Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Federal Court Rules 2011

Authoritative Version
SLI 2011 No. 134 Rules/Court & Tribunal Rules as amended, taking into account amendments up to Federal Court Amendment (Court Administration and Other Measures) Rules 2019
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 21 May 2019
Start Date 02 May 2019

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Federal Court Rules 2011

Select Legislative Instrument No. 134, 2011

made under the

Federal Court of Australia Act 1976

Compilation No. 7

Compilation date:                              2 May 2019

Includes amendments up to:            F2019L00665

Registered:                                         21 May 2019

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Federal Court Rules 2011 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 2 May 2019 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introductory provisions                                                         1

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                             1

Division 1.1—Scope                                                                                                       1

1.01....................... Name of Rules.................................................................... 1

1.04....................... Application......................................................................... 1

Division 1.2—Application about procedures                                                   2

1.21....................... Application for orders about procedures............................. 2

Division 1.3—General powers of the Court                                                     3

1.31....................... Orders to have regard to nature and complexity of proceeding                3

1.32....................... Court may make any order it considers appropriate in the interests of justice          3

1.33....................... Orders may be subject to conditions................................... 3

1.34....................... Dispensing with compliance with Rules............................. 3

1.35....................... Orders inconsistent with Rules........................................... 3

1.36....................... Orders other than in open court.......................................... 3

1.37....................... Directions to Registrars...................................................... 3

1.38....................... Fixing of time by Court...................................................... 3

1.39....................... Extension and shortening of time........................................ 4

1.40....................... Exercise of Court’s power.................................................. 4

1.41....................... Other orders that may be made........................................... 4

1.42....................... Orders may include consequences of non‑compliance........ 4

Division 1.4—Interpretation                                                                                     5

1.51....................... Definitions—the Dictionary................................................ 5

1.52....................... References to Forms........................................................... 5

Division 1.5—Time                                                                                                         6

1.61....................... Calculation of time.............................................................. 6

Part 2—Registry and documents                                                                                  7

Division 2.1—Registry                                                                                                 7

2.01....................... Use of seal and stamps of Court......................................... 7

2.02....................... Transfer of proceeding to another place.............................. 7

Division 2.2—Documents                                                                                            8

2.11....................... General provisions about documents.................................. 8

2.12....................... Compliance with approved forms....................................... 8

2.13....................... Titles of documents............................................................. 8

2.14....................... Subsequent documents to be endorsed with Court number 8

2.15....................... Signature............................................................................. 9

2.16....................... Details at foot of each document......................................... 9

Division 2.3—Lodging and filing documents                                                  10

2.21....................... How documents may be lodged with the Court................ 10

2.22....................... Faxing a document............................................................ 10

2.23....................... Sending a document by electronic communication............ 11

2.24....................... Documents sent by electronic communication.................. 11

2.25....................... When is a document filed.................................................. 11

2.26....................... Refusal to accept document for filing—abuse of process or frivolous or vexatious documents.......................................................................................... 12

2.27....................... When documents will not be accepted in a Registry......... 12

2.28....................... Documents accepted for filing—removal from Court file and storage     13

2.29....................... Documents on a Court file—removal, redaction and storage 13

Division 2.4—Custody and inspection of documents                                 15

2.31....................... Custody of documents...................................................... 15

2.32....................... Inspection of documents................................................... 15

Division 2.5—Administration of money paid into Court and payment out          17

2.41....................... Establishment of Litigants’ Fund...................................... 17

2.42....................... Dealing with money paid into Court................................. 17

2.43....................... Payment out of Litigants’ Fund........................................ 17

Part 3—Registrars                                                                                                               18

Division 3.1—Powers of Registrars                                                                    18

3.01....................... Powers of the Court that may be exercised by a Registrar 18

3.02....................... Authority to administer oaths and affirmations................. 19

3.03....................... Orders other than in open court........................................ 19

3.04....................... Application for orders in relation to Registrars................. 19

3.05....................... Application to a Registrar for an application to be determined by the Court             19

Division 3.2—Reviewing a Registrar’s exercise of power                     20

3.11....................... Application for review of a Registrar’s exercise of power 20

Part 4—Lawyers                                                                                                                   21

Division 4.1—General                                                                                                21

4.01....................... Proceeding by lawyer or in person................................... 21

4.02....................... Power to act by lawyer..................................................... 21

4.03....................... Appointment of a lawyer—notice of acting...................... 21

4.04....................... Termination of retainer by party........................................ 21

4.05....................... Termination of retainer by lawyer..................................... 21

Division 4.2—Court referral for legal assistance                                       23

4.11....................... Definitions for Division 4.2.............................................. 23

4.12....................... Referral for legal assistance.............................................. 23

4.13....................... A party has no right to apply for a referral........................ 23

4.14....................... Acceptance of referral certificate and provision of legal assistance          23

4.15....................... Ceasing to provide legal assistance................................... 23

4.16....................... Application for Registrar’s permission to cease providing legal assistance              24

4.17....................... Cessation of referral certificate.......................................... 24

4.18....................... Disbursements.................................................................. 25

4.19....................... Professional fees............................................................... 25

Part 5—Court supervision of proceedings                                                           26

Division 5.1—Return date and directions                                                        26

5.01....................... Parties to attend Court on return date................................ 26

5.02....................... Parties to file notice of address for service before return date  26

5.03....................... Respondent’s genuine steps statement.............................. 26

5.04....................... Making directions............................................................. 26

5.05....................... Adjournment of directions hearing................................... 28

5.06....................... Application for directions—cross‑claims.......................... 28

5.07....................... Interlocutory orders.......................................................... 28

5.08....................... Hearing and determination of matter at directions hearing 28

Division 5.2—Orders on default                                                                           30

5.21....................... Self‑executing orders........................................................ 30

5.22....................... When a party is in default................................................. 30

5.23....................... Orders on default.............................................................. 30

5.24....................... Contempt.......................................................................... 31

Part 6—Court supervision of parties and other persons                             32

Division 6.1—Vexatious proceedings                                                                 32

6.01....................... Scandalous, vexatious or oppressive matter...................... 32

6.02....................... Certificate of vexatious proceedings order........................ 32

6.03....................... Application for leave to institute proceedings................... 32

Division 6.2—Use of communication and recording devices in Court 33

6.11....................... Use of communication device or recording device in place where hearing taking place.......................................................................................... 33

6.12....................... Contempt.......................................................................... 33

Chapter 2—Original jurisdiction—proceedings generally 34

Part 7—Orders before start of a proceeding                                                      34

Division 7.1—Injunctions, preservation of property and receivers  34

7.01....................... Order before start of proceeding....................................... 34

Division 7.2—Approval of agreement for person under a legal incapacity        35

7.11....................... Compromise or settlement of matter before proceeding.... 35

Division 7.3—Preliminary discovery                                                                 36

7.21....................... Definitions for Division 7.3.............................................. 36

7.22....................... Order for discovery to ascertain description of respondent 36

7.23....................... Discovery from prospective respondent........................... 37

7.24....................... Procedure for applications under this Division................. 37

7.25....................... List of documents............................................................. 37

7.26....................... Privilege............................................................................ 37

7.27....................... Inspection of documents................................................... 38

7.28....................... Copying of documents produced for inspection............... 38

7.29....................... Costs................................................................................. 38

Division 7.4—Freezing orders                                                                               39

7.31....................... Definitions for Division 7.4.............................................. 39

7.32....................... Freezing order................................................................... 39

7.33....................... Ancillary order.................................................................. 39

7.34....................... Order may be against person not a party to proceeding.... 39

7.35....................... Order against judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor or third party         40

7.36....................... Jurisdiction....................................................................... 41

7.37....................... Service outside Australia of application for freezing order or ancillary order           41

7.38....................... Costs................................................................................. 41

Division 7.5—Search orders                                                                                   42

7.41....................... Definitions for Division 7.5.............................................. 42

7.42....................... Search order...................................................................... 42

7.43....................... Requirements for grant of search order............................. 42

7.44....................... Jurisdiction....................................................................... 42

7.45....................... Terms of search order....................................................... 43

7.46....................... Independent lawyers......................................................... 43

7.47....................... Costs................................................................................. 43

Part 8—Starting proceedings                                                                                        44

Division 8.1—Originating applications                                                             44

8.01....................... Starting proceeding—application...................................... 44

8.02....................... Applicant’s genuine steps statement................................. 44

8.03....................... Application to state relief claimed..................................... 44

8.04....................... Application starting migration litigation to include certificate 45

8.05....................... Accompanying document for originating application........ 45

8.06....................... Service of originating documents...................................... 46

8.07....................... Changing return date......................................................... 46

Division 8.2—Notice of constitutional matter                                               48

8.11....................... Notice of constitutional matter.......................................... 48

8.12....................... Service of notice............................................................... 48

Division 8.3—Amendments to an originating application                       49

8.21....................... Amendment generally....................................................... 49

8.22....................... Date on which amendment takes effect............................. 49

8.23....................... Procedure for making amendment.................................... 50

8.24....................... Time for amending an originating application under Court order             50

8.25....................... Service of amended originating application....................... 50

Part 9—Parties and proceedings                                                                                51

Division 9.1—Parties, interveners and causes of action                          51

9.01....................... Multiple causes of action.................................................. 51

9.02....................... Joinder of parties—general............................................... 51

9.03....................... Joinder of applicants with joint entitlement....................... 51

9.04....................... Joinder of persons with common liability......................... 51

9.05....................... Joinder of parties by Court order...................................... 51

9.06....................... Application for separate trials—inconvenient joinder of causes of action or parties 52

9.07....................... Errors in joinder of parties................................................ 52

9.08....................... Removal of parties by Court order.................................... 52

9.09....................... Death, bankruptcy or transmission of interest................... 52

9.10....................... No joinder or substitution after death of party.................. 53

9.11....................... Substitution of party......................................................... 53

9.12....................... Interveners........................................................................ 53

Division 9.2—Representative proceedings                                                      54

9.21....................... Representative party—general.......................................... 54

9.22....................... Enforcement of order for or against representative party.. 54

9.23....................... Representative party—beneficiaries.................................. 54

9.24....................... Deceased persons............................................................. 54

9.25....................... Conduct of proceeding by particular party........................ 55

Division 9.3—Grouped proceedings under Part IVA of the Act         56

9.31....................... Interpretation for Division 9.3.......................................... 56

9.32....................... Starting a representative proceeding.................................. 56

9.33....................... Person may give consent to be a group member............... 56

9.34....................... Opt out notices.................................................................. 56

9.35....................... Application for order relating to the procedure to be followed in a representative proceeding.......................................................................................... 56

Division 9.4—Partnerships                                                                                      57

9.41....................... Proceeding by or against partners in partnership name..... 57

9.42....................... Disclosure of partners’ names.......................................... 57

9.43....................... Proceeding between members of partnerships.................. 57

9.44....................... Denial by person served as partner................................... 58

9.45....................... Defence to be in partnership name.................................... 58

9.46....................... Entry of order................................................................... 58

Division 9.5—Business name proceedings                                                       59

9.51....................... Proceeding against a person who carries on a business under a business name       59

9.52....................... Proceeding against a business name................................. 59

9.53....................... Proceeding under this Division or Division 9.4................ 59

9.54....................... Amendment of parties....................................................... 60

9.55....................... Variation of order............................................................. 60

9.56....................... Order for discovery—proceeding brought against a person in the person’s business name.......................................................................................... 60

Division 9.6—Persons under a legal incapacity                                           62

9.61....................... Proceeding by or against person under a legal incapacity. 62

9.62....................... Persons who may be a litigation representative................. 62

9.63....................... Appointment of litigation representative by the Court....... 62

9.64....................... Consent to be filed............................................................ 63

9.65....................... Removal of litigation representative by the Court............. 63

9.66....................... Conduct of proceeding...................................................... 63

9.67....................... No deemed admissions..................................................... 63

9.68....................... Discovery and interrogatories........................................... 64

9.69....................... Payment into Court........................................................... 64

9.70....................... Compromise or settlement of matter in proceeding........... 64

9.71....................... Application by litigation representative for approval of agreement           64

Part 10—Service                                                                                                                   65

Division 10.1—Personal service                                                                           65

10.01..................... Service on individual........................................................ 65

10.02..................... Service on corporation...................................................... 65

10.03..................... Service on unincorporated association.............................. 65

10.04..................... Service on organisation..................................................... 65

10.05..................... Service on partnership...................................................... 65

10.06..................... Service in a proceeding brought against a person in the person’s business name    66

10.07..................... Service in a proceeding under the Patents Act 1990.......... 66

10.08..................... Service in a proceeding under the Trade Marks Act 1995 66

10.09..................... Service on person under a legal incapacity........................ 67

10.10..................... Personal service on a person under a legal incapacity....... 67

10.11..................... Deemed service of originating application........................ 68

10.12..................... Refusal to accept document served personally.................. 68

Division 10.2—Service other than by personal service                            69

10.21..................... Identity of person served.................................................. 69

10.22..................... Acceptance of service by lawyer....................................... 69

10.23..................... Deemed service................................................................. 69

10.24..................... Substituted service............................................................ 69

10.25..................... Service by filing................................................................ 70

10.26..................... Service by Court............................................................... 70

10.27..................... Service of interlocutory injunction.................................... 70

10.28..................... Service under agreement................................................... 70

Division 10.3—Ordinary service                                                                          71

10.31..................... Ordinary service............................................................... 71

10.32..................... Time of service................................................................. 71

Division 10.4—Service outside Australia                                                         72

10.41..................... Definitions for Division 10.4............................................ 72

10.42..................... When originating application may be served outside Australia                72

10.43..................... Application for leave to serve originating application outside Australia   74

10.44..................... Service of other documents............................................... 75

10.45..................... Application of other rules................................................. 75

10.46..................... Method of service............................................................. 76

10.47..................... Proof of service................................................................ 76

10.48..................... Deemed service................................................................. 76

10.49..................... Substituted service............................................................ 76

Division 10.5—Service through diplomatic channel or by transmission to foreign government                                                                                            78

10.51..................... Documents to be lodged with the Court............................ 78

10.52..................... Order for payment of expenses......................................... 78

Division 10.6—Service under Hague Convention                                       79

10.61..................... Definitions for Division 10.6............................................ 79

10.62..................... Provisions of this Division to prevail............................... 80

10.63..................... Service abroad of local judicial documents—application of rules 10.64 to 10.68     80

10.64..................... Application for request for service abroad........................ 81

10.65..................... How application to be dealt with....................................... 82

10.66..................... Procedure on receipt of certificate of service..................... 82

10.67..................... Payment of costs............................................................... 83

10.68..................... Evidence of service........................................................... 83

10.69..................... Default judgment following service abroad of initiating process—application of rules 10.70 to 10.72............................................................................. 84

10.70..................... Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service filed            84

10.71..................... Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service not filed      84

10.72..................... Setting aside judgment in default of appearance................ 85

10.73..................... Local service of foreign judicial documents – application of rules 10.74 to 10.76   85

10.74..................... Certain documents to be referred to Attorney‑General’s Department       86

10.75..................... Service.............................................................................. 86

10.76..................... Affidavit as to service....................................................... 87

Part 11—Address for service                                                                                        88

11.01..................... Address for service—general........................................... 88

11.02..................... Address for service—corporations................................... 88

11.03..................... Address for service—proceeding against person in person’s business name          88

11.04..................... Address for service—partnership..................................... 88

11.05..................... Receivers.......................................................................... 89

11.06..................... When must notice of address for service be filed.............. 89

11.07..................... How to file notice of address for service.......................... 89

11.08..................... Service of notice of address for service............................ 89

11.09..................... Change of address for service........................................... 89

Part 12—Submitting notices                                                                                          90

12.01..................... Submitting notice.............................................................. 90

Part 13—Jurisdiction—setting aside originating application                    91

13.01..................... Setting aside originating application etc............................ 91

Part 14—Interlocutory orders for preservation of rights and property  92

Division 14.1—Inspection of property                                                              92

14.01..................... Order for inspection etc of property.................................. 92

14.02..................... Service of application........................................................ 92

14.03..................... View by Court.................................................................. 92

Division 14.2—Preservation etc of property                                                 93

14.11..................... Preservation of property................................................... 93

14.12..................... Disposal of personal property........................................... 93

14.13..................... Interim distribution of property or income from property. 93

14.14..................... Payment before determination of all interested persons.... 93

Division 14.3—Receivers                                                                                          94

14.21..................... Application to appoint receiver......................................... 94

14.22..................... Guarantee.......................................................................... 94

14.23..................... Powers.............................................................................. 94

14.24..................... Remuneration.................................................................... 94

14.25..................... Accounts........................................................................... 94

14.26..................... Default.............................................................................. 94

14.27..................... Death of receiver............................................................... 95

Part 15—Cross‑claims and third party claims                                                   96

Division 15.1—Making cross‑claim                                                                    96

15.01..................... Cross–claim by respondent............................................... 96

15.02..................... Starting cross‑claim.......................................................... 96

15.03..................... Title of cross‑claim and subsequent documents................ 96

15.04..................... Time for bringing cross‑claim........................................... 96

15.05..................... Application for extension of time to file cross‑claim......... 96

15.06..................... Cross–claim to be accompanied by statement of cross‑claim or affidavit 97

15.07..................... Cross–claim to state relief claimed.................................... 97

15.08..................... Service of notice of cross‑claim on cross‑respondent....... 98

15.09..................... Service of pleadings and documents................................. 98

15.10..................... Conduct of proceeding after cross‑claim is filed............... 98

15.11..................... Separate proceeding in relation to cross‑claim.................. 98

15.12..................... Cross‑claim for contribution or indemnity........................ 99

15.13..................... Hearings in relation to cross‑claims.................................. 99

15.14..................... Co‑cross‑respondents....................................................... 99

Division 15.2—Amendment of cross‑claim                                                   100

15.15..................... Amendment generally..................................................... 100

15.16..................... Date on which amendment takes effect........................... 100

15.17..................... Procedure for making amendment.................................. 100

15.18..................... Time for amending notice of cross‑claim under Court order 101

15.19..................... Service of amended cross‑claim...................................... 101

Part 16—Pleadings                                                                                                            102

Division 16.1—General                                                                                           102

16.01A.................. Application of Division 16.1.......................................... 102

16.01..................... Pleading to include name of person who prepared it....... 102

16.02..................... Content of pleadings—general........................................ 102

16.03..................... Pleading of facts............................................................. 103

16.04..................... References to documents or spoken words..................... 103

16.05..................... Conditions precedent...................................................... 103

16.06..................... Inconsistent allegations or claims.................................... 103

16.07..................... Admissions, denials and deemed admissions................. 103

16.08..................... Matters that must be expressly pleaded........................... 104

16.09..................... Defence of tender before start of proceeding.................. 104

16.10..................... Defence claiming set‑off................................................. 104

16.11..................... Joinder of issue............................................................... 104

16.12..................... Close of pleadings.......................................................... 104

16.13..................... Alternative accompanying documents............................. 105

Division 16.2—Striking out pleadings                                                              106

16.21..................... Application to strike out pleadings.................................. 106

Division 16.3—Progress of pleadings                                                              107

16.31..................... Application of Division 16.3.......................................... 107

16.32..................... Defence to application..................................................... 107

16.33..................... Reply.............................................................................. 107

Division 16.4—Particulars                                                                                     108

16.41A.................. Application of Division 16.4.......................................... 108

16.41..................... General........................................................................... 108

16.42..................... Fraud, misrepresentation etc........................................... 108

16.43..................... Conditions of mind......................................................... 108

16.44..................... Damages and exemplary damages.................................. 109

16.45..................... Application for order for particulars............................... 109

Division 16.5—Amendment of pleadings                                                        110

16.51..................... Amendment without needing the leave of the Court....... 110

16.52..................... Disallowance of amendment of pleading........................ 110

16.53..................... Application for leave to amend....................................... 110

16.54..................... Date on which amendment takes effect........................... 110

16.55..................... Consequential amendment of defence............................. 110

16.56..................... Consequential amendment of reply................................. 111

16.57..................... Implied joinder of issue after amendment....................... 111

16.58..................... Time for amending pleading under Court order.............. 111

16.59..................... Procedure for making amendment to pleading................ 112

16.60..................... Service of amendment..................................................... 112

Part 17—Interlocutory applications                                                                       113

17.01..................... Interlocutory application................................................. 113

17.02..................... Reliance on correspondence or undisputed documents... 113

17.03..................... Service on others............................................................ 113

17.04..................... Hearing and determination of interlocutory application—absence of party              114

Part 18—Interpleader proceedings                                                                         115

Division 18.1—Stakeholder’s interpleader                                                   115

18.01..................... Application for relief by way of interpleader.................. 115

18.02..................... How application to be made............................................ 115

