (b) are both satisfied for the sections where grooving is omitted.

        (5)     Despite paragraph (1) (b), for an aerodrome used for scheduled international air transport operations, the runway surface friction level must continuously achieve whichever of the following is applicable:

(a)   for a new, renewed or reconstructed surface — unless impracticable, at least the preferred friction level specified in column 7 of Table 6.09 (1)-2, applied in accordance with subsection (6);

(b)   for the maintenance planning of an existing surface — unless impracticable, at least the preferred friction level specified in column 6 of Table 6.09 (1)-2, applied in accordance with subsection (6);

(c)   for any surface where it is impracticable to achieve the level specified in paragraph (a) or (b) — at least the minimum friction level specified in column 5 of Table 6.09 (1)-2, applied in accordance with subsection (6).

Note   Subsection 1.08 (3) relevantly provides that a reference in a Table to a value that is preferred means that, as far as practicable, the use of the value is required in priority to another value expressed in the Table although the other value expressed must be used or observed if the preferred value is not used because it is impracticable to do so. Where the preferred value is not complied with, the aerodrome manual must contain a statement to that effect, the reasons for non-compliance, and the alternative value that is complied with.

Table 6.09 (1)-2   Friction values for continuous friction measuring devices

Test equipment

Test tyre pressure
(kPa)

Test speed
(km/h)

Test water depth
(mm)

Minimum friction level

Preferred

Maintenance Planning Level

Preferred

Design objective (for new, renewed or reconstructed  surfaces)

Mu-meter trailer

A                  70

A                  70

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.42

0.26

0.52

0.38

0.72

0.66

Skiddometer trailer

B               210

B               210

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.50

0.34

0.60

0.47

0.82

0.74

Surface friction tester vehicle

B               210

B               210

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.50

0.34

0.60

0.47

0.82

0.74

Runway friction tester vehicle

B               210

B               210

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.50

0.41

0.60

0.54

0.82

0.74

TATRA friction tester vehicle

B               210

B               210

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.48

0.42

0.57

0.52

0.76

0.67

RUNAR Trailer

B               210

B               210

65

95               

1.0

1.0

0.45

0.32

0.52

0.42

0.69

0.63

GRIPTESTER trailer

C               140

C               140

65

95

1.0

1.0

0.43

0.24

0.53

0.36

0.74

0.64

        (6)     For the test equipment mentioned in a row of column 1 of Table 6.09 (1)-2, the minimum friction level for a test tyre pressure, test speed and test depth of water mentioned in the same row of columns 2, 3, and 4 respectively, is that mentioned in the same row of column 5, 6 or 7 that, in accordance with subsection (5), is for the particular pressure, speed or depth.

        (7)     The surface of a grass, gravel or natural runway or runway strip:

(a)   must meet the surface standards set out in Table 6.09 (7); and

(b)   must not have any irregularities that:

             (i)  result in the loss of frictional characteristics; or

            (ii)  otherwise adversely affect the safety of take-off or landing.

        (8)     For Table 6.09 (7), a surface characteristic mentioned in a row of column 1 must meet the standard for the characteristic mentioned in the same row in column 2 for runways, and column 3 for runway strips.

            Table 6.09 (7)   Standards for a grass, gravel or natural runway or runway strip

Surface

Runway

Runway strip

Maximum height of grass

150 mm

300 mm

Maximum size of isolated, loose stones on natural or constructed gravel surfaces

25 mm

50 mm

Maximum size of surface cracks (transverse)

40 mm

75 mm

Maximum size of surface cracks (longitudinal)

25 mm

75 mm

        (9)     For subparagraph (1) (a) (ii), whether or not any irregularities adversely affect the safety of take-off or landing must be determined by a safety analysis using the safety management system or the risk management plan (as applicable).

6.10     Runway bearing strength

                 A runway must be capable of bearing the weights and aircraft movement frequencies of the types of aeroplanes which the runway is nominated to serve.

Note   As required by paragraph 5.04 (1) (e), the pavement strength rating for a runway must be reported using the ACN – PCN pavement rating system.

6.11     Runway shoulders

        (1)     For a code D, E or F runway, runway shoulders must be provided.

        (2)     For a code D or E runway with a nominated OMGWS of not less than 9 m and up to but not including 15 m — the total width of the runway and the shoulders must not be less than 60 m.

        (3)     Subject to subsection (4), a code F runway that has a nominated OMGWS of not less than 9 m and up to but not including 15 m must:

(a)   be at least 45 m wide; and

(b)   have at least 7.5 m shoulders on each side;

                 but only if the engines of an aeroplane for which the runway is nominated would not otherwise overhang the runway shoulders.

                 Note   This configuration is normally acceptable for Code F aeroplanes with 2 or 3 engines.

        (4)     A code F runway that has a nominated OMGWS of not less than 9 m and up to but not including 15 m must:

(a)   be at least 45 m wide; and

(b)   have at least 7.5 m runway shoulders on each side; and

(c)   have at least 7.5 m additional shoulders on each outer side of the 7.5 m runway shoulders;

                 but only if the engines of an aeroplane for which the runway is nominated would otherwise overhang the runway shoulders in the absence of the additional shoulders.

                Note   This configuration is normally required for Code F aeroplanes with 4 or more engines.

(5)     Shoulders required by subsection (4) must be provided in the following configuration:

(a)    a 7.5 m width of inner shoulder on each side of the runway capable of supporting any aircraft that runs off the runway;

(b)   a 7.5 m width of additional shoulder on each outer side of the 7.5 m shoulders mentioned in paragraph (a), that are capable of:

             (i)  resisting engine blast erosion; and

            (ii)  supporting emergency and service vehicles.

Note   Thus, the total width of the runway and the shoulders must not be less than 75 m.

6.12     Characteristics of runway shoulders

                 Runway shoulders must:

(a)   be of equal width on both sides; and

(b)   slope downwards and away from the runway surface; and

(c)   be resistant to aeroplane engine blast erosion; and

(d)   be capable of supporting an aeroplane running off the runway onto a shoulder without the aeroplane sustaining any structural damage; and

(e)   be capable of supporting emergency and service vehicles; and

(f)    if a taxiway intersects with the runway — merge with the taxiway shoulder (if any); and

(g)   either:

             (i)  preferably be flush to the runway surface; or

            (ii)  if not flush with the runway surface — not step down by more than 25 mm.

6.13     Transverse slope on runway shoulder

                 For design purposes, a transverse slope on a runway shoulder must be within the range of the percentage figures in column 1 in Table 6.13 but a construction tolerance above or below the range is allowed within the limits specified in column 2.

            Table 6.13   Runway shoulder transverse slope values

Design slope

Construction tolerance

1.0 - 2.5%

± 0.5%

6.14     Provision of runway strip

        (1)     A runway and each associated stopway must be centrally located within a runway strip.

        (2)     If the runway strip is made available for landing and take-off, it must be maintained to the same standard as a natural surface runway in accordance with Table 6.09 (7).

6.15     Composition of runway strip

                 In addition to a runway and associated stopways, a runway strip must also include the following:

(a)   for a non-instrument runway — a graded area around the runway and stopway;

(b)   for an instrument runway:

             (i)  a graded area around the runway and associated stopways; and

            (ii)  an area (fly-over area) outside the graded area.

Note   See the illustrations in Figure 6.15. The runway sits within the graded area.

Figure 6.15   Composition of runway strip (illustrates matters)

6.16     Runway strip length

                 The graded area of a runway strip must extend before the threshold, and beyond the end of the runway or any associated stopway, for at least the following distances:

(a)   for a non-instrument code 1 runway — 30 m;

(b)   in any other case — 60 m.

