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AASB 11 - Joint Arrangements - July 2015

Authoritative Version
AASB 11 Standards/Accounting & Auditing as amended, taking into account amendments up to Accounting Standard AASB 2018-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Annual Improvements 2015–2017 Cycle
Administered by: Treasury
Registered 15 Apr 2019
Start Date 31 Dec 2018

Compiled AASB Standard

AASB 11

 

This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014 but before 1 January 2019. It incorporates relevant amendments made up to and including 14 February 2018.

Prepared on 29 March 2019 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board.

Compilation no. 1

Compilation date:  31 December 2018

Title: AASB logo - Description: AASB logo with Australian crest and text identifying the Australian Government and the Australian Accounting Standards Board.
 



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© Commonwealth of Australia 2019

This compiled AASB Standard contains IFRS Foundation copyright material.  Reproduction within Australia in unaltered form (retaining this notice) is permitted for personal and non-commercial use subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source.  Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights for commercial purposes within Australia should be addressed to The National Director, Australian Accounting Standards Board, PO Box 204, Collins Street West, Victoria 8007.

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Contents

COMPARISON WITH IFRS 11

ACCOUNTING STANDARD

AASB 11 JOINT ARRANGEMENTS

from paragraph

Objective                                                                                                                                                                             1

Meeting the objective                                                                                                                                                              2

Scope                                                                                                                                                                                        3

Joint arrangements                                                                                                                                                   4

Joint control                                                                                                                                                                              7

Types of joint arrangement                                                                                                                                                14

Financial statements of parties to a joint arrangement

Joint operations                                                                                                                                                                     20

Joint ventures                                                                                                                                                                         24

Separate financial statements                                                                                                                     26

Commencement of the legislative instrument                                                                    Aus27.1

Withdrawal of AASB pronouncements                                                                                           Aus27.2

Appendices

A Defined terms

B Application guidance

C Effective date, transition and withdrawal of other IFRSs

Illustrative examples

COMPILATION DETAILS

Deleted IFRS 11 Text

 

 

available on the AASB website

Introduction to IFRS 11

Basis for conclusions on IFRS 11

 

 

Australian Accounting Standard AASB 11 Joint Arrangements (as amended) is set out in paragraphs 1 – Aus27.2 and Appendices A – C.  All the paragraphs have equal authority.  Paragraphs in bold type state the main principles.  Terms defined in Appendix A are in italics the first time they appear in the Standard.  AASB 11 is to be read in the context of other Australian Accounting Standards, including AASB 1048 Interpretation of Standards, which identifies the Australian Accounting Interpretations, and AASB 1057 Application of Australian Accounting Standards.  In the absence of explicit guidance, AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies.

 

 


Comparison with IFRS 11

AASB 11 Joint Arrangements incorporates IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements as issued and amended by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).  Australian‑specific paragraphs (which are not included in IFRS 11) are identified with the prefix “Aus”.  Paragraphs that apply only to not-for-profit entities begin by identifying their limited applicability.

Tier 1

For-profit entities complying with AASB 11 also comply with IFRS 11.

Not-for-profit entities’ compliance with IFRS 11 will depend on whether any “Aus” paragraphs that specifically apply to not-for-profit entities provide additional guidance or contain applicable requirements that are inconsistent with IFRS 11.

AASB 1053 Application of Tiers of Australian Accounting Standards explains the two tiers of reporting requirements.

 


Accounting Standard AASB 11

The Australian Accounting Standards Board made Accounting Standard AASB 11 Joint Arrangements under section 334 of the Corporations Act 2001 on 24 July 2015.

 

This compiled version of AASB 11 applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.  It incorporates relevant amendments contained in other AASB Standards made by the AASB up to and including 14 February 2018 (see Compilation Details).

Accounting Standard AASB 11

Joint Arrangements

Objective

1               The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for financial reporting by entities that have an interest in arrangements that are controlled jointly (ie joint arrangements).

Meeting the objective

2               To meet the objective in paragraph 1, this Standard defines joint control and requires an entity that is a party to a joint arrangement to determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved by assessing its rights and obligations and to account for those rights and obligations in accordance with that type of joint arrangement.

Scope

3               This Standard shall be applied by all entities that are a party to a joint arrangement.

Joint arrangements

4               A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

5               A joint arrangement has the following characteristics:

(a)            The parties are bound by a contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B2–B4).

(b)            The contractual arrangement gives two or more of those parties joint control of the arrangement (see paragraphs 7–13).

6               A joint arrangement is either a joint operation or a joint venture.

Joint control

7               Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

8               An entity that is a party to an arrangement shall assess whether the contractual arrangement gives all the parties, or a group of the parties, control of the arrangement collectively. All the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively when they must act together to direct the activities that significantly affect the returns of the arrangement (ie the relevant activities).

9               Once it has been determined that all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively, joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that control the arrangement collectively.

10             In a joint arrangement, no single party controls the arrangement on its own. A party with joint control of an arrangement can prevent any of the other parties, or a group of the parties, from controlling the arrangement.

11             An arrangement can be a joint arrangement even though not all of its parties have joint control of the arrangement. This Standard distinguishes between parties that have joint control of a joint arrangement (joint operators or joint venturers) and parties that participate in, but do not have joint control of, a joint arrangement.

12             An entity will need to apply judgement when assessing whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, have joint control of an arrangement. An entity shall make this assessment by considering all facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B5–B11).

13             If facts and circumstances change, an entity shall reassess whether it still has joint control of the arrangement.

Types of joint arrangement

14             An entity shall determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved. The classification of a joint arrangement as a joint operation or a joint venture depends upon the rights and obligations of the parties to the arrangement.

15             A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. Those parties are called joint operators.

16             A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Those parties are called joint venturers.

17             An entity applies judgement when assessing whether a joint arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture. An entity shall determine the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved by considering its rights and obligations arising from the arrangement. An entity assesses its rights and obligations by considering the structure and legal form of the arrangement, the terms agreed by the parties in the contractual arrangement and, when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B12–B33).

18             Sometimes the parties are bound by a framework agreement that sets up the general contractual terms for undertaking one or more activities. The framework agreement might set out that the parties establish different joint arrangements to deal with specific activities that form part of the agreement. Even though those joint arrangements are related to the same framework agreement, their type might be different if the parties’ rights and obligations differ when undertaking the different activities dealt with in the framework agreement. Consequently, joint operations and joint ventures can coexist when the parties undertake different activities that form part of the same framework agreement.

19             If facts and circumstances change, an entity shall reassess whether the type of joint arrangement in which it is involved has changed.

Financial statements of parties to a joint arrangement

Joint operations

20             A joint operator shall recognise in relation to its interest in a joint operation:

(a)            its assets, including its share of any assets held jointly;

(b)            its liabilities, including its share of any liabilities incurred jointly;

(c)             its revenue from the sale of its share of the output arising from the joint operation;

(d)            its share of the revenue from the sale of the output by the joint operation; and

(e)             its expenses, including its share of any expenses incurred jointly.

21             A joint operator shall account for the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses relating to its interest in a joint operation in accordance with the Standards applicable to the particular assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses.

21A          When an entity acquires an interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3 Business Combinations, it shall apply, to the extent of its share in accordance with paragraph 20, all of the principles on business combinations accounting in AASB 3, and other Australian Accounting Standards, that do not conflict with the guidance in this Standard and disclose the information that is required in those Australian Accounting Standards in relation to business combinations. This applies to the acquisition of both the initial interest and additional interests in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business. The accounting for the acquisition of an interest in such a joint operation is specified in paragraphs B33A–B33D.