18.03..................... Orders that may be sought.............................................. 115

18.04..................... Default by claimant......................................................... 116

18.05..................... Neutrality of stakeholder................................................. 116

18.06..................... Order in several proceedings.......................................... 116

Division 18.2—Sheriff’s interpleader                                                               117

18.11..................... Notice of claim................................................................ 117

18.12..................... Notice of claim to be served on execution creditor.......... 117

18.13..................... Admission of claim by execution creditor....................... 117

18.14..................... Application by Sheriff for interpleader........................... 118

Part 19—Security for costs                                                                                           119

19.01..................... Application for an order for security for costs................ 119

Part 20—Discovery and inspection of documents                                          120

Division 20.1—General                                                                                           120

20.01..................... Withholding documents on public interest grounds........ 120

20.02..................... Privilege.......................................................................... 120

20.03..................... Undertakings or orders applying to documents.............. 120

Division 20.2—Discovery                                                                                       121

20.11..................... Discovery must be for the just resolution of the proceeding 121

20.12..................... No discovery without court order................................... 121

20.13..................... Application for discovery............................................... 121

20.14..................... Standard discovery......................................................... 122

20.15..................... Non‑standard and more extensive discovery.................. 122

20.16..................... Giving discovery............................................................ 123

20.17..................... List of documents........................................................... 123

20.18..................... Copies of documents...................................................... 123

20.19..................... Claim of privilege........................................................... 124

20.20..................... Supplementary discovery................................................ 124

20.21..................... Order for particular discovery......................................... 124

20.22..................... Deponent for affidavit for discovery............................... 124

20.23..................... Discovery from non‑party.............................................. 125

20.24..................... Non‑party’s obligation.................................................... 125

20.25..................... Non‑party’s costs and expenses..................................... 125

Division 20.3—Production for inspection                                                      127

20.31..................... Notice to produce document in pleading or affidavit....... 127

20.32..................... Order for production from party..................................... 127

20.33..................... Order for production from non‑party.............................. 127

20.34..................... Copying of documents produced for inspection............. 127

20.35..................... Production to Court........................................................ 128

Part 21—Interrogatories                                                                                                129

21.01..................... Order for interrogatories................................................. 129

21.02..................... When application may be made....................................... 129

21.03..................... Answers to interrogatories.............................................. 129

21.04..................... Affidavit verifying written answers to interrogatories.... 129

21.05..................... Orders dealing with insufficient answers........................ 130

21.06..................... Answers tendered as evidence........................................ 130

21.07..................... Public interest................................................................. 131

Part 22—Admissions                                                                                                        132

22.01..................... Notice to admit facts or documents................................. 132

22.02..................... Notice disputing facts or documents............................... 132

22.03..................... Disputing party to pay costs if document is proved etc... 132

22.04..................... Facts or documents taken to be admitted if not disputed. 132

22.05..................... Deemed admission.......................................................... 132

22.06..................... Withdrawal of admissions.............................................. 132

22.07..................... Judgment on admissions................................................. 133

Part 23—Experts                                                                                                                134

Division 23.1—Court experts                                                                               134

23.01..................... Appointment of Court expert.......................................... 134

23.02..................... Court expert’s report....................................................... 134

23.03..................... Court expert’s report—use at trial................................... 134

23.04..................... Other expert’s reports on the question............................ 135

Division 23.2—Parties’ expert witnesses and expert reports             136

23.11..................... Calling expert evidence at trial........................................ 136

23.12..................... Provision of guidelines to an expert................................ 136

23.13..................... Contents of an expert report............................................ 136

23.14..................... Application for expert report........................................... 136

23.15..................... Evidence of experts......................................................... 137

Part 24—Subpoenas                                                                                                         138

Division 24.1—Leave to issue subpoena                                                         138

24.01..................... Leave to issue subpoena................................................. 138

Division 24.2—Subpoenas to give evidence and to produce documents                139

24.11..................... Definitions for Division 24.2.......................................... 139

24.12..................... Issuing of subpoena........................................................ 139

24.13..................... Form of subpoena........................................................... 140

24.14..................... Change of date for attendance or production................... 140

24.15..................... Setting aside or other relief............................................. 141

24.16..................... Service............................................................................ 141

24.17..................... Compliance with subpoena............................................. 141

24.18..................... Production otherwise than on attendance........................ 142

24.19..................... Removal, return, inspection, copying and disposal of documents and things           142

24.20..................... Inspection of, and dealing with, documents and things produced otherwise than on attendance....................................................................... 142

24.21..................... Return of documents and things produced...................... 143

24.22..................... Costs and expenses of compliance.................................. 144

24.23..................... Failure to comply with subpoena—contempt of court.... 144

24.24..................... Documents and things in custody of Court..................... 144

Part 25—Offers to settle                                                                                                 146

25.01..................... Offer to compromise....................................................... 146

25.02..................... Notice to be signed......................................................... 146

25.03..................... Offer to compromise—content....................................... 146

25.04..................... Offer to be paid within 28 days...................................... 146

25.05..................... Timing of offer............................................................... 146

25.06..................... No communication to Court of offer............................... 146

25.07..................... Withdrawal of offer........................................................ 147

25.08..................... Acceptance of offer......................................................... 147

25.09..................... Withdrawal of acceptance............................................... 147

25.10..................... Failure to comply with offer........................................... 147

25.11..................... Multiple respondents...................................................... 148

25.12..................... Taxation of costs where offer accepted........................... 148

25.13..................... Contributor parties.......................................................... 148

25.14..................... Costs where offer not accepted....................................... 148

Part 26—Ending proceedings early                                                                        150

Division 26.1—Summary judgment and stay of proceedings              150

26.01..................... Summary judgment......................................................... 150

Division 26.2—Withdrawal and discontinuance                                        151

26.11..................... Withdrawal of defence etc............................................... 151

26.12..................... Discontinuance............................................................... 151

26.13..................... Service of notice............................................................. 152

26.14..................... Effect of discontinuance.................................................. 152

26.15..................... Stay of proceeding until costs paid................................. 152

Part 27—Transfer of proceedings                                                                           153

Division 27.1—Family Court of Australia                                                    153

27.01..................... Transfer to Family Court of Australia............................. 153

Division 27.2—Federal Circuit Court of Australia                                  154

27.11..................... Transfer to Federal Circuit Court of Australia................ 154

27.12..................... Factors to be taken into account...................................... 154

27.13..................... Transfer from Federal Circuit Court of Australia............ 154

Division 27.3—Cross‑vesting                                                                               156

27.21..................... Transfer of proceeding from the Court........................... 156

27.22..................... Application by Attorney‑General for transfer of proceeding from the Court           156

27.23..................... Transfer of proceeding to the Court................................ 156

Part 28—Alternative dispute resolution                                                               157

Division 28.1—General                                                                                           157

28.01..................... General........................................................................... 157

28.02..................... Orders that may be sought.............................................. 157

28.03..................... Arbitration, mediation and ADR process........................ 157

28.04..................... Court may terminate mediation or ADR process............ 157

28.05..................... Parties may refer proceeding to mediation, arbitration or ADR process   158

Division 28.2—Arbitration                                                                                    159

28.11..................... Appointment of arbitrator............................................... 159

28.12..................... Applications by interlocutory application........................ 159

28.13..................... Applications for registration........................................... 159

28.14..................... Applications for order in terms of an award................... 160

Division 28.3—Mediation                                                                                       161

28.21..................... Nomination of mediator.................................................. 161

28.22..................... Conduct of mediation...................................................... 161

28.23..................... Report if only part of proceeding to be mediated............ 161

28.24..................... Termination of mediation—mediator initiated................. 161

28.25..................... Agreement at mediation.................................................. 161

Division 28.4—ADR process                                                                                162

28.31..................... Nomination of person to conduct ADR process............. 162

28.32..................... Conduct of ADR process............................................... 162

28.33..................... Report if only part of proceeding to be subject of ADR process              162

28.34..................... Termination of ADR process.......................................... 162

28.35..................... Agreement at ADR process............................................ 162

Division 28.5—International arbitration                                                       163

28.41..................... Definitions for Division 28.5.......................................... 163

28.42..................... Application of Division.................................................. 163

28.43..................... Application for stay of arbitration................................... 163

28.44..................... Enforcing foreign award................................................. 163

28.45..................... Application for relief under Model Law......................... 164

28.46..................... Subpoenas for Division 28.5.......................................... 164

28.47..................... Application under section 23A of International Arbitration Act               165

28.48..................... Application under section 23F or 23G of International Arbitration Act   165

28.49..................... Recognition of award...................................................... 166

28.50..................... Documents not in English language................................ 166

Division 28.6—Referral by Court to referee                                               167

28.61..................... Order of referral.............................................................. 167

28.62..................... Appointment of referees................................................. 167

28.63..................... Two or more referees...................................................... 167

28.64..................... Security for remuneration............................................... 167

28.65..................... Conduct of inquiry.......................................................... 167

28.66..................... Report............................................................................. 168

28.67..................... Proceeding on report....................................................... 168

Part 29—Evidence                                                                                                             170

Division 29.1—Affidavits                                                                                        170

29.01..................... When affidavit may be sworn or affirmed...................... 170

29.02..................... Form of affidavit............................................................. 170

29.03..................... Content of affidavits....................................................... 171

29.04..................... Swearing or affirming affidavit by person who has disability  171

29.05..................... Service of exhibits and annexures................................... 172

29.06..................... Irregularity in form......................................................... 172

29.07..................... Use of affidavit not filed or in irregular form.................. 172

29.08..................... Serving of affidavits....................................................... 172

29.09..................... Cross‑examination of deponent...................................... 172

Division 29.2—Evidence on commission taken in Australia or abroad 173

29.11..................... Order for examination of witness................................... 173

29.12..................... Letter of request.............................................................. 173

29.13..................... Procedure for orders under section 7(1)(a) or (b) of Foreign Evidence Act 1994    174

29.14..................... Documents for examiner................................................. 174

29.15..................... Appointment for examination......................................... 174

29.16..................... Conduct of examination.................................................. 174

29.17..................... Examination of additional persons.................................. 174

29.18..................... Objection........................................................................ 175

29.19..................... Taking of depositions..................................................... 175

29.20..................... Authentication and filing................................................. 175

29.21..................... Special report.................................................................. 175

29.22..................... Default of witness........................................................... 176

29.23..................... Evidence of future right or claim..................................... 176

Part 30—Hearings                                                                                                             178

Division 30.1—Separate decisions on questions                                         178

30.01..................... Application for separate trials......................................... 178

30.02..................... Disposal of proceedings after hearing separate questions 178

Division 30.2—Consolidation                                                                               179

30.11..................... Consolidation of proceedings before trial....................... 179

Division 30.3—Trial                                                                                                  180

30.21..................... Absence of party at trial.................................................. 180

30.22..................... No appearance by any party............................................ 180

30.23..................... Trial limitations............................................................... 180

30.24..................... Death before judgment.................................................... 181

30.25..................... Evidence in other proceedings........................................ 181

30.26..................... Plans, photographs and models...................................... 181

30.27..................... Consent........................................................................... 181

30.28..................... Notice to produce............................................................ 181

30.29..................... Notice of intention to adduce evidence of previous representation           182

30.30..................... Notice of objection to tender of hearsay evidence if maker available        182

30.31..................... Notice of intention to adduce tendency evidence............. 182

30.32..................... Notice of intention to adduce coincidence evidence........ 182

30.33..................... Parties in lawful custody................................................. 182

30.34..................... Attendance and production............................................. 182

Division 30.4—Assessment of damages                                                          184

30.41..................... Order for calculation of amount of damages by Registrar 184

30.42..................... Notice of objection to calculation.................................... 184

30.43..................... Procedure if notice given................................................ 184

30.44..................... Procedure if notice not given.......................................... 184

Division 30.5—Accounts                                                                                         185

30.51..................... Order for account to be taken.......................................... 185

30.52..................... Form and filing of account.............................................. 185

30.53..................... Notice of additional charge or error in account............... 185

30.54..................... Orders to deal with delay................................................ 185

30.55..................... Order for account or inquiry before Registrar................. 185

30.56..................... Notice of objection to certificate...................................... 186

30.57..................... Procedure if notice given................................................ 186

30.58..................... Procedure if notice not given.......................................... 186

Chapter 3—Original jurisdiction—special classes of proceedings  187

Part 31—Judicial review                                                                                                187

Division 31.1—Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977 187

31.01..................... Application for order of review...................................... 187

31.02..................... Application for extension of time.................................... 187

31.03..................... Documents to be filed and served................................... 187

31.04..................... Service............................................................................ 188

31.05..................... Notice of objection to competency.................................. 188

Division 31.2—Judiciary Act 1903                                                                   189

31.11..................... Form of application......................................................... 189

31.12..................... Joinder of claims for relief.............................................. 189

Division 31.3—Migration Act 1958                                                                  190

31.21..................... Definitions for Division 31.3.......................................... 190

31.22..................... Application for review of migration decision.................. 190

31.23..................... Application for extension of time.................................... 190

31.24..................... Notice of objection to competency.................................. 190

Division 31.4—Australian Crime Commission Act 2002                      192

31.31..................... Applications under section 57 of Australian Crime Commission Act 2002             192

Part 32—Remittals and referrals from the High Court                             193

Division 32.1—Matters remitted from the High Court                          193

32.01..................... Filing of order of remittal................................................ 193

32.02..................... Service of order and notice............................................. 193

32.03..................... Address for service......................................................... 193

32.04..................... Hearing of application to show cause............................. 193

Division 32.2—Referral of petition under Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918                194

32.11..................... Filing of order referring petition or part of petition......... 194

32.12..................... Service of order and notice............................................. 194

32.13..................... Address for service......................................................... 194

32.14..................... Lists of votes claimed or objected to............................... 194

32.15..................... Counter‑charges.............................................................. 195

32.16..................... Notice of trial.................................................................. 195

32.17..................... Withdrawal of petition and substitution of another petitioner 195

32.18..................... Death of petitioner.......................................................... 196

Part 33—Appeals from decisions of bodies other than courts               197

Division 33.1—Taxation appeals                                                                        197

33.01..................... Definitions for Division 33.1.......................................... 197

33.02..................... Starting AOD appeals..................................................... 197

33.03..................... Documents to be filed and served by Commissioner—matters other than private rulings........................................................................................ 198

33.04..................... Documents to be filed and served by Commissioner—private rulings     198

33.05..................... Starting DPO appeals..................................................... 199

33.06..................... Documents to be filed and served by Commissioner...... 199

Division 33.2—Administrative Appeals Tribunal                                      200

33.11..................... Definitions for Division 33.2.......................................... 200

33.12..................... Starting an appeal—filing and service of notice of appeal 200

33.13..................... Application for extension of time to start appeal............. 201

33.14..................... Amendment of notice of appeal without leave—supplementary notice    201

33.15..................... Application for leave to raise other questions of law or rely on other grounds        201

33.16..................... Respondent’s address for service................................... 201

33.17..................... Form of application for stay of Tribunal decision........... 202

33.18..................... Registrar of Tribunal to send documents........................ 202

33.19..................... No written reasons for decision...................................... 203

33.20..................... Notice of cross‑appeal.................................................... 203

33.21..................... Notice of contention........................................................ 203

33.22..................... Directions hearing........................................................... 203

33.23..................... Appeal books.................................................................. 204

33.24..................... Assistance from Registrar............................................... 205

33.25..................... Title of appeal books....................................................... 205

33.26..................... Content of appeal books................................................. 205

33.27..................... Written submissions, chronology and lists of authorities 206

33.28..................... Filing of Part C documents............................................. 207

33.29..................... Further evidence on appeal............................................. 207

33.30..................... Notice of objection to competency of appeal................... 207

33.31..................... Discontinuance of appeal................................................ 208

33.32..................... Application to dismiss appeal......................................... 208

33.33..................... Absence of party............................................................. 208

Division 33.3—Appeals from the Superannuation Complaints Tribunal or Australian Financial Complaints Authority                                               210

33.34..................... Appeals under section 46 of the Superannuation (Resolution of Complaints) Act 1993 or section 1057 of the Corporations Act 2001.................... 210

Division 33.4—Appeals from the National Native Title Tribunal    211

33.40..................... Appeals under section 169 of the Native Title Act 1993.. 211

Part 34—Other proceedings                                                                                        212

Division 34.1—Fair Work proceedings                                                          212

34.01..................... Definitions for Division 34.1.......................................... 212

34.02..................... Application of Division 34.1 and other provisions of these Rules           213

34.03..................... Application in relation to dismissal from employment in contravention of a general protection........................................................................................ 213

34.04..................... Application in relation to alleged unlawful termination of employment    213

34.05..................... Application in relation to alleged discrimination............. 214

34.06..................... Application for rule to show cause................................. 214

34.07..................... Requirements for applications for an inquiry or ballot.... 215

34.08..................... Application for interim orders......................................... 216

Division 34.3—Intellectual property                                                                217

34.21..................... Definitions for Division 34.3.......................................... 217

34.22..................... Application of Division 34.3.......................................... 218

34.23..................... Appearance by Commissioner........................................ 218

34.24..................... Starting an appeal—filing and service of notice of appeal 218

34.25..................... Application for extension of time to file notice of appeal 219

34.26..................... Grounds of appeal or particulars not stated in notice of appeal                219

34.27..................... Particulars of non‑patentable invention........................... 219

34.28..................... Notice of cross‑appeal.................................................... 220

34.29..................... Notice of contention........................................................ 220

34.30..................... Provision of documents by Commissioner..................... 220

34.31..................... Evidence......................................................................... 221

34.32..................... Application for determination of equitable remuneration 221

34.33..................... Applications for determination of terms of doing an act. 221

34.34..................... Infringement of EL rights—particulars........................... 221

34.35..................... Infringement of copyright—particulars........................... 221

34.36..................... Infringement of registered designs—particulars............. 221

34.37..................... Application for compulsory licence—Designs Act......... 222

34.38..................... Revocation of registration or rectification of Register—Designs Act       222

34.39..................... Infringement of monopoly in protected design—particulars—Olympic Insignia Protection Act.................................................................................. 222

34.40..................... Application for rectification of Register of Olympic Designs or dispute of validity of protected design.............................................................. 222

34.41..................... Applications under section 105(1) of Patents Act........... 223

34.42..................... Applications under section 120(1) of Patents Act........... 224

34.43..................... Applications under section 125(1) of Patents Act........... 224

34.44..................... Applications under section 128(1) of Patents Act........... 224

34.45..................... Applications under Chapter 12 of Patents Act................ 224

34.46..................... Dispute of validity of patent—particulars of invalidity... 225

34.47..................... Infringement of PBR—particulars.................................. 226

34.48..................... Infringement of registered trade marks—particulars....... 226

34.49..................... Dispute of validity of registration of trade mark—particulars of invalidity              226

34.50..................... Experimental proof as evidence...................................... 226

Division 34.4—Trans‑Tasman proceedings—general                            228

34.61..................... Definitions for Division 34.4.......................................... 228

34.62..................... Proceedings under the Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act.. 228

34.63..................... Originating application under Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act                228

34.64..................... Interlocutory application under Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act              228

34.65..................... Application for interim relief........................................... 229

34.66..................... Application for leave to serve subpoena in New Zealand 229

34.67..................... Form of subpoena........................................................... 230

34.68..................... Application to set aside subpoena................................... 230

34.69..................... Application for issue of certificate of non‑compliance with subpoena     230

34.70..................... Documents relating to application................................... 231

34.71..................... Application to enforce compliance with order made by New Zealand court             231

34.72..................... Notice of registration of NZ judgment............................ 231

34.73..................... Application for extension of time to give notice of registration of NZ judgment      231

34.74..................... Application to set aside registration of NZ judgment...... 232

34.75..................... Application for stay of enforcement of registered NZ judgment so that liable person can appeal judgment.............................................................. 232

34.76..................... Application for extension of time to apply for stay of enforcement of registered NZ judgment so that liable person can appeal judgment....................... 232

34.77..................... Application for order for use of audio link or audiovisual link                233

Division 34.5—Trans‑Tasman market proceedings                                 234

34.81..................... Definitions for Division 34.5.......................................... 234

34.82..................... Application of Division 34.5.......................................... 234

34.83..................... Filing documents in Australian market proceeding in New Zealand        234

34.84..................... Filing documents in a NZ market proceeding in Australia 234

34.85..................... Federal Court sittings in New Zealand............................ 235

34.86..................... Application of rules 34.72 to 34.76................................ 235

Division 34.5A—Transitional arrangements for Divisions 34.4 and 34.5            236

34.86A.................. Transitional arrangements for Divisions 34.4 and 34.5.. 236

Division 34.6—Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005      237

34.91..................... Definition for Division 34.6........................................... 237

