Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

No. 50 of 2019 Determinations/Veterans' Entitlements as made
This instrument is the Statement of Principles concerning poisoning from plants or fungi (Balance of Probabilities).
Administered by: Veterans' Affairs
Registered 30 Apr 2019

RMA-Red

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

 

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES CONCERNING

POISONING FROM PLANTS OR FUNGI

(BALANCE OF PROBABILITIES) (NO. 50 OF 2019)

 

VETERANS' ENTITLEMENTS ACT 1986

MILITARY REHABILITATION AND COMPENSATION ACT 2004

 

1.             This is the Explanatory Statement to the Statement of Principles concerning poisoning from plants or fungi (Balance of Probabilities) (No. 50 of 2019).

Background

2.             The Repatriation Medical Authority (the Authority), under subsection 196B(8) of the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986 (the VEA), repeals Instrument No. 85 of 2010 (Federal Register of Legislation No. F2010L02840) determined under subsection 196B(3) of the VEA concerning poisoning and toxic reaction from plants and fungi.

3.             The Authority is of the view that on the sound medical-scientific evidence available it is more probable than not that poisoning from plants or fungi and death from poisoning from plants or fungi can be related to particular kinds of service.  The Authority has therefore determined pursuant to subsection 196B(3) of the VEA a Statement of Principles concerning poisoning from plants or fungi (Balance of Probabilities) (No. 50 of 2019).  This Instrument will in effect replace the repealed Statement of Principles.

Purpose and Operation

4.             The Statement of Principles will be applied in determining claims under the VEA and the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (the MRCA).

5.             The Statement of Principles sets out the factors that must exist, and which of those factors must be related to the following kinds of service rendered by a person:

          eligible war service (other than operational service) under the VEA;

          defence service (other than hazardous service and British nuclear test defence service) under the VEA;

          peacetime service under the MRCA,

before it can be said that, on the balance of probabilities, poisoning from plants or fungi or death from poisoning from plants or fungi is connected with the circumstances of that service.  The Statement of Principles has been determined for the purposes of both the VEA and the MRCA.

6.             This Instrument results from an investigation notified by the Authority in the Government Notices Gazette of 8 May 2018 concerning poisoning and toxic reaction from plants and fungi in accordance with section 196G of the VEA.  The investigation involved an examination of the sound medical-scientific evidence now available to the Authority, including the sound medical-scientific evidence it has previously considered.

7.             The contents of this Instrument are in similar terms as the repealed Instrument.  Comparing this Instrument and the repealed Instrument, the differences include:

·                    adopting the latest revised Instrument format, which commenced in 2015;

·                    specifying a day of commencement for the Instrument in section 2;

·                    changing the title of the Instrument to 'poisoning from plants or fungi';

·                    new definition of 'poisoning from plants or fungi' in subsection 7(2);

·                    revising the factor in subsection 9(1) concerning 'ingesting, inhaling, injecting or having cutaneous, intradermal, mucosal or ocular exposure to a toxin';

·                    revising the factor in subsection 9(2) concerning 'consuming milk, milk products, eggs or meat';

·                    new factor in subsection 9(3) concerning 'consuming honey';

·                    new factor in subsection 9(4) concerning 'ingesting, inhaling, injecting or having cutaneous, intradermal, mucosal or ocular exposure to a plant', for poisoning manifesting as delayed hepatotoxicity, delayed nephrotoxicity or delayed neurotoxicity only;

·                    new factor in subsection 9(5) concerning 'consuming milk, milk products, eggs or meat', for poisoning manifesting as delayed hepatotoxicity, delayed neurotoxicity or delayed thyrotoxicity only;

·                    new factor in subsection 9(6) concerning 'consuming honey', for poisoning manifesting as delayed hepatotoxicity only;

·                    deleting the factor concerning 'inhaling, ingesting or having cutaneous contact with a plant containing a pyrrolizidine alkaloid', as it is covered by the factor in subsection 9(4) concerning 'ingesting, inhaling, injecting or having cutaneous, intradermal, mucosal or ocular exposure to a plant';

·                    new definitions of 'MRCA', 'specified list of plant toxins', 'Specified List 1 of plants', 'Specified List 2 of plants', 'Specified List 3 of plants' and 'VEA' in Schedule 1 - Dictionary;

·                    revising the definition of 'relevant service' in Schedule 1 - Dictionary; and

·                    deleting the definitions of 'a plant containing a pyrrolizidine alkaloid' and 'poison'.