22             The accounting for transactions such as the sale, contribution or purchase of assets between an entity and a joint operation in which it is a joint operator is specified in paragraphs B34–B37.

23             A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation shall also account for its interest in the arrangement in accordance with paragraphs 20–22 if that party has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the joint operation. If a party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation does not have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to that joint operation, it shall account for its interest in the joint operation in accordance with the Standards applicable to that interest.

Joint ventures

24             A joint venturer shall recognise its interest in a joint venture as an investment and shall account for that investment using the equity method in accordance with AASB 128 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures unless the entity is exempted from applying the equity method as specified in that standard.

25             A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint venture shall account for its interest in the arrangement in accordance with AASB 9 Financial Instruments, unless it has significant influence over the joint venture, in which case it shall account for it in accordance with AASB 128.

Separate financial statements

26             In its separate financial statements, a joint operator or joint venturer shall account for its interest in:

(a)            a joint operation in accordance with paragraphs 20–22;

(b)            a joint venture in accordance with paragraph 10 of AASB 127 Separate Financial Statements.

27             In its separate financial statements, a party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint arrangement shall account for its interest in:

(a)            a joint operation in accordance with paragraph 23;

(b)            a joint venture in accordance with AASB 9, unless the entity has significant influence over the joint venture, in which case it shall apply paragraph 10 of AASB 127.

Aus27.1                    For legal purposes, this legislative instrument commences on 31 December 2015.

Withdrawal of AASB pronouncements

Aus27.2                    This Standard repeals AASB 11 Joint Arrangements issued in August 2011. Despite the repeal, after the time this Standard starts to apply under section 334 of the Corporations Act (either generally or in relation to an individual entity), the repealed Standard continues to apply in relation to any period ending before that time as if the repeal had not occurred.

[Note: When this Standard applies under section 334 of the Corporations Act (either generally or in relation to an individual entity), it supersedes the application of the repealed Standard.]

 


Appendix A
Defined terms

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

 

joint arrangement

An arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

joint control

The contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

joint operation

A joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

joint operator

A party to a joint operation that has joint control of that joint operation.

joint venture

A joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

joint venturer

A party to a joint venture that has joint control of that joint venture.

party to a joint arrangement

An entity that participates in a joint arrangement, regardless of whether that entity has joint control of the arrangement.

separate vehicle

A separately identifiable financial structure, including separate legal entities or entities recognised by statute, regardless of whether those entities have a legal personality.

 

The following terms are defined in AASB 127, AASB 128 or AASB 10 Consolidated Financial Statements and are used in this Standard with the meanings specified in those Standards:

•                control of an investee

•                equity method

•                power

•                protective rights

•                relevant activities

•                separate financial statements

•                significant influence.


Appendix B
Application guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard. It describes the application of paragraphs 1–27 and has the same authority as the other parts of the Standard.

B1            The examples in this appendix portray hypothetical situations. Although some aspects of the examples may be present in actual fact patterns, all relevant facts and circumstances of a particular fact pattern would need to be evaluated when applying AASB 11.

Joint arrangements

Contractual arrangement (paragraph 5)

B2            Contractual arrangements can be evidenced in several ways. An enforceable contractual arrangement is often, but not always, in writing, usually in the form of a contract or documented discussions between the parties. Statutory mechanisms can also create enforceable arrangements, either on their own or in conjunction with contracts between the parties.

B3            When joint arrangements are structured through a separate vehicle (see paragraphs B19–B33), the contractual arrangement, or some aspects of the contractual arrangement, will in some cases be incorporated in the articles, charter or by-laws of the separate vehicle.

B4            The contractual arrangement sets out the terms upon which the parties participate in the activity that is the subject of the arrangement. The contractual arrangement generally deals with such matters as:

(a)            the purpose, activity and duration of the joint arrangement.

(b)            how the members of the board of directors, or equivalent governing body, of the joint arrangement, are appointed.

(c)             the decision-making process: the matters requiring decisions from the parties, the voting rights of the parties and the required level of support for those matters. The decision-making process reflected in the contractual arrangement establishes joint control of the arrangement (see paragraphs B5–B11).

(d)            the capital or other contributions required of the parties.

(e)             how the parties share assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses or profit or loss relating to the joint arrangement.

Joint control (paragraphs 7–13)

B5            In assessing whether an entity has joint control of an arrangement, an entity shall assess first whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement. AASB 10 defines control and shall be used to determine whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, are exposed, or have rights, to variable returns from their involvement with the arrangement and have the ability to affect those returns through their power over the arrangement. When all the parties, or a group of the parties, considered collectively, are able to direct the activities that significantly affect the returns of the arrangement (ie the relevant activities), the parties control the arrangement collectively.

B6            After concluding that all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement collectively, an entity shall assess whether it has joint control of the arrangement. Joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that collectively control the arrangement. Assessing whether the arrangement is jointly controlled by all of its parties or by a group of the parties, or controlled by one of its parties alone, can require judgement.

B7            Sometimes the decision-making process that is agreed upon by the parties in their contractual arrangement implicitly leads to joint control. For example, assume two parties establish an arrangement in which each has 50 per cent of the voting rights and the contractual arrangement between them specifies that at least 51 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities. In this case, the parties have implicitly agreed that they have joint control of the arrangement because decisions about the relevant activities cannot be made without both parties agreeing.

B8            In other circumstances, the contractual arrangement requires a minimum proportion of the voting rights to make decisions about the relevant activities. When that minimum required proportion of the voting rights can be achieved by more than one combination of the parties agreeing together, that arrangement is not a joint arrangement unless the contractual arrangement specifies which parties (or combination of parties) are required to agree unanimously to decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement.

 

Application examples

Example 1

Assume that three parties establish an arrangement: A has 50 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement, B has 30 per cent and C has 20 per cent. The contractual arrangement between A, B and C specifies that at least 75 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement. Even though A can block any decision, it does not control the arrangement because it needs the agreement of B. The terms of their contractual arrangement requiring at least 75 per cent of the voting rights to make decisions about the relevant activities imply that A and B have joint control of the arrangement because decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement cannot be made without both A and B agreeing.

Example 2

Assume an arrangement has three parties: A has 50 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement and B and C each have 25 per cent. The contractual arrangement between A, B and C specifies that at least 75 per cent of the voting rights are required to make decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement. Even though A can block any decision, it does not control the arrangement because it needs the agreement of either B or C. In this example, A, B and C collectively control the arrangement. However, there is more than one combination of parties that can agree to reach 75 per cent of the voting rights (ie either A and B or A and C). In such a situation, to be a joint arrangement the contractual arrangement between the parties would need to specify which combination of the parties is required to agree unanimously to decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement.

Example 3

Assume an arrangement in which A and B each have 35 per cent of the voting rights in the arrangement with the remaining 30 per cent being widely dispersed. Decisions about the relevant activities require approval by a majority of the voting rights. A and B have joint control of the arrangement only if the contractual arrangement specifies that decisions about the relevant activities of the arrangement require both A and B agreeing.

 

B9            The requirement for unanimous consent means that any party with joint control of the arrangement can prevent any of the other parties, or a group of the parties, from making unilateral decisions (about the relevant activities) without its consent. If the requirement for unanimous consent relates only to decisions that give a party protective rights and not to decisions about the relevant activities of an arrangement, that party is not a party with joint control of the arrangement.

B10          A contractual arrangement might include clauses on the resolution of disputes, such as arbitration. These provisions may allow for decisions to be made in the absence of unanimous consent among the parties that have joint control. The existence of such provisions does not prevent the arrangement from being jointly controlled and, consequently, from being a joint arrangement.


