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AASB 112 - Income Taxes - August 2015

Authoritative Version
AASB 112 Standards/Accounting & Auditing as amended, taking into account amendments up to Accounting Standard AASB 2018-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Annual Improvements 2015–2017 Cycle
Administered by: Treasury
Registered 29 Apr 2019
Start Date 31 Dec 2018

Compiled AASB Standard

AASB 112

 

This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted for annual periods beginning after 24 July 2014 but before 1 January 2019. It incorporates relevant amendments made up to and including 14 February 2018.

Prepared on 29 March 2019 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board.

Compilation no. 2

Compilation date:  31 December 2018

Title: AASB logo - Description: AASB logo with Australian crest and text identifying the Australian Government and the Australian Accounting Standards Board.
 



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© Commonwealth of Australia 2019

This compiled AASB Standard contains IFRS Foundation copyright material.  Reproduction within Australia in unaltered form (retaining this notice) is permitted for personal and non-commercial use subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source.  Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights for commercial purposes within Australia should be addressed to The National Director, Australian Accounting Standards Board, PO Box 204, Collins Street West, Victoria 8007.

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Contents

COMPARISON WITH IAS 12

ACCOUNTING STANDARD

AASB 112 INCOME TAXES

from paragraph

Objective                                                                                                                                                                              

Scope                                                                                                                                                                                        1

Definitions                                                                                                                                                                          5

Tax base                                                                                                                                                                                     7

Recognition of current tax liabilities and current tax assets                                      12

Recognition of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets

Taxable temporary differences                                                                                                                                         15

Business combinations                                                                                                                                               19

Assets carried at fair value                                                                                                                                         20

Goodwill                                                                                                                                                                         21

Initial recognition of an asset or liability                                                                                                                 22

Deductible temporary differences                                                                                                                                     24

Goodwill                                                                                                                                                                      32A

Initial recognition of an asset or liability                                                                                                                 33

Unused tax losses and unused tax credits                                                                                                                         34

Reassessment of unrecognised deferred tax assets                                                                                                        37

Investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements                                 38

Measurement                                                                                                                                                                  46

Recognition of current and deferred tax                                                                                           57

Items recognised in profit or loss                                                                                                                                      58

Items recognised outside profit or loss                                                                                                                             61

Deferred tax arising from a business combination                                                                                                       66

Current and deferred tax arising from share-based payment transactions                                                        68A

Presentation

Tax assets and tax liabilities                                                                                                                                               69

Offset                                                                                                                                                                             71

Tax expense

Tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities                                                            77

Exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets                                                                      78

Disclosure                                                                                                                                                                        79

Effective date                                                                                                                                                              89

Withdrawal of SIC-21                                                                                                                                               99

Commencement of the legislative instrument                                                                    Aus99.1

Withdrawal of AASB pronouncements                                                                                           Aus99.2

AppendiX

A Australian reduced disclosure requirements

Illustrative examples

Examples of temporary differences

Illustrative computations and presentation

COMPILATION DETAILS

Deleted IAS 12 text

available on the AASB website

Basis for Conclusions on IAS 12

 

Australian Accounting Standard AASB 112 Income Taxes (as amended) is set out in paragraphs 1 – Aus99.2 and Appendix A.  All the paragraphs have equal authority.  Paragraphs in bold type state the main principles.  AASB 112 is to be read in the context of other Australian Accounting Standards, including AASB 1048 Interpretation of Standards, which identifies the Australian Accounting Interpretations, and AASB 1057 Application of Australian Accounting Standards.  In the absence of explicit guidance, AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies.

 

 


Comparison with IAS 12

AASB 112 Income Taxes as amended incorporates IAS 12 Income Taxes as issued and amended by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).  Australian‑specific paragraphs (which are not included in IAS 12) are identified with the prefix “Aus” or “RDR”.  Paragraphs that apply only to not-for-profit entities begin by identifying their limited applicability.

Tier 1

For-profit entities complying with AASB 112 also comply with IAS 12.

Not-for-profit entities’ compliance with IAS 12 will depend on whether any “Aus” paragraphs that specifically apply to not-for-profit entities provide additional guidance or contain applicable requirements that are inconsistent with IAS 12.

Tier 2

Entities preparing general purpose financial statements under Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements (Tier 2) will not be in compliance with IFRS Standards.

AASB 1053 Application of Tiers of Australian Accounting Standards explains the two tiers of reporting requirements.

 


Accounting Standard AASB 112

The Australian Accounting Standards Board made Accounting Standard AASB 112 Income Taxes under section 334 of the Corporations Act 2001 on 7 August 2015.

 

This compiled version of AASB 112 applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.  It incorporates relevant amendments contained in other AASB Standards made by the AASB up to and including 14 February 2018 (see Compilation Details).

Accounting Standard AASB 112

Income Taxes

Objective

                 The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for income taxes. The principal issue in accounting for income taxes is how to account for the current and future tax consequences of:

(a)            the future recovery (settlement) of the carrying amount of assets (liabilities) that are recognised in an entity’s statement of financial position; and

(b)            transactions and other events of the current period that are recognised in an entity’s financial statements.

                 It is inherent in the recognition of an asset or liability that the reporting entity expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of that asset or liability. If it is probable that recovery or settlement of that carrying amount will make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences, this Standard requires an entity to recognise a deferred tax liability (deferred tax asset), with certain limited exceptions.

                 This Standard requires an entity to account for the tax consequences of transactions and other events in the same way that it accounts for the transactions and other events themselves. Thus, for transactions and other events recognised in profit or loss, any related tax effects are also recognised in profit or loss. For transactions and other events recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity), any related tax effects are also recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively). Similarly, the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities in a business combination affects the amount of goodwill arising in that business combination or the amount of the bargain purchase gain recognised

                 This Standard also deals with the recognition of deferred tax assets arising from unused tax losses or unused tax credits, the presentation of income taxes in the financial statements and the disclosure of information relating to income taxes.

Scope

1               This Standard shall be applied in accounting for income taxes.

2               For the purposes of this Standard, income taxes include all domestic and foreign taxes which are based on taxable profits. Income taxes also include taxes, such as withholding taxes, which are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint arrangement on distributions to the reporting entity.

Aus2.1                      For public sector entities and for the purposes of this Standard, income taxes also include forms of income tax that may be payable by a public sector entity under their own enabling legislation or other authority. These forms of income tax are often referred to as “income tax equivalents”.

3               [Deleted]

4               This Standard does not deal with the methods of accounting for government grants (see AASB 120 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance) or investment tax credits. However, this Standard does deal with the accounting for temporary differences that may arise from such grants or investment tax credits.

Aus4.1     In respect of not-for-profit entities, AASB 1058 Income of Not-for-Profit Entities and AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers address the accounting for government grants.

Definitions

5               The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

Accounting profit is profit or loss for a period before deducting tax expense.

Taxable profit (tax loss) is the profit (loss) for a period, determined in accordance with the rules established by the taxation authorities, upon which income taxes are payable (recoverable).

Tax expense (tax income) is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for a period.

Deferred tax liabilities are the amounts of income taxes payable in future periods in respect of taxable temporary differences.

Deferred tax assets are the amounts of income taxes recoverable in future periods in respect of:

(a)            deductible temporary differences;

(b)            the carryforward of unused tax losses; and

(c)             the carryforward of unused tax credits.

Temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position and its tax base. Temporary differences may be either:

(a)            taxable temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in taxable amounts in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled; or

(b)            deductible temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in amounts that are deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled.

The tax base of an asset or liability is the amount attributed to that asset or liability for tax purposes.

6               Tax expense (tax income) comprises current tax expense (current tax income) and deferred tax expense (deferred tax income).

Tax base

7               The tax base of an asset is the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes against any taxable economic benefits that will flow to an entity when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset. If those economic benefits will not be taxable, the tax base of the asset is equal to its carrying amount.

 

Examples

1

A machine cost 100. For tax purposes, depreciation of 30 has already been deducted in the current and prior periods and the remaining cost will be deductible in future periods, either as depreciation or through a deduction on disposal. Revenue generated by using the machine is taxable, any gain on disposal of the machine will be taxable and any loss on disposal will be deductible for tax purposes. The tax base of the machine is 70.

2

Interest receivable has a carrying amount of 100. The related interest revenue will be taxed on a cash basis. The tax base of the interest receivable is nil.

3

Trade receivables have a carrying amount of 100. The related revenue has already been included in taxable profit (tax loss). The tax base of the trade receivables is 100.

4

Dividends receivable from a subsidiary have a carrying amount of 100. The dividends are not taxable. In substance, the entire carrying amount of the asset is deductible against the economic benefits. Consequently, the tax base of the dividends receivable is 100.(a)

5

A loan receivable has a carrying amount of 100. The repayment of the loan will have no tax consequences. The tax base of the loan is 100.

(a)           Under this analysis, there is no taxable temporary difference. An alternative analysis is that the accrued dividends receivable have a tax base of nil and that a tax rate of nil is applied to the resulting taxable temporary difference of 100. Under both analyses, there is no deferred tax liability.

 

8               The tax base of a liability is its carrying amount, less any amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods. In the case of revenue which is received in advance, the tax base of the resulting liability is its carrying amount, less any amount of the revenue that will not be taxable in future periods.

 

Examples

1

Current liabilities include accrued expenses with a carrying amount of 100. The related expense will be deducted for tax purposes on a cash basis. The tax base of the accrued expenses is nil.

2

Current liabilities include interest revenue received in advance, with a carrying amount of 100. The related interest revenue was taxed on a cash basis. The tax base of the interest received in advance is nil.

3

Current liabilities include accrued expenses with a carrying amount of 100. The related expense has already been deducted for tax purposes. The tax base of the accrued expenses is 100.

4

Current liabilities include accrued fines and penalties with a carrying amount of 100. Fines and penalties are not deductible for tax purposes. The tax base of the accrued fines and penalties is 100.(a)

5

A loan payable has a carrying amount of 100. The repayment of the loan will have no tax consequences. The tax base of the loan is 100.

(a)           Under this analysis, there is no deductible temporary difference. An alternative analysis is that the accrued fines and penalties payable have a tax base of nil and that a tax rate of nil is applied to the resulting deductible temporary difference of 100. Under both analyses, there is no deferred tax asset.

 

9               Some items have a tax base but are not recognised as assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position. For example, research costs are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period. The difference between the tax base of the research costs, being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset.

10             Where the tax base of an asset or liability is not immediately apparent, it is helpful to consider the fundamental principle upon which this Standard is based: that an entity shall, with certain limited exceptions, recognise a deferred tax liability (asset) whenever recovery or settlement of the carrying amount of an asset or liability would make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences. Example C following paragraph 51A illustrates circumstances when it may be helpful to consider this fundamental principle, for example, when the tax base of an asset or liability depends on the expected manner of recovery or settlement.

11             In consolidated financial statements, temporary differences are determined by comparing the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements with the appropriate tax base. The tax base is determined by reference to a consolidated tax return in those jurisdictions in which such a return is filed. In other jurisdictions, the tax base is determined by reference to the tax returns of each entity in the group.

Recognition of current tax liabilities and current tax assets

12             Current tax for current and prior periods shall, to the extent unpaid, be recognised as a liability. If the amount already paid in respect of current and prior periods exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess shall be recognised as an asset.

13             The benefit relating to a tax loss that can be carried back to recover current tax of a previous period shall be recognised as an asset.

14             When a tax loss is used to recover current tax of a previous period, an entity recognises the benefit as an asset in the period in which the tax loss occurs because it is probable that the benefit will flow to the entity and the benefit can be reliably measured.

Recognition of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets

Taxable temporary differences

15             A deferred tax liability shall be recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except to the extent that the deferred tax liability arises from:

(a)            the initial recognition of goodwill; or

(b)            the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which:

(i)             is not a business combination; and

(ii)            at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, a deferred tax liability shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 39.

16             It is inherent in the recognition of an asset that its carrying amount will be recovered in the form of economic benefits that flow to the entity in future periods. When the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its tax base, the amount of taxable economic benefits will exceed the amount that will be allowed as a deduction for tax purposes. This difference is a taxable temporary difference and the obligation to pay the resulting income taxes in future periods is a deferred tax liability. As the entity recovers the carrying amount of the asset, the taxable temporary difference will reverse and the entity will have taxable profit. This makes it probable that economic benefits will flow from the entity in the form of tax payments. Therefore, this Standard requires the recognition of all deferred tax liabilities, except in certain circumstances described in paragraphs 15 and 39.

 

Example

An asset which cost 150 has a carrying amount of 100. Cumulative depreciation for tax purposes is 90 and the tax rate is 25%.

The tax base of the asset is 60 (cost of 150 less cumulative tax depreciation of 90). To recover the carrying amount of 100, the entity must earn taxable income of 100, but will only be able to deduct tax depreciation of 60. Consequently, the entity will pay income taxes of 10 (40 at 25%) when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset. The difference between the carrying amount of 100 and the tax base of 60 is a taxable temporary difference of 40. Therefore, the entity recognises a deferred tax liability of 10 (40 at 25%) representing the income taxes that it will pay when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset.

 

17             Some temporary differences arise when income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period but is included in taxable profit in a different period. Such temporary differences are often described as timing differences. The following are examples of temporary differences of this kind which are taxable temporary differences and which therefore result in deferred tax liabilities:

(a)            interest revenue is included in accounting profit on a time proportion basis but may, in some jurisdictions, be included in taxable profit when cash is collected. The tax base of any receivable recognised in the statement of financial position with respect to such revenues is nil because the revenues do not affect taxable profit until cash is collected;

(b)            depreciation used in determining taxable profit (tax loss) may differ from that used in determining accounting profit. The temporary difference is the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its tax base which is the original cost of the asset less all deductions in respect of that asset permitted by the taxation authorities in determining taxable profit of the current and prior periods. A taxable temporary difference arises, and results in a deferred tax liability, when tax depreciation is accelerated (if tax depreciation is less rapid than accounting depreciation, a deductible temporary difference arises, and results in a deferred tax asset); and

(c)             development costs may be capitalised and amortised over future periods in determining accounting profit but deducted in determining taxable profit in the period in which they are incurred. Such development costs have a tax base of nil as they have already been deducted from taxable profit. The temporary difference is the difference between the carrying amount of the development costs and their tax base of nil.