6.17     Runway strip width

        (1)     Subject to this section, the width of the graded area of a runway strip must not be less than that shown in Table 6.17 (1).

        (2)     In Table 6.17 (1), for a runway with a runway code number mentioned in a row of column 1, the graded runway strip width is the width mentioned in column 2 for the same row.

Table 6.17 (1)   Graded runway strip width

Runway code number (ARC)

Graded runway strip width

1
Note   See also subsection 6.17 (3).

60 m

2

80 m

3 (if the runway width is 30 m)

90 m

3 (if the runway is used for scheduled international air transport operations); or

3 (if the runway width is 45 m or more); or

4

150 m

Note   For Code 3 runways with a width of 30 m, a 150 m wide graded runway strip is recommended.

        (3)     For a code 1 runway that has permanent lighting, the graded runway strip width must not be less than 80 m.

        (4)     For a non-precision approach runway — the width of the runway strip, including the fly‑over area, must not be less than that shown in Table 6.17 (4).

        (5)     In Table 6.17 (4), for a runway with a runway code number mentioned in a row of column 1, the runway strip width, including the fly-over area, is the width mentioned in column 2 for the same row.

  Table 6.17 (4)    Runway strip width, including the fly-over area — non-precision approach runways

Runway Code Number (ARC)

Runway strip width, including the fly‑over area

1 or 2

140 m

3 or 4

280 m

        (6)     For a precision approach runway — the width of the runway strip, including the fly-over area, must not be less than that shown in Table 6.17 (6).

        (7)     In Table 6.17 (6), for a runway with a runway code number mentioned in a row of column 1, the runway strip width, including the fly-over area, is the width mentioned in column 2 for the same row.

Table 6.17 (6)   Runway strip width, including the fly-over area — precision approach runways

Runway Code Number (ARC)

Runway strip width, including the fly‑over area

1 or 2

140 m

3 or 4

280 m

6.18     Longitudinal slope on graded area of runway strip

        (1)     The design longitudinal slope along the graded area of the runway strip must not exceed:

(a)   for a code 4 runway — 1.5%; and

(b)   for a code 3 runway — 1.75%; and

(c)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 2.0%.

        (2)     The design longitudinal slope values expressed in subsection (1) do not apply at the intersection of a runway strip with another runway strip or a taxiway strip if:

(a)   there are conflicting drainage requirements or slope requirements; and

(b)   alternative runway strip longitudinal slope values are as follows:

             (i)  arrived at after a safety analysis using the safety management system and the risk management plan;

            (ii)  as close as practicable to the values expressed in subsection (1);

           (iii)  demonstrably safe for aircraft operations;

           (iv)  recorded in the aerodrome manual.

6.19     Longitudinal slope changes on graded area of runway strip

        (1)     Longitudinal slope changes on the graded area of a runway strip (slope changes) must not exceed 2%.

        (2)     The slope changes:

(a)   must be gradual; and

(b)   must not be abrupt; and

(c)   must not involve sudden reversal of slopes.

6.20     Radio altimeter operating area

        (1)     For precision approach SA CAT I, SA CAT II, CAT II and CAT III runways — there must be no longitudinal slope changes on the portion of the graded area of a runway strip mentioned in subsection (2).

        (2)     For subsection (1), the portion is the area, immediately before the threshold, that is 60 m wide, 300 m long, and symmetrical about the centreline (radio altimeter operating area).

        (3)     Despite subsection (1), if it is physically impossible to avoid a slope change on a radio altimeter operating area, the rate of change between 2 consecutive slopes must not exceed 2% per 30 m (that is, a minimum radius of curvature of 1 500 m).

6.21     Runway strip transverse slope

        (1)     Subject to subsection (2), the design transverse slope of the graded area of the runway strip must not exceed:

(a)   for a code 3 or 4 runway — 2.5%; and

(b)   for a code 1 or 2 runway — 3%.

        (2)     For the first 3 m of the graded runway strip:

(a)   adjacent to the runway edge; or

(b)   adjacent to the runway shoulder;

                 the design transverse slope:

(c)   must slope downwards; and

(d)   may be up to 5%.

        (3)     Subject to subsection (4), no portion of the fly-over area of a runway strip, and no object or structure on the fly-over area, may project through a plane that:

(a)   starts along each outer side of the graded area; and

(b)   has an upward slope away from the graded area of 5%.

Note   The plane commences from the ground level associated with the edge of the graded area.

        (4)     Navigational aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles may project through the plane described in subsection (3) if approved in writing by CASA under subsection 7.02 (1).

6.22     Surface of graded area of runway strips

        (1)     The surface of a graded runway strip that abuts a runway, a runway shoulder or a stopway must not have any step down from the runway, the runway shoulder or the stopway exceeding 25 mm.

Note   CASA recommends that within the graded area of the runway strip, constructions such as plinths, runway ends, paved taxiway edges etc. are such as to avoid presenting a non-frangible buried vertical face to aircraft wheels in the runway direction, in soft ground conditions.

        (2)     Maintenance must ensure that no step up to the runway strip from the runway, the runway shoulder or stopway exceeds 25 mm.

        (3)     Effective drainage (but not involving open drains) must ensure that water does not pool or pond in the graded area of a runway strip.

                 Note   Where deemed necessary for proper drainage, an open-air storm water conveyance is permitted in the non-graded portion of a runway strip. However, for such cases, CASA recommends that the storm water conveyance should be placed as far as possible from the runway.

        (4)     The area of a runway strip at the end of a runway that is at least 30 m from the runway threshold must be constructed in such a way as to resist erosion from jet blast, prop wash or rotor wash so that a landing aeroplane is not endangered by the effects of such erosion on the runway, runway shoulder or stopway edge.

Note   See sections 6.16 to 6.25 for runway strip standards.

6.23     Composition of runway strips

                 The graded portion of a runway strip must be prepared, constructed and maintained so as to minimise hazards arising from differences in the load-bearing capacity of aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve, in the event of an aeroplane running off the runway.

6.24     Objects or structures on runway strips

Note   The runway strip forms part of the obstacle restriction area. CASA approval is required for objects, other than approved visual and navigational aids, which are located within the obstacle restriction area. See subsection 7.02 (1).

        (1)     A runway strip must be free of fixed objects or structures, other than visual or navigational aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles:

(a)   within 77.5 m of the centreline of a code 4F precision approach CAT I, II or III runway; and

(b)   within 60 m of the centreline of a code 3 or 4 precision approach CAT I, II or III runway; and

(c)   within 45 m of the centreline of a code 1 or 2 precision approach CAT I runway.

        (2)     Any fixed object or structure permitted to be on the runway strip (including visual or navigational aids) must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

        (3)     When a runway is in use for take-off or landing, no mobile object may be on any part of the graded runway strip.

Note   For information regarding the siting of equipment and installations on runway strips, see section 19.16.

6.25     Runway strip availability

                 If an aerodrome operator prepares a runway strip and makes it available for take-offs and landings, information to that effect and any associated limitations must be provided to the AIS provider for publication in the AIP.

Note   For information regarding the provision of glider runway strips, see Division 6 of Chapter 6.

6.26     Runway end safety area (RESA)

        (1)     Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a runway end safety area (RESA) must be:

(a)   provided at the end of a runway strip; and

(b)   prepared, constructed and maintained to:

             (i)  protect an aeroplane which undershoots or overruns the runway; and

            (ii)  ensure an aeroplane encounters no hazards if it runs off the runway; and

           (iii)  ensure the movement of ARFFS vehicles is facilitated.

        (2)     Subsection (1) does not apply for a code 1 or 2 non-instrument runway.