Assessing joint control - Title: assessing joint control - Description: information relating to assessing join control flowchart
Title: assessing joint control - Description: information relating to assessing join control flowchart
 

 


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Types of joint arrangement (paragraphs 14–19)

B12          Joint arrangements are established for a variety of purposes (eg as a way for parties to share costs and risks, or as a way to provide the parties with access to new technology or new markets), and can be established using different structures and legal forms.

B13          Some arrangements do not require the activity that is the subject of the arrangement to be undertaken in a separate vehicle. However, other arrangements involve the establishment of a separate vehicle.

B14          The classification of joint arrangements required by this Standard depends upon the parties’ rights and obligations arising from the arrangement in the normal course of business. This Standard classifies joint arrangements as either joint operations or joint ventures. When an entity has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, the arrangement is a joint operation. When an entity has rights to the net assets of the arrangement, the arrangement is a joint venture. Paragraphs B16–B33 set out the assessment an entity carries out to determine whether it has an interest in a joint operation or an interest in a joint venture.

Classification of a joint arrangement

B15          As stated in paragraph B14, the classification of joint arrangements requires the parties to assess their rights and obligations arising from the arrangement. When making that assessment, an entity shall consider the following:

(a)            the structure of the joint arrangement (see paragraphs B16–B21).

(b)            when the joint arrangement is structured through a separate vehicle:

(i)              the legal form of the separate vehicle (see paragraphs B22–B24);

(ii)             the terms of the contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B25–B28); and

(iii)            when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B29–B33).

Structure of the joint arrangement

Joint arrangements not structured through a separate vehicle

B16          A joint arrangement that is not structured through a separate vehicle is a joint operation. In such cases, the contractual arrangement establishes the parties’ rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, and the parties’ rights to the corresponding revenues and obligations for the corresponding expenses.

B17          The contractual arrangement often describes the nature of the activities that are the subject of the arrangement and how the parties intend to undertake those activities together. For example, the parties to a joint arrangement could agree to manufacture a product together, with each party being responsible for a specific task and each using its own assets and incurring its own liabilities. The contractual arrangement could also specify how the revenues and expenses that are common to the parties are to be shared among them. In such a case, each joint operator recognises in its financial statements the assets and liabilities used for the specific task, and recognises its share of the revenues and expenses in accordance with the contractual arrangement.

B18          In other cases, the parties to a joint arrangement might agree, for example, to share and operate an asset together. In such a case, the contractual arrangement establishes the parties’ rights to the asset that is operated jointly, and how output or revenue from the asset and operating costs are shared among the parties. Each joint operator accounts for its share of the joint asset and its agreed share of any liabilities, and recognises its share of the output, revenues and expenses in accordance with the contractual arrangement.

Joint arrangements structured through a separate vehicle

B19          A joint arrangement in which the assets and liabilities relating to the arrangement are held in a separate vehicle can be either a joint venture or a joint operation.

B20          Whether a party is a joint operator or a joint venturer depends on the party’s rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement that are held in the separate vehicle.

B21          As stated in paragraph B15, when the parties have structured a joint arrangement in a separate vehicle, the parties need to assess whether the legal form of the separate vehicle, the terms of the contractual arrangement and, when relevant, any other facts and circumstances give them:

(a)            rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement (ie the arrangement is a joint operation); or

(b)            rights to the net assets of the arrangement (ie the arrangement is a joint venture).

 

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The legal form of the separate vehicle

B22          The legal form of the separate vehicle is relevant when assessing the type of joint arrangement. The legal form assists in the initial assessment of the parties’ rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities held in the separate vehicle, such as whether the parties have interests in the assets held in the separate vehicle and whether they are liable for the liabilities held in the separate vehicle.

B23          For example, the parties might conduct the joint arrangement through a separate vehicle, whose legal form causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). In such a case, the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle indicates that the arrangement is a joint venture. However, the terms agreed by the parties in their contractual arrangement (see paragraphs B25–B28) and, when relevant, other facts and circumstances (see paragraphs B29–B33) can override the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle.

B24          The assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle is sufficient to conclude that the arrangement is a joint operation only if the parties conduct the joint arrangement in a separate vehicle whose legal form does not confer separation between the parties and the separate vehicle (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the parties’ assets and liabilities).

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement

B25          In many cases, the rights and obligations agreed to by the parties in their contractual arrangements are consistent, or do not conflict, with the rights and obligations conferred on the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the arrangement has been structured.

B26          In other cases, the parties use the contractual arrangement to reverse or modify the rights and obligations conferred by the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the arrangement has been structured.

 

Application example

Example 4

Assume that two parties structure a joint arrangement in an incorporated entity. Each party has a 50 per cent ownership interest in the incorporated entity. The incorporation enables the separation of the entity from its owners and as a consequence the assets and liabilities held in the entity are the assets and liabilities of the incorporated entity. In such a case, the assessment of the rights and obligations conferred upon the parties by the legal form of the separate vehicle indicates that the parties have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

However, the parties modify the features of the corporation through their contractual arrangement so that each has an interest in the assets of the incorporated entity and each is liable for the liabilities of the incorporated entity in a specified proportion. Such contractual modifications to the features of a corporation can cause an arrangement to be a joint operation.

 

B27          The following table compares common terms in contractual arrangements of parties to a joint operation and common terms in contractual arrangements of parties to a joint venture. The examples of the contractual terms provided in the following table are not exhaustive.

 

Assessing the terms of the contractual arrangement

 

Joint operation

Joint venture

The terms of the contractual arrangement

The contractual arrangement provides the parties to the joint arrangement with rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

The contractual arrangement provides the parties to the joint arrangement with rights to the net assets of the arrangement (ie it is the separate vehicle, not the parties, that has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement).

Rights to assets

The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement share all interests (eg rights, title or ownership) in the assets relating to the arrangement in a specified proportion (eg in proportion to the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement or in proportion to the activity carried out through the arrangement that is directly attributed to them).

The contractual arrangement establishes that the assets brought into the arrangement or subsequently acquired by the joint arrangement are the arrangement’s assets. The parties have no interests (ie no rights, title or ownership) in the assets of the arrangement.

Obligations for liabilities

The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement share all liabilities, obligations, costs and expenses in a specified proportion (eg in proportion to the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement or in proportion to the activity carried out through the arrangement that is directly attributed to them).

The contractual arrangement establishes that the joint arrangement is liable for the debts and obligations of the arrangement.

The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement are liable to the arrangement only to the extent of their respective investments in the arrangement or to their respective obligations to contribute any unpaid or additional capital to the arrangement, or both.

The contractual arrangement establishes that the parties to the joint arrangement are liable for claims raised by third parties.

The contractual arrangement states that creditors of the joint arrangement do not have rights of recourse against any party with respect to debts or obligations of the arrangement.

Revenues, expenses, profit or loss

The contractual arrangement establishes the allocation of revenues and expenses on the basis of the relative performance of each party to the joint arrangement. For example, the contractual arrangement might establish that revenues and expenses are allocated on the basis of the capacity that each party uses in a plant operated jointly, which could differ from their ownership interest in the joint arrangement. In other instances, the parties might have agreed to share the profit or loss relating to the arrangement on the basis of a specified proportion such as the parties’ ownership interest in the arrangement. This would not prevent the arrangement from being a joint operation if the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

The contractual arrangement establishes each party’s share in the profit or loss relating to the activities of the arrangement.

Guarantees

The parties to joint arrangements are often required to provide guarantees to third parties that, for example, receive a service from, or provide financing to, the joint arrangement. The provision of such guarantees, or the commitment by the parties to provide them, does not, by itself, determine that the joint arrangement is a joint operation. The feature that determines whether the joint arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture is whether the parties have obligations for the liabilities relating to the arrangement (for some of which the parties might or might not have provided a guarantee).