18             Temporary differences also arise when:

(a)            the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recognised at their fair values in accordance with AASB 3 Business Combinations, but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes (see paragraph 19);

(b)            assets are revalued and no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes (see paragraph 20);

(c)             goodwill arises in a business combination (see paragraph 21);

(d)            the tax base of an asset or liability on initial recognition differs from its initial carrying amount, for example when an entity benefits from non-taxable government grants related to assets (see paragraphs 22, 33 and Aus33.1); or

(e)             the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint arrangements becomes different from the tax base of the investment or interest (see paragraphs 38–45).

Business combinations

19             With limited exceptions, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recognised at their fair values at the acquisition date. Temporary differences arise when the tax bases of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are not affected by the business combination or are affected differently. For example, when the carrying amount of an asset is increased to fair value but the tax base of the asset remains at cost to the previous owner, a taxable temporary difference arises which results in a deferred tax liability. The resulting deferred tax liability affects goodwill (see paragraph 66).

Assets carried at fair value

20             Australian Accounting Standards permit or require certain assets to be carried at fair value or to be revalued (see, for example, AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment, AASB 138 Intangible Assets, AASB 140 Investment Property, AASB 9 Financial Instruments and AASB 16 Leases). In some jurisdictions, the revaluation or other restatement of an asset to fair value affects taxable profit (tax loss) for the current period. As a result, the tax base of the asset is adjusted and no temporary difference arises. In other jurisdictions, the revaluation or restatement of an asset does not affect taxable profit in the period of the revaluation or restatement and, consequently, the tax base of the asset is not adjusted. Nevertheless, the future recovery of the carrying amount will result in a taxable flow of economic benefits to the entity and the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes will differ from the amount of those economic benefits. The difference between the carrying amount of a revalued asset and its tax base is a temporary difference and gives rise to a deferred tax liability or asset. This is true even if:

(a)            the entity does not intend to dispose of the asset. In such cases, the revalued carrying amount of the asset will be recovered through use and this will generate taxable income which exceeds the depreciation that will be allowable for tax purposes in future periods; or

(b)            tax on capital gains is deferred if the proceeds of the disposal of the asset are invested in similar assets. In such cases, the tax will ultimately become payable on sale or use of the similar assets.

Goodwill

21             Goodwill arising in a business combination is measured as the excess of (a) over (b) below:

(a)            the aggregate of:

(i)              the consideration transferred measured in accordance with AASB 3, which generally requires acquisition-date fair value;

(ii)             the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree recognised in accordance with AASB 3; and

(iii)            in a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree.

(b)            the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed measured in accordance with AASB 3.

Many taxation authorities do not allow reductions in the carrying amount of goodwill as a deductible expense in determining taxable profit. Moreover, in such jurisdictions, the cost of goodwill is often not deductible when a subsidiary disposes of its underlying business. In such jurisdictions, goodwill has a tax base of nil. Any difference between the carrying amount of goodwill and its tax base of nil is a taxable temporary difference. However, this Standard does not permit the recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability because goodwill is measured as a residual and the recognition of the deferred tax liability would increase the carrying amount of goodwill.

21A          Subsequent reductions in a deferred tax liability that is unrecognised because it arises from the initial recognition of goodwill are also regarded as arising from the initial recognition of goodwill and are therefore not recognised under paragraph 15(a). For example, if in a business combination an entity recognises goodwill of CU100 that has a tax base of nil, paragraph 15(a) prohibits the entity from recognising the resulting deferred tax liability. If the entity subsequently recognises an impairment loss of CU20 for that goodwill, the amount of the taxable temporary difference relating to the goodwill is reduced from CU100 to CU80, with a resulting decrease in the value of the unrecognised deferred tax liability. That decrease in the value of the unrecognised deferred tax liability is also regarded as relating to the initial recognition of the goodwill and is therefore prohibited from being recognised under paragraph 15(a).

21B          Deferred tax liabilities for taxable temporary differences relating to goodwill are, however, recognised to the extent they do not arise from the initial recognition of goodwill. For example, if in a business combination an entity recognises goodwill of CU100 that is deductible for tax purposes at a rate of 20 per cent per year starting in the year of acquisition, the tax base of the goodwill is CU100 on initial recognition and CU80 at the end of the year of acquisition. If the carrying amount of goodwill at the end of the year of acquisition remains unchanged at CU100, a taxable temporary difference of CU20 arises at the end of that year. Because that taxable temporary difference does not relate to the initial recognition of the goodwill, the resulting deferred tax liability is recognised.

Initial recognition of an asset or liability

22             A temporary difference may arise on initial recognition of an asset or liability, for example if part or all of the cost of an asset will not be deductible for tax purposes. The method of accounting for such a temporary difference depends on the nature of the transaction that led to the initial recognition of the asset or liability:

(a)            in a business combination, an entity recognises any deferred tax liability or asset and this affects the amount of goodwill or bargain purchase gain it recognises (see paragraph 19);

(b)            if the transaction affects either accounting profit or taxable profit, an entity recognises any deferred tax liability or asset and recognises the resulting deferred tax expense or income in profit or loss (see paragraph 59);

(c)             if the transaction is not a business combination, and affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit, an entity would, in the absence of the exemption provided by paragraphs 15 and 24, recognise the resulting deferred tax liability or asset and adjust the carrying amount of the asset or liability by the same amount. Such adjustments would make the financial statements less transparent. Therefore, this Standard does not permit an entity to recognise the resulting deferred tax liability or asset, either on initial recognition or subsequently (see example below). Furthermore, an entity does not recognise subsequent changes in the unrecognised deferred tax liability or asset as the asset is depreciated.

 

Example illustrating paragraph 22(c)

An entity intends to use an asset which cost 1,000 throughout its useful life of five years and then dispose of it for a residual value of nil. The tax rate is 40%. Depreciation of the asset is not deductible for tax purposes. On disposal, any capital gain would not be taxable and any capital loss would not be deductible.

As it recovers the carrying amount of the asset, the entity will earn taxable income of 1,000 and pay tax of 400. The entity does not recognise the resulting deferred tax liability of 400 because it results from the initial recognition of the asset.

In the following year, the carrying amount of the asset is 800. In earning taxable income of 800, the entity will pay tax of 320. The entity does not recognise the deferred tax liability of 320 because it results from the initial recognition of the asset.

 

23             In accordance with AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Presentation the issuer of a compound financial instrument (for example, a convertible bond) classifies the instrument’s liability component as a liability and the equity component as equity. In some jurisdictions, the tax base of the liability component on initial recognition is equal to the initial carrying amount of the sum of the liability and equity components. The resulting taxable temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of the equity component separately from the liability component. Therefore, the exception set out in paragraph 15(b) does not apply. Consequently, an entity recognises the resulting deferred tax liability. In accordance with paragraph 61A, the deferred tax is charged directly to the carrying amount of the equity component. In accordance with paragraph 58, subsequent changes in the deferred tax liability are recognised in profit or loss as deferred tax expense (income).

Deductible temporary differences

24             A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised, unless the deferred tax asset arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that:

(a)            is not a business combination; and

(b)            at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, a deferred tax asset shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 44.

25             It is inherent in the recognition of a liability that the carrying amount will be settled in future periods through an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits. When resources flow from the entity, part or all of their amounts may be deductible in determining taxable profit of a period later than the period in which the liability is recognised. In such cases, a temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base. Accordingly, a deferred tax asset arises in respect of the income taxes that will be recoverable in the future periods when that part of the liability is allowed as a deduction in determining taxable profit. Similarly, if the carrying amount of an asset is less than its tax base, the difference gives rise to a deferred tax asset in respect of the income taxes that will be recoverable in future periods.

 

Example

An entity recognises a liability of 100 for accrued product warranty costs. For tax purposes, the product warranty costs will not be deductible until the entity pays claims. The tax rate is 25%.

The tax base of the liability is nil (carrying amount of 100, less the amount that will be deductible for tax purposes in respect of that liability in future periods). In settling the liability for its carrying amount, the entity will reduce its future taxable profit by an amount of 100 and, consequently, reduce its future tax payments by 25 (100 at 25%). The difference between the carrying amount of 100 and the tax base of nil is a deductible temporary difference of 100. Therefore, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset of 25 (100 at 25%), provided that it is probable that the entity will earn sufficient taxable profit in future periods to benefit from a reduction in tax payments.

 

26             The following are examples of deductible temporary differences that result in deferred tax assets:

(a)            retirement benefit costs may be deducted in determining accounting profit as service is provided by the employee, but deducted in determining taxable profit either when contributions are paid to a fund by the entity or when retirement benefits are paid by the entity. A temporary difference exists between the carrying amount of the liability and its tax base; the tax base of the liability is usually nil. Such a deductible temporary difference results in a deferred tax asset as economic benefits will flow to the entity in the form of a deduction from taxable profits when contributions or retirement benefits are paid;

(b)            research costs are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit in the period in which they are incurred but may not be permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit (tax loss) until a later period. The difference between the tax base of the research costs, being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods, and the carrying amount of nil is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset;

(c)             with limited exceptions, an entity recognises the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination at their fair values at the acquisition date. When a liability assumed is recognised at the acquisition date but the related costs are not deducted in determining taxable profits until a later period, a deductible temporary difference arises which results in a deferred tax asset. A deferred tax asset also arises when the fair value of an identifiable asset acquired is less than its tax base. In both cases, the resulting deferred tax asset affects goodwill (see paragraph 66); and

(d)            certain assets may be carried at fair value, or may be revalued, without an equivalent adjustment being made for tax purposes (see paragraph 20). A deductible temporary difference arises if the tax base of the asset exceeds its carrying amount.

 

Example illustrating paragraph 26(d)

Identification of a deductible temporary difference at the end of Year 2:

Entity A purchases for CU1,000, at the beginning of Year 1, a debt instrument with a nominal value of CU1,000 payable on maturity in 5 years with an interest rate of 2% payable at the end of each year. The effective interest rate is 2%. The debt instrument is measured at fair value.

At the end of Year 2, the fair value of the debt instrument has decreased to CU918 as a result of an increase in market interest rates to 5%. It is probable that Entity A will collect all the contractual cash flows if it continues to hold the debt instrument.

Any gains (losses) on the debt instrument are taxable (deductible) only when realised. The gains (losses) arising on the sale or maturity of the debt instrument are calculated for tax purposes as the difference between the amount collected and the original cost of the debt instrument.

Accordingly, the tax base of the debt instrument is its original cost.

The difference between the carrying amount of the debt instrument in Entity A’s statement of financial position of CU918 and its tax base of CU1,000 gives rise to a deductible temporary difference of CU82 at the end of Year 2 (see paragraphs 20 and 26(d)), irrespective of whether Entity A expects to recover the carrying amount of the debt instrument by sale or by use, ie by holding it and collecting contractual cash flows, or a combination of both.

This is because deductible temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position and its tax base that will result in amounts that are deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods, when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled (see paragraph 5). Entity A obtains a deduction equivalent to the tax base of the asset of CU1,000 in determining taxable profit (tax loss) either on sale or on maturity.

 

27             The reversal of deductible temporary differences results in deductions in determining taxable profits of future periods. However, economic benefits in the form of reductions in tax payments will flow to the entity only if it earns sufficient taxable profits against which the deductions can be offset. Therefore, an entity recognises deferred tax assets only when it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilised.

27A          When an entity assesses whether taxable profits will be available against which it can utilise a deductible temporary difference, it considers whether tax law restricts the sources of taxable profits against which it may make deductions on the reversal of that deductible temporary difference. If tax law imposes no such restrictions, an entity assesses a deductible temporary difference in combination with all of its other deductible temporary differences. However, if tax law restricts the utilisation of losses to deduction against income of a specific type, a deductible temporary difference is assessed in combination only with other deductible temporary differences of the appropriate type.

28             It is probable that taxable profit will be available against which a deductible temporary difference can be utilised when there are sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity which are expected to reverse:

(a)            in the same period as the expected reversal of the deductible temporary difference; or

(b)            in periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward.

In such circumstances, the deferred tax asset is recognised in the period in which the deductible temporary differences arise.

29             When there are insufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, the deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that:

(a)            it is probable that the entity will have sufficient taxable profit relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity in the same period as the reversal of the deductible temporary difference (or in the periods into which a tax loss arising from the deferred tax asset can be carried back or forward). In evaluating whether it will have sufficient taxable profit in future periods, an entity:

(i)                     compares the deductible temporary differences with future taxable profit that excludes tax deductions resulting from the reversal of those deductible temporary differences. This comparison shows the extent to which the future taxable profit is sufficient for the entity to deduct the amounts resulting from the reversal of those deductible temporary differences; and

(ii)                   ignores taxable amounts arising from deductible temporary differences that are expected to originate in future periods, because the deferred tax asset arising from these deductible temporary differences will itself require future taxable profit in order to be utilised; or

(b)            tax planning opportunities are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in appropriate periods.

29A        The estimate of probable future taxable profit may include the recovery of some of an entity’s assets for more than their carrying amount if there is sufficient evidence that it is probable that the entity will achieve this. For example, when an asset is measured at fair value, the entity shall consider whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that it is probable that the entity will recover the asset for more than its carrying amount. This may be the case, for example, when an entity expects to hold a fixed-rate debt instrument and collect the contractual cash flows.

30             Tax planning opportunities are actions that the entity would take in order to create or increase taxable income in a particular period before the expiry of a tax loss or tax credit carryforward. For example, in some jurisdictions, taxable profit may be created or increased by:

(a)            electing to have interest income taxed on either a received or receivable basis;

(b)            deferring the claim for certain deductions from taxable profit;

(c)             selling, and perhaps leasing back, assets that have appreciated but for which the tax base has not been adjusted to reflect such appreciation; and

(d)            selling an asset that generates non-taxable income (such as, in some jurisdictions, a government bond) in order to purchase another investment that generates taxable income.

Where tax planning opportunities advance taxable profit from a later period to an earlier period, the utilisation of a tax loss or tax credit carryforward still depends on the existence of future taxable profit from sources other than future originating temporary differences.

31             When an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity considers the guidance in paragraphs 35 and 36.

32             [Deleted]

Goodwill

32A          If the carrying amount of goodwill arising in a business combination is less than its tax base, the difference gives rise to a deferred tax asset. The deferred tax asset arising from the initial recognition of goodwill shall be recognised as part of the accounting for a business combination to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference could be utilised.

Initial recognition of an asset or liability

33             One case when a deferred tax asset arises on initial recognition of an asset is when a non-taxable government grant related to an asset is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the asset but, for tax purposes, is not deducted from the asset’s depreciable amount (in other words its tax base); the carrying amount of the asset is less than its tax base and this gives rise to a deductible temporary difference. Government grants may also be set up as deferred income in which case the difference between the deferred income and its tax base of nil is a deductible temporary difference. Whichever method of presentation an entity adopts, the entity does not recognise the resulting deferred tax asset, for the reason given in paragraph 22.