34.92..................... Form and service of election petition.............................. 237

34.93..................... Response to election petition........................................... 237

34.94..................... Reference as to qualifications or vacancy........................ 238

Division 34.7—Native title proceedings                                                          239

34.101................... Interpretation for Division 34.7...................................... 239

34.102................... Application of Division 34.7.......................................... 239

34.103................... Main application (native title and compensation)............ 239

34.104................... Joinder of parties to main application within relevant period 240

34.105................... Joinder of parties to main application after relevant period 240

34.106................... Withdrawal of a party..................................................... 240

34.107................... Form of applications other than main applications.......... 241

34.108................... Service of applications other than main applications....... 241

34.109................... Application for review of decision not to accept claim for registration     241

34.110................... Application to remove details of agreement from Register of Indigenous Land Use Agreements..................................................................... 242

34.111................... Application for order about return of, or access to, records 242

34.112................... Question to be special case............................................. 242

34.113................... Special case to be prepared—referral by mediator.......... 243

34.114................... Special case to be prepared—referral by NNTT............. 243

34.115................... Party having carriage of proceeding—referral by mediator 243

34.116................... Party having carriage of proceeding—referral by NNTT 243

34.117................... Referral of questions about whether a party should cease to be a party    243

34.118................... Report about breaches of good faith requirement............ 244

34.119................... Definition for rules 34.120 to 34.123............................. 244

34.120................... Evidentiary matters generally.......................................... 244

34.121................... Orders to take account of cultural or customary concerns 245

34.122................... Disclosure of evidence or information of cultural or customary nature, contrary to court order........................................................................................ 245

34.123................... Evidence of cultural or customary nature........................ 246

34.124................... Documents referring to certain material.......................... 246

34.125................... Evidence given in consultation with others..................... 246

34.126................... Evidence given not in normal course.............................. 246

34.127................... Inspection....................................................................... 246

34.128................... Taking evidence.............................................................. 247

34.129................... Conflict of interest.......................................................... 247

34.130................... Short title of proceeding.................................................. 247

34.131................... Notices of appointment of agent and change to agent’s address for service             247

34.132................... Application for leave to be represented by person who is not a lawyer    248

34.133................... Native Title Registrar application to Court for order as to notice              248

34.134................... Overlapping applications................................................ 248

34.135................... Court may order adjournment for purpose of agreement between parties                248

34.136................... Agreements regarding practical outcomes of native title determination    248

34.137................... Appearance by NNTT.................................................... 249

Division 34.8—Human rights proceedings                                                    250

34.161................... Definitions for Division 34.8.......................................... 250

34.162................... Application of Division 34.8.......................................... 250

34.163................... Starting a proceeding—application and claim................. 250

34.164................... Copy of application to be given to Commission............. 250

34.165................... Address for service......................................................... 250

34.166................... Appearance by special‑purpose Commissioner.............. 251

34.167................... Conduct of proceeding by litigation representative......... 251

Chapter 4—Appellate jurisdiction                                                           252

Part 35—Leave to appeal                                                                                              252

Division 35.1—Oral applications for leave to appeal from interlocutory judgments of the Court                                                                                                       252

35.01..................... Oral application for leave to appeal................................. 252

Division 35.2—Written applications for leave to appeal                       253

35.11..................... Application of Division.................................................. 253

35.12..................... Form of application......................................................... 253

35.13..................... Time for filing application............................................... 253

35.14..................... Extension of time to seek leave to appeal........................ 254

35.15..................... Service of application...................................................... 254

35.16..................... Method of service........................................................... 254

35.17..................... Address for service of respondent.................................. 254

35.18..................... Certain applications may be dealt with without an oral hearing                255

35.19..................... Submissions................................................................... 255

35.20..................... Objection to application being considered without oral hearing               255

35.21..................... Time for filing and serving affidavits.............................. 255

35.22..................... Directions....................................................................... 255

Division 35.3—Ending applications early                                                      257

35.31..................... Withdrawing an application............................................ 257

35.32..................... Dismissing application for want of prosecution.............. 257

35.33..................... Absence of a party.......................................................... 257

Division 35.4—Revocation of leave to appeal                                             258

35.41..................... Revocation or variation of grant of leave........................ 258

Part 36—Appeals                                                                                                               259

Division 36.1—Institution of appeals                                                               259

36.01..................... Form of notice of appeal................................................. 259

36.02..................... Filing of notice of appeal................................................ 260

36.03..................... Time for filing and serving notice of appeal.................... 260

36.04..................... Service on parties and lodgments.................................... 260

36.05..................... Extension of time to file notice of appeal........................ 260

36.06..................... Method of service........................................................... 261

36.07..................... Address for service of respondent.................................. 261

36.08..................... Stay of execution or proceedings under judgment appealed from            261

36.09..................... Security for costs of appeal............................................. 261

36.10..................... Amendment to notice of appeal....................................... 262

36.11..................... Directions....................................................................... 262

Division 36.2—Cross–appeals and notices of contention                      263

36.21..................... Cross‑appeal................................................................... 263

36.22..................... Time to file notice of cross‑appeal.................................. 263

36.23..................... Extension of time to file notice of cross‑appeal............... 263

36.24..................... Notice of contention........................................................ 263

Division 36.3—Parties to appeals and interveners                                   265

36.31..................... Parties............................................................................. 265

36.32..................... Applications to intervene................................................ 265

Division 36.4—Dealing with certain applications on the papers       266

36.41..................... Certain applications may be dealt with without an oral hearing                266

36.42..................... Submissions................................................................... 266

36.43..................... Objection to application being considered without oral hearing               267

Division 36.5—Preparation of appeals                                                           268

36.51..................... Appeal books.................................................................. 268

36.52..................... Assistance from Registrar............................................... 268

36.53..................... Title of appeal books....................................................... 269

36.54..................... Content of appeal books................................................. 269

36.55..................... Written submissions, chronology and lists of authorities 270

36.56..................... Filing of Part C documents............................................. 270

36.57..................... Further evidence on appeal............................................. 270

Division 36.6—Ending appeals                                                                            272

36.71..................... Definitions for Division 36.6.......................................... 272

36.72..................... Notice of objection to competency of appeal................... 272

36.73..................... Discontinuance of appeal................................................ 272

36.74..................... Application to dismiss appeal......................................... 273

36.75..................... Absence of party............................................................. 273

Part 38—Cases stated and questions reserved                                                 274

38.01..................... Application for case stated or question reserved............. 274

38.02..................... Case stated to be prepared etc......................................... 274

38.03..................... Directions....................................................................... 275

Chapter 5—Judgments, costs and other general provisions                276

Part 39—Orders                                                                                                                  276

Division 39.1—Judgments and orders                                                             276

39.01..................... Date of effect of judgment or order................................. 276

39.02..................... Time for compliance with orders.................................... 276

39.03..................... Dismissal of proceedings and stay of further proceedings 276

39.04..................... Varying or setting aside a judgment or order before it has been entered  276

39.05..................... Varying or setting aside judgment or order after it has been entered        276

39.06..................... Interest on judgment....................................................... 277

Division 39.2—Consent orders                                                                            278

39.11..................... Consent orders................................................................ 278

Division 39.3—Undertakings                                                                                279

39.21..................... Orders dealing with failure to fulfil undertakings........... 279

Division 39.4—Judgments and orders—entry                                            280

39.31..................... When entry is required.................................................... 280

39.32..................... Entry of an order............................................................. 280

39.33..................... Lodgment of orders for entry.......................................... 280

39.34..................... Order entered in Court.................................................... 280

39.35..................... Authentication of orders................................................. 281

Part 40—Costs                                                                                                                     282

Division 40.1—General                                                                                           282

40.01..................... Party and party costs....................................................... 282

40.02..................... Other order for costs....................................................... 282

40.03..................... Costs reserved................................................................ 282

40.04..................... Costs on interlocutory application or hearing.................. 282

40.05..................... Costs in other courts....................................................... 282

40.06..................... Costs improperly, unreasonably or negligently incurred. 282

40.07..................... Liability of lawyer to their client for misconduct............. 283

40.08..................... Reduction in costs otherwise payable............................. 283

Division 40.2—Taxation of costs                                                                        285

40.12..................... Application of Division 40.2 and 40.3............................ 285

40.13..................... Taxation of costs awarded on an interlocutory application 285

40.14..................... Order for taxation not required....................................... 285

40.15..................... Failure to file bill of costs............................................... 285

40.16..................... Unnecessary expense in proceeding before taxing officer 285

40.17..................... Filing bill for taxation..................................................... 285

40.18..................... Contents of bill............................................................... 286

40.19..................... Service of a bill............................................................... 286

40.20..................... Estimate of costs............................................................. 286

40.21..................... Objection to estimate....................................................... 286

40.22..................... Resolution at confidential conference.............................. 287

40.23..................... Provisional taxation........................................................ 287

40.24..................... Notice that bill is to be taxed........................................... 287

40.25..................... Notice of objection.......................................................... 288

40.26..................... Response to notice of objection...................................... 288

40.27..................... Taxation.......................................................................... 288

40.28..................... Powers of taxing officer................................................. 289

40.29..................... Costs to be allowed on taxation...................................... 289

40.30..................... Costs not to be allowed on taxation................................ 289

40.31..................... Exercise of taxing officer’s discretion............................. 290

40.32..................... Certificate of taxation...................................................... 290

40.33..................... Costs of taxation............................................................. 290

40.34..................... Review by Court............................................................. 290

40.35..................... Stay of costs................................................................... 291

Division 40.3—Short form bills                                                                           292

40.41..................... Short form bill on application for winding up under Corporations Act 2001          292

40.42..................... Procedure—short form bills under Corporations Act 2001 292

40.43..................... Short form bills for migration appeals............................ 293

40.44..................... Procedure—short form bills for migration appeals......... 293

Division 40.4—Determination of maximum costs                                     295

40.51..................... Maximum costs in a proceeding..................................... 295

Part 41—Enforcement                                                                                                    296

Division 41.1—General                                                                                           296

41.01..................... Application without notice for directions........................ 296

41.02..................... Condition precedent not fulfilled..................................... 296

41.03..................... Application for stay of judgment or order....................... 296

41.04..................... Failure to comply with Court order................................. 296

41.05..................... Failure to attend Court in response to subpoena or order 296

41.06..................... Endorsement on order..................................................... 297

41.07..................... Service of order.............................................................. 297

41.08..................... Application where person fails to comply with order..... 297

41.09..................... Substituted performance................................................. 298

41.10..................... Execution generally......................................................... 298

41.11..................... Stay of execution............................................................ 298

Division 41.2—Enforcement against partnership                                     300

41.21..................... Execution of order against partnership............................ 300

41.22..................... Execution against individual partner............................... 300

41.23..................... Application to proceedings between co‑partners............. 300

Division 41.3—Execution against business name                                      302

41.31..................... Execution of order—proceeding against person in person’s business name            302

Division 41.4—Sheriff                                                                                              303

41.41..................... Suspension of execution of process................................ 303

41.42..................... Failure to execute process............................................... 303

41.43..................... Application for orders in relation to execution of process 303

Division 41.5—Fees                                                                                                   304

41.51..................... Definitions for Division 41.5.......................................... 304

41.52..................... Security........................................................................... 304

41.53..................... Liability of lawyer........................................................... 304

41.54..................... Bill of fees...................................................................... 305

41.55..................... Taxation.......................................................................... 305

41.56..................... Failure by lawyer to pay Sheriff’s fees........................... 305

Division 41.6—Reciprocal enforcement of judgments under Foreign Judgments Act 1991                                                                                                                    306

41.61..................... Interpretation for Division 41.6...................................... 306

41.62..................... Application for an order for registration of foreign judgment  306

41.63..................... Further affidavit to be filed on day of hearing................. 307

41.64..................... Registration..................................................................... 307

41.65..................... Notice of registration...................................................... 307

41.66..................... Application to set aside registration of judgment or stay enforcement of judgment  308

41.67..................... Application to set aside registered foreign judgment....... 308

41.68..................... Security for costs............................................................ 308

41.69..................... Record of registered judgments...................................... 308

Chapter 6—Disciplinary                                                                                     310

Part 42—Contempt                                                                                                           310

Division 42.1—Contempt in face or hearing of Court                            310

42.01..................... Arrest for contempt......................................................... 310

42.02..................... Charge, defence and determination................................. 310

42.03..................... Interim custody............................................................... 310

Division 42.2—Applications for contempt                                                     311

42.11..................... Procedure generally........................................................ 311

42.12..................... Statement of charge......................................................... 311

42.13..................... Service............................................................................ 311

42.14..................... Arrest.............................................................................. 311

42.15..................... Procedure on the hearing................................................ 312

42.16..................... Application or proceeding by a Registrar........................ 312

Division 42.3—General                                                                                           313

42.21..................... Warrant for imprisonment............................................... 313

42.22..................... Discharge before end of prison term............................... 313

Chapter 7—Transitional provisions                                                       314

Part 43—Transitional provisions                                                                              314

Schedule 1—Dictionary                                                                                       315

Schedule 2—Powers of the Court that may be exercised by a Registrar 322

Part 3.1—Corporations (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) Act 2006           322

Part 3.2—Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act 2010                                             323

Part 3.3—Federal Court of Australia Act 1976                                              324

Part 3.4—Foreign Evidence Act 1994                                                                   326

Part 3.5—Foreign Judgments Act 1991                                                               327

Part 3.6—Native Title Act 1993                                                                                 328

Part 3.7—Federal Court Rules 2011                                                                      329

Schedule 3—Costs allowable for work done and services performed        336

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  341

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          341

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              342

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           343

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         344

Endnote 5—Editorial changes                                                                             352

 


Chapter 1Introductory provisions

Part 1Preliminary

Division 1.1Scope

1.01  Name of Rules

                   These Rules are the Federal Court Rules 2011.

1.04  Application

             (1)  These Rules apply to a proceeding started in the Court on or after 1 August 2011.

             (2)  These Rules apply to a step in a proceeding that was started before 1 August 2011, if the step is taken on or after 1 August 2011.

             (3)  However, the Court may order that the Federal Court Rules as in force immediately before 1 August 2011 apply, with or without modification, to a step mentioned in subrule (2).

Note 1:       For the rules governing proceedings in the Court under the Bankruptcy Act 1966, see the Bankruptcy Regulations 1996 and the Federal Court (Bankruptcy) Rules 2016.

Note 2:       For the rules governing proceedings in the Court under the Corporations Act 2001, see the Federal Court (Corporations) Rules 2000.

Note 3:       For the rules governing proceedings in the Court under the Admiralty Act 1988, see the Admiralty Rules 1988.

Note 4:       For the rules governing criminal proceedings in the Court, see the Federal Court (Criminal Proceedings) Rules 2016.

Rules 1.05–1.20 left blank

Division 1.2Application about procedures

1.21  Application for orders about procedures

                   A person who wants to start a proceeding, or take a step in a proceeding, may apply to the Court for an order about the procedure to be followed if:

                     (a)  the procedure is not prescribed by the Act, these Rules or by or under any other Act; or

                     (b)  the person is in doubt about the procedure.

Rules 1.22–1.30 left blank

Division 1.3General powers of the Court

1.31  Orders to have regard to nature and complexity of proceeding

             (1)  The Court may in making any order in the proceeding have regard to the nature and complexity of the proceeding.

             (2)  The Court may deal with the proceeding in a manner that is proportionate to the nature and complexity of that proceeding.

1.32  Court may make any order it considers appropriate in the interests of justice

                   The Court may make any order that the Court considers appropriate in the interests of justice.

Note:          See sections 23 and 28 of the Act.

1.33  Orders may be subject to conditions

                   The Court may make an order subject to any conditions the Court considers appropriate.

1.34  Dispensing with compliance with Rules

                   The Court may dispense with compliance with any of these Rules, either before or after the occasion for compliance arises.

1.35  Orders inconsistent with Rules

                   The Court may make an order that is inconsistent with these Rules and in that event the order will prevail.

1.36  Orders other than in open court

                   The Court may make orders other than in open court.

Note:          For the power of a Judge sitting in Chambers to exercise the jurisdiction of the Court, see section 17(2) of the Act.

1.37  Directions to Registrars

                   The Court may direct a Registrar to do, or not to do, an act or thing.

1.38  Fixing of time by Court

                   If no time for doing an act or thing in relation to a proceeding is fixed by these Rules, the Court may fix the time within which the act or thing is to be done.

1.39  Extension and shortening of time

                   The Court may extend or shorten a time fixed by these Rules or by order of the Court:

                     (a)  before or after the time expires; and

                     (b)  whether or not an application for extension is made before the time expires.

1.40  Exercise of Court’s power

                   The Court may, at any stage of the proceeding, exercise a power mentioned in these Rules in the proceeding:

                     (a)  on its own initiative; or

                     (b)  on the application of a party, or a person who has a sufficient interest in the proceeding.

1.41  Other orders that may be made

                   If a party makes an application, the Court may:

                     (a)  grant the order sought; or

                     (b)  refuse to grant the order sought; or

                     (c)  make a different order.

1.42  Orders may include consequences of non‑compliance

                   The Court may specify in an order the consequences of not complying with the order.

Rules 1.43–1.50 left blank

Division 1.4Interpretation

1.51  Definitions—the Dictionary

             (1)  In these Rules, a word or expression defined in Schedule 1 (the Dictionary) has the meaning given in the Dictionary.

Note:          The Schedules to these Rules are deemed to form part of the Rules—see section 13 of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

             (2)  The Dictionary includes references to certain words and expressions that are defined elsewhere in these Rules (signpost definitions).

Note:          The Dictionary includes a signpost definition for a word or expression that is defined elsewhere in these Rules only if the word or expression is used in more than one rule.

1.52  References to Forms

             (1)  In these Rules, a reference to a form by number is a reference to the form approved under subrule (2).

             (2)  The Chief Justice may approve a form for the purpose of a provision of these Rules.

Note:          Approved forms are available on the Court’s website at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au.

Rules 1.53–1.60 left blank

Division 1.5Time

1.61  Calculation of time

             (1)  A period of time for doing an act or thing fixed by these Rules or by an order of the Court is to be calculated in accordance with this rule.

             (2)  If the time fixed is to be calculated by reference to a particular day or event, and the time fixed is one day or more, the particular day or the day of the particular event is not to be counted.

             (3)  If the time fixed includes a day that is not a business day in the place where the act or thing is to be done, and the time fixed is 5 days or less, the day is not to be counted.

Example:    The Court orders that a document is to be filed and served within 3 days from Wednesday. Under subrule (3), the document must be served on or before the following Monday (since Saturday and Sunday are not business days).

Note:          Business day is defined in the Dictionary.

             (4)  An act or thing may be done on the next business day in a place if:

                     (a)  the last day for doing the act or thing is not a business day in the place where the act or thing is to be done; and

                     (b)  the act or thing may only be done on a day that is a business day in the place.

             (5)  If the time fixed includes a day in the period starting on 24 December in a year and ending on 14 January in the next year, the day is not to be counted.

Part 2Registry and documents

Division 2.1Registry

2.01  Use of seal and stamps of Court

             (1)  The seal of the Court will be affixed to the following documents:

                     (a)  Rules of Court;

                     (b)  a commission issued by authority of the Court;

                     (c)  a document issued by the Court for use outside Australia;

                     (d)  any other document, as ordered by the Court or as provided under the Act or any other Act.

             (2)  The seal of the Court or the stamp of a District Registry will be affixed to the following documents:

                     (a)  an originating application, notice of address for service, interlocutory application, notice of appeal, subpoena, summons or warrant filed in the District Registry;

                     (b)  an order of the Court;

                     (c)  any other document as ordered by the Court.

             (3)  The following may be affixed to a document by hand or by electronic means:

                     (a)  the seal of the Court;

                     (b)  the signature of a Registrar;

                     (c)  the stamp of a District Registry;

                     (e)  the signature of an officer acting with the authority of the Chief Executive Officer or a District Registrar.

Note 1:       Section 36 of the Act provides that the seal of the Court is to be kept in the Principal Registry. The Act provides for stamps for the Principal Registry and each District Registry designed as nearly as practicable to be the same as the seal.

Note 2:       All documents to which the seal of the Court or the stamp of the District Registry has been affixed will also be signed by the Chief Executive Officer, a District Registrar or an officer acting with the authority of the Chief Executive Officer or a District Registrar—see section 37 of the Act.

2.02  Transfer of proceeding to another place

                   A party may apply at the proper place for an order that the proceeding be transferred to another place.

Note 1:       Proper place is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       See section 48 of the Act.

Rules 2.03–2.10 left blank

Division 2.2Documents

2.11  General provisions about documents

                   A document that is to be filed in a proceeding must be in accordance with any approved form and the Court’s requirements.