        (3)     Subsection (1) does not apply if CASA, in writing and on application, approves, with or without conditions, an engineering solution designed to ensure the safe deceleration of an aircraft in the event of a runway overrun.

        (4)     The minimum length of a RESA is 60 m unless otherwise provided for in Table 6.26 (4).

        (5)     In Table 6.26 (4), for a runway with a code number mentioned in a row of column 1:

(a)   the minimum length of the associated RESA is that mentioned in the same row in column 2; and

(b)   the preferred length of the associated RESA is that mentioned in the same row in column 3.

Table 6.26 (4)   The minimum length of a RESA

Runway code number

Minimum length of a RESA

Preferred length of a RESA

1 or 2

60 m

120 m

3 or 4

90 m; or

240 m (if the runway is intended for scheduled international air transport operations)

240 m

        (6)     A RESA must, as a minimum, be twice the width of the associated runway.

        (7)     The slopes on a RESA must not exceed the following values:

(a)   for the downward longitudinal slope — 5%;

(b)   for the transverse slope — 5% upwards or downwards.

        (8)     Transitions between different slopes on a RESA must be as gradual as possible.

        (9)     No portion of a RESA may project above the approach or take-off climb surfaces of the runway.

      (10)     A RESA must be free of fixed objects or structures, other than visual or navigational aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles.

      (11)     Any fixed object or structure permitted to be on a RESA must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

Note   CASA recommends that within the graded area of the runway strip, constructions such as plinths, runway ends, paved taxiway edges etc. should be such as to avoid presenting a buried vertical face to aircraft wheels, in the runway direction in soft ground conditions.

      (12)     When a runway is in use for take-off or landing, no mobile object may be on any part of a RESA.

6.27     Clearways

                 A clearway, consisting of an obstruction-free rectangular plane, may be provided at the end of a runway.

Note   The purpose of a clearway is to allow an aeroplane taking off to make a portion of its initial climb to at least 35 ft (10.7 m) above the ground by the end of the clearway.

6.28     Location of clearways

                 A clearway must start at the end of the TORA.

Note   The area between the end of the runway and the end of the runway strip is treated as a clearway.

6.29     Dimensions of clearways

        (1)     The maximum length of any clearway must not exceed half the length of the TORA.

        (2)     The width of a clearway must be at least:

(a)   for a code 3 or 4 runway ¾ 150 m; and

(b)   for a code 2 runway ¾ 80 m; and

(c)   for a code 1 runway — 60 m.

        (3)     A clearway must be at least as wide as the width of the runway strip.

6.30     Slopes on clearways

                 No portion of the surface below a clearway may project above a plane with an upward slope of 1.25%, the lower limit of which is a horizontal line that:

(a)   is perpendicular to the vertical plane containing the runway centreline; and

(b)   passes through a point located on the runway centreline at the end of the TORA.

6.31     Objects or structures on clearways

        (1)     A clearway must be free of fixed or mobile objects or structures, other than visual or navigational aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles.

        (2)     Any fixed objects or structures permitted to be on the clearway must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

6.32     Stopways

                 A stopway on which an aeroplane may be stopped in the event of an abandoned take-off may be provided at the end of a runway.

Note   A stopway is required to terminate 60 m before the end of the runway strip. See section 6.16.

6.33     Dimensions of stopways

                 A stopway must be as wide as the width of its associated runway.

6.34     Surface of stopways

                 A stopway with a sealed surface must have frictional characteristics at least equivalent to those of the associated runway.

6.35     Stopway slopes and slope changes

                 Slope and slope changes on a stopway must be the same as those for the associated runway, except that:

(a)   the limitation of a 0.8% slope for the first and last quarter of the length of a runway do not apply to the stopway; and

(b)   at the junction of the stopway and runway, and along the stopway, the maximum rate of slope change may be increased to 0.3% per 30 m (a minimum radius of curvature of 10 000 m).

6.36     Bearing strength of stopways

                 The bearing strength of a stopway must be such as to support at least 1 single pass of an aeroplane for which the runway aeroplane reference code nomination is appropriate, without the aeroplane sustaining any structural damage.


CHAPTER 6

Division 2     Taxiways

Figure Division 2   Taxiways (illustrates matters)

Note   Figure Division 2 is a colour-coded diagram of runways and the possible layout of taxiways, taxilanes and aircraft stands. It is for illustrative purposes only.

6.37     Taxiway width

        (1)     The width of a straight section of a taxiway must not be less than the width determined using Table 6.37 (1).

        (2)     In Table 6.37 (1), for a taxiway with the OMGWS mentioned in a row of column 1, the minimum taxiway width of a straight section is the width mentioned in the same row in column 2.

Table 6.37 (1)   Minimum width for straight section of taxiway

OMGWS

Minimum taxiway width (straight sections)

Up to but not including 4.5 m

7.5 m

4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

10.5 m

6 m up to but not including 9 m

15 m

9 m up to but not including 15 m

23 m

6.38     Taxiway edge clearance

        (1)     The width of any section of a taxiway must be such that, with the nose wheel of an aeroplane remaining on the taxiway, the clearance between the outer main gear wheels and the edge of the taxiway, at any point, must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.38 (1).

        (2)     In Table 6.38 (1), for a taxiway with an OMGWS mentioned in a row of column 1, the minimum clearance between the outer main gear wheels of an aircraft and the edge of the taxiway is the clearance mentioned in the same row in column 2.

Table 6.38 (1)   Minimum clearance between outer main gear wheels of aircraft and edge of taxiway

OMGWS

Minimum clearance

Up to but not including 4.5 m

1.5 m

4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

2.25 m

6 m up to but not including 9 m

3 m on straight portions

3 m on curved portions — for aeroplanes with a wheelbase less than 18 m

4 m on curved portions — for aeroplanes with a wheelbase equal to or greater than 18 m

9 m up to but not including 15 m

4 m

Note   Wheelbase means the distance from the nose gear to the geometric centre of the main gear.

6.39     Taxiway curves

        (1)     The radii of any curves of a taxiway must be compatible with the manoeuvring capability and normal taxiing speeds of the aeroplanes for which the taxiway is provided.

Note   See ICAO Document 9157, Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2 — Taxiways and Aprons, for further guidance on the design of the curves. For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

        (2)     The design of a taxiway curve must be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane remains over the taxiway centreline markings, the clearance distance between the outer main gear wheels of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway is not less than that specified in Table 6.38 (1).

6.40     Taxiway longitudinal slope

        (1)     The design longitudinal slope along any part of a taxiway must not exceed:

(a)   for a code C, D, E or F taxiway — 1.5%; and

(b)   for a code A or B taxiway — 3.0%.

        (2)     If it is physically impossible to avoid slope changes along any part of a taxiway, the transition from one longitudinal slope to another must be accomplished by a vertical curve, with a rate of change not more than:

(a)   for a code C, D, E or F taxiway — 1.0% per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 3 000 m); and

(b)   for a code A or B taxiway — 1.0% per 25 m (minimum radius of curvature of 2 500 m).

        (3)     The longitudinal slope values expressed in subsections (1) and (2) do not apply at the intersection of a taxiway with a runway or other taxiway if:

(a)   there are conflicting drainage requirements or slope requirements; and

(b)   alternative taxiway longitudinal slope values are as follows:

             (i)  arrived at after a safety analysis using the safety management system and the risk management plan;

            (ii)  as close as practicable to values expressed in subsections (1) and (2);

           (iii)  demonstrably safe for aircraft operations;

           (iv)  recorded in the aerodrome manual.

6.41     Taxiway transverse slope

        (1)     The transverse slope on any part of a taxiway must not permit any pooling or ponding of water on the taxiway.