Aus33.1                    In respect of not-for-profit entities, a deferred tax asset will not arise on a non-taxable government grant relating to an asset. For example, under AASB 1058 Income of Not-for-Profit Entities, where a not-for-profit entity accounts for the receipt of non-taxable government grants as income rather than as deferred income, a temporary difference does not arise.

Unused tax losses and unused tax credits

34             A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised.

35             The criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from the carryforward of unused tax losses and tax credits are the same as the criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences. However, the existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, when an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset arising from unused tax losses or tax credits only to the extent that the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised by the entity. In such circumstances, paragraph 82 requires disclosure of the amount of the deferred tax asset and the nature of the evidence supporting its recognition.

36             An entity considers the following criteria in assessing the probability that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised:

(a)            whether the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences relating to the same taxation authority and the same taxable entity, which will result in taxable amounts against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised before they expire;

(b)            whether it is probable that the entity will have taxable profits before the unused tax losses or unused tax credits expire;

(c)             whether the unused tax losses result from identifiable causes which are unlikely to recur; and

(d)            whether tax planning opportunities (see paragraph 30) are available to the entity that will create taxable profit in the period in which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised.

To the extent that it is not probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised, the deferred tax asset is not recognised.

Reassessment of unrecognised deferred tax assets

37             At the end of each reporting period, an entity reassesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. The entity recognises a previously unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. For example, an improvement in trading conditions may make it more probable that the entity will be able to generate sufficient taxable profit in the future for the deferred tax asset to meet the recognition criteria set out in paragraph 24 or 34. Another example is when an entity reassesses deferred tax assets at the date of a business combination or subsequently (see paragraphs 67 and 68).

Investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements

38             Temporary differences arise when the carrying amount of investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint arrangements (namely the parent or investor’s share of the net assets of the subsidiary, branch, associate or investee, including the carrying amount of goodwill) becomes different from the tax base (which is often cost) of the investment or interest. Such differences may arise in a number of different circumstances, for example:

(a)            the existence of undistributed profits of subsidiaries, branches, associates and joint arrangements;

(b)            changes in foreign exchange rates when a parent and its subsidiary are based in different countries; and

(c)             a reduction in the carrying amount of an investment in an associate to its recoverable amount.

In consolidated financial statements, the temporary difference may be different from the temporary difference associated with that investment in the parent’s separate financial statements if the parent carries the investment in its separate financial statements at cost or revalued amount.

39             An entity shall recognise a deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

(a)            the parent, investor, joint venturer or joint operator is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and

(b)            it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

40             As a parent controls the dividend policy of its subsidiary, it is able to control the timing of the reversal of temporary differences associated with that investment (including the temporary differences arising not only from undistributed profits but also from any foreign exchange translation differences). Furthermore, it would often be impracticable to determine the amount of income taxes that would be payable when the temporary difference reverses. Therefore, when the parent has determined that those profits will not be distributed in the foreseeable future the parent does not recognise a deferred tax liability. The same considerations apply to investments in branches.

41             The non-monetary assets and liabilities of an entity are measured in its functional currency (see AASB 121 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates). If the entity’s taxable profit or tax loss (and, hence, the tax base of its non-monetary assets and liabilities) is determined in a different currency, changes in the exchange rate give rise to temporary differences that result in a recognised deferred tax liability or (subject to paragraph 24) asset. The resulting deferred tax is charged or credited to profit or loss (see paragraph 58).

42             An investor in an associate does not control that entity and is usually not in a position to determine its dividend policy. Therefore, in the absence of an agreement requiring that the profits of the associate will not be distributed in the foreseeable future, an investor recognises a deferred tax liability arising from taxable temporary differences associated with its investment in the associate. In some cases, an investor may not be able to determine the amount of tax that would be payable if it recovers the cost of its investment in an associate, but can determine that it will equal or exceed a minimum amount. In such cases, the deferred tax liability is measured at this amount.

43             The arrangement between the parties to a joint arrangement usually deals with the distribution of the profits and identifies whether decisions on such matters require the consent of all the parties or a group of the parties. When the joint venturer or joint operator can control the timing of the distribution of its share of the profits of the joint arrangement and it is probable that its share of the profits will not be distributed in the foreseeable future, a deferred tax liability is not recognised.

44             An entity shall recognise a deferred tax asset for all deductible temporary differences arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, to the extent that, and only to the extent that, it is probable that:

(a)            the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future; and

(b)            taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.

45             In deciding whether a deferred tax asset is recognised for deductible temporary differences associated with its investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and its interests in joint arrangements, an entity considers the guidance set out in paragraphs 28 to 31.

Measurement

46             Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

47             Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall be measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

48             Current and deferred tax assets and liabilities are usually measured using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted. However, in some jurisdictions, announcements of tax rates (and tax laws) by the government have the substantive effect of actual enactment, which may follow the announcement by a period of several months. In these circumstances, tax assets and liabilities are measured using the announced tax rate (and tax laws).

49             When different tax rates apply to different levels of taxable income, deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the average rates that are expected to apply to the taxable profit (tax loss) of the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse.

50             [Deleted]

51             The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

51A          In some jurisdictions, the manner in which an entity recovers (settles) the carrying amount of an asset (liability) may affect either or both of:

(a)            the tax rate applicable when the entity recovers (settles) the carrying amount of the asset (liability); and

(b)            the tax base of the asset (liability).

In such cases, an entity measures deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets using the tax rate and the tax base that are consistent with the expected manner of recovery or settlement.

 

Example A

An item of property, plant and equipment has a carrying amount of 100 and a tax base of 60. A tax rate of 20% would apply if the item were sold and a tax rate of 30% would apply to other income.

The entity recognises a deferred tax liability of 8 (40 at 20%) if it expects to sell the item without further use and a deferred tax liability of 12 (40 at 30%) if it expects to retain the item and recover its carrying amount through use.

 

Example B

An item or property, plant and equipment with a cost of 100 and a carrying amount of 80 is revalued to 150. No equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. Cumulative depreciation for tax purposes is 30 and the tax rate is 30%. If the item is sold for more than cost, the cumulative tax depreciation of 30 will be included in taxable income but sale proceeds in excess of cost will not be taxable.

The tax base of the item is 70 and there is a taxable temporary difference of 80. If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by using the item, it must generate taxable income of 150, but will only be able to deduct depreciation of 70. On this basis, there is a deferred tax liability of 24 (80 at 30%). If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by selling the item immediately for proceeds of 150, the deferred tax liability is computed as follows:

Taxable
Temporary
Difference

Tax Rate

Deferred Tax Liability

 

Cumulative tax depreciation

 

30

 

30%

 

9

 

Proceeds in excess of cost

 

50

 

nil

 

 

Total

 

80

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

(note: in accordance with paragraph 61A, the additional deferred tax that arises on the revaluation is recognised in other comprehensive income)

 

 

Example C

The facts are as in example B, except that if the item is sold for more than cost, the cumulative tax depreciation will be included in taxable income (taxed at 30%) and the sale proceeds will be taxed at 40%, after deducting an inflation-adjusted cost of 110.

If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by using the item, it must generate taxable income of 150, but will only be able to deduct depreciation of 70. On this basis, the tax base is 70, there is a taxable temporary difference of 80 and there is a deferred tax liability of 24 (80 at 30%), as in example B.

If the entity expects to recover the carrying amount by selling the item immediately for proceeds of 150, the entity will be able to deduct the indexed cost of 110. The net proceeds of 40 will be taxed at 40%. In addition, the cumulative tax depreciation of 30 will be included in taxable income and taxed at 30%. On this basis, the tax base is 80 (110 less 30), there is a taxable temporary difference of 70 and there is a deferred tax liability of 25 (40 at 40% plus 30 at 30%). If the tax base is not immediately apparent in this example, it may be helpful to consider the fundamental principle set out in paragraph 10.

(note: in accordance with paragraph 61A, the additional deferred tax that arises on the revaluation is recognised in other comprehensive income)

 

51B          If a deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset arises from a non-depreciable asset measured using the revaluation model in AASB 116, the measurement of the deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset shall reflect the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount of the non-depreciable asset through sale, regardless of the basis of measuring the carrying amount of that asset. Accordingly, if the tax law specifies a tax rate applicable to the taxable amount derived from the sale of an asset that differs from the tax rate applicable to the taxable amount derived from using an asset, the former rate is applied in measuring the deferred tax liability or asset related to a non-depreciable asset.

51C          If a deferred tax liability or asset arises from investment property that is measured using the fair value model in AASB 140, there is a rebuttable presumption that the carrying amount of the investment property will be recovered through sale. Accordingly, unless the presumption is rebutted, the measurement of the deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset shall reflect the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount of the investment property entirely through sale. This presumption is rebutted if the investment property is depreciable and is held within a business model whose objective is to consume substantially all of the economic benefits embodied in the investment property over time, rather than through sale. If the presumption is rebutted, the requirements of paragraphs 51 and 51A shall be followed.

 

Example illustrating paragraph 51C

An investment property has a cost of 100 and fair value of 150. It is measured using the fair value model in AASB 140. It comprises land with a cost of 40 and fair value of 60 and a building with a cost of 60 and fair value of 90. The land has an unlimited useful life.

Cumulative depreciation of the building for tax purposes is 30. Unrealised changes in the fair value of the investment property do not affect taxable profit. If the investment property is sold for more than cost, the reversal of the cumulative tax depreciation of 30 will be included in taxable profit and taxed at an ordinary tax rate of 30%. For sales proceeds in excess of cost, tax law specifies tax rates of 25% for assets held for less than two years and 20% for assets held for two years or more.

Because the investment property is measured using the fair value model in AASB 140, there is a rebuttable presumption that the entity will recover the carrying amount of the investment property entirely through sale. If that presumption is not rebutted, the deferred tax reflects the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount entirely through sale, even if the entity expects to earn rental income from the property before sale.

The tax base of the land if it is sold is 40 and there is a taxable temporary difference of 20 (60 – 40). The tax base of the building if it is sold is 30 (60 – 30) and there is a taxable temporary difference of 60 (90 – 30). As a result, the total taxable temporary difference relating to the investment property is 80 (20 + 60).

In accordance with paragraph 47, the tax rate is the rate expected to apply to the period when the investment property is realised. Thus, the resulting deferred tax liability is computed as follows, if the entity expects to sell the property after holding it for more than two years:

Taxable
Temporary
Difference

Tax Rate

Deferred Tax Liability

 

Cumulative tax depreciation

 

30

 

30%

 

9

 

Proceeds in excess of cost

 

50

 

20%

 

10

 

Total

 

80

 

 

 

19

 

If the entity expects to sell the property after holding it for less than two years, the above computation would be amended to apply a tax rate of 25%, rather than 20%, to the proceeds in excess of cost.

If, instead, the entity holds the building within a business model whose objective is to consume substantially all of the economic benefits embodied in the building over time, rather than through sale, this presumption would be rebutted for the building. However, the land is not depreciable. Therefore the presumption of recovery through sale would not be rebutted for the land. It follows that the deferred tax liability would reflect the tax consequences of recovering the carrying amount of the building through use and the carrying amount of the land through sale.

The tax base of the building if it is used is 30 (60 – 30) and there is a taxable temporary difference of 60 (90 – 30), resulting in a deferred tax liability of 18 (60 at 30%).

The tax base of the land if it is sold is 40 and there is a taxable temporary difference of 20 (60 – 40), resulting in a deferred tax liability of 4 (20 at 20%).

As a result, if the presumption of recovery through sale is rebutted for the building, the deferred tax liability relating to the investment property is 22 (18 + 4).

 

51D          The rebuttable presumption in paragraph 51C also applies when a deferred tax liability or a deferred tax asset arises from measuring investment property in a business combination if the entity will use the fair value model when subsequently measuring that investment property.

51E          Paragraphs 51B–51D do not change the requirements to apply the principles in paragraphs 24–33 (deductible temporary differences) and paragraphs 34–36 (unused tax losses and unused tax credits) of this Standard when recognising and measuring deferred tax assets.

52             [moved and renumbered 51A]

52A          In some jurisdictions, income taxes are payable at a higher or lower rate if part or all of the net profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In some other jurisdictions, income taxes may be refundable or payable if part or all of the net profit or retained earnings is paid out as a dividend to shareholders of the entity. In these circumstances, current and deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rate applicable to undistributed profits.

52B          [Deleted]

 

Example illustrating paragraphs 52A and 57A

The following example deals with the measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities for an entity in a jurisdiction where income taxes are payable at a higher rate on undistributed profits (50%) with an amount being refundable when profits are distributed. The tax rate on distributed profits is 35%. At the end of the reporting period, 31 December 20X1, the entity does not recognise a liability for dividends proposed or declared after the reporting period. As a result, no dividends are recognised in the year 20X1. Taxable income for 20X1 is 100,000. The net taxable temporary difference for the year 20X1 is 40,000.

The entity recognises a current tax liability and a current income tax expense of 50,000. No asset is recognised for the amount potentially recoverable as a result of future dividends. The entity also recognises a deferred tax liability and deferred tax expense of 20,000 (40,000 at 50%) representing the income taxes that the entity will pay when it recovers or settles the carrying amounts of its assets and liabilities based on the tax rate applicable to undistributed profits.

Subsequently, on 15 March 20X2 the entity recognises dividends of 10,000 from previous operating profits as a liability.

On 15 March 20X2, the entity recognises the recovery of income taxes of 1,500 (15% of the dividends recognised as a liability) as a current tax asset and as a reduction of current income tax expense for 20X2.

 

53             Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall not be discounted.

54             The reliable determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities on a discounted basis requires detailed scheduling of the timing of the reversal of each temporary difference. In many cases such scheduling is impracticable or highly complex. Therefore, it is inappropriate to require discounting of deferred tax assets and liabilities. To permit, but not to require, discounting would result in deferred tax assets and liabilities which would not be comparable between entities. Therefore, this Standard does not require or permit the discounting of deferred tax assets and liabilities.

55             Temporary differences are determined by reference to the carrying amount of an asset or liability. This applies even where that carrying amount is itself determined on a discounted basis, for example in the case of retirement benefit obligations (see AASB 119 Employee Benefits).

56             The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at the end of each reporting period. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred tax asset to be utilised. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.

Recognition of current and deferred tax

57             Accounting for the current and deferred tax effects of a transaction or other event is consistent with the accounting for the transaction or event itself. Paragraphs 58 to 68C implement this principle.

