Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Cockatoo Island Management Plan 2017

Authoritative Version
Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument is a heritage management plan for the World, National and Commonwealth Heritage values of Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour.
Administered by: Environment and Energy
Registered 23 Jan 2018
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR05-Feb-2018
Tabled Senate05-Feb-2018
Table of contents.

Title: Cover page - Chapter 8 - Description: Cover page - Chapter 8 - Outcomes - Management Plan Cockatoo Island. Photograph of exterior of Building 22 (Biloela House), Cockatoo Island. 


 10 OUTCOMES

INSERT FULL PAGE PHOTO

 


 


8.     Outcomes

 

Cockatoo Island is being revitalised as an active part of Sydney’s cultural life that is open to general public access. While becoming more integrated with the city, the valued characteristics and qualities that make the island distinct from the surrounding urban landscape will be protected.

The island will accommodate a broad range of mutually supportive uses and activities of varying scales aimed at broadening the island’s appeal and ensuring the island’s viability. Maritime and related industry are being re-established, while new uses such as cultural events, studios, workshops for creative industries and visitor accommodation has been introduced. Balancing this activity, there are a diversity of public open spaces, vantage points and quiet places for reflection.

Existing buildings and structures are being adaptively reused, and heritage sites are being conserved and interpreted as an important element of the island’s attractions. While the revitalisation of the island has drawn from the past phases of its history, a distinctly new phase is being created, characterised by the island’s openness to, and occupation by the public, to whom it was closed for 165 years, from its time as a convict gaol through to its opening up by the Harbour Trust in 2005.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 


Vision

The various themes of the vision, and its implementation to date, are set out below:

 

 

 

Title: Watercolour of Cockatoo Island - Description: Watercolour of Cockatoo Island from the air (artist: Nick Hollo).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of person kayaking in slipway - Description: Photograph of person kayaking in slipway at Cockatoo Island (c2000s)

 

 

 

 

Being an Island

Cockatoo Island provides a sense of wonder by being an island that has a grand scale as well as intricacy and complexity. The island is in a commanding position in a broad basin at the meeting of three waterways where it enjoys vistas over the surrounding waters, islands and peninsulas.

 

This relationship to the surrounding waters will be appreciated through the journey by water, the sense of arrival, and the selection of new uses and activities on the island. As an island, there is a need for a degree of self-sufficiency, by providing accommodation and basic services such as food outlets to cater for Cockatoo’s visitor, worker and resident population.

 

The former restrictions on public access have served to emphasise Cockatoo’s remote qualities and its distinctness from the ‘urban mainland’. These qualities will be retained as the island is opened up and revitalised.

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of passenger ferry berthed at Cockatoo Island - Description: Photograph of passenger ferry berthed at Bolt Wharf on Cockatoo Island (c2000s)

 

 

Water Access

The transportation of goods and people across the water is the lifeblood of the island. To meet this need, land bases on the ‘mainland’ have been identified, and a permanent ferry service established. Slipways, docks and wharves on the island will be repaired to facilitate this access, and mooring infrastructure will be provided to allow casual visits by private vessel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Public Place

The past isolation of the island owes as much to its former uses as to its geography. This new phase of the island’s history is being marked by openness and a sense of ownership by the people. The island is being woven back into the fabric of the city and integrated into the cultural and commercial life of Sydney. Cockatoo Island has become an important part of a network of public foreshore spaces stretching along the harbour and its tributaries.

 

Public access will be generally unrestricted in the open spaces; however some working areas may be off-limits for safety reasons. A network of paths and a sequence of public spaces, some within the most significant buildings, will provide access to vantage points and other areas of interest. Active areas of the island will be balanced with places of relaxation and contemplation.

 

An Historic Place

Cockatoo Island tells an important story about our island nation’s historical development from a penal settlement to a maritime industrial nation, interspersed with occasional reminders of the harbourside’s original landform and vegetation.

 

The convicts provided the initial labour, laying the foundations of Cockatoo’s maritime and dockyard history. In addition to its convict past, the island has also been home to a number of institutions. The whole island became the Commonwealth Dockyard in the early 20th Century.