        (2)     For design purposes, a transverse slope on a runway shoulder must be within the range of the percentage figures in column 1 in Table 6.41 (2) but a construction tolerance above or below the range is allowed within the limits specified in column 2.

Table 6.41 (2)   Taxiway transverse slope values

Design slope

Construction tolerance

1.0% - 2.0%

± 0.5%

        (3)     The taxiway transverse slope values expressed in Table 6.41 (2) do not apply at the intersection of a taxiway with a runway or another taxiway if:

(a)   there are conflicting drainage requirements or slope requirements; and

(b)   alternative taxiway transverse slope values are as follows:

             (i)  arrived at after a safety analysis using the safety management system and the risk management plan;

            (ii)  as close as practicable to values expressed in Table 6.41 (2);

           (iii)  demonstrably safe for aircraft operations;

           (iv)  recorded in the aerodrome manual.

6.42     Taxiway sight distance

        (1)     The unobstructed line of sight along the surface of a taxiway, from a point above the taxiway, must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.42 (1).

        (2)     In Table 6.42 (1), for a taxiway with a code letter mentioned in a row of column 1, the minimum unobstructed line of sight along the surface of the taxiway must not be less than the distance mentioned in the same row of column 2.

Table 6.42 (1)   Taxiway line of sight

Taxiway code letter

Minimum line of sight

A

150 m — from a point 1.5 m above taxiway

B

200 m — from a point 2 m above taxiway

C, D, E or F

300 m — from a point 3 m above taxiway

6.43     Taxiway bearing strength

                 The bearing strength of a taxiway must be:

(a)   at least equal to the bearing strength of the runway it serves; or

(b)   otherwise capable of bearing the weights and movement frequencies of the types of aeroplanes which the taxiway serves.

6.44     Taxiway shoulders

                 A code C, D, E or F taxiway must have shoulders if it is available for use by turbine‑engined aeroplanes.

Note   Taxiway shoulders are otherwise optional but are recommended.

6.45     Width of taxiway shoulders

        (1)     The total width of the taxiway and the shoulders must not be less than the following (the minimum taxiway shoulder width):

(a)   for a code F taxiway — 44 m;

(b)   for a code E taxiway — 38 m;

(c)   for a code D taxiway — 34 m;

(d)   for a code C taxiway — 25 m.

        (2)     The minimum taxiway shoulder width must be maintained along the whole length of a taxiway, including:

(a)   on its curved sections; and

(b)   at junctions and intersections with runways and other taxiways.

Note   The requirement in subsection (1) applies despite any increase in the surface width of the taxiway itself on its curved sections, or at junctions or intersections with runways or other taxiways.

6.46     Surface of taxiway shoulders

        (1)     Taxiway shoulders must:

(a)   be on both sides of the taxiway; and

(b)   slope downwards and away from the taxiway surface; and

(c)   be resistant to aeroplane engine blast erosion; and

(d)   if they have a step down from the taxiway surface — not step down by more than 25 mm; and

(e)   if a runway intersects with the taxiway — merge with the runway shoulder.

Note   CASA recommends that a taxiway shoulder should also be capable of the following:

(a)   supporting an aeroplane running off the taxiway onto a shoulder without the aeroplane sustaining any structural damage;

(b)   supporting emergency and service vehicles.

        (2)     If a sealed taxiway is designed for a jet engine aircraft whose engines overhang the taxiway shoulders, the surface of the shoulders must be sealed along their length to a width of at least 3 m from each taxiway edge.

6.47     Taxiway strips

        (1)     A taxiway, other than an aeroplane taxilane, must be located on a taxiway strip which includes graded areas on either side of the taxiway.

Note   See Figure 6.47 (1). The taxiway sits within the graded area and overall taxiway strip.

        (2)     The surface of the graded area of a taxiway strip where it abuts a taxiway or a taxiway shoulder must not have any step down from the taxiway or a taxiway shoulder exceeding 25 mm.

        (3)     Any step up to the taxiway strip from a taxiway or taxiway shoulder must not exceed 25 mm.

Figure 6.47 (1)   Taxiway composition (illustrates matters)

6.48     Width of taxiway strip

                 The width of the taxiway strip:

(a)   on each side of the centreline of the taxiway; and

(b)   measured from the centreline; and

(c)   along the full length of the taxiway;

                 must not be less than the following:

(d)   for a code F taxiway — 51 m;

(e)   for a code E taxiway — 43.5 m;

(f)    for a code D taxiway — 37 m;

(g)   for a code C taxiway — 26 m;

(h)   for a code B taxiway — 20 m;

(i)    for a code A taxiway — 15.5 m.

6.49     Width of graded area of taxiway strip

                 The graded area of a taxiway strip:

(a)   on each side of the taxiway, including shoulders; and

(b)   measured from the centreline of the taxiway; and

(c)   along the full length of the taxiway;

                 must not be less than the following:

(d)   for a taxiway where the OMGWS is less than 4.5 m — 10.25 m;

(e)   for a taxiway where the OMGWS is at least 4.5 m but less than 6 m — 11 m;

(f)    for a taxiway where the OMGWS is at least 6 m but less than 9 m — 12.5 m;

(g)   for a taxiway where the OMGWS is at least 9 m but less than 15 m — 18.5 m where the code letter is D;

(h)   for a taxiway where the OMGWS is at least 9 m but less than 15 m — 19 m where the code letter is E;

(i)    for a taxiway where the OMGWS is at least 9 m but less than 15 m — 22 m where the code letter is F.

6.50     Slope of taxiway strip

        (1)     The graded area of a taxiway strip, when measured relative to the transverse slope of the adjacent taxiway surface, must not have a design upward transverse slope that is more than:

(a)   for a code C, D, E or F taxiway — 2.5%; or

(b)   for a code A or B taxiway — 3%.

        (2)     The graded area of a taxiway strip, when measured relative to the horizontal, must not have a design downward transverse slope that exceeds 5.0%.

        (3)     No part of the taxiway strip beyond the graded area, and no objects or structures on the taxiway strip beyond the graded area, may project upwards through the plane surface mentioned in subsection (4).

        (4)     For subsection (3), the plane surface originates from the outer edge of the graded taxiway strip, and slopes upwards and outwards at a slope of 5% measured relative to the horizontal.

Note 1   The plane commences from the level associated with the edge of the graded area.

Note 2   Drains and ditches may be located at ground level in the taxiway strip beyond the graded portion.

6.51     Objects or structures on a taxiway strip

        (1)     A taxiway strip must be free of fixed objects or structures other than visual or navigational aids used for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles.

        (2)     Visual aids located within a taxiway strip must be sited at such a height that they cannot be struck by the propellers, engine pods or wings of aircraft using the taxiway.

6.52     Taxiways on bridges

        (1)     A bridge that is for a taxiway, or the part of a bridge that is to carry a taxiway (taxiway bridge) must be designed and constructed to bear the weight and frequency of the aircraft traffic for which the taxiway has the appropriate ARC nomination.

        (2)     The minimum width of a taxiway bridge must not be less than the total width of the taxiway and the graded areas specified in section 6.49.

        (3)     Despite subsection (2), the minimum width of the taxiway bridge may be reduced to not less than the width of the associated taxiway specified in section 6.37 if lateral restraints are provided at each edge of the taxiway bridge to prevent an aircraft from leaving the taxiway bridge.

        (4)     For subsection (3), a lateral restraint must not be hazardous for any aeroplane for which the taxiway is intended.

        (5)     If the engines of an aeroplane for which the taxiway has the appropriate ARC nominated overhang the structure of the taxiway bridge, adjacent areas below the taxiway bridge must be protected in such a way that no person or property is injured, damaged or adversely affected by engine blast.