57A          An entity shall recognise the income tax consequences of dividends as defined in AASB 9 when it recognises a liability to pay a dividend. The income tax consequences of dividends are linked more directly to past transactions or events that generated distributable profits than to distributions to owners. Therefore, an entity shall recognise the income tax consequences of dividends in profit or loss, other comprehensive income or equity according to where the entity originally recognised those past transactions or events.

Items recognised in profit or loss

58             Current and deferred tax shall be recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from:

(a)            a transaction or event which is recognised, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss, either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity (see paragraphs 61A–65); or

(b)            a business combination (other than the acquisition by an investment entity, as defined in AASB 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, of a subsidiary that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss) (see paragraphs 66–68).

59             Most deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets arise where income or expense is included in accounting profit in one period, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) in a different period. The resulting deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss. Examples are when:

(a)            interest, royalty or dividend revenue is received in arrears and is included in accounting profit in accordance with AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement or AASB 9 Financial Instruments, as relevant, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) on a cash basis; and

(b)            costs of intangible assets have been capitalised in accordance with AASB 138 and are being amortised in profit or loss, but were deducted for tax purposes when they were incurred.

60             The carrying amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities may change even though there is no change in the amount of the related temporary differences. This can result, for example, from:

(a)            a change in tax rates or tax laws;

(b)            a reassessment of the recoverability of deferred tax assets; or

(c)             a change in the expected manner of recovery of an asset.

The resulting deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items previously recognised outside profit or loss (see paragraph 63).

Items recognised outside profit or loss

61             [Deleted]

61A          Current tax and deferred tax shall be recognised outside profit or loss if the tax relates to items that are recognised, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss. Therefore, current tax and deferred tax that relates to items that are recognised, in the same or a different period:

(a)            in other comprehensive income, shall be recognised in other comprehensive income (see paragraph 62).

(b)            directly in equity, shall be recognised directly in equity (see paragraph 62A).

62             Australian Accounting Standards require or permit particular items to be recognised in other comprehensive income. Examples of such items are:

(a)            a change in carrying amount arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment (see AASB 116); and

(b)            [deleted]

(c)             exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements of a foreign operation (see AASB 121).

(d)            [deleted]

62A          Australian Accounting Standards require or permit particular items to be credited or charged directly to equity. Examples of such items are:

(a)            an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings resulting from either a change in accounting policy that is applied retrospectively or the correction of an error (see AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors); and

(b)            amounts arising on initial recognition of the equity component of a compound financial instrument (see paragraph 23).

63             In exceptional circumstances it may be difficult to determine the amount of current and deferred tax that relates to items recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity). This may be the case, for example, when:

(a)            there are graduated rates of income tax and it is impossible to determine the rate at which a specific component of taxable profit (tax loss) has been taxed;

(b)            a change in the tax rate or other tax rules affects a deferred tax asset or liability relating (in whole or in part) to an item that was previously recognised outside profit or loss; or

(c)             an entity determines that a deferred tax asset should be recognised, or should no longer be recognised in full, and the deferred tax asset relates (in whole or in part) to an item that was previously recognised outside profit or loss.

In such cases, the current and deferred tax related to items that are recognised outside profit or loss are based on a reasonable pro rata allocation of the current and deferred tax of the entity in the tax jurisdiction concerned, or other method that achieves a more appropriate allocation in the circumstances.

64             AASB 116 does not specify whether an entity should transfer each year from revaluation surplus to retained earnings an amount equal to the difference between the depreciation or amortisation on a revalued asset and the depreciation or amortisation based on the cost of that asset. If an entity makes such a transfer, the amount transferred is net of any related deferred tax. Similar considerations apply to transfers made on disposal of an item of property, plant or equipment.

65             When an asset is revalued for tax purposes and that revaluation is related to an accounting revaluation of an earlier period, or to one that is expected to be carried out in a future period, the tax effects of both the asset revaluation and the adjustment of the tax base are recognised in other comprehensive income in the periods in which they occur. However, if the revaluation for tax purposes is not related to an accounting revaluation of an earlier period, or to one that is expected to be carried out in a future period, the tax effects of the adjustment of the tax base are recognised in profit or loss.

65A          When an entity pays dividends to its shareholders, it may be required to pay a portion of the dividends to taxation authorities on behalf of shareholders. In many jurisdictions, this amount is referred to as a withholding tax. Such an amount paid or payable to taxation authorities is charged to equity as a part of the dividends.

Deferred tax arising from a business combination

66             As explained in paragraphs 19 and 26(c), temporary differences may arise in a business combination. In accordance with AASB 3, an entity recognises any resulting deferred tax assets (to the extent that they meet the recognition criteria in paragraph 24) or deferred tax liabilities as identifiable assets and liabilities at the acquisition date. Consequently, those deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities affect the amount of goodwill or the bargain purchase gain the entity recognises. However, in accordance with paragraph 15(a), an entity does not recognise deferred tax liabilities arising from the initial recognition of goodwill.

67             As a result of a business combination, the probability of realising a pre-acquisition deferred tax asset of the acquirer could change. An acquirer may consider it probable that it will recover its own deferred tax asset that was not recognised before the business combination. For example, the acquirer may be able to utilise the benefit of its unused tax losses against the future taxable profit of the acquiree. Alternatively, as a result of the business combination it might no longer be probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. In such cases, the acquirer recognises a change in the deferred tax asset in the period of the business combination, but does not include it as part of the accounting for the business combination. Therefore, the acquirer does not take it into account in measuring the goodwill or bargain purchase gain it recognises in the business combination.

68             The potential benefit of the acquiree’s income tax loss carryforwards or other deferred tax assets might not satisfy the criteria for separate recognition when a business combination is initially accounted for but might be realised subsequently. An entity shall recognise acquired deferred tax benefits that it realises after the business combination as follows:

(a)            Acquired deferred tax benefits recognised within the measurement period that result from new information about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date shall be applied to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill related to that acquisition. If the carrying amount of that goodwill is zero, any remaining deferred tax benefits shall be recognised in profit or loss.

(b)            All other acquired deferred tax benefits realised shall be recognised in profit or loss (or, if this Standard so requires, outside profit or loss).

Current and deferred tax arising from share-based payment transactions

68A          In some tax jurisdictions, an entity receives a tax deduction (ie an amount that is deductible in determining taxable profit) that relates to remuneration paid in shares, share options or other equity instruments of the entity. The amount of that tax deduction may differ from the related cumulative remuneration expense, and may arise in a later accounting period. For example, in some jurisdictions, an entity may recognise an expense for the consumption of employee services received as consideration for share options granted, in accordance with AASB 2 Share-based Payment, and not receive a tax deduction until the share options are exercised, with the measurement of the tax deduction based on the entity’s share price at the date of exercise.

68B          As with the research costs discussed in paragraphs 9 and 26(b) of this Standard, the difference between the tax base of the employee services received to date (being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods), and the carrying amount of nil, is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset. If the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is not known at the end of the period, it shall be estimated, based on information available at the end of the period. For example, if the amount that the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is dependent upon the entity’s share price at a future date, the measurement of the deductible temporary difference should be based on the entity’s share price at the end of the period.

68C          As noted in paragraph 68A, the amount of the tax deduction (or estimated future tax deduction, measured in accordance with paragraph 68B) may differ from the related cumulative remuneration expense. Paragraph 58 of the Standard requires that current and deferred tax should be recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from (a) a transaction or event that is recognised, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss, or (b) a business combination (other than the acquisition by an investment entity of a subsidiary that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss). If the amount of the tax deduction (or estimated future tax deduction) exceeds the amount of the related cumulative remuneration expense, this indicates that the tax deduction relates not only to remuneration expense but also to an equity item. In this situation, the excess of the associated current or deferred tax should be recognised directly in equity.

Presentation

Tax assets and tax liabilities

69–
70             [Deleted]

Offset

71             An entity shall offset current tax assets and current tax liabilities if, and only if, the entity:

(a)            has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and

(b)            intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

72             Although current tax assets and liabilities are separately recognised and measured they are offset in the statement of financial position subject to criteria similar to those established for financial instruments in AASB 132. An entity will normally have a legally enforceable right to set off a current tax asset against a current tax liability when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the taxation authority permits the entity to make or receive a single net payment.

73             In consolidated financial statements, a current tax asset of one entity in a group is offset against a current tax liability of another entity in the group if, and only if, the entities concerned have a legally enforceable right to make or receive a single net payment and the entities intend to make or receive such a net payment or to recover the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

74             An entity shall offset deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if, and only if:

(a)            the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and

(b)            the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either:

(i)             the same taxable entity; or

(ii)            different taxable entities which intend either to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously, in each future period in which significant amounts of deferred tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.

75             To avoid the need for detailed scheduling of the timing of the reversal of each temporary difference, this Standard requires an entity to set off a deferred tax asset against a deferred tax liability of the same taxable entity if, and only if, they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.

76             In rare circumstances, an entity may have a legally enforceable right of set-off, and an intention to settle net, for some periods but not for others. In such rare circumstances, detailed scheduling may be required to establish reliably whether the deferred tax liability of one taxable entity will result in increased tax payments in the same period in which a deferred tax asset of another taxable entity will result in decreased payments by that second taxable entity.

Tax expense

Tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities

77             The tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities shall be presented as part of profit or loss in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income.

77A          [Deleted]

Exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets

78             AASB 121 requires certain exchange differences to be recognised as income or expense but does not specify where such differences should be presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Accordingly, where exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income, such differences may be classified as deferred tax expense (income) if that presentation is considered to be the most useful to financial statement users.

Disclosure

79             The major components of tax expense (income) shall be disclosed separately.

80             Components of tax expense (income) may include:

(a)            current tax expense (income);

(b)            any adjustments recognised in the period for current tax of prior periods;

(c)             the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to the origination and reversal of temporary differences;

(d)            the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to changes in tax rates or the imposition of new taxes;

(e)             the amount of the benefit arising from a previously unrecognised tax loss, tax credit or temporary difference of a prior period that is used to reduce current tax expense;

(f)             the amount of the benefit from a previously unrecognised tax loss, tax credit or temporary difference of a prior period that is used to reduce deferred tax expense;

(g)             deferred tax expense arising from the write-down, or reversal of a previous write-down, of a deferred tax asset in accordance with paragraph 56; and

(h)            the amount of tax expense (income) relating to those changes in accounting policies and errors that are included in profit or loss in accordance with AASB 108, because they cannot be accounted for retrospectively.

81             The following shall also be disclosed separately:

(a)            the aggregate current and deferred tax relating to items that are charged or credited directly to equity (see paragraph 62A);

(ab)          the amount of income tax relating to each component of other comprehensive income (see paragraph 62 and AASB 101);

(b)            [deleted]

(c)             an explanation of the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit in either or both of the following forms:

(i)             a numerical reconciliation between tax expense (income) and the product of accounting profit multiplied by the applicable tax rate(s), disclosing also the basis on which the applicable tax rate(s) is (are) computed; or

(ii)            a numerical reconciliation between the average effective tax rate and the applicable tax rate, disclosing also the basis on which the applicable tax rate is computed;

(d)            an explanation of changes in the applicable tax rate(s) compared to the previous accounting period;

(e)             the amount (and expiry date, if any) of deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, and unused tax credits for which no deferred tax asset is recognised in the statement of financial position;

(f)             the aggregate amount of temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements, for which deferred tax liabilities have not been recognised (see paragraph 39);

(g)            in respect of each type of temporary difference, and in respect of each type of unused tax losses and unused tax credits:

(i)             the amount of the deferred tax assets and liabilities recognised in the statement of financial position for each period presented;

(ii)            the amount of the deferred tax income or expense recognised in profit or loss, if this is not apparent from the changes in the amounts recognised in the statement of financial position;

(h)            in respect of discontinued operations, the tax expense relating to:

(i)             the gain or loss on discontinuance; and

(ii)            the profit or loss from the ordinary activities of the discontinued operation for the period, together with the corresponding amounts for each prior period presented;

(i)             the amount of income tax consequences of dividends to shareholders of the entity that were proposed or declared before the financial statements were authorised for issue, but are not recognised as a liability in the financial statements;

(j)             if a business combination in which the entity is the acquirer causes a change in the amount recognised for its pre-acquisition deferred tax asset (see paragraph 67), the amount of that change; and

(k)            if the deferred tax benefits acquired in a business combination are not recognised at the acquisition date but are recognised after the acquisition date (see paragraph 68), a description of the event or change in circumstances that caused the deferred tax benefits to be recognised.

82             An entity shall disclose the amount of a deferred tax asset and the nature of the evidence supporting its recognition, when:

                 (a)            the utilisation of the deferred tax asset is dependent on future taxable profits in excess of the profits arising from the reversal of existing taxable temporary differences; and

                 (b)            the entity has suffered a loss in either the current or preceding period in the tax jurisdiction to which the deferred tax asset relates.

82A          In the circumstances described in paragraph 52A, an entity shall disclose the nature of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to its shareholders. In addition, the entity shall disclose the amounts of the potential income tax consequences practicably determinable and whether there are any potential income tax consequences not practicably determinable.

83             [Deleted]

84             The disclosures required by paragraph 81(c) enable users of financial statements to understand whether the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit is unusual and to understand the significant factors that could affect that relationship in the future. The relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit may be affected by such factors as revenue that is exempt from taxation, expenses that are not deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss), the effect of tax losses and the effect of foreign tax rates.

85             In explaining the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit, an entity uses an applicable tax rate that provides the most meaningful information to the users of its financial statements. Often, the most meaningful rate is the domestic rate of tax in the country in which the entity is domiciled, aggregating the tax rate applied for national taxes with the rates applied for any local taxes which are computed on a substantially similar level of taxable profit (tax loss). However, for an entity operating in several jurisdictions, it may be more meaningful to aggregate separate reconciliations prepared using the domestic rate in each individual jurisdiction. The following example illustrates how the selection of the applicable tax rate affects the presentation of the numerical reconciliation.

 

Example illustrating paragraph 85

In 19X2, an entity has accounting profit in its own jurisdiction (country A) of 1,500 (19X1: 2,000) and in country B of 1,500 (19X1: 500). The tax rate is 30% in country A and 20% in country B. In country A, expenses of 100 (19X1: 200) are not deductible for tax purposes.

 

The following is an example of a reconciliation to the domestic tax rate.