 

While all the phases of the island’s history will be respected, certain sites will focus on the particular phase that is most pertinent at that location, such as the convict story that relates to the Military Guard house ruins and compound. Interpretive material and vantage points will provide people with a better understanding of the island’s heritage values.

 

Heritage structures will be conserved, and where appropriate, adaptively reused. Significant and sensitive heritage items, such as some of the Convict structures will be interpreted in greater detail and items such as the Powerhouse will become working artefacts to aid their conservation and people’s understanding of their role in the story of Cockatoo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of convict gaol - Description: Photograph of convict gaol (c2000s)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of Beam Bending Machine - Description: Photograph of historical machinery (Beam Bending Machine) on Cockatoo Island (c2000s)

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Watercolour of Cockatoo NE Apron from clifftop - Description: Watercolour of Cockatoo NE Apron from clifftop (artist: Nick Hollo)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of group in Classroom - Description: Photograph of group in Classroom in Administration Building (Building 30) (c2000s)

 

 

 

Existing Character

The island has an austere, robust, gritty character reflecting its past uses. Its historic phases of development, each important in their own right, provide a complex, interwoven web that grew in a seemingly haphazard way in response to changing needs.

 

The intricate succession of spaces and the distinct character of Cockatoo’s various precincts add to the sense of revelation and surprise when wandering about the island. The island’s robust working character and its patina of age are being maintained. New uses and activities will be located in existing buildings wherever possible. New buildings have and will be constructed where necessary and designed to be sympathetic to the island’s values and character as well as views to and from the water.

 

A Living, Working Island

Life is being breathed back into the island by reviving Cockatoo’s strong maritime tradition as well as introducing a range of new uses and activities. The island will be part of a network of working harbour sites and will be home to all manner of maritime and related activity, such as boat builders and repairers, boat storage and ship chandlery.

 

A vibrant mix of uses focussing on public enjoyment, recreation, events, entertainment, cultural experiences, ceremonies, learning, weekend markets, shopping, arts, community uses and business, is emerging and will be further encouraged. The island’s collection of spaces, large halls, and smaller intimate areas make it conducive for all these purposes, in a manner unlike any other part of the city. These buildings and spaces also make Cockatoo particularly well-suited as a venue for a wide range of cultural events and festivals. This mix of uses has broadened the island’s appeal and is contributing to the diversity and cultural life of the city.

 

 

 

 

Historically, the island has been populated by people associated with its working uses. In keeping with this, a small number of people will live on the island on a permanent basis, and short-stay accommodation will be available for the island’s visitors and workers. The re-occupation of the island will help its revival by providing diversity and round-the-clock life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Photograph of Northern Apron Park - Description: Photograph of Northern Apron Park (c2000s)

A Sustainable Island

Environmental best practice will be used to remediate contaminated areas of the island and to achieve environmentally sustainable forms of water, energy and waste management. Most people will arrive by public transport and will primarily get about the island by foot or bicycle.

 

 

With its mix of uses and activities the island’s revival will continue to contribute to the cultural life of the community. The adaptive re-use of buildings will provide an economically sustainable solution for their ongoing conservation.

 

The outcomes are summarised in Figures 26, 28, 31, 34 and 36.

 


Design Outcomes

This plan aims to retain the island’s diversity, which is derived from its incremental development over a long period of time. In accordance with the conservation policies, the emphasis is on retaining and adapting existing buildings; however some buildings or parts of buildings may be demolished and new buildings and structures may be required to fulfill the primary objectives for the island. The scale, form, materials, finishes and interface with the public domain of new buildings must be sympathetic to the heritage values of the island and its buildings and fixtures, as well as assisting with the interpretation of heritage buildings or fixtures that have previously been removed. In the maritime precinct the areas identified as suitable for possible new structures tend to be located within predominantly industrial areas of the island. This industrial scale and form will need to be retained in the design of any purpose-built structures. The robustness and continual changes in use over the history of the island will need to be portrayed in the design of new buildings.

 

Potential design outcomes for the whole island are illustrated at Figure 26.