        (6)     Vehicle access roads for emergency purposes may be located alongside a taxiway bridge.

        (7)     Vehicles on the access roads, and any required lateral restraints for vehicles, may infringe the slope of 5% measured relative to the horizontal mentioned in subsection 6.50 (4).

6.53     Taxiway minimum separation distances

        (1)     The separation distance between the centreline of a taxiway (including an apron taxiway, a rapid exit taxiway, and a taxilane) and 1 of the following:

(a)   the centreline of a parallel runway;

(b)   the centreline of a parallel taxiway;

(c)   the centreline of a parallel taxilane;

(d)   a building, structure, vehicle, wall, plant, equipment, parked aeroplane or road;

                 must not be less than the distance determined using Tables 6.53 (1)-1 and 6.53 (1)-2.

        (2)     For Table 6.53 (1)-1, where the row for a nominated code number for a runway (the runway)  intersects with the column for a nominated code letter for the taxiway, the distance mentioned in the intersecting cell is the minimum separation distance required for the centreline of an associated taxiway to be from the centreline of the runway.

        (3)     The separation distance of the following (the relevant minimum separation distance):

(a)   from the centreline of a taxiway (other than a taxilane) to the centreline of another taxiway (including a taxilane);

(b)   from the centreline of a taxiway (other than a taxilane) to an object or structure;

(c)   from the centreline of a taxilane to the centreline of another taxilane;

(d)   from the centreline of a taxilane to an object, structure, parked aeroplane or road;

                 must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.53 (1)-2.

        (4)     For Rows 1 and 2 in Table 6.53 (1)-2, the relevant minimum separation distance for a taxiway with a code letter mentioned in a column of the Row is the distance in metres mentioned in the same column of the Row.

        (5)     For Rows 3 and 4 in Table 6.53 (1)-2, the relevant minimum separation distance for a taxilane with a code letter mentioned in a column of the Row is the distance in metres mentioned in the same column of the Row.

Table 6.53 (1)-1   Taxiway minimum separation distance to runways

 

From a taxiway centreline to a precision approach runway centreline

 

 

Runway code letter (Column 2)

 

 

Runway code number (Column 1)

A

B

C

D

E

F

 

 

1

77.5 m

82 m

88 m

 

 

2

77.5 m

82 m

88 m

 

 

3

152 m

152 m

158 m

166 m

172.5 m

180 m

 

 

4

158 m

166 m

172.5 m

180 m

 

 

 

 

 

From a taxiway centreline to a non-precision approach runway centreline

 

 

Runway code letter (Column 2)

 

Runway code number

(Column 1)

A

B

C

D

E

F

 

1

77.5 m

82 m

88 m

 

2

77.5 m

82 m

88 m

 

3

152 m

152 m

158 m

166 m

172.5 m

180 m

 

4

158 m

166 m

172.5 m

180 m

 

 

 

 

 

From a taxiway centreline to a non-instrument runway centreline

 

 

Code letter (Column 2)

 

 

Runway code number

(Column 1)

A

B

C

D

E

F

 

1

37.5 m

42 m

48 m

 

2

47.5 m

52 m

58 m

 

3

52.5 m

87 m

93 m

101 m

107.5 m

115 m

 

4

93 m

101 m

107.5 m

115 m

Table 6.53 (1)-2   Taxiway and taxilane minimum separation distance to other taxiways, taxilanes, objects, structures, parked aeroplanes or roads

 

From a taxiway centreline, other than a taxilane, to another taxiway centreline

Row 1

Code letter

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

A

B

C

D

E

F

23 m

32 m

44 m

63 m

76 m

91 m

 

From a taxiway centreline, other than a taxilane, to an object, structure, parked aeroplane or road

Row 2

Code letter

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

A

B

C

D

E

F

15.5 m

20 m

26 m

37 m

43.5 m

51 m

 

From a taxilane centreline to another taxilane centreline

Row 3

Code letter

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

A

B

C

D

E

F

19.5 m

28.5 m

40.5 m

59.5 m

72.5 m

87.5 m

 

From a taxilane centreline to an object, structure, parked aeroplane or road

Row 4

Code letter

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column 5

Column 6

A

B

C

D

E

F

12 m

16.5 m

22.5 m

33.5 m

40 m

47.5 m

Note 1   Separation distances are based on the concept of the wing of an aeroplane, centred on a parallel taxiway, remaining clear of a runway strip of standard width.

Note 2   The taxiway centreline to runway centreline separation distances in Table 6.53 (1)-2 have been determined using the maximum runway strip width required for the particular operational category (whether precision, non-precision or non-instrument) and the runway code letter.

Note 3   ILS installations may influence the location of taxiways due to interference to ILS signals from a taxiing or stopped aircraft. Information on critical and sensitive areas surrounding ILS installations is contained in ICAO Annex 10, Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume I, Radio Navigation Aids, Attachment C. Further information may be obtained by consulting the CNS facility service provider. For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

Figure 6.53 (1)   Certain separation distances (illustrates matters)

Note   Figure 6.53 (1) is a diagram showing certain separation distances. It is for illustrative purposes only. In the legend, CL means centreline.

 


CHAPTER 6

Division 3     Holding bays, runway holding positions, intermediate holding positions         and road‑holding positions

6.54     Provision of a holding bay, runway holding position, intermediate holding position and road‑holding position

Note   Holding bays may allow more than 1 aircraft to hold in proximity to a runway entry or allow for the passing of aircraft on a taxiway. However, these areas are not for aircraft parking purposes.

        (1)     A runway holding position must be established:

(a)   for a taxiway that intersects with a runway — at the intersection; and

(b)   for a taxiway location, other than at the intersection of the taxiway and a runway — where a taxiing aircraft or vehicle would otherwise infringe an obstacle limitation surface or interfere with the operation of radio navigation aids; and

(c)   at an intersection of a runway with another runway — where an aeroplane is required to hold.

        (2)     Except for an exit taxiway, an intermediate holding position must be established on a taxiway if ATC requires an aeroplane to hold at that position or those positions.

        (3)     A road-holding position must be established at an intersection of a road with a runway.

Note   See section 8.91 of this MOS for signage and marking of a road-holding position.

6.55     Location of a holding bay, runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road‑holding position

        (1)     A holding bay, runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road-holding position must not be placed where an aircraft or vehicle using the position would:

(a)   infringe the obstacle free zone, the approach surface, the take-off climb surface or the graded area of the runway strip; or

(b)   interfere with the operation of radio navigation aids.

        (2)     A holding bay must be designed to ensure that all aircraft types within the nominated code letter for the holding bay are separated from aircraft on the associated taxiway by at least the width of the relevant taxiway strip specified in section 6.48.

6.56     Distance from runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road‑holding position, to runway centreline

        (1)     A runway holding position, holding bay, intermediate holding position, or road-holding position must not be located closer to the centreline of the runway than the distance (the relevant distance) determined using Table 6.56 (1).

        (2)     In Table 6.56 (1):

(a)   for a runway with a code number mentioned in a row in column 1, the relevant distance for a type of runway mentioned in column 2 is the distance shown in the cell for the type of runway that is in the same row; and

(b)   if a distance shown in a cell in accordance with paragraph (a) has a superscribed letter of the alphabet corresponding to the same letter in Note 1 in the Table:

             (i)  the text in Notes 1 and 2 for the letter has the same legal force as if it appeared in this subsection; and

            (ii)  the relevant distance may be modified according to the text in the Note.