Note 1:       Approved form is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       The Court’s requirements in relation to preparing and lodging documents are set out in practice notes issued by the Chief Justice.

2.12  Compliance with approved forms

                   A requirement in these Rules that a document be in accordance with an approved form is complied with if the document:

                     (a)  is substantially in accordance with the approved form and any practice notes issued by the Chief Justice; or

                     (b)  has only those variations that the nature of the case requires.

2.13  Titles of documents

             (1)  The heading of a document in a proceeding must include a reference to:

                     (a)  the District Registry where the document is filed; and

                     (b)  the appropriate Division of the Court.

             (2)  A document in a proceeding between parties must include a title and details, in accordance with Form 1.

             (3)  A document in a proceeding in which there is no respondent must include a title and details, in accordance with Form 2.

             (4)  A document in a proceeding may include an abbreviated title, in accordance with Form 3, unless the document is:

                     (a)  an originating application; or

                     (b)  a notice of appeal; or

                     (c)  a document to be served on a person not a party to the proceeding; or

                     (d)  an order.

             (5)  The title of a document in a proceeding must be sufficient to identify the proceeding.

2.14  Subsequent documents to be endorsed with Court number

                   Each subsequent document filed in a proceeding must be endorsed, by the party filing the document, with the same number as that assigned by a Registrar to the originating application for the proceeding or to the notice of appeal.

Note:          When an originating application that is not a cross‑claim or a notice of appeal is filed, a Registrar will assign a distinctive number to the document and will endorse the document with that number. The number will include a reference to the Registry in which the document is filed and the calendar year in which the document is filed. A new series of numbers will be started at the beginning of each calendar year.

2.15  Signature

             (1)  A document (other than an affidavit, annexure or exhibit attached to another document) filed by a party in a proceeding must be dated and signed by:

                     (a)  the party’s lawyer; or

                     (b)  the party, if the party does not have a lawyer.

             (2)  A signature affixed to a document by electronic means at the direction of the person required to sign the document complies with subrule (1).

Note:          Lawyer is defined in the Dictionary.

2.16  Details at foot of each document

             (1)  A document filed in a proceeding must contain the following information under a horizontal line at the foot of the front page of the document:

                     (a)  the name and role of the party on whose behalf the document is filed;

                     (b)  the name of the person or lawyer responsible for preparation of the document;

                     (c)  if the party is represented by a lawyer—the telephone number, fax number and email address of the lawyer;

                     (d)  if the party is not represented by a lawyer—the telephone number, fax number and email address, if any, of the party;

                     (e)  the address for service of the party.

             (2)  In this rule:

role of the party means the capacity in which the party is participating in the proceeding.

Rules 2.17–2.20 left blank

Division 2.3Lodging and filing documents

2.21  How documents may be lodged with the Court

             (1)  A document may be lodged with the Court by:

                     (a)  being presented to a Registry when the Registry is open for business; or

                     (b)  being posted to a Registry with a written request for the action required in relation to the document; or

                     (c)  being faxed to a Registry in accordance with rule 2.22; or

                     (d)  being sent by electronic communication to a registry, in accordance with rule 2.23.

             (2)  A document in an existing proceeding that is to be lodged with the Court in accordance with paragraph (1)(b), (c) or (d) must be sent to the proper Registry.

             (3)  If a document in an existing proceeding is lodged with a Registry other than the proper Registry, the document must be accompanied by a letter:

                     (a)  identifying the proper place for the proceeding; and

                     (b)  requesting that the document be sent to the proper Registry.

             (4)  Subject to rules 2.22 and 2.23, a document that is required to be sealed, stamped or signed by the Court must be accompanied by the required number of copies for sealing, stamping or signing.

Note 1:       Proper Registry is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       The Court’s requirements in relation to preparing and lodging documents are set out in practice notes issued by the Chief Justice.

2.22  Faxing a document

             (1)  A document that is faxed to a Registry for filing must:

                     (a)  be sent to a fax number approved by a Registrar; and

                     (b)  be accompanied by a cover sheet clearly stating:

                              (i)  the sender’s name, postal address, telephone number, fax number (if any) and email address (if any);

                             (ii)  the number of pages sent; and

                            (iii)  the action required in relation to the document.

             (2)  A document must not be faxed to a Registry if it is more than 20 pages.

             (3)  The sender of the document must:

                     (a)  keep the original document and the transmission report showing that the document was faxed successfully; and

                     (b)  produce the original document or transmission report if ordered to do so by the Court.

Note 1:       If the document is accepted in the Registry, a Registrar will return a copy of the document by fax to the fax number stated on the cover sheet.

Note 2:       Details of the opening times for each District Registry are on the Court’s website at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au.

2.23  Sending a document by electronic communication

             (1)  A document that is sent by electronic communication to a Registry for filing must:

                     (a)  be sent by using the Court’s website at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au; and

                     (b)  be in an electronic format approved by a Registrar for the Registry; and

                     (c)  if a document is required to be in accordance with an approved form—so far as is practicable, be in an approved form that complies with rule 2.12 or 2.13; and

                     (d)  be capable of being printed in the form in which it was created without any loss of content.

Note:          The electronic format approved by a Registrar for a Registry is available on the Court’s website at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au.

             (2)  An affidavit must be sent as an image.

             (3)  If the document is in an existing proceeding, it must be sent to the proper Registry by using the Court’s website at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au.

             (4)  The person who sends the document must:

                     (a)  keep a paper or electronic copy of the document prepared in accordance with this rule; and

                     (b)  if ordered to do so by the Court, produce the hard copy of the document.

2.24  Documents sent by electronic communication

             (1)  If a document sent to a Registry by electronic communication in accordance with rule 2.23 is accepted at the Registry, and is a document that must be signed or stamped, a Registrar will:

                     (a)  for a document that these Rules require to be endorsed with a date for hearing—insert a notice of filing and hearing as the first page of the document; or

                     (b)  for any other document—insert a notice of filing as the first page of the document.

             (2)  If a notice has been inserted as the first page of the document in accordance with subrule (1), the notice is taken to be part of the document for the purposes of the Act and these Rules.

2.25  When is a document filed

             (1)  A document is filed if:

                     (a)  it is lodged with the Court in accordance with rule 2.21(1); and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  for a document in an existing proceeding—it is accepted in the proper Registry by being stamped as ‘filed’; or

                             (ii)  in any other case—it is accepted in a Registry by being stamped as ‘filed’.

             (2)  A document in an existing proceeding is taken to have been filed on the day when it was received by a Registry that is not the proper Registry if the document:

                     (a)  is presented to a Registry other than the proper Registry; and

                     (b)  is sent by the Registry to the proper Registry; and

                     (c)  is filed in accordance with subparagraph (1)(b)(i).

             (3)  If a document is faxed or sent by electronic communication to a Registry, the document is, if accepted by a Registry under subrule (1), taken to have been filed:

                     (a)  if the whole document is received by 4.30 pm on a business day for the Registry—on that day; or

                     (b)  in any other case—on the next business day for the Registry.

Note 1:       Business day is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       File is defined in the Dictionary as meaning file and serve.

Note 3:       Because of the Court’s computer security firewall, there may be a delay between the time a document is sent by electronic communication and the time the document is received by the Court.

2.26  Refusal to accept document for filing—abuse of process or frivolous or vexatious documents

                   A Registrar may refuse to accept a document (including a document that would, if accepted, become an originating application) if the Registrar is satisfied that the document is an abuse of the process of the Court or is frivolous or vexatious:

                     (a)  on the face of the document; or

                     (b)  by reference to any documents already filed or submitted for filing with the document.

2.27  When documents will not be accepted in a Registry

                   A document will not be accepted for filing if:

                     (a)  it is not substantially complete; or

                     (b)  it does not substantially comply with these Rules; or

                     (c)  it is not properly signed; or

                     (d)  a Registrar has refused to accept the document; or

                     (e)  the Court has given a direction that the document not be accepted; or

                      (f)  the Court has given a direction that the document not be accepted without the Court’s leave, and leave has not been obtained.

Note:          If a document is lodged with the Court in accordance with paragraph 2.21(1)(b), (c) or (d) and the Registry does not accept it, a Registrar will notify the sender of the document accordingly.

2.28  Documents accepted for filing—removal from Court file and storage

             (1)  A document which has been accepted for filing will be removed from a Court file if:

                     (a)  the Court has ordered that the document be removed from the Court file:

                              (i)  on its own initiative; or

                             (ii)  on the application of a party under rule 6.01 or subrule 16.21(2); or

                     (b)  for an affidavit—the Court has ordered that the affidavit be removed from the Court file:

                              (i)  on its own initiative; or

                             (ii)  on the application of a party under subrule 29.03(2); or

                     (c)  the Court is satisfied that the document:

                              (i)  is otherwise an abuse of process of the Court; or

                             (ii)  should not, under rule 2.27, have been accepted for filing.

             (2)  A party may apply to the Court for an order under subparagraph (1)(c)(i) or (ii) that a document be removed from the Court file.

             (3)  A document removed from a Court file under this rule must be stored:

                     (a)  if an order mentioned in this rule specifies a way to store the document—in the way specified in the order; or

                     (b)  otherwise—as directed by the District Registrar.

2.29  Documents on a Court file—removal, redaction and storage

             (1)  A document on a Court file will be removed from the Court file and replaced with a redacted copy if:

                     (a)  the Court has ordered that the document be removed and replaced:

                              (i)  on its own initiative; or

                             (ii)  on the application of a party under rule 6.01 or subrule 16.21(2); or

                     (b)  for an affidavit—the Court has ordered that the affidavit be removed and replaced with a redacted copy:

                              (i)  on its own initiative; or

                             (ii)  on the application of a party under subrule 29.03(2); or

                     (c)  the Court is satisfied that:

                              (i)  any part of the document is otherwise an abuse of process of the Court; and

                             (ii)  it is reasonably practicable for that part of the document to be redacted.

             (2)  A party may apply to the Court for an order under paragraph (1)(c) that a document be removed from the Court file and replaced with a redacted copy.

             (3)  If a part or parts of a document are struck out or removed under this rule:

                     (a)  the corresponding part or parts of the redacted copy of the document must be unable to be read in any way; and

                     (b)  the redacted copy must be marked with:

                              (i)  the date on which the order was made; and

                             (ii)  each date on which redaction was performed.

             (4)  A document removed from a Court file under this rule must be stored:

                     (a)  if an order mentioned in this rule specifies a way to store the document—in the way specified in the order; or

                     (b)  otherwise—as directed by the District Registrar.

Rule 2.30 left blank

Division 2.4Custody and inspection of documents

2.31  Custody of documents

             (1)  The District Registrar of a District Registry is to have custody of, and control over:

                     (a)  each document filed in a Registry in a proceeding; and

                     (b)  the records of the Registry.

             (2)  A person may remove a document from a Registry if:

                     (a)  a Registrar has given written permission for the removal because it is necessary to transfer the document to another Registry; or

                     (b)  the Court has given the person leave for the removal.

             (3)  If the Court or a Registrar permits a person to remove a document from the Registry, the person must comply with any conditions on the removal imposed by the Court or a Registrar.

2.32  Inspection of documents

             (1)  A party may inspect any document in the proceeding except:

                     (a)  a document for which a claim of privilege has been made:

                              (i)  but not decided by the Court; or

                             (ii)  that the Court has decided is privileged; or

                     (b)  a document that the Court has ordered be confidential.

             (2)  A person who is not a party may inspect the following documents in a proceeding in the proper Registry:

                     (a)  an originating application or cross‑claim;

                     (b)  a notice of address for service;

                     (c)  a pleading or particulars of a pleading or similar document;

                     (d)  a statement of agreed facts or an agreed statement of facts;

                     (e)  an interlocutory application;

                      (f)  a judgment or an order of the Court;

                     (g)  a notice of appeal or cross‑appeal;

                     (h)  a notice of discontinuance;

                      (i)  a notice of change of lawyer;

                      (j)  a notice of ceasing to act;

                     (k)  in a proceeding to which Division 34.7 applies:

                              (i)  an affidavit accompanying an application, or an amended application, under section 61 of the Native Title Act 1993; or

                             (ii)  an extract from the Register of Native Title Claims received by the Court from the Native Title Registrar;

                      (l)  reasons for judgment;

                    (m)  a transcript of a hearing heard in open Court.

Note:          Native Title Registrar and Register of Native Title Claims are defined in the Dictionary.

             (3)  However, a person who is not a party is not entitled to inspect a document that the Court has ordered:

                     (a)  be confidential; or

                     (b)  is forbidden from, or restricted from publication to, the person or a class of persons of which the person is a member.

Note:          For the prohibition of publication of evidence or of the name of a party or witness, see sections 37AF and 37AI of the Act.

             (4)  A person may apply to the Court for leave to inspect a document that the person is not otherwise entitled to inspect.

             (5)  A person may be given a copy of a document, except a copy of the transcript in the proceeding, if the person:

                     (a)  is entitled to inspect the document; and

                     (b)  has paid the prescribed fee.

Note 1:       For the prescribed fee, see the Federal Court and Federal Circuit Court Regulation 2012.

Note 2:       If there is no order that a transcript is confidential, a person may, on payment of the applicable charge, obtain a copy of the transcript of a proceeding from the Court’s transcript provider.

Note 3:       For proceedings under the Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act, see also rule 34.70.

Rules 2.33–2.40 left blank

Division 2.5Administration of money paid into Court and payment out

2.41  Establishment of Litigants’ Fund

             (1)  The Chief Executive Officer will establish with a bank an account entitled ‘Federal Court of Australia Official Exempt SPM Litigants’ Fund’.

             (2)  The Litigants’ Fund comprises the money standing, from time to time, to the credit of the account established under subrule (1).

Note:          Bank and Litigants’ Fund are defined in the Dictionary.

2.42  Dealing with money paid into Court

             (1)  Money paid into Court in a proceeding must:

                     (a)  if the Court has made an order under subrule (2)—be paid, credited or applied in accordance with the order; or

                     (b)  if paragraph (a) does not apply—be paid into the Litigants’ Fund.

             (2)  A party may apply to the Court for an order:

                     (a)  that money paid, or to be paid, into Court be paid, credited or applied in a manner other than by payment into the Litigants’ Fund; and

                     (b)  in relation to the disbursement of any interest earned on the money.

Note:          As soon as practicable after money has been paid into Court in a proceeding, the relevant District Registrar will give a notice to each party stating that the money has been received and giving details of how the money has been paid, credited or applied.

2.43  Payment out of Litigants’ Fund

             (1)  Money paid into Court under rule 2.42 may be paid out or applied only in accordance with an order of the Court.

             (2)  However, the District Registrar may pay out of the Litigants’ Fund money that has been paid in as security for the costs of a taxation of a bill of costs.

Note 1:       An order under this rule will state:

(a)    the details of the payment to be made; and

(b)    any other action to be taken by a Registrar in relation to the money.

Note 2:       As soon as practicable after money is paid out of the Litigants’ Fund, the relevant District Registrar will give a notice to each party.

Part 3Registrars

Note 1:       For the appointment of the Chief Executive Officer, see section 18C of the Act. For the appointment of Registrars, District Registrars and Deputy District Registrars, see section 18N of the Act.

Note 2:       For the powers of the Chief Executive Officer, see section 18D of the Act. Registrars, District Registrars and Deputy District Registrars have the duties, powers and functions given to them by the Act or the Chief Justice: see this Part, and sections 18N(2) and 35A of the Act.

Division 3.1Powers of Registrars

3.01  Powers of the Court that may be exercised by a Registrar

             (1)  For section 35A(1)(h) of the Act, the following powers of the Court are prescribed:

                     (a)  a power of the Court under a provision of an Act mentioned in column 2 of an item in Schedule 2;

                     (b)  a power of the Court under a provision of these Rules mentioned in column 2 of an item in Schedule 2;

                     (c)  the power of the Court to receive evidence on any application that a Registrar is empowered to decide;

                     (d)  if the parties consent in writing:

                              (i)  the power of the Court under section 23 of the Act to make an order for the dismissal of a proceeding and to make an order for the payment of costs;

                             (ii)  the power of the Court under section 53A of the Act to make an order referring a proceeding to arbitration.

                     (e)  the power of the Court under section 20A(2) of the Act to deal with a matter without an oral hearing.

             (2)  A description in column 3 of an item in Schedule 2 is for information only.

             (3)  A Registrar may only exercise the power referred to in paragraph (1)(e) if:

                     (a)  the requirements of sections 20A(2)(a) to (c) of the Act are met; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  the application was made without notice; or

                             (ii)  the parties to the proceeding consent.

Note 1:       For the powers of the Court that may, if the Court so directs, be exercised by a Registrar, see section 35A(1) of the Act.

Note 2:       Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 3:       See also the following:

(a)    sections 35A(1)(a) to (g) of the Act;

(b)    rule 16.1 and Schedule 2 to the Corporations Rules;

(c)    rule 2.02 and Schedule 1 to the Bankruptcy Rules;

(d)    rule 1.10 of the Federal Court (Criminal Proceedings) Rules 2016.

3.02  Authority to administer oaths and affirmations

                   A Registrar may administer an oath or affirmation in a proceeding.

3.03  Orders other than in open court

                   A Registrar may make an order other than in open court.

3.04  Application for orders in relation to Registrars

                   A person may apply to the Court without notice for an order that a Registrar do any act or thing that the Registrar is required or entitled to do but has refused to do.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

3.05  Application to a Registrar for an application to be determined by the Court

                   A party may apply orally to a Registrar under section 35A(7)(b) of the Act for the Registrar to arrange for the Court to determine an application for the exercise of a power mentioned in section 35A(1) of the Act.

Note:          A party may apply to the Registrar to have the application determined by the Court—see section 35A(7)(b) of the Act.

Rules 3.06–3.10 left blank

Division 3.2Reviewing a Registrar’s exercise of power

3.11  Application for review of a Registrar’s exercise of power

             (1)  A party may apply to the Court under section 35A(5) of the Act for review of the exercise of a power of the Court by a Registrar.

             (2)  The application must be made within 21 days after the day on which the power was exercised.

Part 4Lawyers

Division 4.1General

4.01  Proceeding by lawyer or in person

             (1)  A person may be represented in the Court by a lawyer or may be unrepresented.

             (2)  A corporation must not proceed in the Court other than by a lawyer.

Note 1:       Corporation and lawyer are defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       A notice of address for service for a corporation must be filed by a lawyer―see rule 11.02.

Note 3:       The Court may dispense with compliance with this rule—see rule 1.34.

4.02  Power to act by lawyer

                   A party’s lawyer may do an act or thing that the party is required or permitted to do unless the context or subject matter indicates otherwise.

4.03  Appointment of a lawyer—notice of acting

                   If a party is unrepresented when a proceeding starts and later appoints a lawyer to represent the party in the proceeding, the lawyer must file a notice of acting, in accordance with Form 4.

Note:          File is defined in the Dictionary as meaning file and serve.

4.04  Termination of retainer by party

             (1)  If a party terminates a lawyer’s retainer, and a new lawyer is appointed to represent the party, the new lawyer must file a notice of acting, in accordance with Form 5.

             (2)  If a party terminates a lawyer’s retainer, and a new lawyer is not appointed to represent the party, the party must file a notice of termination of the lawyer’s retainer, in accordance with Form 6, and a notice of address for service.

Note:          Rule 11.01 contains requirements in relation to the address for service.

             (3)  If a party who has terminated a lawyer’s retainer does not file the documents required by rule 4.04(2), the lawyer whose retainer has been terminated may file a notice of ceasing to act, in accordance with Form 8.

4.05  Termination of retainer by lawyer

             (1)  If a party’s lawyer terminates the retainer, the lawyer must:

                     (a)  serve on the party a notice of intention of ceasing to act, in accordance with Form 7; and

                     (b)  at least 7 days after serving the notice—file a notice of ceasing to act, in accordance with Form 8.

             (2)  A party whose lawyer has filed a notice under paragraph (1)(b) must file a notice of address for service within 5 days after the notice is filed.

Rules 4.06–4.10 left blank

Division 4.2Court referral for legal assistance

4.11  Definitions for Division 4.2

                   In this Division:

assisted party means a party receiving legal assistance under this Division.

legal assistance means any of the following:

                     (a)  advice in relation to the proceeding;

                     (b)  representation at a directions, interlocutory or final hearing or mediation;

                     (c)  drafting or settling documents to be used in the proceeding;

                     (d)  representation generally in the conduct of the proceeding.

Pro Bono lawyer means a lawyer who has agreed to accept a referral under rule 4.12 to provide pro bono legal assistance.

4.12  Referral for legal assistance

             (1)  The Court may refer a party to a lawyer for legal assistance by issuing a referral certificate, in accordance with Form 9.