 

B28          When the contractual arrangement specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, they are parties to a joint operation and do not need to consider other facts and circumstances (paragraphs B29–B33) for the purposes of classifying the joint arrangement.

Assessing other facts and circumstances

B29          When the terms of the contractual arrangement do not specify that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement, the parties shall consider other facts and circumstances to assess whether the arrangement is a joint operation or a joint venture.

B30          A joint arrangement might be structured in a separate vehicle whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the separate vehicle. The contractual terms agreed among the parties might not specify the parties’ rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities, yet consideration of other facts and circumstances can lead to such an arrangement being classified as a joint operation. This will be the case when other facts and circumstances give the parties rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

B31          When the activities of an arrangement are primarily designed for the provision of output to the parties, this indicates that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets of the arrangement. The parties to such arrangements often ensure their access to the outputs provided by the arrangement by preventing the arrangement from selling output to third parties.

B32          The effect of an arrangement with such a design and purpose is that the liabilities incurred by the arrangement are, in substance, satisfied by the cash flows received from the parties through their purchases of the output. When the parties are substantially the only source of cash flows contributing to the continuity of the operations of the arrangement, this indicates that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities relating to the arrangement.

 

Application example

Example 5

Assume that two parties structure a joint arrangement in an incorporated entity (entity C) in which each party has a 50 per cent ownership interest. The purpose of the arrangement is to manufacture materials required by the parties for their own, individual manufacturing processes. The arrangement ensures that the parties operate the facility that produces the materials to the quantity and quality specifications of the parties.

The legal form of entity C (an incorporated entity) through which the activities are conducted initially indicates that the assets and liabilities held in entity C are the assets and liabilities of entity C. The contractual arrangement between the parties does not specify that the parties have rights to the assets or obligations for the liabilities of entity C. Accordingly, the legal form of entity C and the terms of the contractual arrangement indicate that the arrangement is a joint venture.

However, the parties also consider the following aspects of the arrangement:

•                The parties agreed to purchase all the output produced by entity C in a ratio of 50:50. Entity C cannot sell any of the output to third parties, unless this is approved by the two parties to the arrangement. Because the purpose of the arrangement is to provide the parties with output they require, such sales to third parties are expected to be uncommon and not material.

•                The price of the output sold to the parties is set by both parties at a level that is designed to cover the costs of production and administrative expenses incurred by entity C. On the basis of this operating model, the arrangement is intended to operate at a break-even level.

From the fact pattern above, the following facts and circumstances are relevant:

•                The obligation of the parties to purchase all the output produced by entity C reflects the exclusive dependence of entity C upon the parties for the generation of cash flows and, thus, the parties have an obligation to fund the settlement of the liabilities of entity C.

•                The fact that the parties have rights to all the output produced by entity C means that the parties are consuming, and therefore have rights to, all the economic benefits of the assets of entity C.

These facts and circumstances indicate that the arrangement is a joint operation. The conclusion about the classification of the joint arrangement in these circumstances would not change if, instead of the parties using their share of the output themselves in a subsequent manufacturing process, the parties sold their share of the output to third parties.

If the parties changed the terms of the contractual arrangement so that the arrangement was able to sell output to third parties, this would result in entity C assuming demand, inventory and credit risks. In that scenario, such a change in the facts and circumstances would require reassessment of the classification of the joint arrangement. Such facts and circumstances would indicate that the arrangement is a joint venture.

 

B33          The following flow chart reflects the assessment an entity follows to classify an arrangement when the joint arrangement is structured through a separate vehicle:

 


 

Title: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vehicle - Description: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vehicle,Terms of the contractual arrangement - Title: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vechicle - Description: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vechicle,Title: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through  - Description: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vechicle,Other facts and circumstances - Title: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vechicle - Description: Classification of a joint arrangement structured through a separate vechicle
 

 


Financial statements of parties to a joint arrangement
(paragraphs 21A–22)

Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations

B33A       When an entity acquires an interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3, it shall apply, to the extent of its share in accordance with paragraph 20, all of the principles on business combinations accounting in AASB 3, and other Australian Accounting Standards, that do not conflict with the guidance in this Standard and disclose the information required by those Australian Accounting Standards in relation to business combinations. The principles on business combinations accounting that do not conflict with the guidance in this Standard include but are not limited to:

(a)            measuring identifiable assets and liabilities at fair value, other than items for which exceptions are given in AASB 3 and other Australian Accounting Standards;

(b)            recognising acquisition-related costs as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, with the exception that the costs to issue debt or equity securities are recognised in accordance with AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Presentation and AASB 9;[1]

(c)             recognising deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities that arise from the initial recognition of assets or liabilities, except for deferred tax liabilities that arise from the initial recognition of goodwill, as required by AASB 3 and AASB 112 Income Taxes for business combinations;

(d)            recognising the excess of the consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed, if any, as goodwill; and

(e)             testing for impairment a cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the unit may be impaired, as required by AASB 136 Impairment of Assets for goodwill acquired in a business combination.

B33B       Paragraphs 21A and B33A also apply to the formation of a joint operation if, and only if, an existing business, as defined in AASB 3, is contributed to the joint operation on its formation by one of the parties that participate in the joint operation. However, those paragraphs do not apply to the formation of a joint operation if all of the parties that participate in the joint operation only contribute assets or groups of assets that do not constitute businesses to the joint operation on its formation.

B33C       A joint operator might increase its interest in a joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3, by acquiring an additional interest in the joint operation. In such cases, previously held interests in the joint operation are not remeasured if the joint operator retains joint control.

B33CA    A party that participates in, but does not have joint control of, a joint operation might obtain joint control of the joint operation in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business as defined in AASB 3. In such cases, previously held interests in the joint operation are not remeasured.

B33D       Paragraphs 21A and B33A–B33C do not apply on the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation when the parties sharing joint control, including the entity acquiring the interest in the joint operation, are under the common control of the same ultimate controlling party or parties both before and after the acquisition, and that control is not transitory.

Accounting for sales or contributions of assets to a joint operation

B34          When an entity enters into a transaction with a joint operation in which it is a joint operator, such as a sale or contribution of assets, it is conducting the transaction with the other parties to the joint operation and, as such, the joint operator shall recognise gains and losses resulting from such a transaction only to the extent of the other parties’ interests in the joint operation.

B35          When such transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be sold or contributed to the joint operation, or of an impairment loss of those assets, those losses shall be recognised fully by the joint operator.

Accounting for purchases of assets from a joint operation

B36          When an entity enters into a transaction with a joint operation in which it is a joint operator, such as a purchase of assets, it shall not recognise its share of the gains and losses until it resells those assets to a third party.

B37          When such transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be purchased or of an impairment loss of those assets, a joint operator shall recognise its share of those losses.


Appendix C
Effective date, transition and withdrawal of other IFRSs

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard and has the same authority as the other parts of the Standard.

Effective date

C1            An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016. Earlier application is permitted for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014 but before 1 January 2016. If an entity applies this Standard earlier, it shall disclose that fact and apply AASB 10, AASB 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities, AASB 127 and AASB 128 at the same time.

C1A         [Deleted by the AASB]

C1AA      AASB 2014-3 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations, issued in August 2014, amended the previous version of this Standard as follows: amended the heading after paragraph B33 and added paragraphs 21A, B33A–B33D and C14A and their related headings. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively in annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments in an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.

C1AB      AASB 2018-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards – Annual Improvements 2015–2017 Cycle, issued in February 2018, added paragraph B33CA. An entity shall apply those amendments to transactions in which it obtains joint control on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2019. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies those amendments earlier, it shall disclose that fact.