 

 

19X1

 

19X2

 

Accounting profit

2,500

 

3,000

 

Tax at the domestic rate of 30%

750

 

900

 

Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes

60

 

30

 

Effect of lower tax rates in country B

(50)

 

(150)

 

Tax expense

760

 

780

 

 

 

The following is an example of a reconciliation prepared by aggregating separate reconciliations for each national jurisdiction. Under this method, the effect of differences between the reporting entity’s own domestic tax rate and the domestic tax rate in other jurisdictions does not appear as a separate item in the reconciliation. An entity may need to discuss the effect of significant changes in either tax rates, or the mix of profits earned in different jurisdictions, in order to explain changes in the applicable tax rate(s), as required by paragraph 81(d).

 

Accounting profit

2,500

 

3,000

 

Tax at the domestic rates applicable to profits in the country concerned

700

 

750

 

Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes

60

 

30

 

Tax expense

760

 

780

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

86             The average effective tax rate is the tax expense (income) divided by the accounting profit.

87             It would often be impracticable to compute the amount of unrecognised deferred tax liabilities arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements (see paragraph 39). Therefore, this Standard requires an entity to disclose the aggregate amount of the underlying temporary differences but does not require disclosure of the deferred tax liabilities. Nevertheless, where practicable, entities are encouraged to disclose the amounts of the unrecognised deferred tax liabilities because financial statement users may find such information useful.

87A          Paragraph 82A requires an entity to disclose the nature of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to its shareholders. An entity discloses the important features of the income tax systems and the factors that will affect the amount of the potential income tax consequences of dividends.

87B          It would sometimes not be practicable to compute the total amount of the potential income tax consequences that would result from the payment of dividends to shareholders. This may be the case, for example, where an entity has a large number of foreign subsidiaries. However, even in such circumstances, some portions of the total amount may be easily determinable. For example, in a consolidated group, a parent and some of its subsidiaries may have paid income taxes at a higher rate on undistributed profits and be aware of the amount that would be refunded on the payment of future dividends to shareholders from consolidated retained earnings. In this case, that refundable amount is disclosed. If applicable, the entity also discloses that there are additional potential income tax consequences not practicably determinable. In the parent’s separate financial statements, if any, the disclosure of the potential income tax consequences relates to the parent’s retained earnings.

87C          An entity required to provide the disclosures in paragraph 82A may also be required to provide disclosures related to temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates or interests in joint arrangements. In such cases, an entity considers this in determining the information to be disclosed under paragraph 82A. For example, an entity may be required to disclose the aggregate amount of temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries for which no deferred tax liabilities have been recognised (see paragraph 81(f)). If it is impracticable to compute the amounts of unrecognised deferred tax liabilities (see paragraph 87) there may be amounts of potential income tax consequences of dividends not practicably determinable related to these subsidiaries.

88             An entity discloses any tax-related contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may arise, for example, from unresolved disputes with the taxation authorities. Similarly, where changes in tax rates or tax laws are enacted or announced after the reporting period, an entity discloses any significant effect of those changes on its current and deferred tax assets and liabilities (see AASB 110 Events after the Reporting Period).

Effective date

89             This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Earlier application is permitted for periods beginning after 24 July 2014 but before 1 January 2018. If an entity applies this Standard for financial statements covering periods beginning before 1 January 2018, the entity shall disclose that fact.

90–
92             [Deleted by the AASB]

93             Paragraph 68 shall be applied prospectively from the effective date of AASB 3 (as revised in 2008) to the recognition of deferred tax assets acquired in business combinations.

94             Therefore, entities shall not adjust the accounting for prior business combinations if tax benefits failed to satisfy the criteria for separate recognition as of the acquisition date and are recognised after the acquisition date, unless the benefits are recognised within the measurement period and result from new information about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date. Other tax benefits recognised shall be recognised in profit or loss (or, if this Standard so requires, outside profit or loss).

95             [Deleted by the AASB]

96             [Deleted]

97             [Deleted]

98–
98C          [Deleted by the AASB]

98D          [Deleted]

98E          AASB 2014-5 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 15, issued in December 2014, amended paragraph 59 in the previous version of this Standard. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies AASB 15.

98F          AASB 2010-7 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 9 (December 2010) (as amended) amended the previous version of this Standard as follows: amended paragraph 20 and deleted paragraph 96. Paragraph 97, added by AASB 2010-7, was deleted by AASB 2014-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards. Paragraph 98D, added by AASB 2014-1, was deleted by AASB 2014-7 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 9 (December 2014). An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies AASB 9.

98G          AASB 16, issued in February 2016, amended paragraph 20. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies AASB 16.

98H         AASB 2016-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses, issued in February 2016, amended paragraph 29 and added paragraphs 27A, 29A and the example following paragraph 26. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact. An entity shall apply those amendments retrospectively in accordance with AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. However, on initial application of the amendment, the change in the opening equity of the earliest comparative period may be recognised in opening retained earnings (or in another component of equity, as appropriate), without allocating the change between opening retained earnings and other components of equity. If an entity applies this relief, it shall disclose that fact.

98I           AASB 2018-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Annual Improvements 2015–2017 Cycle, issued in February 2018, added paragraph 57A and deleted paragraph 52B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier, it shall disclose that fact. When an entity first applies those amendments, it shall apply them to the income tax consequences of dividends recognised on or after the beginning of the earliest comparative period.

Withdrawal of SIC-21

99             [Deleted by the AASB]

Aus99.1                    For legal purposes, this legislative instrument commences on 31 December 2017.

Withdrawal of AASB pronouncements

Aus99.2                    This Standard repeals AASB 112 Income Taxes issued in July 2004. Despite the repeal, after the time this Standard starts to apply under section 334 of the Corporations Act (either generally or in relation to an individual entity), the repealed Standard continues to apply in relation to any period ending before that time as if the repeal had not occurred.

[Note: When this Standard applies under section 334 of the Corporations Act (either generally or in relation to an individual entity), it supersedes the application of the repealed Standard.]

 


Appendix A
Australian reduced disclosure requirements

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

AusA1                      The following do not apply to entities preparing general purpose financial statements under Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements:

(a)        paragraphs 81(ab), 81(f), 81(i)-(k), 82 and 87-87C; and

(b)        the second sentence in paragraph 82A.

Entities applying Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements may elect to comply with some or all of these excluded requirements.

AusA2                      The requirements that do not apply to entities preparing general purpose financial statements under Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements are also identified in this Standard by shading of the relevant text.

AusA3                      The RDR paragraph in this Standard applies only to entities preparing general purpose financial statements under Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements.

RDR81.1                  An entity applying Australian Accounting Standards – Reduced Disclosure Requirements shall disclose the aggregate amount of current and deferred income tax relating to items recognised in other comprehensive income.

 


Illustrative examples

These illustrative examples accompany, but are not part of, AASB 112.

Examples of temporary differences

A. Examples of circumstances that give rise to taxable temporary differences

All taxable temporary differences give rise to a deferred tax liability.

Transactions that affect profit or loss

1               Interest revenue is received in arrears and is included in accounting profit on a time apportionment basis but is included in taxable profit on a cash basis.

2               Revenue from the sale of goods is included in accounting profit when goods are delivered but is included in taxable profit when cash is collected. (note: as explained in B3 below, there is also a deductible temporary difference associated with any related inventory).

3               Depreciation of an asset is accelerated for tax purposes.

4               Development costs have been capitalised and will be amortised to the statement of comprehensive income but were deducted in determining taxable profit in the period in which they were incurred.

5               Prepaid expenses have already been deducted on a cash basis in determining the taxable profit of the current or previous periods.

Transactions that affect the statement of financial position

6               Depreciation of an asset is not deductible for tax purposes and no deduction will be available for tax purposes when the asset is sold or scrapped. (note: paragraph 15(b) of the Standard prohibits recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability unless the asset was acquired in a business combination, see also paragraph 22 of the Standard.)

7               A borrower records a loan at the proceeds received (which equal the amount due at maturity), less transaction costs. Subsequently, the carrying amount of the loan is increased by amortisation of the transaction costs to accounting profit. The transaction costs were deducted for tax purposes in the period when the loan was first recognised. (notes: (1) the taxable temporary difference is the amount of transaction costs already deducted in determining the taxable profit of current or prior periods, less the cumulative amount amortised to accounting profit; and (2) as the initial recognition of the loan affects taxable profit, the exception in paragraph 15(b) of the Standard does not apply. Therefore, the borrower recognises the deferred tax liability.)

8               A loan payable was measured on initial recognition at the amount of the net proceeds, net of transaction costs. The transaction costs are amortised to accounting profit over the life of the loan. Those transaction costs are not deductible in determining the taxable profit of future, current or prior periods. (notes: (1) the taxable temporary difference is the amount of unamortised transaction costs; and (2) paragraph 15(b) of the Standard prohibits recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability.)

9               The liability component of a compound financial instrument (for example a convertible bond) is measured at a discount to the amount repayable on maturity (see AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Presentation). The discount is not deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss).

Fair value adjustments and revaluations

10             Financial assets or investment property are carried at fair value which exceeds cost but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes.

11             An entity revalues property, plant and equipment (under the revaluation model treatment in AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment) but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. (note: paragraph 61A of the Standard requires the related deferred tax to be recognised in other comprehensive income.)

Business combinations and consolidation

12             The carrying amount of an asset is increased to fair value in a business combination and no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. (Note that on initial recognition, the resulting deferred tax liability increases goodwill or decreases the amount of any bargain purchase gain recognised. See paragraph 66 of the Standard.)

13             Reductions in the carrying amount of goodwill are not deductible in determining taxable profit and the cost of the goodwill would not be deductible on disposal of the business. (Note that paragraph 15(a) of the Standard prohibits recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability.)

14             Unrealised losses resulting from intragroup transactions are eliminated by inclusion in the carrying amount of inventory or property, plant and equipment.

15             Retained earnings of subsidiaries, branches, associates and joint ventures are included in consolidated retained earnings, but income taxes will be payable if the profits are distributed to the reporting parent. (note: paragraph 39 of the Standard prohibits recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability if the parent, investor or venturer is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.)

16             Investments in foreign subsidiaries, branches or associates or interests in foreign joint ventures are affected by changes in foreign exchange rates. (notes: (1) there may be either a taxable temporary difference or a deductible temporary difference; and (2) paragraph 39 of the Standard prohibits recognition of the resulting deferred tax liability if the parent, investor or venturer is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.)

17             The non-monetary assets and liabilities of an entity are measured in its functional currency but the taxable profit or tax loss is determined in a different currency. (notes: (1) there may be either a taxable temporary difference or a deductible temporary difference; (2) where there is a taxable temporary difference, the resulting deferred tax liability is recognised (paragraph 41 of the Standard); and (3) the deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, see paragraph 58 of the Standard.)

Hyperinflation

18             Non-monetary assets are restated in terms of the measuring unit current at the end of the reporting period (see AASB 129 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies) and no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes. (notes: (1) the deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss; and (2) if, in addition to the restatement, the non-monetary assets are also revalued, the deferred tax relating to the revaluation is recognised in other comprehensive income and the deferred tax relating to the restatement is recognised in profit or loss.)

B. Examples of circumstances that give rise to deductible temporary differences

All deductible temporary differences give rise to a deferred tax asset. However, some deferred tax assets may not satisfy the recognition criteria in paragraph 24 of the Standard.

Transactions that affect profit or loss

1               Retirement benefit costs are deducted in determining accounting profit as service is provided by the employee, but are not deducted in determining taxable profit until the entity pays either retirement benefits or contributions to a fund. (note: similar deductible temporary differences arise where other expenses, such as product warranty costs or interest, are deductible on a cash basis in determining taxable profit.)

2               Accumulated depreciation of an asset in the financial statements is greater than the cumulative depreciation allowed up to the end of the reporting period for tax purposes.

3               The cost of inventories sold before the end of the reporting period is deducted in determining accounting profit when goods or services are delivered but is deducted in determining taxable profit when cash is collected. (note: as explained in A2 above, there is also a taxable temporary difference associated with the related trade receivable.)

4               The net realisable value of an item of inventory, or the recoverable amount of an item of property, plant or equipment, is less than the previous carrying amount and an entity therefore reduces the carrying amount of the asset, but that reduction is ignored for tax purposes until the asset is sold.

5               Research costs (or organisation or other start-up costs) are recognised as an expense in determining accounting profit but are not permitted as a deduction in determining taxable profit until a later period.

6               Income is deferred in the statement of financial position but has already been included in taxable profit in current or prior periods.

7               A government grant which is included in the statement of financial position as deferred income will not be taxable in future periods. (note: paragraph 24 of the Standard prohibits the recognition of the resulting deferred tax asset, see also paragraph 33 of the Standard.)

Fair value adjustments and revaluations

8               Financial assets or investment property are carried at fair value which is less than cost, but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes.

Business combinations and consolidation

9               A liability is recognised at its fair value in a business combination, but none of the related expense is deducted in determining taxable profit until a later period. (Note that the resulting deferred tax asset decreases goodwill or increases the amount of any bargain purchase gain recognised. See paragraph 66 of the Standard.)

10             [Deleted]

11             Unrealised profits resulting from intragroup transactions are eliminated from the carrying amount of assets, such as inventory or property, plant or equipment, but no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes.

12             Investments in foreign subsidiaries, branches or associates or interests in foreign joint ventures are affected by changes in foreign exchange rates. (notes: (1) there may be a taxable temporary difference or a deductible temporary difference; and (2) paragraph 44 of the Standard requires recognition of the resulting deferred tax asset to the extent, and only to the extent, that it is probable that: (a) the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future; and (b) taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised).

13             The non-monetary assets and liabilities of an entity are measured in its functional currency but the taxable profit or tax loss is determined in a different currency. (notes: (1) there may be either a taxable temporary difference or a deductible temporary difference; (2) where there is a deductible temporary difference, the resulting deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that it is probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available (paragraph 41 of the Standard); and (3) the deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss, see paragraph 58 of the Standard.)

C. Examples of circumstances where the carrying amount of an asset or liability is equal to its tax base

1               Accrued expenses have already been deducted in determining an entity’s current tax liability for the current or earlier periods.

2               A loan payable is measured at the amount originally received and this amount is the same as the amount repayable on final maturity of the loan.

3               Accrued expenses will never be deductible for tax purposes.

4               Accrued income will never be taxable.

Illustrative computations and presentation

Extracts from statements of financial position and statements of comprehensive income are provided to show the effects on these financial statements of the transactions described below. These extracts do not necessarily conform with all the disclosure and presentation requirements of other Standards.

All the examples below assume that the entities concerned have no transaction other than those described.