Table 6.56 (1)   Minimum distance from runway holding position, intermediate holding position or road-holding position, to associated runway centreline

Runway code number

(Column 1)

Type of runway
(Column 2)

Non-instrument

Non-precision approach

Precision CAT I

Precision CAT II or CAT III

Take-off

1

30 m

40 m

60 md

 

30 m

2

40 m

40 m

60 md

 

40 m

3

75 ma

75 ma

90 mb, d

90 md

75 ma

4

75 m

75 m

90 mc, d

90 mc, d

75 m


Note 1

a   If the runway code is A or B, the minimum distance is 45 m.

b   If the runway code is A or B, the minimum distance is 75 m.

c   If the runway code is F, the minimum distance is 107.5 m.

Note 2   For “d”, this distance must be increased, if necessary, to the distance that ensures the avoidance of interference with radio navigation aids. Advice on ILS critical and sensitive areas must be obtained from the relevant aeronautical telecommunications service and radio navigation service provider.

        (3)     Despite subsection (1), for a holding bay, runway or road-holding position, the relevant distance mentioned in Table 6.56 (1) may be decreased by 5 m for every 1 m that the elevation of the bay or position is lower than the runway threshold elevation, provided that an aircraft at the bay or position does not infringe on the inner transitional surface.


CHAPTER 6

Division 4     Aprons

6.57     Location of apron

                 An apron must be located so that an aeroplane parked on it does not infringe an obstacle limitation surface.

6.58     Separation distances on aprons

        (1)     An aircraft entering or exiting a parking position must be separated from an object,  structure or parked aeroplane by a separation distance not less than that determined using Table 6.58 (1).

Note   The separation distance is based on the minimum distance between the wingtip of an aeroplane on the aircraft parking position and the object or structure.

        (2)     In Table 6.58 (1):

(a)   for an aircraft entering or exiting a parking position with a code letter mentioned in a row of column 1, the separation distance of the aircraft from an object, structure or parked aeroplane must not be less than the distance shown in column 2 in the same row; and

(b)   if a distance shown in a row in column 2 has a superscribed asterisk explained in the Note in the Table:

             (i)  the text in the Note for the asterisk has the same legal force as if it appeared in this subsection; and

            (ii)  the relevant separation distance must be modified according to the text in the Note.

Table 6.58 (1)   Aircraft parking positions — minimum separation distance

Aircraft parking position code letter

Separation distance for an aircraft from an object,  structure or parked aeroplane

A

3.0 m

B

3.0 m

C

4.5 m

D

7.5 m

E

7.5 m*

F

7.5 m*

Note

*   The minimum separation distance must be 10 m if free-moving parking is used.

        (3)     An aircraft parked on an aircraft parking position must be separated from any object or structure, other than an aerobridge, by a distance not less than that determined using Table 6.58 (1).

        (4)     Subsection (1) does not apply to a code D, E or F parking position if:

(a)   the aerodrome operator’s written safety assessment demonstrates that a VDGS allows a reduced separation distance without creating risk of damage to the aeroplane; and

(b)   the safety assessment and the reduced separation distance are recorded in the aerodrome manual.

6.59     Alternative aircraft parking position separation

        (1)     If:

(a)   physical constraints prevent an aircraft parking position (the position) from complying with the separation distances under section 6.58; and

(b)   the aerodrome operator:

             (i)  designs a position in accordance with Part 2 of ICAO Document 9157, Aerodrome Design Manual — Taxiways and Aprons; and

            (ii)  submits the design to CASA with a written safety assessment and an application for approval; and

(c)   CASA, in writing, with or without conditions, approves the safety assessment;

                 then:

(d)   such of the standards in section 6.58 as are specified in the CASA approval as non‑applicable, are taken not to apply to the operator; and

(e)   the approved design and safety assessment, the conditions of the approval (if any), and the alternative standards specified in the CASA approval are taken to be the applicable standards for the positions.

Note   For ICAO documents, see section 1.06.

6.60     Slopes on aprons

        (1)     The design slope on a parking position must:

(a)   if the parking position is sealed — not exceed 1%; and

(b)   if the parking position is a natural surface — not exceed 2%.

        (2)     The design slopes on apron taxiways, including taxiway strips and taxilanes, must be determined in accordance with Chapter 6, Division 2, Taxiways, as if the apron taxiway were a taxiway.

        (3)     The design slope on any part of any apron that is not a taxiway or a taxilane must:

(a)   be level as far as possible without causing water to pool or pond on the surface of the apron; and

(b)   not vary more than 2% from the horizontal.

        (4)     The slopes on the following:

(a)   an apron, that is not an apron taxiway or taxilane;

(b)   an apron which is part of a parking position;

                 must transition smoothly to the maximum allowable slope on the corresponding parking position.

        (5)     Subject to subsection (6), the grading of an apron must be such that it does not slope down towards the terminal building.

        (6)     If a slope down towards a terminal building cannot physically be avoided, apron drainage must direct any spilled fuel away from the building and other structures adjoining the apron.

        (7)     If a stormwater drain collects spilt fuel from the apron area, flame traps or interceptor pits must be provided to isolate the fuel and prevent it spreading from the apron area.

6.61     Apron bearing strength

                 Each part of an apron must be capable of withstanding the traffic of the aircraft for which it is designed.

Note   This is to prevent the development of surface depressions or other hazards which may adversely affect aircraft operations.

6.62     Apron roads

                 A marked vehicle roadway on an apron must not bring a vehicle closer than 3 m horizontally to any part of an aircraft on an aircraft parking position.


CHAPTER 6

Division 5     Blast and wash from aircraft propulsion systems

6.63     General

                 Movement area design must protect the following from any damaging or injurious effects of jet blast, rotor wash and propeller wash:

(a)   people;

(b)   other aircraft;

(c)   buildings;

(d)   vehicles;

(e)   equipment.

Note   People and property are not to be exposed to the dangers of high speed, high temperature airflows from blast and wash sources.

6.64     Jet blast, propeller wash and rotor wash air velocity

                 For section 6.63, the maximum blast or wash velocity is as follows:

(a)   60 km/h:

             (i)  for areas of an aerodrome traversed by flight crew, or passengers, boarding or leaving an aircraft; or

            (ii)  for public areas, within or outside the aerodrome boundary, where passengers or members of the public are likely to walk or congregate;

(b)   80 km/h — for public areas where passengers or others are not likely to congregate;

(c)   50 km/h — for public roads where the vehicle speed is likely to be 80 km/h or more;

(d)   60 km/h — for public roads where the vehicle speed is likely to be less than 80 km/h;

(e)   80 km/h — for any personnel working near an aeroplane;

(f)    80 km/h — for equipment on an apron;

(g)   60 km/h — for light aeroplane parking areas with some risk of damage;

(h)   80 km/h — for light aeroplane parking areas with zero risk of damage;

(i)    100 km/h — for buildings and other structures.

Note   An aerodrome operator may use jet blast fences, appropriate building materials or other effective means to achieve the standards.


CHAPTER 6

Division 6     Glider facilities

Note   The provision of glider facilities at an aerodrome is a decision for the aerodrome operator. If glider facilities are provided, CASA recommends that the aerodrome operator consults the operators of both powered aircraft and gliders to ensure that the provision of glider facilities is adequate.

6.65     General

                 If glider facilities, including parking and staging areas, are provided, they must:

(a)   meet the minimum dimensions required under section 6.66; and

(b)   be correctly marked in accordance with section 8.126; and

(c)   have their presence and status at the aerodrome reported in accordance with Division 1 of Chapter 5.

6.66     Dimensions of glider runway strips

        (1)     If a glider runway strip is located anywhere outside an existing runway strip, the width of the glider runway strip must not be less than 60 m.

        (2)     The separation distance between the centrelines of a glider runway strip and a parallel runway must be not be less than 120 m for an aerodrome with:

(a)   an approved glider circuit direction contrary to the aerodrome circuit pattern; and

(b)   glider operations conducted independently of parallel runway operations.