 


Design of the Public Domain

Public access will be through the sequence of spaces already provided by the pattern of existing development on the island- see Figure 27. They already present the ingredients for a memorable and distinctive public domain. Modifications of, or additions to the public domain need to reflect and respond to the established character and palette of materials of the island, its spaces and buildings.

 

Within these spaces, paths will be given definition only where necessary, to define areas where access is limited due to operational and safety requirements, or areas used for events and outdoor dining or other activities. The definition of the pathways within spaces should not detract from the scale and overall form and character of the spaces themselves.

 

New pathways will recognise new opportunities to experience the island, such as the cliff-top walk that reveals the granaries and connects a number of vantage points overlooking the operational areas of the southern apron, the docks, the major public spaces of the eastern apron, and across the water to the city. Access will also be provided to the vantage points at corners of the island.

 

Disabled access is being provided to connect the key vantage points and the island’s significant public spaces.

 

The most significant public places, shown in Figure 27, include the large-scaled open spaces such as the Eastern Apron plaza, the Northern Apron; the space between the two dry docks; the hillside overlooking the Northern Apron; and the smaller defined spaces such as the convict compound courtyards and the street-like spaces between the workshops. Each space provides a unique view or experience within the island, and offers locations for a diverse range of activities and functions.

 

 

 

 


 

 


 

Title: Figure 26: Outcomes - Description: Figure 26: Outcomes plan for Cockatoo IslandFigure 1: Outcomes – Overall

Updated drawing

 

 


Title: Figure 27: Public Domain structure - Description: Figure 27: Public Domain structure and heirarchy 

 

 


Figure 2: Public Domain Structure

Updated drawing

 

 


 

Title: Photograph of Northern Apron Park - Description: Photograph of Northern Apron Park (c2000s)The design of these public spaces will enhance visitors’ understanding and appreciation of the place and the evolution of the occupation of the island. Shade and shelter is being incorporated in the design in a sympathetic manner. Access around the Island will generally be by walking and cycling, but some vehicular activity will be permitted such as for movement of goods, maintenance and construction; as well as small electric buggies for Ranger patrols and high frequency tenant movements. Vehicular access through these spaces will be limited. The slipway between the Camber Wharf and Buildings 92 & 93 will provide the primary vehicular access point to the island.

 

The sense of arrival by water will be enhanced by the design of entries, providing orientation, gathering areas and visitor facilities.

 

The lighting of the island is important to create a night-time landmark and also to provide spaces that are safe and inviting to use during the evening. The lighting of the eastern cliff face has created a harbour feature.


Precinct Outcomes

 

Southern Apron

 

Title: Map of Southern Apron of Cockatoo Island - Description: Map of Southern Apron of Cockatoo IslandMaritime Industry

Maritime uses are preferred for the Southern Apron because it has a diverse range of workshop buildings, sheds, hardstand, wharves and slipways that would suit the smaller scale industry that is now likely to be viable. The relatively lower heritage values of the buildings generally on the southern apron provide more flexibility for their adaptation to suit contemporary technology and work practices. The area is also more readily separated from the rest of the island by the two dry docks. This may enable WH&S requirements to be met more easily. The area can still be viewed by the public from a safe distance, and overlooked from the southern edge of the plateau. Specific policies to inform these outcomes include Policies 38-44.

 

The outcomes for the southern apron are summarised in Figure 28. Figure 29 illustrates potential activities in this area.

 

Island Access

Access has been provided through the reinstatement of the Camber Wharf and pontoon on the eastern end of Timber Bay. The wharf pontoon is suitable for access by ferries. A series of smaller pontoons has been located within the Camber Wharf to accommodate smaller private vessels.

 

To allow for the delivery of goods and services to the island, the existing ramp has been repaired to provide a roll-on/roll-off facility. The ramp is located between Timber Bay and Building 92/93. It accommodates barges similar to those currently operating on Sydney Harbour, allowing truck access across water. The area around the ramp allows the manoeuvring of trucks and possibly the short term storage of materials.

 

In the medium to long term, the eastern corner of the apron provides a possible location for a new wharf for short stay visitor boats.

 

The revitalisation of the Southern Apron in this way would facilitate the re-occupation of the island by helping to provide both a means of access and a critical mass.