Transition

C1B         Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 28 of AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, when this Standard is first applied, an entity need only present the quantitative information required by paragraph 28(f) of AASB 108 for the annual period immediately preceding the first annual period for which AASB 11 is applied (the ‘immediately preceding period’). An entity may also present this information for the current period or for earlier comparative periods, but is not required to do so.

Joint ventures—transition from proportionate consolidation to the equity method

C2            When changing from proportionate consolidation to the equity method, an entity shall recognise its investment in the joint venture as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. That initial investment shall be measured as the aggregate of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities that the entity had previously proportionately consolidated, including any goodwill arising from acquisition. If the goodwill previously belonged to a larger cash-generating unit, or to a group of cash-generating units, the entity shall allocate goodwill to the joint venture on the basis of the relative carrying amounts of the joint venture and the cash-generating unit or group of cash-generating units to which it belonged.

C3            The opening balance of the investment determined in accordance with paragraph C2 is regarded as the deemed cost of the investment at initial recognition. An entity shall apply paragraphs 40–43 of AASB 128 to the opening balance of the investment to assess whether the investment is impaired and shall recognise any impairment loss as an adjustment to retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of AASB 112 Income Taxes does not apply when the entity recognises an investment in a joint venture resulting from applying the transition requirements for joint ventures that had previously been proportionately consolidated.

C4            If aggregating all previously proportionately consolidated assets and liabilities results in negative net assets, an entity shall assess whether it has legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets and, if so, the entity shall recognise the corresponding liability. If the entity concludes that it does not have legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets, it shall not recognise the corresponding liability but it shall adjust retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. The entity shall disclose this fact, along with its cumulative unrecognised share of losses of its joint ventures as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period and at the date at which this Standard is first applied.

C5            An entity shall disclose a breakdown of the assets and liabilities that have been aggregated into the single line investment balance as at the beginning of the immediately preceding period. That disclosure shall be prepared in an aggregated manner for all joint ventures for which an entity applies the transition requirements referred to in paragraphs C2–C6.

C6            After initial recognition, an entity shall account for its investment in the joint venture using the equity method in accordance with AASB 128.

Joint operations—transition from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities

C7            When changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities in respect of its interest in a joint operation, an entity shall, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, derecognise the investment that was previously accounted for using the equity method and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of AASB 128 and recognise its share of each of the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation, including any goodwill that might have formed part of the carrying amount of the investment.

C8            An entity shall determine its interest in the assets and liabilities relating to the joint operation on the basis of its rights and obligations in a specified proportion in accordance with the contractual arrangement. An entity measures the initial carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities by disaggregating them from the carrying amount of the investment at the beginning of the immediately preceding period on the basis of the information used by the entity in applying the equity method.

C9            Any difference arising from the investment previously accounted for using the equity method together with any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of AASB 128, and the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised shall be:

(a)            offset against any goodwill relating to the investment with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is higher than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.

(b)            adjusted against retained earnings at the beginning of the immediately preceding period, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is lower than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.

C10          An entity changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities shall provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period.

C11          The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of AASB 112 does not apply when the entity recognises assets and liabilities relating to its interest in a joint operation.

Transition provisions in an entity’s separate financial statements

C12          An entity that, in accordance with paragraph 10 of AASB 127, was previously accounting in its separate financial statements for its interest in a joint operation as an investment at cost or in accordance with AASB 9 shall:

(a)            derecognise the investment and recognise the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation at the amounts determined in accordance with paragraphs C7–C9.

(b)            provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted in retained earnings, at the beginning of the immediately preceding period.

C13          The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of AASB 112 does not apply when the entity recognises assets and liabilities relating to its interest in a joint operation in its separate financial statements resulting from applying the transition requirements for joint operations referred to in paragraph C12.

References to the ‘immediately preceding period’

C13A       Notwithstanding the references to the ‘immediately preceding period’ in paragraphs C2–C12, an entity may also present adjusted comparative information for any earlier periods presented, but is not required to do so. If an entity does present adjusted comparative information for any earlier periods, all references to the ‘immediately preceding period’ in paragraphs C2–C12 shall be read as the ‘earliest adjusted comparative period presented’.

C13B       If an entity presents unadjusted comparative information for any earlier periods, it shall clearly identify the information that has not been adjusted, state that it has been prepared on a different basis, and explain that basis.

References to AASB 9

C14          If an entity applies this Standard but does not yet apply AASB 9, any reference to AASB 9 shall be read as a reference to AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations

C14A       AASB 2014-3, issued in August 2014, amended the previous version of this Standard as follows: amended the heading after paragraph B33 and added paragraphs 21A, B33A–B33D, C1AA and their related headings. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively for acquisitions of interests in joint operations in which the activities of the joint operations constitute businesses, as defined in AASB 3, for those acquisitions occurring from the beginning of the first period in which it applies those amendments. Consequently, amounts recognised for acquisitions of interests in joint operations occurring in prior periods shall not be adjusted.

Withdrawal of other IFRSs

C15          [Deleted by the AASB]

 


Illustrative examples
AASB 11 Joint Arrangements

These examples accompany, but are not part of, AASB 11. They illustrate aspects of AASB 11 but are not intended to provide interpretative guidance.

IE1           These examples portray hypothetical situations illustrating the judgements that might be used when applying AASB 11 in different situations. Although some aspects of the examples may be present in actual fact patterns, all relevant facts and circumstances of a particular fact pattern would need to be evaluated when applying AASB 11.

Example 1 – Construction services

IE2           A and B (the parties) are two companies whose businesses are the provision of many types of public and private construction services. They set up a contractual arrangement to work together for the purpose of fulfilling a contract with a government for the design and construction of a road between two cities. The contractual arrangement determines the participation shares of A and B and establishes joint control of the arrangement, the subject matter of which is the delivery of the road.

IE3           The parties set up a separate vehicle (entity Z) through which to conduct the arrangement. Entity Z, on behalf of A and B, enters into the contract with the government. In addition, the assets and liabilities relating to the arrangement are held in entity Z. The main feature of entity Z’s legal form is that the parties, not entity Z, have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, of the entity.

IE4           The contractual arrangement between A and B additionally establishes that:

(a)            the rights to all the assets needed to undertake the activities of the arrangement are shared by the parties on the basis of their participation shares in the arrangement;

(b)            the parties have several and joint responsibility for all operating and financial obligations relating to the activities of the arrangement on the basis of their participation shares in the arrangement; and

(c)             the profit or loss resulting from the activities of the arrangement is shared by A and B on the basis of their participation shares in the arrangement.

IE5           For the purposes of co-ordinating and overseeing the activities, A and B appoint an operator, who will be an employee of one of the parties. After a specified time, the role of the operator will rotate to an employee of the other party. A and B agree that the activities will be executed by the operator’s employees on a ‘no gain or loss’ basis.

IE6           In accordance with the terms specified in the contract with the government, entity Z invoices the construction services to the government on behalf of the parties.

Analysis

IE7           The joint arrangement is carried out through a separate vehicle whose legal form does not confer separation between the parties and the separate vehicle (ie the assets and liabilities held in entity Z are the parties’ assets and liabilities). This is reinforced by the terms agreed by the parties in their contractual arrangement, which state that A and B have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement that is conducted through entity Z. The joint arrangement is a joint operation.

IE8           A and B each recognise in their financial statements their share of the assets (eg property, plant and equipment, accounts receivable) and their share of any liabilities resulting from the arrangement (eg accounts payable to third parties) on the basis of their agreed participation share. Each also recognises its share of the revenue and expenses resulting from the construction services provided to the government through entity Z.