             (2)  When making a referral under subrule (1), the Court may take the following matters into account:

                     (a)  the means of the party;

                     (b)  the capacity of the party to otherwise obtain legal assistance;

                     (c)  the nature and complexity of the proceeding;

                     (d)  any other matters the Court considers appropriate.

             (3)  The referral certificate may state the kind of legal assistance for which the party has been referred.

             (4)  A Registrar will attempt to arrange for the provision of legal assistance in accordance with the referral certificate to a Pro Bono lawyer.

4.13  A party has no right to apply for a referral

                   A party is not entitled to apply to the Court for a referral under rule 4.12.

4.14  Acceptance of referral certificate and provision of legal assistance

                   If a lawyer agrees to accept a referral under rule 4.12, the lawyer must provide legal assistance in accordance with the referral certificate.

4.15  Ceasing to provide legal assistance

             (1)  A Pro Bono lawyer may cease to provide legal assistance to the assisted party only:

                     (a)  with the assisted party’s written agreement; or

                     (b)  with a Registrar’s permission under rule 4.16.

             (2)  If paragraph (1)(a) applies, the Pro Bono lawyer must, within 7 days after receiving the agreement, give a Registrar a copy of the agreement.

4.16  Application for Registrar’s permission to cease providing legal assistance

             (1)  A Pro Bono lawyer may apply to a Registrar for permission to cease to provide legal assistance to a party.

             (2)  An application must be in writing and include the reasons for making the application.

             (3)  The Pro Bono lawyer must give a copy of the application only to the assisted party.

             (4)  The application:

                     (a)  will be treated as confidential; and

                     (b)  will not be treated as part of the proceeding; and

                     (c)  will not be included on the Court file of the proceeding.

             (5)  A Registrar may consider the application without further notice to the assisted party.

             (6)  In considering an application, a Registrar will take into account the following:

                     (a)  whether the Pro Bono lawyer would be likely to be able to cease to provide legal assistance to the assisted party under any practice rules governing professional conduct applying to the lawyer;

                     (b)  any conflict of interest that the Pro Bono lawyer may have;

                     (c)  whether there is a substantial disagreement between the Pro Bono lawyer and the assisted party about the conduct of the litigation;

                     (d)  any view of the Pro Bono lawyer:

                              (i)  that the assisted party’s case is not well founded in fact or law; or

                             (ii)  that the assisted party’s prosecution of the litigation is an abuse of process;

                     (e)  whether the Pro Bono lawyer lacks the time to provide adequate legal assistance to the assisted party because of other professional commitments;

                      (f)  whether the assisted party has refused or failed to pay any disbursements requested under rule 4.18;

                     (g)  whether it is unfair to require the Pro Bono lawyer to continue to provide legal assistance to the assisted party;

                     (h)  any other relevant matter.

4.17  Cessation of referral certificate

                   A referral certificate ceases to have effect if:

                     (a)  it is not accepted by a lawyer within 28 days after the referral; or

                     (b)  a Pro Bono lawyer has provided the legal assistance mentioned in the referral certificate; or

                     (c)  a Pro Bono lawyer has ceased to provide legal assistance under rule 4.15; or

                     (d)  the proceeding to which the referral certificate relates is finalised or transferred to another court.

4.18  Disbursements

                   A Pro Bono lawyer may ask the assisted party to pay any disbursements reasonably incurred, or reasonably to be incurred, by the Pro Bono lawyer on behalf of the assisted party in relation to the legal assistance.

4.19  Professional fees

             (1)  A Pro Bono lawyer must not seek or recover professional fees from an assisted party unless the Pro Bono lawyer and the assisted party have entered into a costs agreement.

             (2)  The costs agreement must provide that the Pro Bono lawyer be entitled to charge and the assisted party is liable to pay professional fees only:

                     (a)  if an order for costs is made in favour of the assisted party; and

                     (b)  to the extent that the party against whom the order for costs is made in fact pays the costs.

             (3)  If a costs agreement is entered into, the Court may order a party against whom an order for costs is made to pay the costs, including any disbursements incurred under rule 4.18, directly to the Pro Bono lawyer instead of the assisted party.

             (4)  A payment made to the Pro Bono lawyer under subrule (3) satisfies, to the extent of that payment, the order for costs made in favour of the assisted party.

Part 5Court supervision of proceedings

Division 5.1Return date and directions

5.01  Parties to attend Court on return date

                   A party, or the party’s lawyer, must attend the Court on the return date fixed in the originating application.

Note 1:       Originating application is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       When a proceeding is started, a Registrar will fix a return date and place for hearing and endorse those details on the originating application.

5.02  Parties to file notice of address for service before return date

                   A respondent who has been served with an originating application must file a notice of address for service, in accordance with Form 10, before the return date fixed in the originating application.

Note:          Rule 11.01 contains requirements in relation to the address for service.

5.03  Respondent’s genuine steps statement

             (1)  If an applicant has filed a genuine steps statement the respondent must file the respondent’s genuine steps statement, in accordance with Form 11, before the return date fixed in the originating application.

             (2)  The respondent’s genuine steps statement must comply with section 7 of the Civil Dispute Resolution Act.

             (3)  The respondent’s genuine steps statement must be no more than 2 pages.

Note 1:       Civil Dispute Resolution Act is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       Rule 8.02 requires an applicant in a proceeding to which the Civil Dispute Resolution Act applies to file an applicant’s genuine dispute resolution statement at the same time as the originating application is filed.

5.04  Making directions

             (1)  At any hearing, the Court may make directions for the management, conduct and hearing of a proceeding.

Note:          Direction is defined in the Dictionary.

             (2)  A party, or the party’s lawyer, must attend any hearing for the proceeding.

             (3)  Without limiting subrule (1), the Court may make a direction mentioned in the following table.

 

Item

A direction in relation to…

1

The defining of the issues by pleadings or otherwise

2

The proceeding continuing or becoming an expedited proceeding

3

The standing of affidavits as pleadings

4

The proceeding to continue on affidavits even though the originating application is supported by a statement of claim

5

The filing of affidavits

6

Amendments to an originating application and pleadings

7

The mode and sufficiency of service

8

The joinder of parties

9

The giving of particulars

10

Discovery and inspection of documents

11

Interrogatories

12

Admissions of fact or of documents

13

Inspection of real or personal property

14

The appointment of a court expert

15

The disclosure and exchange of reports of experts

16

The number of expert witnesses to be called

17

The parties jointly instructing an expert to provide a report of the expert’s opinion in relation to a particular issue in the proceeding

18

Requiring experts who are to give or have given reports to meet for the purpose of identifying and addressing the issues in dispute between the experts

19

An expert’s opinion to be received by way of submission, and the manner and form of that submission, whether or not the opinion would be admissible as evidence

20

The giving of evidence at the hearing, including whether the evidence in chief of witnesses is to be given orally or by affidavit or both

21

The filing and exchange of signed statements of evidence and outlines of evidence of intended witnesses and their use in evidence at the hearing

22

The number of witnesses to be called

23

The evidence of a particular fact or facts being given at the hearing:

(a) by statement on oath on information and belief; or

(b) by production of documents or entries in books; or

(c) by copies of documents or entries; or

(d) otherwise

24

The manner in which documentary evidence is to be presented at the hearing

25

The number of documents to be tendered

26

The providing and limiting of written submissions

27

The taking of evidence and receipt of submissions by video link, audio link, electronic communication or other means that the Court considers appropriate

28

The proportion in which the parties are to bear the costs (if any) of taking evidence or making submissions in accordance with a direction mentioned in item 27

29

The attendance by parties before a Registrar for a conference:

(a) to satisfy the Registrar that all reasonable steps for achieving a negotiated outcome of the proceeding have been taken; or

(b) to clarify the real issues in dispute so that appropriate directions may be made:

(i) for the disposition of the matter; or

(ii) to shorten the time taken in preparation for, and at, the trial

30

The use of mediation, arbitration or an ADR process to assist in the conduct and resolution of all or part of the proceeding

31

Referring the proceeding, or a matter arising out of the proceeding, to an arbitrator, a mediator or a suitable person for resolution by an ADR process

32

The attendance by parties at a case management conference with a Judge or Registrar to consider the most economic and efficient means of bringing the proceeding to trial and of conducting the trial

33

The place, time and mode of hearing

34

The transfer of the proceeding to another place at which there is a Registry

35

Costs

Note 1:       If a proceeding is transferred under a direction mentioned in item 34 of the table, a Registrar at the place from which the proceeding is transferred will, on behalf of the District Registrar of that place, send all documents in the District Registrar’s custody relating to the proceeding to the District Registrar at the place to which the proceeding is transferred.

Note 2:       A Registrar may exercise the power in this rule—see rule 3.01 and Schedule 2.

Note 3:       A party may seek directions as to the conduct of a hearing or trial—see rule 30.23.

5.05  Adjournment of directions hearing

                   The Court may adjourn a directions hearing from time to time.

Note:          Directions hearing is defined in the Dictionary.

5.06  Application for directions—cross‑claims

             (1)  If a cross‑claim is filed, the parties, or the parties’ lawyers, must attend the Court on the return date fixed in the cross‑claim.

             (2)  A party may apply to the Court for directions for the management, conduct and hearing of the cross‑claim.

5.07  Interlocutory orders

                   A party who wants to obtain an interlocutory order must make an application in accordance with rule 17.01.

Note:          Part 17 deals with interlocutory applications.

5.08  Hearing and determination of matter at directions hearing

                   A party may apply to the Court at a directions hearing:

                     (a)  to hear and determine the proceeding at the directions hearing; or

                     (b)  to dispose of an originating application or a cross‑claim at the directions hearing.

Rules 5.09–5.20 left blank

Division 5.2Orders on default

5.21  Self‑executing orders

                   A party may apply to the Court for an order that, unless another party does an act or thing within a certain time:

                     (a)  the proceeding be dismissed; or

                     (b)  the applicant’s statement of claim, or alternative accompanying document referred to in rule 8.05, be struck out; or

                     (c)  a pleading of the respondent be struck out; or

                     (d)  the party have judgment against the other party.

5.22  When a party is in default

                   A party is in default if the party fails to:

                     (a)  do an act required to be done, or to do an act in the time required, by these Rules; or

                     (b)  comply with an order of the Court; or

                     (c)  attend a hearing in the proceeding; or

                     (d)  prosecute or defend the proceeding with due diligence.

5.23  Orders on default

             (1)  If an applicant is in default, a respondent may apply to the Court for an order that:

                     (a)  a step in the proceeding be taken within a specified time; or

                     (b)  the proceeding be stayed or dismissed for the whole or any part of the relief claimed by the applicant:

                              (i)  immediately; or

                             (ii)  on conditions specified in the order.

             (2)  If a respondent is in default, an applicant may apply to the Court for:

                     (a)  an order that a step in the proceeding be taken within a specified time; or

                     (b)  if the claim against the respondent is for a debt or liquidated damages—an order giving judgment against the respondent for:

                              (i)  the debt or liquidated damages; and

                             (ii)  if appropriate, interest and costs in a sum fixed by the Court or to be taxed; or

                     (c)  if the proceeding was started by an originating application supported by a statement of claim or an alternative accompanying document referred to in rule 8.05, or if the Court has ordered that the proceeding continue on pleadings—an order giving judgment against the respondent for the relief claimed in the statement of claim or alternative accompanying document to which the Court is satisfied that the applicant is entitled; or

                     (d)  an order giving judgment against the respondent for damages to be assessed, or any other order; or

                     (e)  an order mentioned in paragraph (b), (c) or (d) to take effect if the respondent does not take a step ordered by the Court in the proceeding in the time specified in the order.

Note 1:       The Court may make any order that the Court considers appropriate in the interests of justice—see rule 1.32.

Note 2:       An order or judgment under this Division may be set aside or varied.

5.24  Contempt

                   This Division does not limit the power of the Court to punish for contempt.

Part 6Court supervision of parties and other persons

Division 6.1Vexatious proceedings

6.01  Scandalous, vexatious or oppressive matter

                   If a document filed in a proceeding contains matter that is scandalous, vexatious or oppressive, a party may apply to the Court for an order that:

                     (a)  the document be removed from the Court file; or

                     (b)  the matter be struck out of the document.

6.02  Certificate of vexatious proceedings order

             (1)  A person who wants the Chief Executive Officer to issue a certificate under subsection 37AP(1) of the Act must make the request in writing and include in the request:

                     (a)  the person’s name and address; and

                     (b)  the person’s interest in making the application.

             (2)  The request must be lodged in the District Registry in which the vexatious proceedings order was made.

             (3)  The certificate will state:

                     (a)  the name of the person subject to the vexatious proceedings order; and

                     (b)  if applicable, the name of the person who applied for the vexatious proceedings order; and

                     (c)  the date on which the vexatious proceedings order was made; and

                     (d)  the orders made by the Court.

6.03  Application for leave to institute proceedings

                   An application under subsection 37AR(2) of the Act for leave to institute a proceeding that is subject to a vexatious proceedings order must be made:

                     (a)  in accordance with Form 2; and

                     (b)  without notice to any other person.

Note 1:       See subsection 37AR(2) of the Act for the right of a person who is subject to a vexatious proceedings order to apply to the Court to institute a proceeding.

Note 2:       See subsection 37AR(3) of the Act for the contents of the affidavit that must be filed with the application.

Rules 6.04–6.10 left blank

Division 6.2Use of communication and recording devices in Court

6.11  Use of communication device or recording device in place where hearing taking place

             (1)  In this rule:

communication device includes a mobile telephone, audio link, video link or any other electronic communication equipment.

recording device means a device that is capable of being used to record images or sound, including a camera, tape recorder, video recorder, mobile telephone or digital audio recorder.

             (2)  A person must comply with any directions made by the Court at the hearing of any proceeding in the Court relating to the use of a communication device or recording device.

             (3)  A person must not use a recording device for the purpose of recording or making a transcript of the evidence or submissions in a hearing in the Court.

             (4)  A person must not use a communication device or a recording device that might:

                     (a)  disturb a hearing in the Court; or

                     (b)  cause any concern to a witness or other participant in the hearing; or

                     (c)  allow a person who is not present in the Court to receive information about the proceeding or the hearing to which the person is not entitled.

Note 1:       The Court may have regard to any relevant matter, including the following:

(a)    why the person needs to use the device in the hearing;

(b)    if an order has been given excluding one or more witnesses from the Court—whether there is a risk that the device could be used to brief a witness out of court;

(c)    whether the use of the device would disturb the hearing or distract or cause concern to a witness or other participant in the hearing.

Note 2:       The Court may dispense with compliance with this rule—see rule 1.34.

6.12  Contempt

                   Rule 6.11 does not limit the powers of the Court to punish for contempt.

Chapter 2Original jurisdiction—proceedings generally

Part 7Orders before start of a proceeding

Division 7.1Injunctions, preservation of property and receivers

7.01  Order before start of proceeding

             (1)  If a matter is urgent, a person who intends to start a proceeding (a prospective applicant) may apply to the Court, without notice, as if the prospective applicant had started the proceeding and the application had been made in the proceeding, for an order:

                     (a)  granting an injunction; or

                     (b)  if the matter relates to property:

                              (i)  for the detention, custody, preservation or inspection of the property; and

                             (ii)  to authorise any person to enter any land, or do any other act or thing, for the purpose of giving effect to the order; or

                     (c)  if the matter relates to the right of a prospective applicant to an amount in a fund—that the amount in the fund be paid into Court or otherwise secured; or

                     (d)  appointing a receiver with the power of a receiver and manager.

             (2)  An application mentioned in subrule (1) must be in accordance with Form 12 and accompanied by an affidavit stating the facts on which the prospective applicant relies.

             (3)  A prospective applicant seeking an order under this rule must give an undertaking to the Court to start a proceeding in relation to the subject matter of the application within 14 days after the application has been determined.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

Rules 7.02–7.10 left blank

Division 7.2Approval of agreement for person under a legal incapacity

7.11  Compromise or settlement of matter before proceeding

             (1)  If a claim that is enforceable by a proceeding in the Court is made by, for or against a person under a legal incapacity, an interested person may apply to the Court for an order:

                     (a)  approving an agreement made by or for the person for compromise or settlement of the claim before any proceeding is started; and

                     (b)  enforcing the claim.

Note 1:       Interested person, for a person under legal incapacity, and person under a legal incapacity are defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       Division 9.6 deals with a proceeding by or against a person under a legal incapacity.

             (2)  An application must be:

                     (a)  in accordance with Form 13; and

                     (b)  accompanied by the following:

                              (i)  an affidavit stating the material facts on which the application relies;

                             (ii)  the agreement that is sought to be approved;

                            (iii)  an opinion of an independent lawyer that the agreement is in the best interests of the person under a legal incapacity.

             (3)  The Court may, as a condition of an approval, require that any money or other property payable for the benefit of a person under a legal incapacity be dealt with by way of a settlement or in any other way that the Court considers appropriate.

Note:          The Court may give approval subject to conditions—see rule 1.33.

             (4)  If the Court does not approve the agreement, the agreement is not binding on the person under a legal incapacity.

Rules 7.12–7.20 left blank

Division 7.3Preliminary discovery

7.21  Definitions for Division 7.3

                   In this Division:

prospective applicant means a person who reasonably believes that there may be a right for the person to obtain relief against another person who is not presently a party to a proceeding in the Court.

prospective respondent means a person, not presently a party to a proceeding in the Court, against whom a prospective applicant reasonably believes the prospective applicant may have a right to obtain relief.

7.22  Order for discovery to ascertain description of respondent

             (1)  A prospective applicant may apply to the Court for an order under subrule (2) if the prospective applicant satisfies the Court that:

                     (a)  there may be a right for the prospective applicant to obtain relief against a prospective respondent; and

                     (b)  the prospective applicant is unable to ascertain the description of the prospective respondent; and

                     (c)  another person (the other person):

                              (i)  knows or is likely to know the prospective respondent’s description; or

                             (ii)  has, or is likely to have, or has had, or is likely to have had, control of a document that would help ascertain the prospective respondent’s description.

             (2)  If the Court is satisfied of the matters mentioned in subrule (1), the Court may order the other person:

                     (a)  to attend before the Court to be examined orally only about the prospective respondent’s description; and

                     (b)  to produce to the Court at that examination any document or thing in the person’s control relating to the prospective respondent’s description; and

                     (c)  to give discovery to the prospective applicant of all documents that are or have been in the person’s control relating to the prospective respondent’s description.

Note 1:       Control and description are defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       For how discovery is to be made, see rule 7.25.

             (3)  The prospective applicant must provide the person with sufficient conduct money to permit the person to travel to the Court.

Note:          Conduct money is defined in the Dictionary.

7.23  Discovery from prospective respondent

             (1)  A prospective applicant may apply to the Court for an order under subrule (2) if the prospective applicant:

                     (a)  reasonably believes that the prospective applicant may have the right to obtain relief in the Court from a prospective respondent whose description has been ascertained; and

                     (b)  after making reasonable inquiries, does not have sufficient information to decide whether to start a proceeding in the Court to obtain that relief; and

                     (c)  reasonably believes that:

                              (i)  the prospective respondent has or is likely to have or has had or is likely to have had in the prospective respondent’s control documents directly relevant to the question whether the prospective applicant has a right to obtain the relief; and

                             (ii)  inspection of the documents by the prospective applicant would assist in making the decision.

             (2)  If the Court is satisfied about matters mentioned in subrule (1), the Court may order the prospective respondent to give discovery to the prospective applicant of the documents of the kind mentioned in subparagraph (1)(c)(i).

7.24  Procedure for applications under this Division

             (1)  A prospective applicant who wants to make an application under rule 7.22 or 7.23 must file an originating application, in accordance with Form 14.

             (2)  An application must be accompanied by an affidavit:

                     (a)  stating the facts on which the prospective applicant relies; and

                     (b)  identifying, as precisely as possible, the documents or categories of documents to which the application relates.

             (3)  A copy of the application and affidavit must be served personally on each person against whom the order is sought.

7.25  List of documents

                   If a person is ordered to give discovery under rule 7.22 or 7.23, the person must file a list of documents in accordance with rule 20.17.

Note:          For the requirements for a list of documents, see rule 20.17.

7.26  Privilege

                   An order made under this Division does not require the person against whom the order is made to produce any document that, on the ground of privilege, the person could not be required to produce if the prospective applicant had started a proceeding against the person or made the person a party to the proceeding.

7.27  Inspection of documents

             (1)  If a document is discovered in accordance with this Division, the prospective applicant may apply to the Court to have the document produced for inspection.

             (2)  Division 20.3, with any necessary modification, applies to the inspection of the documents mentioned in a list of documents made and served in accordance with this Division as if the list were a list of documents as mentioned in rule 20.17.