 

The revitalisation of the Southern Apron may either take the form of one major operator or a collection of complementary uses as separate tenancies. In either case, general island worker access to and from the island via the Camber Wharf and the adjacent roll on roll off ramp will need to be maintained.

 

Public Access

Access between the Southern Apron and the Plateau is being provided through the repair and reinstatement of the stairway between the heads of the two docks and the lift between the tunnel and the external stairway landings of Building 10.

 

Public access will be provided on the apron where requirements for workplace health and public safety can be fulfilled. At a minimum, public access is required along the northern side of the docks and the northern side of the plaza between the two docks. Subject to operational requirements, public access along the southern edge of the docks and the rest of the plaza is desirable. At the very least, occasional public access should be provided through guided tours of operational areas- especially to significant heritage buildings such as the Shipwrights’ Shed (Building 81). Tenants will be encouraged to open up their businesses for public viewing where possible.


Title: Figure 28: Outcomes for Southern Apron - Description: Figure 28: Outcomes for Southern Apron 

 


Figure 3: Outcomes – Southern Apron

Updated drawing

 


Title: Figure 29: Land use ideas for Southern Apron - Description: Figure 29: Land use ideas for Southern Apron 


Figure 4: Southern Apron Ideas

Updated drawing

 


Title: Figure 30: Possible new building envelopes on Southern Apron - Description: Figure 30: Section showing possible new building envelopes on Southern Apron 

 

 

 


Figure 5: Southern Apron – Possible New Building Envelopes

 

 


 

Infrastructure Improvements

The development of the necessary infrastructure and provision of specialised equipment and services will depend on the needs of operators and the achievement of the ‘critical mass’ of activities to support the provision of these services. Apron surfaces will require repair and resurfacing to allow for the required structural loadings and appropriate management of environmental impacts. (Refer to Policy 41).

 

Repairs will be undertaken to the Sutherland Wharf to make it suitable for the berthing of large vessels or as a loading/unloading facility of goods. Some structures including the Timber Wharf, Patrol Boat Wharf and Jetty will require minor repairs, whereas the slipways will require significant repair works if they are to be reused. The Parramatta and Camber Wharves have been repaired to facilitate access to Cockatoo Island by ferry operators.

 

Public amenities have been provided in Building 83, close to the main apron entry.

 

Dry Docks

The Sutherland and Fitzroy Docks are important heritage items, therefore their conservation and interpretation are high priority (Refer to Policy 46). The GML CMP recommends that the possible reuse of one of these docks as a dry dock will be investigated. This will depend on the demand for the use of dry docks, the modifications that may be required to facilitate reuse, and the overall cost. The Sutherland Dock may be preferable to recommission due to its design features, the simpler operation of its caisson, its age and size. If the docks are emptied, environmental controls will need to be put in place to ensure the dewatering process does not adversely impact on the water quality of the Harbour.

 

The use of one or both of the dry docks to display historic ships or a submarine will also be explored as it provides an additional attraction relevant to the heritage and maritime significance of Cockatoo Island and enables the docks to be fully seen and appreciated. A water-free dock may also attract other imaginative uses.

 

In their flooded state, the docks provide the potential for a landing area for boats going into dry storage on the island or to be put on hardstand areas for repair or display purposes. There is also potential for the berthing of visiting ships.

 

Powerhouse

Due to its exceptional level of heritage significance the Powerhouse (Building 58) will be conserved and interpreted. Its future use will be more as a working artefact than a fully operational facility. It may also be used for functions or events. The conservation works and use will be guided by the CMP which has been prepared for the building by Godden Mackay Logan (Refer to Policy 45).

 

Building Additions and New Buildings

The buildings in this precinct form a relatively cohesive group of industrial buildings ranging from the 1909 Timber Shipwrights’ shed to the double brick Weapons Workshop built in the late 1960s. The heritage significance of these buildings and structures varies, with the Shipwrights’ shed and the Sutherland Wharf considered having high significance and the other buildings having a much lower significance. The collection of buildings, however are valuable for interpreting the shipbuilding history of the island. It is proposed that the Shipwrights Shed will be restored along with its associated waterfront infrastructure. The buildings have been continually used for maritime related uses and have been altered several times in their lifetime to accommodate changing requirements. Their revival may require a number of changes to comply with current work practices and safety standards as well as changes in technology. The buildings of lesser heritage significance could be re-modelled or re-built over time to suit emerging uses.