Example 2 – Shopping centre operated jointly

IE9           Two real estate companies (the parties) set up a separate vehicle (entity X) for the purpose of acquiring and operating a shopping centre. The contractual arrangement between the parties establishes joint control of the activities that are conducted in entity X. The main feature of entity X’s legal form is that the entity, not the parties, has rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. These activities include the rental of the retail units, managing the car park, maintaining the centre and its equipment, such as lifts, and building the reputation and customer base for the centre as a whole.

IE10        The terms of the contractual arrangement are such that:

(a)            entity X owns the shopping centre. The contractual arrangement does not specify that the parties have rights to the shopping centre.

(b)            the parties are not liable in respect of the debts, liabilities or obligations of entity X. If entity X is unable to pay any of its debts or other liabilities or to discharge its obligations to third parties, the liability of each party to any third party will be limited to the unpaid amount of that party’s capital contribution.

(c)             the parties have the right to sell or pledge their interests in entity X.

(d)            each party receives a share of the income from operating the shopping centre (which is the rental income net of the operating costs) in accordance with its interest in entity X.

Analysis

IE11        The joint arrangement is carried out through a separate vehicle whose legal form causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). In addition, the terms of the contractual arrangement do not specify that the parties have rights to the assets, or obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. Instead, the terms of the contractual arrangement establish that the parties have rights to the net assets of entity X.

IE12        On the basis of the description above, there are no other facts and circumstances that indicate that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets relating to the arrangement, and that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities relating to the arrangement. The joint arrangement is a joint venture.

IE13        The parties recognise their rights to the net assets of entity X as investments and account for them using the equity method.

Example 3 – Joint manufacturing and distribution of a product

IE14        Companies A and B (the parties) have set up a strategic and operating agreement (the framework agreement) in which they have agreed the terms according to which they will conduct the manufacturing and distribution of a product (product P) in different markets.

IE15        The parties have agreed to conduct manufacturing and distribution activities by establishing joint arrangements, as described below:

(a)            Manufacturing activity: the parties have agreed to undertake the manufacturing activity through a joint arrangement (the manufacturing arrangement). The manufacturing arrangement is structured in a separate vehicle (entity M) whose legal form causes it to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in entity M are the assets and liabilities of entity M and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). In accordance with the framework agreement, the parties have committed themselves to purchasing the whole production of product P manufactured by the manufacturing arrangement in accordance with their ownership interests in entity M. The parties subsequently sell product P to another arrangement, jointly controlled by the two parties themselves, that has been established exclusively for the distribution of product P as described below. Neither the framework agreement nor the contractual arrangement between A and B dealing with the manufacturing activity specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the manufacturing activity.

(b)            Distribution activity: the parties have agreed to undertake the distribution activity through a joint arrangement (the distribution arrangement). The parties have structured the distribution arrangement in a separate vehicle (entity D) whose legal form causes it to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in entity D are the assets and liabilities of entity D and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). In accordance with the framework agreement, the distribution arrangement orders its requirements for product P from the parties according to the needs of the different markets where the distribution arrangement sells the product. Neither the framework agreement nor the contractual arrangement between A and B dealing with the distribution activity specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the distribution activity.

IE16        In addition, the framework agreement establishes:

(a)            that the manufacturing arrangement will produce product P to meet the requirements for product P that the distribution arrangement places on the parties;

(b)            the commercial terms relating to the sale of product P by the manufacturing arrangement to the parties. The manufacturing arrangement will sell product P to the parties at a price agreed by A and B that covers all production costs incurred. Subsequently, the parties sell the product to the distribution arrangement at a price agreed by A and B.

(c)             that any cash shortages that the manufacturing arrangement may incur will be financed by the parties in accordance with their ownership interests in entity M.

Analysis

IE17        The framework agreement sets up the terms under which parties A and B conduct the manufacturing and distribution of product P. These activities are undertaken through joint arrangements whose purpose is either the manufacturing or the distribution of product P.

IE18        The parties carry out the manufacturing arrangement through entity M whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the entity. In addition, neither the framework agreement nor the contractual arrangement dealing with the manufacturing activity specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the manufacturing activity. However, when considering the following facts and circumstances the parties have concluded that the manufacturing arrangement is a joint operation:

(a)            The parties have committed themselves to purchasing the whole production of product P manufactured by the manufacturing arrangement. Consequently, A and B have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets of the manufacturing arrangement.

(b)            The manufacturing arrangement manufactures product P to meet the quantity and quality needs of the parties so that they can fulfil the demand for product P of the distribution arrangement. The exclusive dependence of the manufacturing arrangement upon the parties for the generation of cash flows and the parties’ commitments to provide funds when the manufacturing arrangement incurs any cash shortages indicate that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities of the manufacturing arrangement, because those liabilities will be settled through the parties’ purchases of product P or by the parties’ direct provision of funds.

IE19        The parties carry out the distribution activities through entity D, whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the entity. In addition, neither the framework agreement nor the contractual arrangement dealing with the distribution activity specifies that the parties have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the distribution activity.

IE20        There are no other facts and circumstances that indicate that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets relating to the distribution arrangement or that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities relating to that arrangement. The distribution arrangement is a joint venture.

IE21        A and B each recognise in their financial statements their share of the assets (eg property, plant and equipment, cash) and their share of any liabilities resulting from the manufacturing arrangement (eg accounts payable to third parties) on the basis of their ownership interest in entity M. Each party also recognises its share of the expenses resulting from the manufacture of product P incurred by the manufacturing arrangement and its share of the revenues relating to the sales of product P to the distribution arrangement.

IE22        The parties recognise their rights to the net assets of the distribution arrangement as investments and account for them using the equity method.

Variation

IE23        Assume that the parties agree that the manufacturing arrangement described above is responsible not only for manufacturing product P, but also for its distribution to third-party customers.

IE24        The parties also agree to set up a distribution arrangement like the one described above to distribute product P exclusively to assist in widening the distribution of product P in additional specific markets.

IE25        The manufacturing arrangement also sells product P directly to the distribution arrangement. No fixed proportion of the production of the manufacturing arrangement is committed to be purchased by, or to be reserved to, the distribution arrangement.

Analysis

IE26        The variation has affected neither the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the manufacturing activity is conducted nor the contractual terms relating to the parties’ rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the manufacturing activity. However, it causes the manufacturing arrangement to be a self-financed arrangement because it is able to undertake trade on its own behalf, distributing product P to third-party customers and, consequently, assuming demand, inventory and credit risks. Even though the manufacturing arrangement might also sell product P to the distribution arrangement, in this scenario the manufacturing arrangement is not dependent on the parties to be able to carry out its activities on a continuous basis. In this case, the manufacturing arrangement is a joint venture.

IE27        The variation has no effect on the classification of the distribution arrangement as a joint venture.

IE28        The parties recognise their rights to the net assets of the manufacturing arrangement and their rights to the net assets of the distribution arrangement as investments and account for them using the equity method.

Example 4 – Bank operated jointly

IE29        Banks A and B (the parties) agreed to combine their corporate, investment banking, asset management and services activities by establishing a separate vehicle (bank C). Both parties expect the arrangement to benefit them in different ways. Bank A believes that the arrangement could enable it to achieve its strategic plans to increase its size, offering an opportunity to exploit its full potential for organic growth through an enlarged offering of products and services. Bank B expects the arrangement to reinforce its offering in financial savings and market products.

IE30        The main feature of bank C’s legal form is that it causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties). Banks A and B each have a 40 per cent ownership interest in bank C, with the remaining 20 per cent being listed and widely held. The shareholders’ agreement between bank A and bank B establishes joint control of the activities of bank C.