Example 1 – Depreciable assets

An entity buys equipment for 10,000 and depreciates it on a straight-line basis over its expected useful life of five years. For tax purposes, the equipment is depreciated at 25% a year on a straight-line basis. Tax losses may be carried back against taxable profit of the previous five years. In year 0, the entity’s taxable profit was 5,000. The tax rate is 40%.

The entity will recover the carrying amount of the equipment by using it to manufacture goods for resale. Therefore, the entity’s current tax computation is as follows:

 

 

Year

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

Taxable income

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

Depreciation for tax purposes

2,500

 

2,500

 

2,500

 

2,500

 

0

Taxable profit (tax loss)

(500)

 

(500)

 

(500)

 

(500)

 

2,000

Current tax expense (income) at 40%

(200)

 

(200)

 

(200)

 

(200)

 

800

 

The entity recognises a current tax asset at the end of years 1 to 4 because it recovers the benefit of the tax loss against the taxable profit of year 0.

The temporary differences associated with the equipment and the resulting deferred tax asset and liability and deferred tax expense and income are as follows:

 

 

Year

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

Carrying amount

8,000

 

6,000

 

4,000

 

2,000

 

0

Tax base

7,500

 

5,000

 

2,500

 

0

 

0

Taxable temporary difference

500

 

1,000

 

1,500

 

2,000

 

0

 

Opening deferred tax liability

0

 

200

 

400

 

600

 

800

Deferred tax expense (income)

200

 

200

 

200

 

200

 

(800)

Closing deferred tax liability

200

 

400

 

600

 

800

 

0

 

The entity recognises the deferred tax liability in years 1 to 4 because the reversal of the taxable temporary difference will create taxable income in subsequent years. The entity’s statement of comprehensive income includes the following:

 

 

Year

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

Income

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

Depreciation

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

 

2,000

Profit before tax

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Current tax expense (income)

(200)

 

(200)

 

(200)

 

(200)

 

800

Deferred tax expense (income)

200

 

200

 

200

 

200

 

(800)

Total tax expense (income)

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Profit for the period

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Example 2 – Deferred tax assets and liabilities

The example deals with an entity over the two-year period, X5 and X6. In X5 the enacted income tax rate was 40% of taxable profit. In X6 the enacted income tax rate was 35% of taxable profit.

Charitable donations are recognised as an expense when they are paid and are not deductible for tax purposes.

In X5, the entity was notified by the relevant authorities that they intend to pursue an action against the entity with respect to sulphur emissions. Although as at December X6 the action had not yet come to court the entity recognised a liability of 700 in X5 being its best estimate of the fine arising from the action. Fines are not deductible for tax purposes.

In X2, the entity incurred 1,250 of costs in relation to the development of a new product. These costs were deducted for tax purposes in X2. For accounting purposes, the entity capitalised this expenditure and amortised it on the straight-line basis over five years. At 31/12/X4, the unamortised balance of these product development costs was 500.

In X5, the entity entered into an agreement with its existing employees to provide healthcare benefits to retirees. The entity recognises as an expense the cost of this plan as employees provide service. No payments to retirees were made for such benefits in X5 or X6. Healthcare costs are deductible for tax purposes when payments are made to retirees. The entity has determined that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which any resulting deferred tax asset can be utilised.

Buildings are depreciated for accounting purposes at 5% a year on a straight-line basis and at 10% a year on a straight-line basis for tax purposes. Motor vehicles are depreciated for accounting purposes at 20% a year on a straight-line basis and at 25% a year on a straight-line basis for tax purposes. A full year’s depreciation is charged for accounting purposes in the year that an asset is acquired.

At 1/1/X6, the building was revalued to 65,000 and the entity estimated that the remaining useful life of the building was 20 years from the date of the revaluation. The revaluation did not affect taxable profit in X6 and the taxation authorities did not adjust the tax base of the building to reflect the revaluation. In X6, the entity transferred 1,033 from revaluation surplus to retained earnings. This represents the difference of 1,590 between the actual depreciation on the building (3,250) and equivalent depreciation based on the cost of the building (1,660, which is the book value at 1/1/X6 of 33,200 divided by the remaining useful life of 20 years), less the related deferred tax of 557 (see paragraph 64 of the Standard).

 

Current tax expense

 

X5

 

X6

Accounting profit

8,775

 

8,740

Add

Depreciation for accounting purposes

4,800

 

8,250

Charitable donations

500

 

350

Fine for environmental pollution

700

 

Product development costs

250

 

250

Healthcare benefits

2,000

 

1,000

 

17,025

 

18,590

Deduct

Depreciation for tax purposes

(8,100)

 

(11,850)

Taxable profit

8,925

 

6,740

 

Current tax expense at 40%

3,570

 

 

Current tax expense at 35%

 

 

2,359

 

Carrying amounts of property, plant and equipment

 

Building

Motor vehicles

Total

Balance at 31/12/X4

50,000

 

10,000

 

60,000

Additions X5

6,000

 

 

6,000

Balance at 31/12/X5

56,000

 

10,000

 

66,000

Elimination of accumulated depreciation on revaluation at 1/1/X6

(22,800)

 

 

(22,800)

Revaluation at 1/1/X6

31,800

 

 

31,800

Balance at 1/1/X6

65,000

 

10,000

 

75,000

Additions X6

 

15,000

 

15,000

 

65,000

 

25,000

 

90,000

 

Accumulated depreciation

5%

 

20%

 

 

Balance at 31/12/X4

20,000

 

4,000

 

24,000

Depreciation X5

2,800

 

2,000

 

4,800

Balance at 31/12/X5

22,800

 

6,000

 

28,800

Revaluation at 1/1/X6

(22,800)

 

 

(22,800)

Balance at 1/1/X6

 

6,000

 

6,000

Depreciation X6

3,250

 

5,000

 

8,250

Balance at 31/12/X6

3,250

 

11,000

 

14,250

 

Carrying amount  

31/12/X4

30,000

 

6,000

 

36,000

31/12/X5

33,200

 

4,000

 

37,200

31/12/X6

61,750

 

14,000

 

75,750

 

Tax base of property, plant and equipment

 

Building

Motor vehicles

Total

Cost

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at 31/12/X4

50,000

 

10,000

 

60,000

Additions X5

6,000

 

 

6,000

Balance at 31/12/X5

56,000

 

10,000

 

66,000

Additions X6

 

15,000

 

15,000

Balance at 31/12/X6

56,000

 

25,000

 

81,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated depreciation

10%

 

25%

 

 

Balance at 31/12/X4

40,000

 

5,000

 

45,000

Depreciation X5

5,600

 

2,500

 

8,100

Balance at 31/12/X5

45,600

 

7,500

 

53,100

Depreciation X6

5,600

 

6,250

 

11,850

Balance 31/12/X6

51,200

 

13,750

 

64,950

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tax base

 

 

 

 

 

31/12/X4

10,000

 

5,000

 

15,000

31/12/X5

10,400

 

2,500

 

12,900

31/12/X6

4,800

 

11,250

 

16,050

 

 

Deferred tax assets, liabilities and expense at 31/12/X4

 

Carrying amount

Tax base

Temporary differences

Accounts receivable

500

 

500

 

Inventory

2,000

 

2,000

 

Product development costs

500

 

 

500

Investments

33,000

 

33,000

 

Property, plant & equipment

36,000

 

15,000

 

21,000

TOTAL ASSETS

72,000

 

50,500

 

21,500

 

Current income taxes payable

3,000

 

3,000

 

Accounts payable

500

 

500

 

Fines payable

 

 

Liability for healthcare benefits

 

 

Long-term debt

20,000

 

20,000

 

Deferred income taxes

8,600

 

8,600

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

32,100

 

32,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Share capital

5,000

 

5,000

 

Revaluation surplus

 

 

Retained earnings

34,900

 

13,400

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES/EQUITY

72,000

 

50,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPORARY DIFFERENCES

 

 

 

 

21,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax liability

21,500 at 40%

 

 

8,600

 

 

 

Deferred tax asset

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net deferred tax liability

 

 

 

 

8,600

 

Deferred tax assets, liabilities and expense at 31/12/X5

 

Carrying amount

Tax base

Temporary differences

Accounts receivable

500

 

500

 

Inventory

2,000

 

2,000

 

Product development costs

250

 

 

250

Investments

33,000

 

33,000

 

Property, plant & equipment

37,200

 

12,900

 

24,300

TOTAL ASSETS

72,950

 

48,400

 

24,550

 

 

 

Current income taxes payable

3,570

 

3,570

 

Accounts payable

500

 

500

 

Fines payable

700

 

700

 

Liability for healthcare benefits

2,000

 

 

(2,000)

Long-term debt

12,475

 

12,475

 

Deferred income taxes

9,020

 

9,020

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

28,265

 

26,265

 

(2,000)

 

 

 

Share capital

5,000

 

5,000

 

Revaluation surplus

 

 

Retained earnings

39,685

 

17,135

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES/EQUITY

72,950

 

48,400

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPORARY DIFFERENCES

 

 

 

 

22,550

Deferred tax liability

24,550 at 40%

 

 

9,820

Deferred tax asset

2,000 at 40%

 

 

(800)

Net deferred tax liability

 

 

 

 

9,020

Less: Opening deferred tax liability

 

 

 

 

(8,600)

Deferred tax expense (income) related to the origination and reversal of temporary differences

 

 

 

 

420

 

Deferred tax assets, liabilities and expense at 31/12/X6

 

Carrying amount

Tax base

Temporary differences

Accounts receivable

500

 

500

 

Inventory

2,000

 

2,000

 

Product development costs

 

 

Investments

33,000

 

33,000

 

Property, plant & equipment

75,750

 

16,050

 

59,700

TOTAL ASSETS

111,250

 

51,550

 

59,700

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current income taxes payable

2,359

 

2,359

 

Accounts payable

500

 

500

 

Fines payable

700

 

700

 

 

Liability for healthcare benefits

3,000

 

 

(3,000)

Long-term debt

12,805

 

12,805

 

Deferred income taxes

19,845

 

19,845

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

39,209

 

36,209

 

(3,000)

Share capital

5,000

 

5,000

 

Revaluation surplus

19,637

 

 

Retained earnings

47,404

 

10,341

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES/EQUITY

111,250

 

51,550

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPORARY DIFFERENCES

 

 

 

 

56,700

Deferred tax liability

59,700 at 35%

 

 

20,895

Deferred tax asset

3,000 at 35%

 

 

(1,050)

Net deferred tax liability

 

 

 

 

19,845

Less: Opening deferred tax liability

 

 

 

 

(9,020)

Adjustment to opening deferred tax liability resulting from reduction in tax rate

22,550 at 5%

 

 

1,127

Deferred tax attributable to revaluation surplus

31,800 at 35%

 

 

(11,130)

Deferred tax expense (income) related to the origination and reversal of temporary differences

 

 

 

 

822

Illustrative disclosure

The amounts to be disclosed in accordance with the Standard are as follows:

Major components of tax expense (income) (paragraph 79)

 

 

X5

 

X6

Current tax expense

3,570

 

2,359

Deferred tax expense relating to the origination and reversal of temporary differences:

420

 

822

Deferred tax expense (income) resulting from reduction in tax rate

 

(1,127)

Tax expense

3,990

 

2,054

 

Income tax relating to the components of other comprehensive income (paragraph 81(ab))

 

Deferred tax relating to revaluation of building

 

(11,130)

 

In addition, deferred tax of 557 was transferred in X6 from retained earnings to revaluation surplus. This relates to the difference between the actual depreciation on the building and equivalent depreciation based on the cost of the building.

Explanation of the relationship between tax expense and accounting profit (paragraph 81(c))

The Standard permits two alternative methods of explaining the relationship between tax expense (income) and accounting profit. Both of these formats are illustrated below.

(i)              a numerical reconciliation between tax expense (income) and the product of accounting profit multiplied by the applicable tax rate(s), disclosing also the basis on which the applicable tax rate(s) is (are) computed

 

 

 

X5

 

X6

Accounting profit

8,775

 

8,740

Tax at the applicable tax rate of 35% (X5: 40%)

3,510

 

3,059

Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible in determining taxable profit:

 

 

 

 

Charitable donations

200

 

122

 

Fines for environmental pollution

280

 

Reduction in opening deferred taxes resulting from reduction in tax rate

 –

 

(1,127)

Tax expense

3,990

 

2,054

 

The applicable tax rate is the aggregate of the national income tax rate of 30% (X5: 35%) and the local income tax rate of 5%.

(ii)             a numerical reconciliation between the average effective tax rate and the applicable tax rate, disclosing also the basis on which the applicable tax rate is computed

 

 

 

X5
%

 

X6
%

Applicable tax rate

40.0

 

35.0

Tax effect of expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes:

 

 

 

 

Charitable donations

2.3

 

1.4

 

Fines for environmental pollution

3.2

 

Effect on opening deferred taxes of reduction in tax rate

 

(12.9)

Average effective tax rate (tax expense divided by profit before tax)

45.5

 

23.5

 

The applicable tax rate is the aggregate of the national income tax rate of 30% (X5: 35%) and the local income tax rate of 5%.

An explanation of changes in the applicable tax rate(s) compared to the previous accounting period (paragraph 81(d))

In X6, the government enacted a change in the national income tax rate from 35% to 30%.

In respect of each type of temporary difference, and in respect of each type of unused tax losses and unused tax credits:

(i)             the amount of the deferred tax assets and liabilities recognised in the statement of financial position for each period presented;

(ii)            the amount of the deferred tax income or expense recognised in profit or loss for each period presented, if this is not apparent from the changes in the amounts recognised in the statement of financial position (paragraph 81(g)).

 

 

X5

 

X6

Accelerated depreciation for tax purposes

9,720

 

10,322

Liabilities for healthcare benefits that are deducted for tax purposes only when paid

(800)

 

(1,050)

Product development costs deducted from taxable profit in earlier years

100

 

Revaluation, net of related depreciation

 

10,573

Deferred tax liability

9,020

 

19,845

(note: the amount of the deferred tax income or expense recognised in profit or loss for the current year is apparent from the changes in the amounts recognised in the statement of financial position)

Example 3 – Business combinations

On 1 January X5 entity A acquired 100 per cent of the shares of entity B at a cost of 600. At the acquisition date, the tax base in A’s tax jurisdiction of A’s investment in B is 600. Reductions in the carrying amount of goodwill are not deductible for tax purposes, and the cost of the goodwill would also not be deductible if B were to dispose of its underlying business. The tax rate in A’s tax jurisdiction is 30 per cent and the tax rate in B’s tax jurisdiction is 40 per cent.

The fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed (excluding deferred tax assets and liabilities) by A is set out in the following table, together with their tax bases in B’s tax jurisdiction and the resulting temporary differences.

 

 

Amount recognised at acquisition

Tax base

Temporary differences

Property, plant and equipment

 

270

 

155

 

115

Accounts receivable

 

210

 

210

 

Inventory

 

174

 

124

 

50

Retirement benefit obligations

 

(30)

 

 

(30)

Accounts payable

 

(120)

 

(120)

 

Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, excluding deferred tax

 

504

 

369

 

135

The deferred tax asset arising from the retirement benefit obligations is offset against the deferred tax liabilities arising from the property, plant and equipment and inventory (see paragraph 74 of the Standard).

No deduction is available in B’s tax jurisdiction for the cost of the goodwill. Therefore, the tax base of the goodwill in B’s jurisdiction is nil. However, in accordance with paragraph 15(a) of the Standard, A recognises no deferred tax liability for the taxable temporary difference associated with the goodwill in B’s tax jurisdiction.

The carrying amount, in A’s consolidated financial statements, of its investment in B is made up as follows:

 

Fair value of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, excluding deferred tax

 

504

Deferred tax liability (135 at 40%)

 

(54)

Fair value of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed

 

450

Goodwill

 

150

Carrying amount

 

600

Because, at the acquisition date, the tax base in A’s tax jurisdiction, of A’s investment in B is 600, no temporary difference is associated in A’s tax jurisdiction with the investment.

During X5, B’s equity (incorporating the fair value adjustments made as a result of the business combination) changed as follows:

 

 

 

At 1 January X5

450

Retained profit for X5 (net profit of 150, less dividend payable of 80)

70

At 31 December X5

520

A recognises a liability for any withholding tax or other taxes that it will incur on the accrued dividend receivable of 80.

At 31 December X5, the carrying amount of A’s underlying investment in B, excluding the accrued dividend receivable, is as follows:

 

Net assets of B

520

Goodwill

150

Carrying amount

670

The temporary difference associated with A’s underlying investment is 70. This amount is equal to the cumulative retained profit since the acquisition date.

If A has determined that it will not sell the investment in the foreseeable future and that B will not distribute its retained profits in the foreseeable future, no deferred tax liability is recognised in relation to A’s investment in B (see paragraphs 39 and 40 of the Standard). Note that this exception would apply for an investment in an associate only if there is an agreement requiring that the profits of the associate will not be distributed in the foreseeable future (see paragraph 42 of the Standard). A discloses the amount of the temporary difference for which no deferred tax is recognised, ie 70 (see paragraph 81(f) of the Standard).

If A expects to sell the investment in B, or that B will distribute its retained profits in the foreseeable future, A recognises a deferred tax liability to the extent that the temporary difference is expected to reverse. The tax rate reflects the manner in which A expects to recover the carrying amount of its investment (see paragraph 51 of the Standard). A recognises the deferred tax in other comprehensive income to the extent that the deferred tax results from foreign exchange translation differences that have been recognised in other comprehensive income (paragraph 61A of the Standard). A discloses separately:

(a)            the amount of deferred tax that has been recognised in other comprehensive income (paragraph 81(ab) of the Standard); and

(b)            the amount of any remaining temporary difference which is not expected to reverse in the foreseeable future and for which, therefore, no deferred tax is recognised (see paragraph 81(f) of the Standard).

Example 4 – Compound financial instruments

An entity receives a non-interest-bearing convertible loan of 1,000 on 31 December X4 repayable at par on 1 January X8. In accordance with AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Presentation the entity classifies the instrument’s liability component as a liability and the equity component as equity. The entity assigns an initial carrying amount of 751 to the liability component of the convertible loan and 249 to the equity component. Subsequently, the entity recognises imputed discount as interest expense at an annual rate of 10% on the carrying amount of the liability component at the beginning of the year. The tax authorities do not allow the entity to claim any deduction for the imputed discount on the liability component of the convertible loan. The tax rate is 40%.

The temporary differences associated with the liability component and the resulting deferred tax liability and deferred tax expense and income are as follows:

 

 

Year

 

X4

 

X5

 

X6

 

X7

Carrying amount of liability component

751

 

826

 

909

 

1,000

Tax base

1,000

 

1,000

 

1,000

 

1,000

Taxable temporary difference

249

 

174

 

91

 

Opening deferred tax liability at 40%

0

 

100

 

70

 

37

Deferred tax charged to equity

100

 

 

 

Deferred tax expense (income)

 

(30)

 

(33)

 

(37)

Closing deferred tax liability at 40%

100

 

70

 

37

 

 

As explained in paragraph 23 of the Standard, at 31 December X4, the entity recognises the resulting deferred tax liability by adjusting the initial carrying amount of the equity component of the convertible liability. Therefore, the amounts recognised at that date are as follows:

 

Liability component

751

Deferred tax liability

100

Equity component (249 less 100)

149

 

1,000

Subsequent changes in the deferred tax liability are recognised in profit or loss as tax income (see paragraph 23 of the Standard). Therefore, the entity’s profit or loss includes the following:

 

 

Year

 

X4

 

X5

 

X6

 

X7

Interest expense (imputed discount)

 

75

 

83

 

91

Deferred tax expense (income)

 

(30)

 

(33)

 

(37)

 

 

45

 

50

 

54

Example 5 – Share-based payment transactions

In accordance with AASB 2 Share-based Payment, an entity has recognised an expense for the consumption of employee services received as consideration for share options granted. A tax deduction will not arise until the options are exercised, and the deduction is based on the options’ intrinsic value at exercise date.

As explained in paragraph 68B of the Standard, the difference between the tax base of the employee services received to date (being the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods in respect of those services), and the carrying amount of nil, is a deductible temporary difference that results in a deferred tax asset. Paragraph 68B requires that, if the amount the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is not known at the end of the period, it should be estimated, based on information available at the end of the period. If the amount that the taxation authorities will permit as a deduction in future periods is dependent upon the entity’s share price at a future date, the measurement of the deductible temporary difference should be based on the entity’s share price at the end of the period. Therefore, in this example, the estimated future tax deduction (and hence the measurement of the deferred tax asset) should be based on the options’ intrinsic value at the end of the period.

As explained in paragraph 68C of the Standard, if the tax deduction (or estimated future tax deduction) exceeds the amount of the related cumulative remuneration expense, this indicates that the tax deduction relates not only to remuneration expense but also to an equity item. In this situation, paragraph 68C requires that the excess of the associated current or deferred tax should be recognised directly in equity.

The entity’s tax rate is 40 per cent. The options were granted at the start of year 1, vested at the end of year 3 and were exercised at the end of year 5. Details of the expense recognised for employee services received and consumed in each accounting period, the number of options outstanding at each year-end, and the intrinsic value of the options at each year-end, are as follows:

 

 

Employee services expense

Number of options at year-end

 

Intrinsic value per option

Year 1

188,000

50,000

 

5

Year 2

185,000

45,000

 

8

Year 3

190,000

40,000

 

13

Year 4

0

40,000

 

17

Year 5

0

40,000

 

20

The entity recognises a deferred tax asset and deferred tax income in years 1–4 and current tax income in year 5 as follows. In years 4 and 5, some of the deferred and current tax income is recognised directly in equity, because the estimated (and actual) tax deduction exceeds the cumulative remuneration expense.

 

Year 1

 

Deferred tax asset and deferred tax income:

 

(50,000 × 5 × 1/3(a) × 0.40) =

33,333

(a)        The tax base of the employee services received is based on the intrinsic value of the options, and those options were granted for three years’ services. Because only one year’s services have been received to date, it is necessary to multiply the option’s intrinsic value by one-third to arrive at the tax base of the employee services received in year 1.

 

The deferred tax income is all recognised in profit or loss, because the estimated future tax deduction of 83,333 (50,000 × 5 × 1/3) is less than the cumulative remuneration expense of 188,000.

 

Year 2

Deferred tax asset at year-end:

 

 

 

(45,000 × 8 × 2/3 × 0.40) =

96,000

 

 

Less deferred tax asset at start of year

(33,333)

 

 

Deferred tax income for year

 

 

62,667*

* This amount consists of the following:

 

 

 

Deferred tax income for the temporary difference between the tax base of the employee services received during the year and their carrying amount of nil:

 

 

 

(45,000 × 8 × 1/3 × 0.40)

48,000

 

 

Tax income resulting from an adjustment to the tax base of employee services received in previous years:

 

 

 

 

(a)

increase in intrinsic value: (45,000 × 3 × 1/3 × 0.40)

18,000

 

 

 

(b)

decrease in number of options: (5,000 × 5 × 1/3 × 0.40)

(3,333)

 

 

Deferred tax income for year

 

 

62,667

The deferred tax income is all recognised in profit or loss, because the estimated future tax deduction of 240,000 (45,000 × 8 × 2/3) is less than the cumulative remuneration expense of 373,000 (188,000 + 185,000).

 

Year 3

 

Deferred tax asset at year-end:

 

(40,000 × 13 × 0.40) =

208,000

Less deferred tax asset at start of year

(96,000)

Deferred tax income for year

112,000

The deferred tax income is all recognised in profit or loss, because the estimated future tax deduction of 520,000 (40,000 × 13) is less than the cumulative remuneration expense of 563,000 (188,000 + 185,000 + 190,000).

 

Year 4

Deferred tax asset at year-end:

 

 

 

(40,000 × 17 × 0.40) =

272,000

 

 

Less deferred tax asset at start of year

(208,000)

 

 

Deferred tax income for year

 

 

64,000

 

 

The deferred tax income is recognised partly in profit or loss and partly directly in equity as follows:

 

 

 

 

Estimated future tax deduction (40,000 × 17) =

680,000

 

 

 

Cumulative remuneration expense

563,000

 

 

 

Excess tax deduction

 

 

117,000

 

Deferred tax income for year

64,000

 

 

 

Excess recognised directly in equity (117,000 × 0.40) =

46,800

 

 

 

Recognised in profit or loss

 

 

17,200

 

Year 5

Deferred tax expense (reversal of deferred tax asset)

272,000

 

 

Amount recognised directly in equity (reversal of cumulative deferred tax income recognised directly in equity)

46,800

 

 

Amount recognised in profit or loss

 

 

225,200

Current tax income based on intrinsic value of options at exercise date (40,000 × 20 × 0.40) =

320,000

 

 

Amount recognised in profit or loss (563,000 × 0.40) =

225,200

 

 

Amount recognised directly in equity

 

 

94,800

Summary

Statement of comprehensive income

Statement of financial position

 

Employee services expense

Current tax expense (income)

Deferred tax expense (income)

Total tax expense (income)

Equity

Deferred tax asset

Year 1

188,000

0

(33,333)

(33,333)

0

33,333

Year 2

185,000

0

(62,667)

(62,667)

0

96,000

Year 3

190,000

0

(112,000)

(112,000)

0

208,000

Year 4

0

0

(17,200)

(17,200)

(46,800)

272,000

Year 5

0

(225,200)

225,200

0

46,800

0

 

 

 

 

 

(94,800)

 

Totals

563,000

(225,200)

0

(225,200)

(94,800)

0

Example 6 – Replacement awards in a business combination

On 1 January 20X1 Entity A acquired 100 per cent of Entity B. Entity A pays cash consideration of CU400 to the former owners of Entity B.

At the acquisition date Entity B had outstanding employee share options with a market-based measure of CU100. The share options were fully vested. As part of the business combination Entity B’s outstanding share options are replaced by share options of Entity A (replacement awards) with a market-based measure of CU100 and an intrinsic value of CU80. The replacement awards are fully vested. In accordance with paragraphs B56–B62 of AASB 3 Business Combinations, the replacement awards are part of the consideration transferred for Entity B. A tax deduction for the replacement awards will not arise until the options are exercised. The tax deduction will be based on the share options’ intrinsic value at that date. Entity A’s tax rate is 40 per cent. Entity A recognises a deferred tax asset of CU32 (CU80 intrinsic value × 40%) on the replacement awards at the acquisition date.

Entity A measures the identifiable net assets obtained in the business combination (excluding deferred tax assets and liabilities) at CU450. The tax base of the identifiable net assets obtained is CU300. Entity A recognises a deferred tax liability of CU60 ((CU450 – CU300) × 40%) on the identifiable net assets at the acquisition date.

Goodwill is calculated as follows:

 

 

CU

Cash consideration

400

Market-based measure of replacement awards

100

Total consideration transferred

500

Identifiable net assets, excluding deferred tax assets and liabilities

(450)

Deferred tax asset

32

Deferred tax liability

60

Goodwill

78

Reductions in the carrying amount of goodwill are not deductible for tax purposes. In accordance with paragraph 15(a) of the Standard, Entity A recognises no deferred tax liability for the taxable temporary difference associated with the goodwill recognised in the business combination.

The accounting entry for the business combination is as follows:

 

 

 

 

CU

 

CU

Dr

Goodwill

78

 

 

Dr

Identifiable net assets

450

 

 

Dr

Deferred tax asset

32

 

 

 

Cr

Cash

 

 

400

 

Cr

Equity (replacement awards)

 

 

100

 

Cr

Deferred tax liability

 

 

60

 

On 31 December 20X1 the intrinsic value of the replacement awards is CU120. Entity A recognises a deferred tax asset of CU48 (CU120 × 40%). Entity A recognises deferred tax income of CU16 (CU48 – CU32) from the increase in the intrinsic value of the replacement awards. The accounting entry is as follows:

 

 

 

 

CU

 

CU

Dr

Deferred tax asset

16

 

 

 

Cr

Deferred tax income

 

 

16

 

If the replacement awards had not been tax-deductible under current tax law, Entity A would not have recognised a deferred tax asset on the acquisition date. Entity A would have accounted for any subsequent events that result in a tax deduction related to the replacement award in the deferred tax income or expense of the period in which the subsequent event occurred.

Paragraphs B56–B62 of AASB 3 provide guidance on determining which portion of a replacement award is part of the consideration transferred in a business combination and which portion is attributable to future service and thus a post-combination remuneration expense. Deferred tax assets and liabilities on replacement awards that are post-combination expenses are accounted for in accordance with the general principles as illustrated in Example 5.

Debt instruments

At 31 December 20X1, Entity Z holds a portfolio of three debt instruments:

 

Debt Instrument

Cost (CU)

 

Fair value (CU)

 

Contractual interest rate

A

2,000,000

 

1,942,857

 

2.00%

B

750,000

 

778,571

 

9.00%

C

2,000,000

 

1,961,905

 

3.00%

 

Entity Z acquired all the debt instruments on issuance for their nominal value. The terms of the debt instruments require the issuer to pay the nominal value of the debt instruments on their maturity on 31 December 20X2.