 

Some activities may require purpose built structures. The inadequacy of existing buildings and the requirement for a new structure will need to be demonstrated. New buildings are expected to be infill rather than demolition and replacement of the whole grouping. Any new building or additions to existing buildings are to:

 

  • Be consistent with the generally low scale of buildings on the south western side of the apron and within a maximum height of RL12.5;
  • Retain the spatial relationship of buildings to the water’s edge, the slipways, wharves and the Sutherland Dock by staying within the prescribed building envelope;
  • Retain the overall character of the grouping of freestanding buildings;
  • Fit sympathetically with the silhouette of buildings and their individual roof forms against the sandstone cliff face – particularly as viewed from the south
  • Utilise utilitarian building forms, details, materials of buildings (pale brick, corrugated roofing iron) and building signs;
  • Be in keeping with the existing materials and structures of the southern apron;
  • Retain occasional spaces between buildings and the scattered glimpses between buildings; and
  • Provide sufficient apron space adjacent to Sutherland wharf and the Sutherland Dock for truck and crane movements as well as storage.

 

 

 

The robust, concrete framed buildings on the south eastern corner (Buildings 92/93) enable the interior layout and exterior treatment to be modified extensively, if need be. Figure 30 - Possible New Building Envelopes indicates the maximum extent of any building extensions or new building, to retain adequate waterfront apron space along the Fitzroy Dock and along the Camber Wharf. The maximum height of additions or a new building is RL 21 to retain the visual prominence of the Workshops and the cliff line to the north of this site.

 


 

Eastern Apron

 

Title: Map of Eastern Apron of Cockatoo Island - Description: Map of Eastern Apron of Cockatoo IslandThis precinct includes three distinct areas – the Parramatta Wharf entry at the northern end of the apron; the Plaza in front of the cliff face; and the Workshops on the southern side of the apron.

 

The Eastern Apron will continue to provide the main public access to the island and be home to a range of activities that enhance the sense of arrival and wonder due to the large scale of its workshops and spaces. Specific Policies to inform these outcomes include 47-52.

 

The outcomes for the Eastern apron are summarised in Figure 31. Figure 32 illustrates potential activities in this area.

 

Arrival to the Island

 

The Parramatta Wharf will continue to provide the main entry point for visitors arriving by ferry or charter boat. A new shelter, seating and lighting will be provided on the wharf pontoon to improve the amenity of the area while retaining the industrial character. Entry via the Gatehouse to the informal forecourt (formed by the Administration Building and Fire Station) will be retained and enhanced to create a sense of arrival. The forecourt provides an orientation and meeting area, framing views towards different parts of the island and the harbour that convey different aspects of the island’s history (Refer to Policy 47).

 

The amenity and comfort of the area will be improved by the provision of seating, shelter and installations that facilitate interpretation of the island. Paving improvements will make use of the existing palette of materials which will improve the definition of the area and improve the control of stormwater run off. The openness and flexibility of the area will be retained so that it works well for managing arrival to large scale events as well for day to day, more casual visitation.

 

Facilities for Cockatoo Island visitors and workers, such as amenities, cafe, campground booking office and a visitor centre will be provided close to the main entry point. Many such facilities have now been established.

 

The Administration Building will provide activities that support the island - such as the continuation of the education and information resource centre - offices and functions associated with day to day management of the island. There is also potential for a meeting area for former Cockatoo Island workers to facilitate the collection and communication of their experiences, and a refreshment area that could open the building towards a terrace by the water on the eastern side.

 

Visitor amenities have been provided in Building 33, following the removal of redundant demountable buildings.

 

Berths may be provided along the eastern edge of the island within the area of water owned by the Harbour Trust. Its layout will direct visitors towards the entry forecourt near the Administrati on Building (Refer to Policy 47).

 

Berths may also be provided at the southern corner of the apron, associated with the possible repair and reinstatement of the Ruby Wharf and steps.