7.28  Copying of documents produced for inspection

                   A prospective applicant to whom a document is produced for inspection may, at the prospective applicant’s own expense, copy or make an electronic image of the document subject to any reasonable conditions imposed by the person producing the document.

7.29  Costs

                   A person against whom an order is sought or made under this Division may apply to the Court for an order that:

                     (a)  the prospective applicant give security for the person’s costs and expenses including:

                              (i)  the costs of giving discovery and production; and

                             (ii)  the costs of complying with an order made under this Division; and

                     (b)  the prospective applicant pay the person’s costs and expenses.

Note:          Part 40 deals with costs and Division 40.2 deals with taxation of costs.

Rule 7.30 left blank

Division 7.4Freezing orders

Note:          This Division contains rules that have been harmonised in accordance with the advice of the Council of Chief Justices' Rules Harmonisation Committee.

7.31  Definitions for Division 7.4

                   In this Division:

ancillary order has the meaning given by rule 7.33.

another court means a court outside Australia or a court in Australia other than the Court.

applicant means a person who applies for a freezing order or an ancillary order.

freezing order has the meaning given by rule 7.32.

judgment includes an order.

respondent means a person against whom a freezing order or an ancillary order is sought or made.

7.32  Freezing order

             (1)  The Court may make an order (a freezing order), with or without notice to a respondent, for the purpose of preventing the frustration or inhibition of the Court’s process by seeking to meet a danger that a judgment or prospective judgment of the Court will be wholly or partly unsatisfied.

             (2)  A freezing order may be an order restraining a respondent from removing any assets located in or outside Australia or from disposing of, dealing with, or diminishing the value of, those assets.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

7.33  Ancillary order

             (1)  The Court may make an order (an ancillary order) ancillary to a freezing order or prospective freezing order as the Court considers appropriate.

             (2)  Without limiting the generality of subrule (1), an ancillary order may be made for either or both of the following purposes:

                     (a)  eliciting information relating to assets relevant to the freezing order or prospective freezing order;

                     (b)  determining whether the freezing order should be made.

7.34  Order may be against person not a party to proceeding

                   The Court may make a freezing order or an ancillary order against a person even if the person is not a party in a proceeding in which substantive relief is sought against the respondent.

7.35  Order against judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor or third party

             (1)  This rule applies if:

                     (a)  judgment has been given in favour of an applicant by:

                              (i)  the Court; or

                             (ii)  for a judgment to which subrule (2) applies—another court; or

                     (b)  an applicant has a good arguable case on an accrued or prospective cause of action that is justiciable in:

                              (i)  the Court; or

                             (ii)  for a cause of action to which subrule (3) applies—another court.

             (2)  This subrule applies to a judgment if there is a sufficient prospect that the judgment will be registered in or enforced by the Court.

             (3)  This subrule applies to a cause of action if:

                     (a)  there is a sufficient prospect that the other court will give judgment in favour of the applicant; and

                     (b)  there is a sufficient prospect that the judgment will be registered in or enforced by the Court.

             (4)  The Court may make a freezing order or an ancillary order or both against a judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor if the Court is satisfied, having regard to all the circumstances, that there is a danger that a judgment or prospective judgment will be wholly or partly unsatisfied because any of the following might occur:

                     (a)  the judgment debtor, prospective judgment debtor or another person absconds;

                     (b)  the assets of the judgment debtor, prospective judgment debtor or another person are:

                              (i)  removed from Australia or from a place inside or outside Australia; or

                             (ii)  disposed of, dealt with or diminished in value.

             (5)  The Court may make a freezing order or an ancillary order or both against a person other than a judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor (a third party) if the Court is satisfied, having regard to all the circumstances, that:

                     (a)  there is a danger that a judgment or prospective judgment will be wholly or partly unsatisfied because:

                              (i)  the third party holds or is using, or has exercised or is exercising, a power of disposition over assets (including claims and expectancies) of the judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor; or

                             (ii)  the third party is in possession of, or in a position of control or influence concerning, assets (including claims and expectancies) of the judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor; or

                     (b)  a process in the Court is or may ultimately be available to the applicant as a result of a judgment or prospective judgment, under which process the third party may be obliged to disgorge assets or contribute toward satisfying the judgment or prospective judgment.

             (6)  Nothing in this rule affects the power of the Court to make a freezing order or ancillary order if the Court considers it is in the interests of justice to do so.

7.36  Jurisdiction

                   Nothing in this Division diminishes the inherent, implied or statutory jurisdiction of the Court to make a freezing order or ancillary order.

7.37  Service outside Australia of application for freezing order or ancillary order

                   An application for a freezing order or an ancillary order may be served on a person who is outside Australia (whether or not the person is domiciled or resident in Australia) if any of the assets to which the order relates are within the jurisdiction of the Court.

7.38  Costs

             (1)  The Court may make any order as to costs as it considers appropriate in relation to an order made under this Division.

             (2)  Without limiting the generality of subrule (1), an order as to costs includes an order as to the costs of any person affected by a freezing order or ancillary order.

Rules 7.39–7.40 left blank

Division 7.5Search orders

Note:          This Division contains rules that have been harmonised in accordance with the advice of the Council of Chief Justices' Rules Harmonisation Committee.

7.41  Definitions for Division 7.5

                   In this Division:

applicant means an applicant for a search order.

described includes described generally whether by reference to a class or otherwise.

premises includes a vehicle or vessel of any kind.

respondent means a person against whom a search order is sought or made.

search order has the meaning given by rule 7.42.

7.42  Search order

                   The Court may make an order (a search order), in any proceeding or in anticipation of any proceeding in the Court, with or without notice to the respondent, for the purpose of securing or preserving evidence and requiring a respondent to permit persons to enter premises for the purpose of securing the preservation of evidence that is, or may be, relevant to an issue in the proceeding or anticipated proceeding.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

7.43  Requirements for grant of search order

                   The Court may make a search order if the Court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  an applicant seeking the order has a strong prima facie case on an accrued cause of action; and

                     (b)  the potential or actual loss or damage to the applicant will be serious if the search order is not made; and

                     (c)  there is sufficient evidence in relation to a respondent that:

                              (i)  the respondent possesses important evidentiary material; and

                             (ii)  there is a real possibility that the respondent might destroy such material or cause it to be unavailable for use in evidence in a proceeding or anticipated proceeding before the Court.

7.44  Jurisdiction

                   Nothing in this Division diminishes the inherent, implied or statutory jurisdiction of the Court to make a search order.

7.45  Terms of search order

             (1)  A search order may direct each person who is named or described in the order:

                     (a)  to permit, or arrange to permit, other persons named or described in the order:

                              (i)  to enter premises specified in the order; and

                             (ii)  to take any steps that are in accordance with the terms of the order; and

                     (b)  to provide, or arrange to provide, other persons named or described in the order with any information, thing or service described in the order; and

                     (c)  to allow other persons named or described in the order to take and retain in their custody any thing described in the order; and

                     (d)  not to disclose any information about the order, for up to 3 days after the date the order was served, except for the purposes of obtaining legal advice or legal representation; and

                     (e)  to do or refrain from doing any act as the Court considers appropriate.

             (2)  Without limiting the generality of subparagraph (1)(a)(ii), the steps that may be taken in relation to a thing specified in a search order include:

                     (a)  searching for, inspecting or removing the thing; and

                     (b)  making or obtaining a record of the thing or any information it may contain.

             (3)  A search order may contain other provisions the Court considers appropriate.

             (4)  In subrule (2):

record includes a copy, photograph, film or sample.

7.46  Independent lawyers

             (1)  If the Court makes a search order, the Court must appoint one or more lawyers, each of whom is independent of the applicant’s lawyer, (the independent lawyers) to supervise the execution of the order, and to do any other acts or things in relation to the order that the Court considers appropriate.

             (2)  The Court may appoint an independent lawyer to supervise execution of the order at any one or more premises, and a different independent lawyer or lawyers to supervise execution of the order at other premises, with each independent lawyer having power to do any other acts or things in relation to the order that the Court considers appropriate.

7.47  Costs

             (1)  The Court may make any order for costs that it considers appropriate in relation to an order made under this Division.

             (2)  Without limiting the generality of subrule (1), an order for costs includes an order for the costs of any person affected by a search order.

Part 8Starting proceedings

Division 8.1Originating applications

8.01  Starting proceeding—application

             (1)  A person who wants to start a proceeding in the Court’s original jurisdiction must file an originating application, in accordance with Form 15.

             (2)  An originating application must include:

                     (a)  the applicant’s name and address; and

                     (b)  the applicant’s address for service; and

                     (c)  if an applicant sues in a representative capacity—a statement of that fact.

Note:          The originating application must have the applicant’s address for service—see rule 11.01.

             (3)  If an originating application states that the applicant is represented by a lawyer:

                     (a)  the lawyer must, if requested in writing by a respondent, declare in writing whether the lawyer filed the originating application; and

                     (b)  if the lawyer declares in writing that the lawyer did not file the originating application, the respondent may apply to the Court to stay the proceeding.

Note:          File is defined in the Dictionary as meaning file and serve.

8.02  Applicant’s genuine steps statement

             (1)  If Part 2 of the Civil Dispute Resolution Act applies to a proceeding, the applicant must, when filing the applicant’s originating application, file the applicant’s genuine steps statement, in accordance with Form 16.

             (2)  The applicant’s genuine steps statement must comply with section 6 of the Civil Dispute Resolution Act.

             (3)  The applicant’s genuine steps statement must be no more than 2 pages.

Note 1:       Civil Dispute Resolution Act is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       A party who wants to start a proceeding must have regard to the Civil Dispute Resolution Act before starting that proceeding to determine whether the Civil Dispute Resolution Act applies to the proceeding that the party wants to start.

Note 3:       A lawyer must comply with section 9 of the Civil Dispute Resolution Act, if that Act applies to the proceeding.

8.03  Application to state relief claimed

             (1)  An originating application must state:

                     (a)  the relief claimed; and

                     (b)  if the relief is claimed under a provision of an Act—the Act and the provision under which the relief is claimed.

             (2)  An originating application claiming relief of the kind mentioned in column 2 of following table must state the details mentioned in column 3 of the table.

 

Item

Relief sought

Details

1

Interlocutory relief

The interlocutory order sought

2

An injunction

The order sought

3

A declaration

The declaration sought

4

Exemplary damages

The claim for exemplary damages

             (3)  The originating application need not include a claim for costs.

8.04  Application starting migration litigation to include certificate

             (1)  For section 486I of the Migration Act 1958, a lawyer may file an originating application starting migration litigation only if the application includes a certificate in accordance with the certificate contained in Form 15, signed by the lawyer.

Note 1:       See section 486I of the Migration Act 1958.

Note 2:       The Court will refuse to accept an originating application unless a certificate is provided in accordance with this subrule.

             (2)  In this rule:

lawyer has the meaning given by section 5 of the Migration Act 1958.

Note:          Migration litigation is defined in the Dictionary.

8.05  Accompanying document for originating application

             (1)  An originating application seeking relief that includes damages must be accompanied by:

                     (a)  unless paragraph (b) or (c) applies—a statement of claim; or

                     (b)  if a practice note issued by the Chief Justice requires the originating application to be accompanied by an alternative accompanying document—the alternative accompanying document; or

                     (c)  if a practice note issued by the Chief Justice permits the originating application to be accompanied by an alternative accompanying document—the alternative accompanying document or a statement of claim.

             (2)  An originating application seeking relief that does not include damages must be accompanied by:

                     (a)  unless paragraph (b) or (c) applies—a statement of claim or an affidavit; or

                     (b)  if a practice note issued by the Chief Justice requires the originating application to be accompanied by an alternative accompanying document—the alternative accompanying document; or

                     (c)  if a practice note issued by the Chief Justice permits the originating application to be accompanied by an alternative accompanying document—the alternative accompanying document, a statement of claim or an affidavit.

Note 1:       A practice note issued by the Chief Justice may require or permit an alternative accompanying document to accompany an originating application by:

(a)    expressly requiring or permitting the alternative accompanying document to accompany the originating application; or

(b)    referring to another document that requires or permits the alternative accompanying document to accompany the originating application.

Note 2:       When an originating application and accompanying document are filed, a Registrar will fix a return date and place for hearing and endorse those details on the application.

Note 3:       If the Court has made an order shortening the time for service of the application, a Registrar will endorse details of the order on the application.

             (3)  A statement of claim mentioned in this rule must be in accordance with Form 17.

             (4)  An affidavit mentioned in subrule (2) must state the material facts on which the applicant relies that are necessary to give the respondent fair notice of the case to be made against the respondent at trial.

Note 1:       For the content of a statement of claim, see Division 16.1.

Note 2:       For the content of an alternative accompanying document, see rule 16.13.

             (5)  This rule has effect subject to any other rule of the Court.

Note 1:       For some special classes of proceedings, requirements for the documents that must accompany an originating application are found in Chapter 3.

Note 2:       This rule does not apply to initiating process in proceedings under the Admiralty Act 1988—see the Admiralty Rules 1988.

8.06  Service of originating documents

                   The applicant must, as soon as practicable and at least 5 days before the return date fixed in an originating application, serve a copy of the following personally on each respondent named in the originating application:

                     (a)  the originating application;

                     (b)  each other document required to accompany the application by rule 8.05 or any other rule of the Court.

Note 1:       The Court may extend or shorten the time for service—see rule 1.39.

Note 2:       Division 10.1 deals with personal service.

Note 3:       Service should generally be effected as soon as practicable after filing (which may be immediately). This will provide time for steps required under practice notes issued by the Chief Justice to be undertaken before the return date.

8.07  Changing return date

             (1)  If an originating application has not been served, a party may apply to a Registrar to change the return date fixed in the originating application.

          (1A)  An application to change the return date may be made by sending, in accordance with rule 2.23, an amended originating application by electronic communication to a Registry for filing.

Note 1:       If an application to change the return date is made in accordance with this subrule and a Registrar changes the return date, a Registrar will insert a notice of filing and hearing that shows the changed return date as the first page of the amended originating application (see rule 2.24).

Note 2:       File is defined in the Dictionary as meaning file and serve.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  an application to change the return date is made otherwise than by sending an amended originating application by electronic communication to a Registry for filing; and

                     (b)  a Registrar changes the return date;

the applicant must change the return date endorsed on the copy of the application that is to be served.

             (3)  This rule does not apply to a proceeding to which the Corporations Rules apply if a public notice or advertisement is required under those Rules or under an order made by the Court in the proceeding.

Rules 8.08–8.10 left blank

Division 8.2Notice of constitutional matter

8.11  Notice of constitutional matter

             (1)  In this Division:

constitutional matter means a matter arising under the Constitution or involving its interpretation, within the meaning of section 78B of the Judiciary Act 1903.

             (2)  If a proceeding in the Court involves a constitutional matter, the party who has raised the matter must file a notice in the proper Registry, in accordance with Form 18, stating:

                     (a)  briefly but specifically, the nature of the constitutional matter; and

                     (b)  the facts showing that the matter is one to which this rule applies.

8.12  Service of notice

             (1)  The party filing the notice must:

                     (a)  serve a copy of the notice on:

                              (i)  each person as required by section 78B of the Judiciary Act 1903; and

                             (ii)  each other party; and

                     (b)  as soon as practicable after serving the notice, file an affidavit of service; and

                     (c)  give a copy of each document filed in the proceeding relevant to the constitutional matter (whether filed before or after the notice) to any Attorney‑General who has intervened, as soon as practicable after notice of the intervention is given to the party.

             (2)  The notice must be served:

                     (a)  if the matter arises in any originating application—within 7 days after the day the application is filed; or

                     (b)  if the matter arises in any pleading—within 7 days after the pleading is filed; or

                     (c)  if the matter arises before the date fixed for a hearing of a proceeding and paragraph (a) or (b) does not apply—not later than 14 days before the date fixed for the hearing; or

                     (d)  in any other case—within the time that the Court directs.

Note:          For the Court’s powers when a constitutional matter arises, see sections 78B(2) and (5) of the Judiciary Act 1903.

Rules 8.13–8.20 left blank

Division 8.3Amendments to an originating application

8.21  Amendment generally

             (1)  An applicant may apply to the Court for leave to amend an originating application for any reason, including:

                     (a)  to correct a defect or error that would otherwise prevent the Court from determining the real questions raised by the proceeding; or

                     (b)  to avoid the multiplicity of proceedings; or

                     (c)  to correct a mistake in the name of a party to the proceeding; or

                     (d)  to correct the identity of a party to the proceeding; or

                     (e)  to change the capacity in which the party is suing in the proceeding, if the changed capacity is one that the party had when the proceeding started, or has acquired since that time; or

                      (f)  to substitute a person for a party to the proceeding; or

                     (g)  to add or substitute a new claim for relief, or a new foundation in law for a claim for relief, that arises:

                              (i)  out of the same facts or substantially the same facts as those already pleaded to support an existing claim for relief by the applicant; or

                             (ii)  in whole or in part, out of facts or matters that have occurred or arisen since the start of the proceeding.

Note:          For paragraph (1)(b) and the avoidance of multiplicity of proceedings, see section 22 of the Act.

             (2)  An applicant may apply to the Court for leave to amend an originating application in accordance with paragraph (1)(c), (d), (e) or subparagraph (g)(i) even if the application is made after the end of any relevant period of limitation applying at the date the proceeding was started.

             (3)  However, an applicant must not apply to amend an originating application in accordance with subparagraph (1)(g)(ii) after the time within which any statute that limits the time within which a proceeding may be started has expired.

Note 1:       Applicant, claim and originating application are defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       For the Court’s power to make rules amending a document, see section 59(2B) of the Act.

Note 3:       Rule 9.05 deals with joinder of parties by court order.

8.22  Date on which amendment takes effect

                   If an originating application is amended with the effect that another person is substituted as a party to the proceeding, the proceeding is to be taken to have started for that person on the day the originating application is amended.

8.23  Procedure for making amendment

             (1)  An applicant given leave to amend an originating application must, if reasonably practicable to do so:

                     (a)  make the alterations on the originating application; and

                     (b)  write on the originating application the following information:

                              (i)  the date on which the amendment is made;

                             (ii)  the date on which the order permitting the amendment was made.

             (2)  If the amendments to the originating application are so numerous or lengthy to make it difficult to read, or if the originating application was lodged by electronic communication, the applicant must file an amended originating application that:

                     (a)  incorporates and distinguishes the amendments; and

                     (b)  is marked with the information mentioned in subrule (1).

8.24  Time for amending an originating application under Court order

                   An order that an applicant be permitted to amend an originating application ceases to have effect unless the applicant amends the originating application in accordance with the order within:

                     (a)  the period specified in the order; or

                     (b)  if no period is specified in the order—14 days after the date on which the order permitting the amendment was made.

Note:          If the Court permits an applicant to amend an originating application, the Court may also make orders about the procedure for amending the originating application and serving the originating application.

8.25  Service of amended originating application

                   If an originating application is amended after it has been served, the applicant who made the amendment must, as soon as practicable after the amendment is made, serve a copy of the amended originating application on the parties on whom the originating application was served.

Note:          The Court may dispense with service of the amended document.

Part 9Parties and proceedings

Division 9.1Parties, interveners and causes of action

9.01  Multiple causes of action

                   An applicant may claim relief in the same proceeding in relation to as many causes of action as the applicant has against a respondent, whether or not the applicant is claiming the relief in the same capacity.

9.02  Joinder of parties—general

                   An application may be made by 2 or more persons, or against 2 or more persons, if:

                     (a)  a separate proceeding could be made by or against each person in which the same question of law or fact might arise for decision; and

                     (b)  all rights to relief claimed in the proceeding (whether joint, several or alternative) arise out of the same transaction or event or series of transactions or events.

9.03  Joinder of applicants with joint entitlement

                   If an applicant claims relief to which any other person is entitled jointly with the applicant:

                     (a)  each person so entitled must be joined as a party to the proceeding; and

                     (b)  any person so entitled who does not consent to being joined as an applicant must be made a respondent to the proceeding.

Note:          For actions in relation to joint contracts, where one of the contractors is bankrupt, see section 62 of the Bankruptcy Act 1966.

9.04  Joinder of persons with common liability

             (1)  If relief is claimed against a respondent who is both jointly and severally liable with another person, the other person need not be made a respondent to the proceeding.

             (2)  If 2 or more persons may be jointly, but not severally, liable and relief is claimed against some, but not all, of the persons, a respondent may apply to the Court for an order that the proceeding be stayed until each person who is jointly liable is made a respondent to the proceeding.