Consultation

8.             Prior to determining this Instrument, the Authority advertised its intention to undertake an investigation in relation to poisoning and toxic reaction from plants and fungi in the Government Notices Gazette of 8 May 2018, and circulated a copy of the notice of intention to investigate to a wide range of organisations representing veterans, service personnel and their dependants.  The Authority invited submissions from the Repatriation Commission, the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Commission, organisations and persons referred to in section 196E of the VEA, and any person having expertise in the field.  No submissions were received for consideration by the Authority during the investigation.

Human Rights

9.             This instrument is compatible with the Human Rights and Freedoms recognised or declared in the International Instruments listed in Section 3 of the Human Rights (Parliamentary Scrutiny) Act 2011.  A Statement of Compatibility with Human Rights follows.

Finalisation of Investigation

10.         The determining of this Instrument finalises the investigation in relation to poisoning and toxic reaction from plants and fungi as advertised in the Government Notices Gazette of 8 May 2018.

References

11.         A list of references relating to the above condition is available to any person or organisation referred to in subsection 196E(1)(a) to (c) of the VEA.  Any such request must be made in writing to the Repatriation Medical Authority at the following address:

The Registrar

Repatriation Medical Authority

GPO Box 1014

BRISBANE    QLD    4001
RMA-Red

Statement of Compatibility with Human Rights

(Prepared in accordance with Part 3 of the Human Rights (Parliamentary Scrutiny) Act 2011)

 

Instrument No.:                                 Statement of Principles No. 50 of 2019

Kind of Injury, Disease or Death:   Poisoning from plants or fungi

 

This Legislative Instrument is compatible with the human rights and freedoms recognised or declared in the international instruments listed in section 3 of the Human Rights (Parliamentary Scrutiny) Act 2011.

Overview of the Legislative Instrument

1.         This Legislative Instrument is determined pursuant to subsection 196B(8) of the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986 (the VEA) for the purposes of the VEA and the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (the MRCA).  Part XIA of the VEA requires the determination of these instruments outlining the factors linking particular kinds of injury, disease or death with service such being determined solely on the available sound medical-scientific evidence.

2.         This Legislative Instrument:-

§     facilitates claimants in making, and the Repatriation Commission in assessing, claims under the VEA and the MRCA respectively, by specifying the circumstances in which medical treatment and compensation can be extended to eligible persons who have poisoning from plants or fungi;

§     facilitates the review of such decisions by the Veterans' Review Board and the Administrative Appeals Tribunal;

§     outlines the factors which the current sound medical-scientific evidence indicates must exist before it can be said that, on the balance of probabilities, poisoning from plants or fungi is connected with the circumstances of eligible service rendered by a person, as set out in clause 5 of the Explanatory Statement;

§     replaces Instrument No. 85 of 2010; and

§     reflects developments in the available sound medical-scientific evidence concerning poisoning from plants or fungi which have occurred since that earlier instrument was determined. 

3.         The Instrument is assessed as being a technical instrument which improves the medico-scientific quality of outcomes under the VEA and the MRCA. 

Human Rights Implications

4.         This Legislative Instrument does not derogate from any human rights. It promotes the human rights of veterans, current and former Defence Force members as well as other persons such as their dependents, including:

§     the right to social security (Art 9, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Art 26, Convention on the Rights of the Child and Art 28, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) by helping to ensure that the qualifying conditions for the benefit are 'reasonable, proportionate and transparent'[1];

§     the right to an adequate standard of living (Art 11, ICSECR; Art 27, CRC and Art 28, CRPD) by facilitating the assessment and determination of social security benefits;

§     the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health (Art 12, ICSECR and Art 25, CRPD), by facilitating the assessment and determination of compensation and benefits in relation to the treatment and rehabilitation of veterans and Defence Force members;

§     the rights of persons with disabilities by facilitating the determination of claims relating to treatment and rehabilitation (Art 26, CRPD); and

§     ensuring that those rights "will be exercised without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status" (Art 2, ICESCR).

Conclusion

This Legislative Instrument is compatible with human rights as it does not derogate from and promotes a number of human rights.

 

Repatriation Medical Authority

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] In General Comment No. 19 (The right to social security), the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights said (at paragraph 24) this to be one of the elements of ensuring accessibility to social security.