 

 

 

 

The Bolt Wharf will be repaired and improved to enable large ferries (Freshwater Class) to service the island during large events. The southern end of the wharf would allow visiting and historic ships to be moored there, which would add to the attractions that relate to the island’s maritime heritage (Refer to Policy 47).

 

The Plaza –  created by the demolition of workshops prior to the formation of the Harbour Trust, will continue as a multi-purpose space for a broad range of uses, such as events, cultural activities, market stalls, and the display of boats (Refer to Policy 48).

 

Improvements are being made to the area to cater for safe, unrestricted public access. Improvements have been made in the collection and treatment of stormwater, and the treatment of uneven surfaces and trip hazards. These treatments will be used to facilitate interpretation of past structures, buildings and uses; the main service spine that extended along the entire length of the apron; and former shorelines. Shade will be provided in a manner that is in keeping with the robust, industrial character of the island and the precinct. In-ground planting is precluded by the requirement to retain the integrity of paving and to avoid disturbing contaminants.

 

A building on the plaza may be considered if it is for a significant cultural, civic or maritime purpose. The building’s siting, scale and form would have to respond sympathetically to its dramatic setting, and would have to retain the continuity of access along the foreshore. A new building is not envisaged in the near future (Refer to Policy 42).

 


Workshops

 

The grouping of workshop buildings on the southern side of the eastern apron, (Buildings 119, 120, 123 & 124) form a fine urban street and an edge to the foreshore along the Bolt Wharf. These frontages lend themselves to uses that provide some activity of interest to the passing public. This may include venues for cultural events, places for functions and ceremonies, exhibition space, refreshments, cafes/ restaurants, as well as maritime or other workshop/studios or retail such as ship chandlers, navigational supplies etc. (Refer to Policies 49-50).

 

The distinctive characteristics of the buildings must be retained in their adaptive re-use including significant internal and external fixtures and orientation to the street.

 

The Turbine Shop (Building 150) and the Heavy Machine Shops (Buildings 139 and 140) suit large scale performances, events, exhibitions and functions. Other uses that respond to the dramatic volume and character of the spaces will also be considered. The Heavy Machine Shop, which houses most of the remaining large machinery, lends itself to providing a public gallery, explaining the workings of the workshops and the machinery and providing a link from the Eastern Apron to the central plaza between the ends of the two dry docks on the Southern Apron.

 

The smaller adjoining Machine Shops, to the south may provide uses complementary to the cultural or event related uses, or for maritime industry – such as boat storage, display or repair, possibly in association with the Fitzroy Dock.

 


Title: Figure 31: Outcomes for Eastern Apron - Description: Figure 31: Outcomes for Eastern Apron 

 

 


Figure 6: Outcomes – Eastern Apron

Updated drawing

 


Title: Figure 32: land use ideas for Eastern Apron - Description: Figure 32: land use ideas for Eastern Apron 


Figure 7: Eastern Apron Ideas

Updated drawing

 

 

 

 


Title: Figure 33: Possible new building envelopes on Eastern Apron - Description: Figure 33: Section of Eastern Apron showing possible new building envelopesFigure 8: Eastern Apron – Possible New Building Envelope

 

 


The Engineers’ and Blacksmiths’ Shop (Buildings 138, 137 & 143), with the Fitzroy Dock, was at the genesis of the maritime industrial precinct. These workshops were successively modified and added to. Some of these additions may be peeled back to enable the workshops of the Convict era to be given a clearer expression. The buildings may also be modified in a number of ways to clarify the distinct stages of the development of the island. Separation may be provided between the Convict workshop and the large halls to the rear by removing parts of the roof where waterproofing is difficult to maintain. This would create a courtyard in association with a public accessway linking the Eastern Apron plaza with the Fitzroy Dock (Refer to Policies 49-50).

 

Due to the varying levels of significance of the incremental changes and additions to the buildings, any proposed changes would require detailed heritage investigation and assessment and possible referral under EPBC Act.

 

Building 118, a large shed along the foreshore, may be removed in order to improve the presentation and visibility of the Convict Workshop from the harbour and views to the harbour from the workshops and the street.