9.05  Joinder of parties by Court order

             (1)  A party may apply to the Court for an order that a person be joined as a party to the proceeding if the person:

                     (a)  ought to have been joined as a party to the proceeding; or

                     (b)  is a person:

                              (i)  whose cooperation might be required to enforce a judgment; or

                             (ii)  whose joinder is necessary to ensure that each issue in dispute in the proceeding is able to be heard and finally determined; or

                            (iii)  who should be joined as a party in order to enable determination of a related dispute and, as a result, avoid multiplicity of proceedings.

             (2)  A person must not be added as an applicant without the person’s consent.

             (3)  If a person is joined as a party under this rule, the start date of the proceeding for the person is the date on which the order is made.

             (4)  An application under subrule (1) need not be served on any person who was not served with a copy of the originating application.

Note:          The Court may make an order for any of the following:

(a)    service of the order and any other document in the proceeding;

(b)    amendment of a document in the proceeding;

(c)    the filing of a notice of address for service by a party.

9.06  Application for separate trials—inconvenient joinder of causes of action or parties

                   A party may apply to the Court for an order that separate trials be held on the ground that a joinder of parties, or causes of action, in a proceeding may:

                     (a)  complicate or delay the trial of the proceeding; or

                     (b)  cause any other inconvenience.

9.07  Errors in joinder of parties

                   A proceeding will not be defeated only because:

                     (a)  a party has been improperly or unnecessarily joined as a party; or

                     (b)  a person who should have been joined as a proper or necessary party has not been joined.

9.08  Removal of parties by Court order

                   A party may apply to the Court for an order that a party that has been improperly or unnecessarily joined as a party, or has ceased to be a proper or necessary party, cease to be a party.

Note:          The Court may make an order for the future conduct of the proceeding.

9.09  Death, bankruptcy or transmission of interest

             (1)  If a party dies, or becomes bankrupt, during a proceeding but a cause of action in the proceeding survives, the proceeding is not dismissed only because of the party’s death or bankruptcy.

             (2)  If the interest or liability of a party passes to another person during a proceeding, by assignment, transmission, devolution or by any other means, the party or the person may apply to the Court for an order for the joinder of the person as a party or for the removal of the party.

             (3)  If a person is joined as a party under this rule, the start date of the proceeding for the person is the date on which the order is made.

Note:          The Court may make an order for the future conduct of the proceeding.

9.10  No joinder or substitution after death of party

                   A person may apply to the Court for an order that, unless an order for substitution is made within a specified time, the proceeding be dismissed to the extent that it relates to relief on a cause of action if:

                     (a)  a party dies during a proceeding and the cause of action survives the party’s death; and

                     (b)  no order is made substituting another party for the deceased party within 3 months after the death.

Note:          The Court may make orders for service of the order on any person who has an interest in continuing the proceeding.

9.11  Substitution of party

                   If a party (the new party) is substituted for another party (the old party):

                     (a)  any thing done, or action taken, in the proceeding before the substitution has the same effect in relation to the new party as it had in relation to the old party; and

                     (b)  the new party must file a notice of address for service.

9.12  Interveners

             (1)  A person may apply to the Court for leave to intervene in a proceeding with such rights, privileges and liabilities (including liabilities for costs) as may be determined by the Court.

             (2)  The Court may have regard to:

                     (a)  whether the intervener’s contribution will be useful and different from the contribution of the parties to the proceeding; and

                     (b)  whether the intervention might unreasonably interfere with the ability of the parties to conduct the proceeding as the parties wish; and

                     (c)  any other matter that the Court considers relevant.

             (3)  When giving leave, the Court may specify the form of assistance to be given by the intervener and the manner of participation of the intervener, including:

                     (a)  the matters that the intervener may raise; and

                     (b)  whether the intervener’s submissions are to be oral, in writing, or both.

Note 1:       The Court may give leave subject to conditions—see rule 1.33.

Note 2:       The Court may appoint an amicus curiae.

Rules 9.13–9.20 left blank

Division 9.2Representative proceedings

9.21  Representative party—general

             (1)  A proceeding may be started and continued by or against one or more persons who have the same interest in the proceeding, as representing all or some of the persons who have the same interest and could have been parties to the proceeding.

             (2)  The applicant may apply to the Court for an order appointing one or more of the respondents or other persons to represent all or some of the persons against whom the proceeding is brought.

             (3)  If the Court makes an order appointing a person who is not a respondent, the order has the effect of joining the person as a respondent to the proceeding.

             (4)  This rule does not apply to a proceeding dealing with property that is subject to a trust or included in a deceased estate.

Note:          For the representation of beneficiaries in a proceeding dealing with property that is subject to a trust or included in a deceased estate, see rule 9.23.

9.22  Enforcement of order for or against representative party

             (1)  An order made in a proceeding for or against a representative party is binding on each person represented by the representative party.

             (2)  However, the order can be enforced against a person who is not a party only if the Court gives leave.

             (3)  An application for leave under subrule (2) must be served personally on the person against whom it is sought to enforce the order.

             (4)  A person who is served with a notice under subrule (3) may dispute liability to have the order to which the notice relates enforced against the person on the ground that facts and matters particular to the person entitle the person to be exempt from liability.

9.23  Representative party—beneficiaries

             (1)  A proceeding dealing with property that is subject to a trust or included in a deceased estate may be started by or against a trustee or personal representative without joining as a party a person who has a beneficial interest in the trust or estate (a beneficiary).

             (2)  However, a person may apply to the Court for an order that a beneficiary be joined as a party to the proceeding.

9.24  Deceased persons

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a deceased person was interested in, or the estate of a deceased person is interested in, any matter or question in a proceeding; and

                     (b)  the deceased person has no personal representative;

a party may apply to the Court for an order:

                     (c)  that the proceeding continue in the absence of a person representing the deceased person; or

                     (d)  that a person who has consented in writing represent the deceased person’s estate for the purpose of the proceeding.

             (2)  An order under subrule (1) and any subsequent order made in the proceeding binds the estate of the deceased person as the estate would have been bound if the deceased person’s personal representative had been a party to the proceeding.

Note:          Before making an order under this rule, the Court may require the application to be served on persons having an interest in the estate, as the Court considers appropriate.

9.25  Conduct of proceeding by particular party

                   A person may apply to the Court for an order that the whole, or any part, of a proceeding be conducted by the person or a particular party.

Rules 9.26–9.30 left blank

Division 9.3Grouped proceedings under Part IVA of the Act

9.31  Interpretation for Division 9.3

                   A word or expression that is used in this Division and in Part IVA of the Act has the same meaning in this Division as it has in that Part.

Note:          Group member, representative party and representative proceeding are defined in section 33A of Part IVA of the Act.  Part IVA of the Act provides for the procedure that must be adopted in representative proceedings.

9.32  Starting a representative proceeding

                   A person who wants to start a representative proceeding under Part IVA of the Act must file an originating application, in accordance with Form 19.

Note:          For the contents of an application starting a representative proceeding, or a document filed in support of such an application, see section 33H of the Act.

9.33  Person may give consent to be a group member

                   A person mentioned in section 33E(2) of the Act may give consent to be a group member, in accordance with Form 20.

9.34  Opt out notices

                   An opt out notice under section 33J(2) of the Act must be in accordance with Form 21.

Note:          A group member may opt out in accordance with section 33J of the Act.

9.35  Application for order relating to the procedure to be followed in a representative proceeding

             (1)  A party may apply to the Court for an order under section 33K, 33W, 33X or 33ZA of the Act, in accordance with Form 22.

             (2)  An application for an order under subrule (1) must be accompanied by an affidavit stating:

                     (a)  the identity of the group members; and

                     (b)  the whereabouts of the group members; and

                     (c)  the means by which a notice is most likely to come to the attention of the group members.

Rules 9.36–9.40 left blank

Division 9.4Partnerships

9.41  Proceeding by or against partners in partnership name

             (1)  Two or more persons claiming as partners may start a proceeding in the partnership name.

             (2)  A proceeding may be brought against 2 or more persons who it is claimed are liable as partners in the partnership name.

             (3)  The partnership name must be the name of the partnership when the cause of action arose.

             (4)  The proceeding must continue in the partnership name and not in the names of the individual partners.

Note 1:       Partnership name is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       For service of a proceeding against partners in the partnership name, see rule 10.05.

Note 3:       An address for service must be entered if a proceeding is brought against a partnership name—see rule 10.05.

9.42  Disclosure of partners’ names

             (1)  A party may, by written notice, require a partnership that is a party to a proceeding to disclose the description of each person who was a partner in the partnership at the time when the cause of action is claimed to have arisen.

             (2)  If the partnership does not give the required information to the party as soon as practicable after being requested to do so, the party may apply to the Court:

                     (a)  for an order requiring the partnership to give the information to the party; and

                     (b)  if the partnership is an applicant or a cross‑claimant in the proceeding—for an order that the proceeding be stayed until the information is given.

Note 1:       Description is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       See Part 10 in relation to service.

9.43  Proceeding between members of partnerships

             (1)  If one or more partnerships carry on business in Australia, this Division applies to:

                     (a)  a proceeding between a partnership and one or more of its members; and

                     (b)  a proceeding between partnerships having one or more common members.

             (2)  However, no order may be executed in a proceeding to which subrule (1) applies without the leave of the Court.

Note:          Division 41.2 deals with enforcement proceedings involving partnerships.

9.44  Denial by person served as partner

             (1)  If a proceeding is brought against a person (the respondent) as a partner, the respondent may deny being a partner:

                     (a)  at the date specified in the originating application as the date that the cause of action arose; or

                     (b)  when the proceeding was started.

             (2)  If the respondent makes a denial under subrule (1), the respondent must, when filing the respondent’s notice of address for service, file an affidavit stating the facts on which the denial is based.

             (3)  The respondent may also make the denial at a later stage of the proceeding.

9.45  Defence to be in partnership name

             (1)  Despite rule 9.44, if a proceeding has been brought against a partnership, a partner must not file a defence in the partner’s name.

             (2)  However, the partner may file a defence in the partnership name.

             (3)  If, under subrule (2), 2 or more partners file a defence and the defences raise different grounds of defence, the applicant is only entitled to an order against the partnership if none of the grounds of defence is a proper defence to the applicant’s claim.

Note:          For defences, see rule 16.32.

9.46  Entry of order

                   An order for or against a partnership must be entered in the partnership name and not in the name of an individual partner.

Note:          For execution of judgment against a partnership, see rule 41.21.  For execution of judgment against an individual partner, see rule 41.22.

Rules 9.47–9.50 left blank

Division 9.5Business name proceedings

9.51  Proceeding against a person who carries on a business under a business name

                   A proceeding must be started against a person in the person’s name or under Division 9.4 if:

                     (a)  the proceeding is started against the person in relation to anything done, omitted to be done or otherwise related to a business carried on in Australia by that person under a business name; and

                     (b)  the business name is registered in a register in a State or Territory in which the business is carried on and discloses the name and residential address of the person.

Note 1:       Business name and description are defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       In a proceeding against a person in the person’s business name the person must file a notice of address for service in the person’s name—see rule 11.03.

9.52  Proceeding against a business name

             (1)  A proceeding may be started against a business name if:

                     (a)  the proceeding relates to anything done, omitted to be done or otherwise related to a business carried on by a person under that business name; and

                     (b)  the person’s name is not registered in any register mentioned in paragraph 9.51(1)(b).

             (2)  If a proceeding is brought under subrule (1), the business name is sufficient designation of the person in any process.

             (3)  Any judgment or order made in the proceeding may be enforced against the person.

9.53  Proceeding under this Division or Division 9.4

                   A party to a proceeding may proceed under this Division or Division 9.4 if:

                     (a)  a proceeding is brought against a person in the person’s business name; and

                     (b)  the person files a notice of address for service under rule 11.03; and

                     (c)  a statement filed with the notice of address for service sets out the name of at least one other person with whom the person carried on business under the business name:

                              (i)  at the date specified in the originating application as the date that the cause of action arose; or

                             (ii)  when the proceeding was started.

Note:          Rule 11.03 provides that if an originating application is brought against a business name, the person served must file an address for service in the person’s name.

9.54  Amendment of parties

             (1)  As soon as practicable after filing an originating application against a person in the person’s business name, the applicant must:

                     (a)  take all reasonable steps to find out the person’s description; and

                     (b)  apply to the Court for leave to amend the application, and any other document filed in the proceeding, to enable the proceeding to continue against the person in the person’s name.

Note 1:       Description is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       Amendments to originating applications are dealt with in Division 8.3 and amendments to pleadings are dealt with in Division 16.5.

             (2)  The applicant may take a step in the proceeding (other than those mentioned in paragraph (1)(a) and arranging for service of a copy of the application under paragraph (1)(b)) only if the amendments required under paragraph (1)(b) are made or the Court gives leave.

Note:          For service on a person under a legal incapacity, see rule 10.09.

             (3)  Nothing in this rule prevents a party from amending a document under rule 16.51 or 16.53.

9.55  Variation of order

             (1)  Despite rule 41.31, a person may apply to the Court for the variation of an order made against a person in the person’s business name so that the order is made against the person in the person’s name.

             (2)  An application for a variation of an order under subrule (1) must be served personally on the person against whom the order was made.

             (3)  An order that is varied under subrule (1) may be enforced personally against the person against whom the order was made.

Note:          Rule 41.31 deals with enforcement against a business name.

9.56  Order for discovery—proceeding brought against a person in the person’s business name

             (1)  An applicant may apply to the Court for an order under subrule (2) if the applicant:

                     (a)  starts a proceeding against a person (the respondent) in the respondent’s business name; and

                     (b)  satisfies the Court that another person:

                              (i)  knows or is likely to know the respondent’s description; or

                             (ii)  has or is likely to have or has had or is likely to have had control of a document that would help ascertain the respondent’s description.

             (2)  If the Court is satisfied of the matters mentioned in paragraph (1)(b), the Court may order the other person:

                     (a)  to attend before the Court to be examined orally about the respondent’s description; and

                     (b)  to produce to the Court at that examination any document or thing in the person’s control relating to the respondent’s description; and

                     (c)  to give discovery to the applicant of all documents that are or have been in the other person’s control relating to the respondent’s description.

Note:          Description is defined in the Dictionary.

             (3)  The applicant must provide the person with sufficient conduct money to permit the person to travel to the Court.

Note:          Conduct money is defined in the Dictionary.

Rules 9.57–9.60 left blank

Division 9.6Persons under a legal incapacity

9.61  Proceeding by or against person under a legal incapacity

                   A person under a legal incapacity may start, or defend, a proceeding only by the person’s litigation representative.

Note:          Litigation representative and person under a legal incapacity are defined in the Dictionary.

9.62  Persons who may be a litigation representative

             (1)  A person, other than the following persons, may consent to being appointed a litigation representative:

                     (a)  a person under a legal incapacity;

                     (b)  a person who has a different interest in the proceeding to the person under a legal incapacity;

                     (c)  a corporation or organisation.

             (2)  However, the following corporations or organisations may be a litigation representative:

                     (a)  the NSW Public Trustee and Guardian;

                     (b)  the State Trustees of Victoria;

                     (c)  the Public Trustee of Queensland;

                     (d)  the Public Trustee of Western Australia;

                     (e)  the Public Trustee of South Australia;

                      (f)  the Public Trustee of Tasmania;

                     (g)  the Public Trustee for the Australian Capital Territory;

                     (h)  the Public Trustee for the Northern Territory;

                      (i)  a trustee company that, under a law of a State or Territory, is authorised to act as a trustee, executor or administrator.

9.63  Appointment of litigation representative by the Court

             (1)  A party or an interested person may apply to the Court for an order appointing a person as a litigation representative.

Note:          Interested person, in relation to a person under a legal incapacity, is defined in the Dictionary.

             (2)  A copy of the application must be served on the person under a legal incapacity.

             (3)  The application must be accompanied by an affidavit stating:

                     (a)  that the person for whom the appointment is to be made is a person under a legal incapacity and giving details of the nature of the legal incapacity; and

                     (b)  that the proposed litigation representative:

                              (i)  has consented, in writing, to the appointment; and

                             (ii)  is a person who, under rule 9.62, may be appointed as a litigation representative.

Note:          For service on a person under a legal incapacity, see rule 10.09.

9.64  Consent to be filed

                   A litigation representative must not take a step in the proceeding unless the following documents have been filed:

                     (a)  the litigation representative’s consent;

                     (b)  a certificate, including a statement that the litigation representative has no interest in the proceeding that is adverse to the interest of the person under a legal incapacity, signed by:

                              (i)  if the litigation representative is a lawyer—the litigation representative; and

                             (ii)  if the litigation representative is not a lawyer—the litigation representative’s lawyer.

9.65  Removal of litigation representative by the Court

             (1)  The following persons may apply to the Court for an order that the litigation representative be removed:

                     (a)  a party to the proceeding;

                     (b)  the litigation representative;

                     (c)  the person being represented if that person is no longer a person under a legal incapacity;

                     (d)  an interested person in relation to a person under a legal incapacity.

             (2)  A person mentioned in paragraph (1)(a), (b) or (d) may apply to the Court for an order that the proceeding be stayed until a replacement litigation representative has been appointed.

9.66  Conduct of proceeding

             (1)  Anything in a proceeding that is required or authorised by these Rules to be done for a person under a legal incapacity by the person may only be done by the person’s litigation representative.

Note:          A litigation representative who is defending a proceeding for a person under a legal incapacity may bring a cross‑claim under Part 15.

             (2)  If a litigation representative (the first representative) has been appointed for a person under a legal incapacity, no other litigation representative may be appointed for the person unless the first representative dies or is removed.

             (3)  A litigation representative who is not a lawyer must be represented by a lawyer.

9.67  No deemed admissions

                   Rule 16.07 does not apply to a person under a legal incapacity.

Note:          For deemed admissions, see rule 16.07.

9.68  Discovery and interrogatories

                   Parts 20 and 21 apply to a person under a legal incapacity and the person’s litigation representative.

Note:          Part 20 deals with discovery and Part 21 deals with interrogatories.

9.69  Payment into Court

                   A litigation representative must not:

                     (a)  pay money into Court in a proceeding; or

                     (b)  other than on condition that the settlement is subject to the Court’s approval—agree to the compromise or settlement of any matter in dispute in the proceeding.

Note:          The Court may dispense with compliance with this rule—see rule 1.34.

9.70  Compromise or settlement of matter in proceeding

             (1)  If a litigation representative agrees to the compromise or settlement of any matter in dispute in a proceeding, the litigation representative must apply to the Court for approval of the agreement.

             (2)  If the Court approves the agreement, the agreement is binding on the person by or for whom it was made as if:

                     (a)  the person were not under a legal incapacity; and

                     (b)  the litigation representative had made the agreement as the person’s agent.

             (3)  The Court may, as a condition of approval, require that any money or other property payable for the benefit of a person under a legal incapacity be dealt with by way of a settlement, or in any other way that the Court considers appropriate.

Note:          The Court may give approval subject to conditions—see rule 1.33.

             (4)  If the Court does not approve the agreement, the agreement is not binding on the person under a legal incapacity.

9.71  Application by litigation representative for approval of agreement

             (1)  An application by a litigation representative for approval of an agreement must be made by filing an interlocutory application.

             (2)  The interlocutory application must be accompanied by the following:

                     (a)  an affidavit stating the material facts on which the application relies;

                     (b)  the agreement that is sought to be approved;

                     (c)  an opinion of an independent lawyer that the agreement is in the best interests of the person under a legal incapacity.

Part 10Service

Division 10.1Personal service

10.01  Service on individual

                   A document that is to be served personally on an individual must be served by leaving the document with the individual.

10.02  Service on corporation

                   A document that is to be served personally on a corporation, or on the liquidator or administrator of a corporation, must be served in accordance with section 109X(1) of the Corporations Act 2001.

Note:          Section 109X(1) of the Corporations Act 2001 is as follows:

‘(1)  For the purposes of any law, a document may be served on a company by:

(a)     leaving it at, or posting it to, the company’s registered office; or

(b)     delivering a copy of the document personally to a director of the company who resides in Australia or in an external Territory; or

(c)     if a liquidator of the company has been appointed—leaving it at, or posting it to, the address of the liquidator’s office in the most recent notice of that address lodged with ASIC; or

(d)     if an administrator of the company has been appointed—leaving it at, or posting it to, the address of the administrator in the most recent notice of that address lodged with ASIC.’.

10.03  Service on unincorporated association

                   A document that is to be served personally on an unincorporated association must be served at the principal place of business, or principal office, of the association by leaving the document with a person who:

                     (a)  is apparently an adult; and

                     (b)  appears to be engaged in the service of the association.

10.04  Service on organisation

                   A document that is to be served personally on an organisation must be served at the office of the organisation shown in the records of the organisation lodged with the Fair Work Commission in accordance with section 233 of the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009, by leaving the document with a person who:

                     (a)  is apparently an adult; and

                     (b)  appears to be engaged in the service of the organisation.