IE31        In addition, bank A and bank B entered into an irrevocable agreement under which, even in the event of a dispute, both banks agree to provide the necessary funds in equal amount and, if required, jointly and severally, to ensure that bank C complies with the applicable legislation and banking regulations, and honours any commitments made to the banking authorities. This commitment represents the assumption by each party of 50 per cent of any funds needed to ensure that bank C complies with legislation and banking regulations.

Analysis

IE32        The joint arrangement is carried out through a separate vehicle whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the separate vehicle. The terms of the contractual arrangement do not specify that the parties have rights to the assets, or obligations for the liabilities, of bank C, but it establishes that the parties have rights to the net assets of bank C. The commitment by the parties to provide support if bank C is not able to comply with the applicable legislation and banking regulations is not by itself a determinant that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities of bank C. There are no other facts and circumstances that indicate that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets of bank C and that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities of bank C. The joint arrangement is a joint venture.

IE33        Both banks A and B recognise their rights to the net assets of bank C as investments and account for them using the equity method.

Example 5 – Oil and gas exploration, development and production activities

IE34        Companies A and B (the parties) set up a separate vehicle (entity H) and a Joint Operating Agreement (JOA) to undertake oil and gas exploration, development and production activities in country O. The main feature of entity H’s legal form is that it causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties).

IE35        Country O has granted entity H permits for the oil and gas exploration, development and production activities to be undertaken in a specific assigned block of land (fields).

IE36        The shareholders’ agreement and JOA agreed by the parties establish their rights and obligations relating to those activities. The main terms of those agreements are summarised below.

Shareholders’ agreement

IE37        The board of entity H consists of a director from each party. Each party has a 50 per cent shareholding in entity H. The unanimous consent of the directors is required for any resolution to be passed.

Joint Operating Agreement (JOA)

IE38        The JOA establishes an Operating Committee. This Committee consists of one representative from each party. Each party has a 50 per cent participating interest in the Operating Committee.

IE39        The Operating Committee approves the budgets and work programmes relating to the activities, which also require the unanimous consent of the representatives of each party. One of the parties is appointed as operator and is responsible for managing and conducting the approved work programmes.

IE40        The JOA specifies that the rights and obligations arising from the exploration, development and production activities shall be shared among the parties in proportion to each party’s shareholding in entity H. In particular, the JOA establishes that the parties share:

(a)            the rights and the obligations arising from the exploration and development permits granted to entity H (eg the permits, rehabilitation liabilities, any royalties and taxes payable);

(b)            the production obtained; and

(c)             all costs associated with all work programmes.

IE41        The costs incurred in relation to all the work programmes are covered by cash calls on the parties. If either party fails to satisfy its monetary obligations, the other is required to contribute to entity H the amount in default. The amount in default is regarded as a debt owed by the defaulting party to the other party.

Analysis

IE42        The parties carry out the joint arrangement through a separate vehicle whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the separate vehicle. The parties have been able to reverse the initial assessment of their rights and obligations arising from the legal form of the separate vehicle in which the arrangement is conducted. They have done this by agreeing terms in the JOA that entitle them to rights to the assets (eg exploration and development permits, production, and any other assets arising from the activities) and obligations for the liabilities (eg all costs and obligations arising from the work programmes) that are held in entity H. The joint arrangement is a joint operation.

IE43        Both company A and company B recognise in their financial statements their own share of the assets and of any liabilities resulting from the arrangement on the basis of their agreed participating interest. On that basis, each party also recognises its share of the revenue (from the sale of their share of the production) and its share of the expenses.

Example 6 – Liquefied natural gas arrangement

IE44        Company A owns an undeveloped gas field that contains substantial gas resources. Company A determines that the gas field will be economically viable only if the gas is sold to customers in overseas markets. To do so, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility must be built to liquefy the gas so that it can be transported by ship to the overseas markets.

IE45        Company A enters into a joint arrangement with company B in order to develop and operate the gas field and the LNG facility. Under that arrangement, companies A and B (the parties) agree to contribute the gas field and cash, respectively, to a new separate vehicle, entity C. In exchange for those contributions, the parties each take a 50 per cent ownership interest in entity C. The main feature of entity C’s legal form is that it causes the separate vehicle to be considered in its own right (ie the assets and liabilities held in the separate vehicle are the assets and liabilities of the separate vehicle and not the assets and liabilities of the parties).

IE46        The contractual arrangement between the parties specifies that:

(a)            companies A and B must each appoint two members to the board of entity C. The board of directors must unanimously agree the strategy and investments made by entity C.

(b)            day-to-day management of the gas field and LNG facility, including development and construction activities, will be undertaken by the staff of company B in accordance with the directions jointly agreed by the parties. Entity C will reimburse B for the costs it incurs in managing the gas field and LNG facility.

(c)             entity C is liable for taxes and royalties on the production and sale of LNG as well as for other liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business, such as accounts payable, site restoration and decommissioning liabilities.

(d)            companies A and B have equal shares in the profit from the activities carried out in the arrangement and, as such, are entitled to equal shares of any dividends distributed by entity C.

IE47        The contractual arrangement does not specify that either party has rights to the assets, or obligations for the liabilities, of entity C.

IE48        The board of entity C decides to enter into a financing arrangement with a syndicate of lenders to help fund the development of the gas field and construction of the LNG facility. The estimated total cost of the development and construction is CU1,000 million.[2]

IE49        The lending syndicate provides entity C with a CU700 million loan. The arrangement specifies that the syndicate has recourse to companies A and B only if entity C defaults on the loan arrangement during the development of the field and construction of the LNG facility. The lending syndicate agrees that it will not have recourse to companies A and B once the LNG facility is in production because it has assessed that the cash inflows that entity C should generate from LNG sales will be sufficient to meet the loan repayments. Although at this time the lenders have no recourse to companies A and B, the syndicate maintains protection against default by entity C by taking a lien on the LNG facility.

Analysis

IE50        The joint arrangement is carried out through a separate vehicle whose legal form confers separation between the parties and the separate vehicle. The terms of the contractual arrangement do not specify that the parties have rights to the assets, or obligations for the liabilities, of entity C, but they establish that the parties have rights to the net assets of entity C. The recourse nature of the financing arrangement during the development of the gas field and construction of the LNG facility (ie companies A and B providing separate guarantees during this phase) does not, by itself, impose on the parties an obligation for the liabilities of entity C (ie the loan is a liability of entity C). Companies A and B have separate liabilities, which are their guarantees to repay that loan if entity C defaults during the development and construction phase.

IE51        There are no other facts and circumstances that indicate that the parties have rights to substantially all the economic benefits of the assets of entity C and that the parties have an obligation for the liabilities of entity C. The joint arrangement is a joint venture.

IE52        The parties recognise their rights to the net assets of entity C as investments and account for them using the equity method.

Example 7—Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations in which the activity constitutes a business

IE53        Companies A, B and C have joint control of Joint Operation D whose activity constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3 Business Combinations.

IE54        Company E acquires company A’s 40 per cent ownership interest in Joint Operation D at a cost of CU300 and incurs acquisition-related costs of CU50.

IE55        The contractual arrangement between the parties that Company E joined as part of the acquisition establishes that Company E’s shares in several assets and liabilities differ from its ownership interest in Joint Operation D. The following table sets out Company E’s share in the assets and liabilities related to Joint Operation D as established in the contractual arrangement between the parties:

 

 

Company E’s share in the assets and liabilities related to Joint Operation D

 

Property, plant and equipment

 

48%

 

Intangible assets (excluding goodwill)

 

90%

 

Accounts receivable

 

40%

 

Inventory

 

40%

 

Retirement benefit obligations

 

15%

 

Accounts payable

 

40%

 

Contingent liabilities

 

56%

 

 

Analysis

IE56        Company E recognises in its financial statements its share of the assets and liabilities resulting from the contractual arrangement (see paragraph 20).