 

A new building may be constructed on the south eastern corner of the apron. This site has the potential to define a formal public space, adjacent to the workshops, and open to the harbour on the east. Any new building should reflect the character of the adjacent buildings and designed in accordance with Policy 52.

 

Figure 33 – Possible New Building Envelopes indicates the maximum extent of building to retain adequate waterfront apron space along the Bolt Wharf and former Destroyer Wharf, and which extends the street alignment given definition by the workshop buildings and the convict workshop. The alignment to the north maintains views to the city through the lane along the southern edge of the convict workshop. The maximum height of a new building is RL 21 to retain the visual prominence of the Workshops and the cliff line to the north-west of this site.

 

The ground floor of a new building should provide some activities (such as café / restaurant or retail) along the frontages to the main space, the waterfront edges and the street.

 

 


 

Northern Apron

  The Northern Apron is now a large open space with remnants of its previous industrial uses. Initial covering of contaminated areas and hazards with clean fill was carried out prior to the Cockatoo Island Festival. The precinct will be retained and further enhanced as open space while the slipways and hardstand areas at the western end of the apron will provide access for deliveries of goods to and from the Island and potential for maritime uses. Specific Policies to inform these outcomes include
53-57.

 

The outcomes for the Northern Apron are summarised in Figure 34. Figure 35 illustrates potential activities in this area.

 

Parkland

The Northern Apron is one of the areas of the island that can be readily opened up to general public access. The main priority is to provide additional, minor improvements for safety, to enable the area to be used for passive recreation. A camping area has been created with public amenities including an ablutions block, barbecue area and seating. Some of the existing sheds and small utility buildings will be converted to amenities and shade shelters. The service vehicular access and associated hardstand near the slipways will need to be retained and differentiated in their design treatment from the rest of the park. (Refer to Policy 53).

 

Over time, the design treatment will be further enhanced to provide additional shade and shelter, and to accommodate on-site wastewater treatment including the possible use of reed beds. These improvements will be used to convey the dramatic changes and uses such as the original shoreline, the ship building process, the steel sheets of the plate yard, demolished workshops, rails, cuttings, and cranes. Play facilities for children, and an area for active recreation, may be established.

 

The sense of openness of the parkland will be retained. The capping of contaminants constrains the type of planting that can be used. The design of both the Northern Apron at Cockatoo Island and the Horse Paddock at Woolwich will be similar in character, and provide opportunities for sculptural or festive installations to flank the harbour as it narrows from a broad bay to the Parramatta River. The open space will also permit its use as an emergency landing place for helicopters.

 

The parkland needs to be considered in its totality, extending up the hillside to the plateau. Access in addition to the Burma Road will be provided between the apron and the plateau. Some of the existing stairs have been modified to provide adequate, safe access. New stairs may be provided with occasional resting places along the way. The existing character of the hillside as a reminder of the original landform of Cockatoo Island will be retained and further enhanced. It may also provide an opportunity for interpretation of the Aboriginal heritage of the island, subject to availability of any additional information. Small kiosk or refreshment structures associated with shady seating areas may be provided on the paved terraces at the bottom of the cliff face.

 

Interpretation will be provided to help explain the former uses of this area in the shipbuilding process in accordance with policies 54, 55 and 56.

 


Title: Figure 34: Outcomes for Northern Apron - Description: Figure 34: Outcomes for Northern Apron 

 

 

 


Figure 9: Outcomes – Northern Apron

Updated drawing

 


Title: Figure 35: Land use ideas for Northern Apron - Description: Figure 35: Land use ideas for Northern Apron 


Figure 10: Northern Apron – Ideas

 

 


A foreshore walk has been created along the existing riprap embankment. Consideration has been given to the boardwalk’s appearance from the water and the long term maintenance requirements of the structure. Boat berthing is not envisaged along the northern edge due to its proximity to a major navigational channel.

 

The Memorial Garden near the Parramatta Wharf will be enhanced by the reinstatement of some of the island’s memorabilia and additional trees in tubs to help define the island’s entry forecourt and to provide more shade.