Note:          Organisation is defined in the Dictionary.

10.05  Service on partnership

             (1)  A document that is to be served personally on a partnership must be served:

                     (a)  on any one or more of the partners; or

                     (b)  at a place where the partnership business is carried on, by leaving a copy of the document with a person who:

                              (i)  is apparently an adult; and

                             (ii)  appears to be engaged in the service of the partnership.

             (2)  Service of the document is taken to be service on each partner of the partnership, including any partner who was not in Australia at the time the proceeding was started.

             (3)  If the applicant is aware that a partnership has been dissolved before the proceeding was started, a document must be served on any person:

                     (a)  against whom a claim is made in the proceeding; and

                     (b)  who the applicant is aware was a partner in the partnership at the time that the cause of action arose.

10.06  Service in a proceeding brought against a person in the person’s business name

                   A document that is to be served personally in a proceeding brought against a person in the person’s business name must be served at a place where the business is carried on by leaving the document with:

                     (a)  the person; or

                     (b)  another person who:

                              (i)  is apparently an adult; and

                             (ii)  appears to be engaged in the service of the business.

10.07  Service in a proceeding under the Patents Act 1990

                   In a proceeding brought against a patentee (the respondent) in relation to a cause of action under the Patents Act 1990, a document to be served on the respondent may be served:

                     (a)  if the respondent has an address for service under section 221 of the Patents Act 1990, at that address for service;

                     (b)  by leaving the document with a person who is apparently an adult.

10.08  Service in a proceeding under the Trade Marks Act 1995

                   In a proceeding brought against the owner of a registered trade mark (the respondent) in relation to a cause of action under the Trade Marks Act 1995, a document to be served on the respondent may be served:

                     (a)  if the respondent has an address for service under section 215 of the Trade Marks Act 1995, at that address for service;

                     (b)  by leaving the document with a person who is apparently an adult.

10.09  Service on person under a legal incapacity

             (1)  If a person under a legal incapacity has a litigation representative, a document that must be served personally on the person must be served on the litigation representative.

             (2)  If the person is under a legal incapacity only because of minority and does not have a litigation representative, the document must be served:

                     (a)  if the minor is at least 16 and is not a mentally disabled person:

                              (i)  on the minor; and

                             (ii)  on the minor’s parent or guardian; or

                     (b)  if the minor has no parent or guardian:

                              (i)  on a person with whom the minor lives; or

                             (ii)  on a person who is responsible for the care of the minor.

             (3)  If the person under a legal incapacity is a mentally disabled person and does not have a litigation representative, the document must be served:

                     (a)  on the mentally disabled person’s guardian; or

                     (b)  if the mentally disabled person has no guardian:

                              (i)  on a person with whom the mentally disabled person lives; or

                             (ii)  on a person who is responsible for the care of the mentally disabled person.

             (4)  If the person under a legal incapacity cannot be served in any of the ways mentioned in subrule (2) or (3), a party may apply to the Court for an order that the document be served in some other way or on some other person.

             (5)  The application may be made before or after the document has been given to some other person.

10.10  Personal service on a person under a legal incapacity

             (1)  Despite rule 10.09, the following documents must be served personally on a person under a legal incapacity:

                     (a)  if the person is a respondent to the originating application, and an order has been made requiring the person to do or not do an act or thing—the application or order;

                     (b)  a subpoena requiring the person to attend before the Court.

             (2)  However, subrule (1) does not apply to an order:

                     (a)  to answer interrogatories; or

                     (b)  for discovery; or

                     (c)  to produce documents for inspection.

Note:          Mentally disabled person, minor and person under a legal incapacity are defined in the Dictionary.

10.11  Deemed service of originating application

                   Unless an application has been made under rule 13.01, if a respondent files a notice of address for service, defence or affidavit, or appears before the Court in response to an originating application, the originating application is taken to have been served personally on the respondent:

                     (a)  on the date on which the first of those events occurred; or

                     (b)  if personal service on the respondent is proved on an earlier date—on the earlier date.

10.12  Refusal to accept document served personally

             (1)  If a person refuses to accept a document that is required to be served personally on the person, the document is taken to have been served personally if the person serving the document:

                     (a)  puts it down in the individual’s presence; and

                     (b)  tells the individual what the document is.

             (2)  It is not necessary to show the original of the document to the person being served.

Rules 10.13–10.20 left blank

Division 10.2Service other than by personal service

10.21  Identity of person served

                   For the purpose of proving service, a statement by a person of the person’s identity, or that the person holds a particular office or position, is evidence of the person’s identity or that the person holds the office or position.

10.22  Acceptance of service by lawyer

             (1)  A lawyer may accept service of an originating application for a respondent if:

                     (a)  the lawyer has authority to accept service of an originating application for the respondent; and

                     (b)  the lawyer endorses a note on a copy of the document that the lawyer accepts service of the document for the respondent.

             (2)  A document that is endorsed by a lawyer under paragraph (1)(b) is taken to have been served personally:

                     (a)  on the date that the endorsement is made; or

                     (b)  if personal service on the respondent is proved on an earlier date—on the earlier date.

10.23  Deemed service

                   A party may apply to the Court, without notice, for an order that a document is taken to have been served on a person on a date mentioned in the order if:

                     (a)  it is not practicable to serve a document on the person in a way required by these Rules; and

                     (b)  the party provides evidence that the document has been brought to the attention of the person to be served.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

10.24  Substituted service

                   If it is not practicable to serve a document on a person in a way required by these Rules, a party may apply to the Court without notice for an order:

                     (a)  substituting another method of service; or

                     (b)  specifying that, instead of being served, certain steps be taken to bring the document to the attention of the person; or

                     (c)  specifying that the document is taken to have been served:

                              (i)  on the happening of a specified event; or

                             (ii)  at the end of a specified time.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

10.25  Service by filing

                   The filing of a document has effect as service of the document on the person to be served if:

                     (a)  personal service of the document is not required; and

                     (b)  the person to be served:

                              (i)  has not filed an address for service; or

                             (ii)  does not have a current address for service; and

                     (c)  the document was sent to the person’s proper address and there is proof of non‑delivery of the document.

Note:          Proper address, for a person to be served, is defined in the Dictionary.

10.26  Service by Court

                   An order, notice or other document in a proceeding that is to be given to, or served on, a person by the Court or an officer of the Court may be given or served in any way permitted under rule 10.31.

10.27  Service of interlocutory injunction

                   If the Court grants an interlocutory injunction, a party may serve a copy of the Court’s order by sending a copy of it by fax or electronic communication to each party on whom the order is to be served.

10.28  Service under agreement

             (1)  If a respondent in a proceeding has agreed that an originating application or other document in the proceeding may be served on the respondent, or on another person for the respondent, in a way or at a place mentioned in the agreement, the document may be served in accordance with the agreement.

             (2)  If an applicant in a proceeding has agreed that a document in the proceeding may be served on the applicant, or on another person for the applicant, in a way or at a place mentioned in the agreement, the document may be served in accordance with the agreement.

Rules 10.29–10.30 left blank

Division 10.3Ordinary service

10.31  Ordinary service

                   A document that is not required to be served personally may be served in any of the following ways:

                     (a)  by serving the document personally, in accordance with Division 10.1;

                     (b)  by sending the document by pre‑paid post addressed to the person at the person’s proper address;

                     (c)  if the person has filed a notice authorising service by fax—by sending the document to the fax number;

                     (d)  if the person has filed a notice authorising service by electronic communication—by sending the document to the email address;

                     (e)  at a party’s lawyer’s email address if:

                              (i)  the party is represented by a lawyer; and

                             (ii)  the lawyer has filed a notice of address for service that conforms with rule 11.01.

Note:          Proper address, for a person to be served, is defined in the Dictionary.

10.32  Time of service

                   A document that is served on a person under rule 10.31 is taken to be served on the person:

                     (a)  if the document was sent by pre‑paid post—on the fourth business day after the document was sent; or

                     (b)  if the document was sent by fax—on the next business day after the document was sent; or

                     (c)  if the document was sent by electronic communication—on the next business day after the document was sent.

Rules 10.33–10.40 left blank

Division 10.4Service outside Australia

10.41  Definitions for Division 10.4

                   In this Division:

convention, for a foreign country, means a convention (other than the Hague Convention), agreement, arrangement or treaty about service abroad of judicial documents to which the Crown in right of the Commonwealth or, if appropriate, in right of a State, and a foreign country are parties.

foreign country means a country other than Australia.

Hague Convention means the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters done at the Hague on 15 November 1965.

Note 1:       Originating application is defined in the Dictionary.

Note 2:       The Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act provides for service in New Zealand of initiating documents in civil proceedings started in Australian courts. An initiating document includes a document by which a civil proceeding is started in an Australian court. An Australian court includes a federal court. Division 2 of Part 2 of the Trans‑Tasman Proceedings Act provides for the manner of service of initiating documents. An applicant in a proceeding in this Court may proceed under that Act rather than this Division.

10.42  When originating application may be served outside Australia

                   Subject to rule 10.43, an originating application, or an application under Part 7 of these Rules, may be served on a person in a foreign country in a proceeding that consists of, or includes, any one or more of the kinds of proceeding mentioned in the following table.

 

Item

Kind of proceeding in which originating application may be served on a person outside Australia

1

Proceeding based on a cause of action arising in Australia

2

Proceeding based on a breach of a contract in Australia

3

Proceeding in relation to a contract that:

(a) is made in Australia; or

(b) is made on behalf of the person to be served by or through an agent who carries on business, or is resident, in Australia; or

(c) is governed by the law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory;

in which the applicant seeks:

(d) an order for the enforcement, rescission, dissolution, rectification or annulment of the contract; or

(e) an order otherwise affecting the contract; or

(f) an order for damages or other relief in relation to a breach of the contract

4

Proceeding based on a tort committed in Australia

5

Proceeding based on, or seeking the recovery of, damage suffered wholly or partly in Australia caused by a tortious act or omission (wherever occurring)

6

Proceeding in Australia seeking the construction, rectification, setting aside or enforcement of:

(a) a deed, will or other instrument; or

(b) a contract, obligation or liability

affecting property in Australia

7

Proceeding seeking the execution of a trust governed by a law of the Commonwealth, or of a State or Territory, or associated relief

8

Proceeding that affects the person to be served in relation to the person’s membership of a corporation that carries on business in Australia or is registered in a State or Territory as a foreign company

9

Proceeding in relation to an arbitration carried out in Australia

10

Proceeding for an order under Division 28.5 in relation to an arbitration under the International Arbitration Act 1974

11

Proceeding in which the Court has jurisdiction, seeking relief in relation to the guardianship, protection, or care, welfare and development of a person under 18 years (whether or not the person is in Australia)

12

Proceeding based on a contravention of an Act that is committed in Australia

13

Proceeding based on a contravention of an Act (wherever occurring) seeking relief in relation to damage suffered wholly or partly in Australia

14

Proceeding in relation to the construction, effect or enforcement of an Act, regulations or any other instrument having, or purporting to have, effect under an Act

15

Proceeding seeking any relief or remedy under an Act, including the Judiciary Act 1903

16

Proceeding in relation to the effect or enforcement of an executive, ministerial or administrative act done, or purporting to be done, under an Act, regulations or any other instrument having, or purporting to have, effect under an Act

17

Proceeding seeking contribution or indemnity in relation to a liability enforceable by a proceeding in the Court

18

Proceeding in which:

(a) the person to be served is domiciled or ordinarily resident in Australia; or

(b) if the person to be served is a corporation—the corporation is incorporated in Australia, carries on business in Australia or is registered in a State or Territory as a foreign company

19

Proceeding in which the person to be served has submitted to the jurisdiction of the Court

20

Proceeding properly brought against a person who is served, or is to be served, in Australia, if the person to be served has been properly joined as a party

21

Proceeding in which the subject matter, to the extent that it concerns the person to be served, is property in Australia

22

Proceeding seeking the perpetuation of testimony in relation to property in Australia

23

Proceeding seeking an injunction ordering a person to do, or to refrain from doing, anything in Australia (whether or not damages are also sought)

24

Proceeding affecting the person to be served in relation to:

(a) the person’s membership of, or office in, a corporation incorporated, or carrying on business, in Australia; or

(b) the person’s membership of, or office in, an association or organisation formed, or carrying on business, in Australia; or

(c) the person’s conduct as a member or officer of such a corporation, association or organisation

10.43  Application for leave to serve originating application outside Australia

             (1)  Service of an originating application on a person in a foreign country is effective for the purpose of a proceeding only if:

                     (a)  the Court has given leave under subrule (2) before the application is served; or

                     (b)  the Court confirms the service under subrule (6); or

                     (c)  the person served waives any objection to the service by filing a notice of address for service without also making an application under rule 13.01.

Note:          A respondent may apply to set aside an originating application or service of that application—see rule 13.01.

             (2)  A party may apply to the Court for leave to serve an originating application on a person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of the foreign country.

             (3)  The application under subrule (2) must be accompanied by an affidavit stating:

                     (a)  the name of the foreign country where the person to be served is or is likely to be; and

                     (b)  the proposed method of service; and

                     (c)  that the proposed method of service is permitted by:

                              (i)  if a convention applies—the convention; or

                             (ii)  if the Hague Convention applies—the Hague Convention; or

                            (iii)  in any other case—the law of the foreign country.

             (4)  For subrule (2), the party must satisfy the Court that:

                     (a)  the Court has jurisdiction in the proceeding; and

                     (b)  the proceeding is of a kind mentioned in rule 10.42; and

                     (c)  the party has a prima facie case for all or any of the relief claimed in the proceeding.

Note 1:       The law of a foreign country may permit service through the diplomatic channel or service by a private agent—see Division 10.5.

Note 2:       Rules 10.63 to 10.68 deal with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

Note 3:       The Court may give permission under subrule (4) on conditions—see rule 1.33.

             (5)  A party may apply to the Court for leave to give notice, in a foreign country, of a proceeding in the Court, if giving the notice takes the place of serving the originating application.

             (6)  If an originating application was served on a person in a foreign country without the leave of the Court, a party may apply to the Court for an order confirming the service.

             (7)  For subrule (6), the party must satisfy the Court that:

                     (a)  paragraphs (4)(a) to (c) apply to the proceeding; and

                     (b)  the service was permitted by:

                              (i)  if a convention applies—the convention; or

                             (ii)  if the Hague Convention applies—the Hague Convention; or

                            (iii)  in any other case—the law of the foreign country; and

                     (c)  there is a sufficient explanation for the failure to apply for leave.

10.44  Service of other documents

             (1)  A party may apply to the Court for leave to serve a document filed in or issued by the Court, other than an originating application, on a person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of the foreign country.

Note 1:       The law of a foreign country may permit service through the diplomatic channel or service by a private agent—see Division 10.5.

Note 2:       Rules 10.63 to 10.68 deal with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

Note 3:       The Court may give permission under subrule (4) on conditions—see rule 1.33.

             (2)  An application under subrule (1) must be accompanied by an affidavit that includes the information mentioned in paragraphs 10.43(3)(a) to (c).

             (3)  If a document, other than an originating application, was served on a person in a foreign country without the leave of the Court, a party may apply to the Court for an order confirming the service.

             (4)  For subrule (3), the party must satisfy the Court that:

                     (a)  the service was permitted by:

                              (i)  if a convention applies—the convention; or

                             (ii)  if the Hague Convention applies—the Hague Convention; or

                            (iii)  in any other case—the law of the foreign country; and

                     (b)  there is a sufficient explanation for the failure to apply for leave.

10.45  Application of other rules

                   The other provisions of Part 10 apply to service of a document on a person in a foreign country in the same way as they apply to service on a person in Australia, to the extent that they are:

                     (a)  relevant and consistent with this Division; and

                     (b)  consistent with:

                              (i)  if a convention applies—the convention; or

                             (ii)  if the Hague Convention applies—the Hague Convention; or

                            (iii)  in any other case—the law of the foreign country.

10.46  Method of service

                   A document that is to be served on a person in a foreign country need not be served personally on the person if it is served according to the law of the foreign country.

10.47  Proof of service

             (1)  This rule does not apply to a document served in accordance with the Hague Convention.

Note:          Rules 10.63 to 10.68 deal with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

             (2)  An official certificate or declaration (whether made on oath or otherwise) stating that a document has been personally served on a person in a foreign country, or served on the person in another way in accordance with the law of the foreign country, is sufficient proof of the service of the document.

             (3)  If filed, a certificate or declaration mentioned in subrule (2):

                     (a)  is taken to be a record of the service of the document; and

                     (b)  has effect as if it were an affidavit of service.

10.48  Deemed service

                   A party may apply to the Court without notice for an order that a document is taken to have been served on a person on the date mentioned in the order if:

                     (a)  it is not practicable to serve the document on the person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of a foreign country; and

                     (b)  the party provides evidence that the document has been brought to the attention of the person to be served.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

10.49  Substituted service

                   If service was not successful on a person in a foreign country, in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of a foreign country, a party may apply to the Court without notice for an order:

                     (a)  substituting another method of service; or

                     (b)  specifying that, instead of being served, certain steps be taken to bring the document to the attention of the person; or

                     (c)  specifying that the document is taken to have been served:

                              (i)  on the happening of a specified event; or

                             (ii)  at the end of a specified time.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

Rule 10.50 left blank

Division 10.5Service through diplomatic channel or by transmission to foreign government

10.51  Documents to be lodged with the Court

                   If a party has been given leave to serve a document on a person in a foreign country:

                     (a)  through the diplomatic channel; or

                     (b)  by transmission to a foreign government in accordance with a convention (the relevant convention);

the party must lodge in the District Registry:

                     (c)  a request for service, in accordance with Form 23; and

                     (d)  a request for transmission, in accordance with Form 24; and

                     (e)  the party’s or the party’s lawyer’s written undertaking, to pay to the Chief Executive Officer the amount of the expenses incurred by the Court in giving effect to the party’s request; and

                      (f)  the number of copies of each document that are required by the relevant conventions to be served; and

                     (g)  if necessary, a translation into the foreign country’s official language (including a statement by the translator attesting to the accuracy of the translation) of the following:

                              (i)  the request for transmission mentioned in paragraph (d);

                             (ii)  each document to be served.

Note:          This rule does not apply if a person has been given leave to serve a document on a person in a foreign country that is a party to the Hague Convention. Service in a foreign country that is a party to the Hague Convention is dealt with in Division 10.6.

10.52  Order for payment of expenses

                   If a party, or a party’s lawyer, gives an undertaking under paragraph 10.51(e) and does not, within 14 days after being sent an account for expenses incurred in relation to the request, pay to the Chief Executive Officer the amount of the expenses, the Court may without notice make an order that:

                     (a)  the amount of the expenses be paid to the Chief Executive Officer within a specified period of time; and

                     (b)  the proceeding be stayed, to the extent that it concerns the whole or any part of a claim for relief by the party, until the amount of the expenses is paid.

Note:          Without notice is defined in the Dictionary.

Rules 10.53–10.60 left blank

Division 10.6Service under Hague Convention

Note 1:       This Division forms part of a scheme to implement Australia’s obligations under the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters. Under the Convention, the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth is designated as the Central Authority (under Article 2 of the Convention) and certain courts and government departments are, for certain purposes, designated as ‘other’ or ‘additional’ authorities (under Article 18 of the Convention).

Note 2:       This Division provides (in rules 10.63 to 10.68) for service in overseas Convention countries of local judicial documents (documents that relate to proceedings in the Court) and (in rules 10.69 to 10.72) for default judgment in proceedings in the Court after service overseas of such a document. Rules 10.74 to 10.76, on the other hand, deal with service by the Court or arranged by the Court in its role as an other or additional authority, of judicial documents emanating from overseas Convention countries.

Note 3:       The Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth maintains a copy of the Convention, a list of all Convention countries, details of declarations and objections made under the Convention by each of those countries and the names and addresses of the Central and other authorities of each of those countries. A copy of the Convention can be found at http://www.hcch.net.

10.61  Definitions for Division 10.6

                   In this Division:

additional authority, for a Convention country, means an authority that is:

                     (a)  for the time being designated by the country, under Article 18 of the Hague Convention, to be an authority (other than the Central Authority) for the country; and

                     (b)  competent to receive requests for service abroad emanating from Australia.

applicant, for a request for service abroad or a request for service in this jurisdiction, means the person on whose behalf service is requested.

Note:          The term applicant may have a different meaning in other provisions of these Rules.

Central Authority, for a Convention country, means an authority that is for the time being designated by that country, under Article 2 of the Hague Convention, to be the Central Authority for that country.

certificate of service means a certificate of service that has been completed for the purposes of Article 6 of the Hague Convention.