        (3)     If a glider runway strip is located wholly or partly within the runway strip of an existing runway:

(a)   the width of the glider runway strip must not be less than 37.5 m, measured:

             (i)  if there is no existing runway lighting, or the existing runway lighting is flush with the runway — from the runway edge; and

Note   See Figure 6.66 (3).

            (ii)  if there are hazards to glider operations from elevated or other features of the existing runway — from 3 m clear of the hazards.

Figure 6.66 (3)   Glider runway strip (illustrates matters)

Note   Standards for the marking of glider runway strips can be found in Chapter 8, Division 13.

6.67     Glider parking areas

                 A glider parking area must not be located inside the glider runway strip or the existing runway strip.

6.68     Glider runway strip standards

        (1)     A glider runway strip located inside an existing runway strip for powered aircraft must comply with the standards in this MOS for a runway strip.

        (2)     A glider runway strip located outside an existing runway strip for powered aircraft must comply with the standards for a code A runway and a code 1 obstacle limitation surface.


CHAPTER 7          OBSTACLE RESTRICTION AND LIMITATION

Division 1     General

7.01     Introduction

        (1)     Both of the following must be monitored and maintained free from obstacles in accordance with this MOS:

(a)   the airspace around an aerodrome;

(b)   the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.

Note 1   Where the requirement to maintain the OLS and PANS-OPS airspace (protection surface) clear of obstacles cannot be fulfilled, some kinds of aerodrome operation may not be authorised or permitted.

Note 2   An aerodrome operator is responsible for monitoring the OLS and PANS-OPS airspace and must advise CASA in the event of an actual or proposed OLS penetration, and the terminal instrument flight procedure designer in the event of an actual or proposed penetration into the PANS-OPS airspace. Following CASA or designer assessment of any resulting hazard from the penetration, it is the responsibility of the aerodrome operator to advise the relevant planning authority of the result of the assessment and liaise with that authority to ensure that hazardous obstacles that are an unacceptable risk to aviation are not approved; or that hazardous objects or structures are appropriately mitigated, for example, through charting, markings or lighting.

Note 3   Obstacles within the aerodrome boundary are to be dealt with in accordance with section 7.03. To address obstacles either outside of the aerodrome boundary or otherwise outside of the control of the aerodrome operator, may require liaison with the relevant planning authority.

        (2)     Obstacle data requirements for terminal instrument flight procedure design must be determined by a certified designer under Part 173 of CASR.

7.02     Obstacle restriction area

        (1)     Objects or structures, other than approved visual and navigational aids, must not be constructed or erected within the obstacle restriction area of an aerodrome without the written approval of CASA.

        (2)     Equipment and installations required for air navigation must be:

(a)   of minimum possible mass and height; and

(b)   frangible, including any mountings; and

(c)   sited to reduce to a minimum any hazard they may present to aircraft.

        (3)     In determining the obstacle clear approach or take-off surfaces, obstacles in the obstacle restriction area must be taken into account.


CHAPTER 7

Division 2     Obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS)

7.03     Introduction

        (1)     An aerodrome operator must establish and monitor the obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) applicable to the aerodrome.

        (2)     The physical dimensions of the OLS for approach runways must be determined using Table 7.15 (1).

        (3)     The physical dimensions of the OLS for take-off runways must be determined using Table 7.16 (1).

        (4)     As far as possible, the aerodrome operator must ensure that the OLS within the aerodrome boundary is maintained clear of obstacles.

Note   If third parties propose to erect structures likely to infringe the OLS outside the aerodrome boundary, it is in the interests of aerodrome operators to liaise as soon as possible with the proponents and the relevant planning authorities, with a view to ensuring the preservation of the OLS and limiting the introduction of new obstacles.

7.04     Reference elevation datum

                 A reference elevation datum must be:

(a)   established for the horizontal and conical surfaces of the OLS; and

(b)   if the elevation of the ARP is within 3 m of the average elevations of all existing and proposed runway ends — the same elevation as the ARP (rounded down to the nearest half metre); and

(c)   if paragraph (b) does not apply — the average elevation of existing and proposed runway ends (rounded down to the nearest half metre).

Note   The reference elevation datum is not to be confused with the aerodrome elevation published in the AIP‑ERSA. Aerodrome elevation is, by definition, the highest point on the landing area.

7.05     Outer horizontal surface of the OLS

                 The outer horizontal surface of the OLS must consist of a plane located 150 m above the reference elevation datum and extending from the upper edge of the extended conical surface, for a radial distance of 15 000 m from the ARP.

Note   For guidance only, Figure 7.07-1 shows the relationship between the outer horizontal, the conical, the inner horizontal, and the transitional surfaces.

7.06     Conical surface

        (1)     The conical surface of the OLS must consist of straight and curved elements which slope upwards and outwards from the edge of the inner horizontal surface to the relevant height specified in Table 7.15 (1) above the inner horizontal surface.

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.07-1.

        (2)     The slope of the conical surface must be measured in a vertical plane perpendicular to the periphery of the inner horizontal surface.

        (3)     If an outer horizontal surface is present and the end of the conical surface does not terminate directly into the commencement of the outer horizontal surface, the conical surface must then continue outwards on the same plane perpendicular to the periphery of the inner horizontal surface until it reaches the commencement of the outer horizontal surface.

7.07     Inner horizontal surface

                 The inner horizontal surface must be a horizontal plane, at the height specified in Table 7.15 (1) above the reference elevation datum, and extending to an outer boundary comprising:

(a)   in the case of an aerodrome with a single runway — semi-circular curves of a radius determined in accordance with Table 7.15 (1), centred on the middle of each of the runway strip ends and joined tangentially by straight lines on each side of the runway parallel to the runway centreline; and

(b)   in the case of an aerodrome with multiple runways — curves of a specified radius, centred on the middle of each of the runway strip ends and joined by a tangential line as 2 curves intersect.

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.07-2.

Figure 7.07-1   Relationship of outer horizontal, conical, inner horizontal and transitional surfaces, with an example obstacle (illustrates matters)

Figure 7.07-2   Boundary of inner horizontal surface (illustrates matters)

7.08     Approach surface

        (1)     The approach surface must be an inclined plane, or combination of planes, which originates from the inner edge associated with each runway threshold, with 2 sides originating at the ends of the inner edge.

        (2)     The inner edge associated with each runway threshold must have a specified length, and be located horizontally and perpendicular to the runway centreline, at the relevant distance before the threshold, as specified in Table 7.15 (1).

        (3)     The 2 sides must diverge uniformly from the extended centreline of the runway at the relevant rate, as specified in Table 7.15 (1).

        (4)     The approach surface may be divided into 3 sections and ends at an outer edge that is located at the relevant overall distance from the inner edge, and parallel to the inner edge, as specified in Table 7.15 (1).

        (5)     The elevation of the midpoint of the threshold must be the elevation of the inner edge.

        (6)     The slope of each section of the approach surface must be as specified in Table 7.15 (1) measured in the vertical plane containing the centreline of the runway.

Note   For guidance only, see Figures 7.08 (6)-1 and 7.08 (6)-2 for the approach surface for an instrument approach runway, and a plane view of the approach surface.

Fig 7

Figure 7.08 (6)-1   Approach surface for an instrument approach runway

Fig 7

Figure 7.08 (6)-2   Plane view of approach surface

7.09     Transitional surface

        (1)     The transitional surface:

(a)   must be comprised of inclined planes that originate:

             (i)  at the lower edge from the side of the runway strip; and

            (ii)  at the side of the approach surface that is below the inner horizontal surface; and

(b)   must finish where the upper edge is located in the plane of the inner horizontal surface.