Interest is paid at the end of each year at the contractually fixed rate, which equalled the market interest rate when the debt instruments were acquired. At the end of 20X1, the market interest rate is 5 per cent, which has caused the fair value of Debt Instruments A and C to fall below their cost and the fair value of Debt Instrument B to rise above its cost. It is probable that Entity Z will receive all the contractual cash flows if it continues to hold the debt instruments.

At the end of 20X1, Entity Z expects that it will recover the carrying amounts of Debt Instruments A and B through use, ie by continuing to hold them and collecting contractual cash flows, and Debt Instrument C by sale at the beginning of 20X2 for its fair value on 31 December 20X1. It is assumed that no other tax planning opportunity is available to Entity Z that would enable it to sell Debt Instrument B to generate a capital gain against which it could offset the capital loss arising from selling Debt Instrument C.

The debt instruments are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with AASB 9 Financial Instruments (or AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement[1]).

Tax law

The tax base of the debt instruments is cost, which tax law allows to be offset either on maturity when principal is paid or against the sale proceeds when the debt instruments are sold. Tax law specifies that gains (losses) on the debt instruments are taxable (deductible) only when realised.

Tax law distinguishes ordinary gains and losses from capital gains and losses. Ordinary losses can be offset against both ordinary gains and capital gains. Capital losses can only be offset against capital gains. Capital losses can be carried forward for 5 years and ordinary losses can be carried forward for 20 years.

Ordinary gains are taxed at 30 per cent and capital gains are taxed at 10 per cent.

Tax law classifies interest income from the debt instruments as ‘ordinary’ and gains and losses arising on the sale of the debt instruments as ‘capital’. Losses that arise if the issuer of the debt instrument fails to pay the principal on maturity are classified as ordinary by tax law.

General

On 31 December 20X1, Entity Z has, from other sources, taxable temporary differences of CU50,000 and deductible temporary differences of CU430,000, which will reverse in ordinary taxable profit (or ordinary tax loss) in 20X2.

At the end of 20X1, it is probable that Entity Z will report to the tax authorities an ordinary tax loss of CU200,000 for the year 20X2. This tax loss includes all taxable economic benefits and tax deductions for which temporary differences exist on 31 December 20X1 and that are classified as ordinary by tax law. These amounts contribute equally to the loss for the period according to tax law.

Entity Z has no capital gains against which it can utilise capital losses arising in the years 20X1–20X2.

Except for the information given in the previous paragraphs, there is no further information that is relevant to Entity Z’s accounting for deferred taxes in the period 20X1–20X2.

Temporary differences

At the end of 20X1, Entity Z identifies the following temporary differences:

 

 

Carrying amount (CU)

 

Tax base (CU)

 

Taxable temporary differences (CU)

 

Deductible temporary differences (CU)

Debt Instrument A

1,942,857

 

2,000,000

 

 

 

57,143

Debt Instrument B

778,571

 

750,000

 

28,571

 

 

Debt Instrument C

1,961,905

 

2,000,000

 

 

 

38,095

Other sources

Not specified

 

50,000

 

430,000

 

The difference between the carrying amount of an asset or liability and its tax base gives rise to a deductible (taxable) temporary difference (see paragraphs 20 and 26(d) of the Standard). This is because deductible (taxable) temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position and its tax base, which will result in amounts that are deductible (taxable) in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled (see paragraph 5 of the Standard).

Utilisation of deductible temporary differences

With some exceptions, deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences are recognised to the extent that sufficient future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences are utilised (see paragraph 24 of the Standard).

Paragraphs 28–29 of AASB 112 identify the sources of taxable profits against which an entity can utilise deductible temporary differences. They include:

(a)            future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences;

(b)            taxable profit in future periods; and

(c)             tax planning opportunities.

The deductible temporary difference that arises from Debt Instrument C is assessed separately for utilisation. This is because tax law classifies the loss resulting from recovering the carrying amount of Debt Instrument C by sale as capital and allows capital losses to be offset only against capital gains (see paragraph 27A of the Standard).

The separate assessment results in not recognising a deferred tax asset for the deductible temporary difference that arises from Debt Instrument C because Entity Z has no source of taxable profit available that tax law classifies as capital.

In contrast, the deductible temporary difference that arises from Debt Instrument A and other sources are assessed for utilisation in combination with one another. This is because their related tax deductions would be classified as ordinary by tax law.

The tax deductions represented by the deductible temporary differences related to Debt Instrument A are classified as ordinary because the tax law classifies the effect on taxable profit (tax loss) from deducting the tax base on maturity as ordinary.

In assessing the utilisation of deductible temporary differences on 31 December 20X1, the following two steps are performed by Entity Z.

Step 1: Utilisation of deductible temporary differences because of the reversal of taxable temporary differences (see paragraph 28 of the Standard)

Entity Z first assesses the availability of taxable temporary differences as follows:

 

 

 

 

(CU)

Expected reversal of deductible temporary differences in 20X2

 

 

 

From Debt Instrument A

 

57,143

 

From other sources

 

430,000

Total reversal of deductible temporary differences

 

487,143

Expected reversal of taxable temporary differences in 20X2

 

 

 

From Debt Instrument B

 

(28,571)

 

From other sources

 

(50,000)

Total reversal of taxable temporary differences

 

(78,571)

Utilisation because of the reversal of taxable temporary differences (Step 1)

 

78,571

 

 

 

Remaining deductible temporary differences to be assessed for utilisation in Step 2 (487,143 – 78,571)

 

408,572

 

In Step 1, Entity Z can recognise a deferred tax asset in relation to a deductible temporary difference of CU78,571.

Step 2: Utilisation of deductible temporary differences because of future taxable profit (see paragraph 29(a) of the Standard)

In this step, Entity Z assesses the availability of future taxable profit as follows:

 

 

 

(CU)

Probable future tax profit (loss) in 20X2 (upon which income taxes are payable (recoverable))

 

(200,000)

Add back: reversal of deductible temporary differences expected to reverse in 20X2

 

487,143

Less: reversal of taxable temporary differences (utilised in Step 1)

 

(78,571)

Probable taxable profit excluding tax deductions for assessing utilisation of deductible temporary differences in 20X2

 

208,572

Remaining deductible temporary differences to be assessed for utilisation from Step 1

 

408,572

Utilisation because of future taxable profit (Step 2)

 

208,572

Utilisation because of the reversal of taxable temporary differences (Step 1)

 

78,571

Total utilisation of deductible temporary differences

 

287,143

 

The tax loss of CU200,000 includes the taxable economic benefit of CU2 million from the collection of the principal of Debt Instrument A and the equivalent tax deduction, because it is probable that Entity Z will recover the debt instrument for more than its carrying amount (see paragraph 29A of the Standard).

The utilisation of deductible temporary differences is not, however, assessed against probable future taxable profit for a period upon which income taxes are payable (see paragraph 5 of the Standard). Instead, the utilisation of deductible temporary differences is assessed against probable future taxable profit that excludes tax deductions resulting from the reversal of deductible temporary differences (see paragraph 29(a) of the Standard). Assessing the utilisation of deductible temporary differences against probable future taxable profits without excluding those deductions would lead to double counting the deductible temporary differences in that assessment.

In Step 2, Entity Z determines that it can recognise a deferred tax asset in relation to a future taxable profit, excluding tax deductions resulting from the reversal of deductible temporary differences, of CU208,572. Consequently, the total utilisation of deductible temporary differences amounts to CU287,143 (CU78,571 (Step 1) + CU208,572 (Step 2)).

Measurement of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities

Entity Z presents the following deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities in its financial statements on 31 December 20X1:

 

 

(CU)

Total taxable temporary differences

 

78,571

Total utilisation of deductible temporary differences

 

287,143

Deferred tax liabilities (78,571 at 30%)

 

23,571

Deferred tax assets (287,143 at 30%)

 

86,143

The deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities are measured using the tax rate for ordinary gains of 30 per cent, in accordance with the expected manner of recovery (settlement) of the underlying assets (liabilities) (see paragraph 51 of the Standard).

Allocation of changes in deferred tax assets between profit or loss and other comprehensive income

Changes in deferred tax that arise from items that are recognised in profit or loss are recognised in profit or loss (see paragraph 58 of the Standard). Changes in deferred tax that arise from items that are recognised in other comprehensive income are recognised in other comprehensive income (see paragraph 61A of the Standard).

Entity Z did not recognise deferred tax assets for all of its deductible temporary differences at 31 December 20X1, and according to tax law all the tax deductions represented by the deductible temporary differences contribute equally to the tax loss for the period. Consequently, the assessment of the utilisation of deductible temporary differences does not specify whether the taxable profits are utilised for deferred tax items that are recognised in profit or loss (ie the deductible temporary differences from other sources) or whether instead the taxable profits are utilised for deferred tax items that are recognised in other comprehensive income (ie the deductible temporary differences related to debt instruments classified as fair value through other comprehensive income).

For such situations, paragraph 63 of the Standard requires the changes in deferred taxes to be allocated to profit or loss and other comprehensive income on a reasonable pro rata basis or by another method that achieves a more appropriate allocation in the circumstances.

 


Compilation details
Accounting Standard AASB
112 Income Taxes (as amended)

Compilation details are not part of AASB 112.

This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.  It takes into account amendments up to and including 14 February 2018 and was prepared on 29 March 2019 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB).

This compilation is not a separate Accounting Standard made by the AASB.  Instead, it is a representation of AASB 112 (August 2015) as amended by other Accounting Standards, which are listed in the Table below.

Table of Standards

Standard

Date made

FRL identifier

Commence-ment date

Effective date
(annual periods
… on or after …)

Application, saving or transitional provisions

AASB 112

7 Aug 2015

F2015L01601

31 Dec 2017

(beginning) 1 Jan 2018

see (a) below

AASB 16

23 Feb 2016

F2016L00233

31 Dec 2018

(beginning) 1 Jan 2019

see (b) below

AASB 2016-1

24 Feb 2016

F2016L00231

31 Dec 2016

(beginning) 1 Jan 2017

see (c) below

AASB 1058

9 Dec 2016

F2017L00042

31 Dec 2018

(beginning) 1 Jan 2019

see (b) below

AASB 2016-7

9 Dec 2016

F2017L00043

31 Dec 2016

(beginning) 1 Jan 2017

see (d) below

AASB 2018-1

14 Feb 2018

F2018L00157

31 Dec 2018

(beginning) 1 Jan 2019

see (e) below

(a)           Entities may elect to apply this Standard to periods beginning after 24 July 2014 but before 1 January 2018.

(b)          Entities may elect to apply this Standard to annual periods beginning before 1 January 2019, provided that AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers is also applied to the same period.

(c)           Entities may elect to apply this Standard to annual periods beginning before 1 January 2017.

(d)          AASB 2016-7 deferred the effective date of AASB 15 (and its consequential amendments in AASB 2014-5) for not-for-profit entities to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019, instead of 1 January 2018.  However, earlier application of AASB 112 (2015) incorporating the text that relates to AASB 15 is permitted, provided that AASB 15 is also applied.

(e)           Entities may elect to apply this Standard to annual periods beginning before 1 January 2019.

Table of amendments to Standard

Paragraph affected

How affected

By … [paragraph/page]

4

amended

AASB 1058 [page 23]

Aus4.1

added

AASB 1058 [page 23]

20

amended

AASB 16 [page 49]

26 (example)

added

AASB 2016-1 [page 6]

27A

added

AASB 2016-1 [page 6]

29

amended

AASB 2016-1 [page 7]

29A

added

AASB 2016-1 [page 7]

Aus33.1

amended

AASB 1058 [page 23]

52B

deleted

AASB 2018-1 [page 6]

52B (example)

amended

AASB 2018-1 [page 7]

57A

added

AASB 2018-1 [page 7]

98G

added

AASB 16 [page 50]

98H

added

AASB 2016-1 [page 7]

98I

added

AASB 2018-1 [page 7]

Table of amendments to illustrative examples

Paragraph affected

How affected

By … [paragraph/page]

Illustrative computations and presentation

Example 7

added

AASB 2016-1 [page 8]

 


Deleted IAS 12 text

Deleted IAS 12 text is not part of AASB 112.

90             This Standard supersedes IAS 12 Accounting for Taxes on Income, approved in 1979.

91             Paragraphs 52A, 52B, 65A, 81(i), 82A, 87A, 87B, 87C and the deletion of paragraphs 3 and 50 become operative for annual financial statements1 covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2001. Earlier adoption is encouraged. If earlier adoption affects the financial statements, an entity shall disclose that fact.

[1]               Paragraph 91 refers to ‘annual financial statements’ in line with more explicit language for writing effective dates adopted in 1998. Paragraph 89 refers to ‘financial statements’.

92             IAS 1 (as revised in 2007) amended the terminology used throughout IFRSs. In addition it amended paragraphs 23, 52, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 68C, 77 and 81, deleted paragraph 61 and added paragraphs 61A, 62A and 77A. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. If an entity applies IAS 1 (revised 2007) for an earlier period, the amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.

95             IFRS 3 (as revised in 2008) amended paragraphs 21 and 67 and added paragraphs 32A and 81(j) and (k). An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2009. If an entity applies IFRS 3 (revised 2008) for an earlier period, the amendments shall also be applied for that earlier period.

98             Paragraph 52 was renumbered as 51A, paragraph 10 and the examples following paragraph 51A were amended, and paragraphs 51B and 51C and the following example and paragraphs 51D, 51E and 99 were added by Deferred Tax: Recovery of Underlying Assets, issued in December 2010. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2012. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact.

98A          IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements, issued in May 2011, amended paragraphs 2, 15, 18(e), 24, 38, 39, 43–45, 81(f), 87 and 87C. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 11.

98B          Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive Income (Amendments to IAS 1), issued in June 2011, amended paragraph 77 and deleted paragraph 77A. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IAS 1 as amended in June 2011.

98C          Investment Entities (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 27), issued in October 2012, amended paragraphs 58 and 68C. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014. Earlier application of Investment Entities is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier it shall also apply all amendments included in Investment Entities at the same time.

99             The amendments made by Deferred Tax: Recovery of Underlying Assets, issued in December 2010, supersede SIC Interpretation 21 Income Taxes—Recovery of Revalued Non-Depreciable Assets.



[1]    AASB 9 replaced AASB 139. AASB 9 applies to all items that were previously within the scope of AASB 139.