IE57        It applies the principles on business combinations accounting in AASB 3 and other Australian Accounting Standards for identifying, recognising, measuring and classifying the assets acquired, and the liabilities assumed, on the acquisition of the interest in Joint Operation D. This is because Company E acquired an interest in a joint operation in which the activity constitutes a business (see paragraph 21A).

IE58        However, Company E does not apply the principles on business combinations accounting in AASB 3 and other Australian Accounting Standards that conflict with the guidance in this Standard. Consequently, in accordance with paragraph 20, Company E recognises, and therefore measures, in relation to its interest in Joint Operation D, only its share in each of the assets that are jointly held and in each of the liabilities that are incurred jointly, as stated in the contractual arrangement. Company E does not include in its assets and liabilities the shares of the other parties in Joint Operation D.

IE59        AASB 3 requires the acquirer to measure the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition-date fair values with limited exceptions; for example, deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are not measured at fair value but are measured in accordance with AASB 112 Income Taxes. Such measurement does not conflict with this Standard and thus those requirements apply.

IE60        Consequently, Company E determines the fair value, or other measure specified in AASB 3, of its share in the identifiable assets and liabilities related to Joint Operation D. The following table sets out the fair value or other measure specified by AASB 3 of Company E’s shares in the identifiable assets and liabilities related to Joint Operation D:

 

 

Fair value or other measure specified by AASB 3 for Company E’s shares in the identifiable assets and liabilities of Joint Operation D
CU

 

Property, plant and equipment

 

138

 

Intangible assets (excluding goodwill)

 

72

 

Accounts receivable

 

84

 

Inventory

 

70

 

Retirement benefit obligations

 

(12)

 

Accounts payable

 

(48)

 

Contingent liabilities

 

(52)

 

Deferred tax liability

 

(24)

 

Net assets

 

228

 

 

 

 

 

IE61        In accordance with AASB 3, the excess of the consideration transferred over the amount allocated to Company E’s shares in the net identifiable assets is recognised as goodwill:

 

Consideration transferred

 

CU300

 

Company E’s shares in the identifiable assets and liabilities relating to its interest in the joint operation

 

CU228

 

Goodwill

 

CU72

 

 

 

 

 

 

IE62        Acquisition-related costs of CU50 are not considered to be part of the consideration transferred for the interest in the joint operation. They are recognised as expenses in profit or loss in the period that the costs are incurred and the services are received (see paragraph 53 of AASB 3).

Example 8—Contributing the right to use know-how to a joint operation in which the activity constitutes a business

IE63        Companies A and B are two companies whose business is the construction of high performance batteries for diverse applications.

IE64        In order to develop batteries for electric vehicles they set up a contractual arrangement (Joint Operation Z) to work together. Companies A and B share joint control of Joint Operation Z. This arrangement is a joint operation in which the activity constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3.

IE65        After several years, the joint operators (Companies A and B) concluded that it is feasible to develop a battery for electric vehicles using Material M. However, processing Material M requires specialist know-how and thus far, Material M has only been used in the production of cosmetics.

IE66        In order to get access to existing know-how in processing Material M, Companies A and B arrange for Company C to join as another joint operator by acquiring an interest in Joint Operation Z from Companies A and B and becoming a party to the contractual arrangements.

IE67        Company C’s business so far has been solely the development and production of cosmetics. It has long-standing and extensive knowledge in processing Material M.

IE68        In exchange for its share in Joint Operation Z, Company C pays cash to Companies A and B and grants the right to use its know-how in processing Material M for the purposes of Joint Operation Z. In addition, Company C seconds some of its employees who are experienced in processing Material M to Joint Operation Z. However, Company C does not transfer control of the know-how to Companies A and B or Joint Operation Z because it retains all the rights to it. In particular, Company C is entitled to withdraw the right to use its know-how in processing Material M and to withdraw its seconded employees without any restrictions or compensation to Companies A and B or Joint Operation Z if it ceases its participation in Joint Operation Z.

IE69        The fair value of Company C’s know-how on the date of the acquisition of the interest in the joint operation is CU1,000. Immediately before the acquisition, the carrying amount of the know-how in the financial statements of Company C was CU300.

Analysis

IE70        Company C has acquired an interest in Joint Operation Z in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in AASB 3.

IE71        In accounting for the acquisition of its interest in the joint operation, Company C applies all the principles on business combinations accounting in AASB 3 and other Australian Accounting Standards that do not conflict with the guidance in this Standard (see paragraph 21A). Company C therefore recognises in its financial statements its share of the assets and liabilities resulting from the contractual arrangement (see paragraph 20).

IE72        Company C granted the right to use its know-how in processing Material M to Joint Operation Z as part of joining Joint Operation Z as a joint operator. However, Company C retains control of this right because it is entitled to withdraw the right to use its know-how in processing Material M and to withdraw its seconded employees without any restrictions or any compensation to Companies A and B or Joint Operation Z if it ceases its participation in Joint Operation Z.

IE73        Consequently, Company C continues to recognise the know-how in processing Material M after the acquisition of the interest in Joint Operation Z because it retains all the rights to it. This means that Company C will continue to recognise the know-how based on its carrying amount of CU300. As a consequence of retaining control of the right to use the know-how that it granted to the joint operation, Company C has granted the right to use the know-how to itself. Consequently, Company C does not remeasure the know-how, and it does not recognise a gain or loss on the grant of the right to use it.


Compilation details
Accounting Standard AASB
11 Joint Arrangements (as amended)

Compilation details are not part of AASB 11.

This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019.  It takes into account amendments up to and including 14 February 2018 and was prepared on 29 March 2019 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB).

This compilation is not a separate Accounting Standard made by the AASB.  Instead, it is a representation of AASB 11 (July 2015) as amended by other Accounting Standards, which are listed in the Table below.

Table of Standards

Standard

Date made

FRL identifier

Commence-ment date

Effective date
(annual periods
… on or after …)

Application, saving or transitional provisions

AASB 11

24 July 2015

F2015L01627

31 Dec 2015

(beginning) 1 Jan 2016

see (a) below

AASB 2018-1

14 Feb 2018

F2018L00157

31 Dec 2018

(beginning) 1 Jan 2019

see (b) below

(a)           Entities may elect to apply this Standard to periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014 but before 1 January 2016.

(b)          Entities may elect to apply this Standard to annual periods beginning before 1 January 2019.

Table of amendments

Paragraph affected

How affected

By … [paragraph/page]

B33CA

added

AASB 2018-1 [page 6]

C1AB

added

AASB 2018-1 [page 6]

 


Deleted IFRS 11 text

Deleted IFRS 11 text is not part of AASB 11.

C1A         Consolidated Financial Statements, Joint Arrangements and Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities: Transition Guidance (Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 11 and IFRS 12), issued in June 2012, amended paragraphs C2–C5, C7–C10 and C12 and added paragraphs C1B and C12A–C12B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. If an entity applies IFRS 11 for an earlier period, it shall apply those amendments for that earlier period.

C15          This IFRS supersedes the following IFRSs:

(a)            IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures; and

(b)            SIC-13 Jointly Controlled Entities—Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers.

 



[1]    If an entity applies these amendments but does not yet apply AASB 9, the reference in these amendments to AASB 9 shall be read as a reference to AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

[2]    In these examples monetary amounts are denominated in ‘currency units (CU)’.