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.08 (6)-1.

        (2)     The transitional surface must slope upwards and outwards at a specified rate and be measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the centreline of the runway.

        (3)     The elevation of a point on the lower edge of the transitional surface must be:

(a)   along the side of the approach surface — equal to the elevation of the approach surface at the point; and

(b)   along the side of the runway strip — equal to the elevation of the nearest point on the centreline of the runway or stopway.

7.10     Inner approach surface

                 The inner approach surface:

(a)   must be a rectangular portion of the approach surface immediately preceding the threshold; and

(b)   must:

             (i)  originate from an inner edge of the length relevantly specified in Table 7.15 (1), at the same location as the inner edge for the approach surface; and

            (ii)  extend on 2 sides, parallel to the vertical plane containing the runway centreline, to an outer edge located at the distance specified in Table 7.15 (1) from, and parallel to, the inner edge.

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.12 (1).

7.11     Inner transitional surface

Note   For general guidance, the inner transitional surface is similar to the transitional surface but closer to a runway used for precision operations.

        (1)     The lower edge of the inner transitional surface must originate from the end of the inner approach surface, extend down the sides of the inner approach surface to the inner edge of the inner approach surface, from there extend along the runway strip to the inner edge of the baulked landing surface, and from there extend up the side of the baulked landing surface to the point where the side of the baulked landing surface intersects the inner horizontal surface.

        (2)     The elevation of a point on the lower edge of the inner transitional surface must be:

(a)   along the side of the inner approach and baulked landing surfaces — equal to the elevation of the particular surface at that point; and

(b)   along the runway strip — equal to the elevation of the nearest point on the centreline of the runway or stopway.

        (3)     The inner transitional surface must slope upwards and outwards at the relevant rate specified in Table 7.15 (1), and is to be measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the centreline of the runway.

        (4)     The upper edge of the inner transitional surface must be located in the plane of the inner horizontal surface.

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.12 (1). CASA recommends that, subject to sections 6.55 and 6.56, the inner transitional surface should otherwise be used as the controlling surface for navigational aids, and aircraft and vehicle holding positions, which have to be located near the runway. The transitional surface should also be used as the controlling surface for building height control.

7.12     Baulked landing surface

Note   For guidance only, see Figure 7.12 (1).

        (1)     The baulked landing surface must be an inclined plane originating at the relevant distance specified in Table 7.15 (1) after the threshold, and extending between the inner transitional surfaces.

        (2)     The baulked landing surface must originate from an inner edge of the length specified in Table 7.15 (1) located horizontally and perpendicular to the centreline of the runway, with 2 sides from the ends of the inner edge diverging uniformly at the specified rate from the vertical plane containing the centreline of the runway, ending at an outer edge located in the plane of the inner horizontal surface.

        (3)     The elevation of the inner edge must be equal to the elevation of the runway centreline at the location of the inner edge.

        (4)     The specified slope of the baulked landing surface must be measured in the vertical plane containing the centreline of the runway.

Figure 7.12 (1)   Inner approach, inner transitional and baulked landing OLS (illustrates matters)

7.13     Obstacle-free zone

                 The obstacle-free zone must be kept free from the following:

(a)   fixed objects or structures other than lightweight, frangibly-mounted navigation aids that must be located near the runway to perform their function;

(b)   transient objects when the runway is being used for precision approaches.

Note   Transient objects include, for example, aircraft and vehicles.

7.14     Take-off climb surface

        (1)     The take-off climb surface must be an inclined plane located beyond the end of the runway or clearway.

Note   For guidance, see Figure 7.14 (1).

        (2)     The origin of the take-off climb surface must be the inner edge of the specified length, located at the specified distance from the end of the runway or the clearway.

        (3)     The plane from the inner edge must slope upward at the specified rate, with the 2 sides of the plane originating from the ends of the inner edge concurrently diverging uniformly outwards to the final specified width, and continuing thereafter at that width for the remainder of the specified overall length of the take-off climb surface until it reaches the outer edge which is horizontal and perpendicular to the take-off track.

        (4)     Subject to subsection 7.14 (5), the elevation of the inner edge must be equal to the highest point on the extended runway centreline between the end of the runway and the inner edge.

        (5)     When a clearway is provided, the elevation of the inner edge must be equal to the highest point on the ground on the centreline of the clearway.

        (6)     The slope of the take-off climb surface must be measured in the vertical plane containing the centreline of the runway.

        (7)     References in this section to dimensions or values that are “specified” are specified in Table 7.16 (1).

Fig 7

Figure 7.14 (1)   Plan view of take-off climb surface

7.15     Approach runways — physical dimensions of the OLS

        (1)     The physical dimensions of the OLS for an approach runway are determined from Table 7.15 (1) in accordance with this section.

        (2)     Table 7.15 (1) is applied by matching the OLS dimension item in a row of column 1, for which a provision of this MOS mentions that the relevant dimension is specified, with the value in the cell in the same row of the column that is for the type of approach and runway code number.

Note   For example, for subsection 7.06 (1), the height above the inner horizontal surface is as specified in the column of the row CONICAL, Height (m) in Table 7.15 (1) that is for the relevant approach and runway code.

        (3)     For Table 7.15 (1), all distances are measured horizontally unless otherwise specified under a symbol mentioned in subsection (5).

        (4)     The approach climb surface requirements for a code 2 runway apply to a code 1 runway for which lighting is provided.

        (5)     For Table 7.15 (1), the superscript letters against certain dimensions have the following meaning:

o   a means 90 m if the width of the runway is 30 m;

o   — RESERVED;

o   c means that no actual ground survey is required unless specifically required by a procedure designer. A procedure designer must use topographical maps and tall structure databanks to determine minimum altitudes;

o   d means that the approach area up to this distance must be monitored for new obstacles. The procedure designer’s advice, on significant high ground or tall structures that should be monitored, must also be followed;

o   e means the distance to the end of the runway strip;

Note   Applicable only to Distance from threshold (m) dimension item.

o   f means “or to the end of the runway strip, whichever is less”;

o   g means that if the code letter is F from Table 4.01 (4), the length of the baulked landing inner edge must be increased to 140 m.

Table 7.15 (1)   Physical dimensions of the OLS for an approach runway

OLS (in bold) and
dimension items (in italics)

Runway type and code, and OLS values in percentages and metres

Non-instrument

Instrument

Non-precision

Precision

Code

Code

CAT I
Code

CAT II & III Code

1

2

3

4

1, 2

3

4

1, 2

3, 4

3, 4

OUTER HORIZONTAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height (m)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

Radius (m)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15000

15000

CONICAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slope

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

Height (m)

35

55

75

100

60

75

100

60

100

100

INNER HORIZONTAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Height (m)

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

Radius (m)

2000

2500

4000

4000

3500

4000

4000

3500

4000

4000

APPROACH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Length of inner edge (m)

60

80

150a

150

140

280

280

140

280

280

Distance from threshold (m)

30

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

Divergence each side

10%

10%

10%

10%

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

First section length (m)

1600

2500

3000

3000

2500

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

Slope

5%

4%

3.33%

2.5%

3.33%

2%

2%

2.5%

2%

2%

Second section length (m)

-

-

-

-

-

3600c

3600

12000

3600

3600

Slope

-

-

-

-

-

2.5%c

2.5%

3%

2.5%

2.5%

Horizontal section length (m)

-

-

-

-

-

8400c

8400

-

8400

8400

Total length (m)

1600

2500

3000

3000

2500

15000d

15000

15000

15000

15000

INNER APPROACH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Width (m)