 

Hardstand Area

The western end of the apron has two large slipways and a wharf. The No. 2 Slipway, the smaller of the two will be upgraded as a roll-on roll-off ramp to allow barge access to this side of the Island. The scale of the ships built and launched from the No. 1 Slipway will be interpreted possibly through a large sculpture or some other landscape treatment. Its rise above the general ground level of the apron will be retained as a landscape feature and possible informal outdoor “amphitheatre”. Swimming may be permitted in Slipway No. 1. A hardstand area between Slipway No. 1 and 2 will be consolidated to cater for service access requirements, which include truck manœuvring area and temporary storage. Boat building and repair activity may also be accommodated on the hardstand and adjacent grassed areas which may generate a requirement for storage or small office facilities. These may be able to be accommodated in portable shipping containers or small scale, temporary buildings. The hardstand areas and grassed areas used for maritime activity will be designed to collect and treat surface water run-off. (Refer to Policy 54).

 

The wharf will be repaired to enable barge access. The possibility of additional wharves and pontoons, creating a sheltered basin and mooring places for small boats will be investigated.

 

New Services Infrastructure

Previously the power and sewerage infrastructure were located in the western corner of this apron, and the area is still considered to be a suitable area to accommodate new infrastructure requirements to support the future use of the Island. (Refer to Policy 56).

 

Cockatoo Island provides the Harbour Trust with a unique opportunity to investigate the use of ecologically sustainable technologies for power, water, stormwater and sewerage systems. This may require the development of low-scale purpose-built buildings in this location, within a park setting, and open to public visitation and information.

 

A new building in this location is to be no greater than one storey and a maximum height to RL 12.5, to retain the prominence of the backdrop of vegetation and the terraced gardens to the south of the slipways. Any building is to conform to the footprint shown in the outcomes drawing to retain sufficient space for public access between it, the slipways, rails and cranes.

 

Additional low scale, open shade and shelter structures may be considered as part of the public domain outside of the area designated for new building.

 


 

The Plateau

 A network of public places

The primary access to the Plateau will be via the Burma Road. Additional access stairs will also be provided and the existing lift will be repaired.

 

The outcomes for the Plateau are summarised in Figure 36. Specific Policies to inform these outcomes include Policies 29-37 and 57.

 

The Plateau provides a collection of distinctly different spaces and buildings, from the courtyards of the internalised Gaol compound, to the rows of large, industrial workshops, culminating in a cluster of dwellings and their gardens on the eastern end of the plateau. This sequence will become a part of the network of public places and pathways. They will be linked by a circuit walk that will highlight the different character of each area, interspersed with a variety of vantage points along the edge of the plateau overlooking different areas of the island aprons and the harbour. Vehicular access to the plateau will be restricted to service and delivery vehicles only.

 

Significant cultural plantings will be retained on the Plateau, in particular the figs, which will be protected as animal foraging habitat.

 

Convict Gaol

The restoration and conservation of the group of convict-built sandstone buildings (Buildings 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 20, 22 and 22A) forming the gaol is a high priority. (Refer to Policies 34 and 36).

 

The history and significance of these buildings and spaces will be interpreted and will be a major focus of its future use and management. Uses could include classrooms, space for functions and events, museums or exhibition/display spaces for interpretive material. Retention of the later additions to these buildings such as the verandas and WW II additions will be considered in terms of their level of intrusiveness versus their interpretive value, amenity and benefit, if any, in providing protection of fragile heritage fabric.

 

There are two houses remaining that are closely associated with the compound. The Military Officers’ Quarters (Building 2), along the northern boundary of the gaol compound, will be used in close association with the compound – to facilitate public visitation and interpretation of the gaol, or even as a dwelling to provide for a live-in caretaker. The Overseers’ Quarters (Building 9), is located at the top of the Burma Road and adjacent to a grassed open area with views over the Northern Apron and the harbour. This area is well suited to become a part of the public parkland and an occasional performance or event venue. The building could provide café/restaurant facilities, or public amenities, interpretation and information for the public.

 

Investigations into any archaeological evidence of former buildings and gardens will be undertaken as part of the interpretation of the previous use of the site. Archaeological investigation of the western corner of the Prisoners’ Barracks (Building 5) has revealed stores and solitary cells. Around the former Military Officers’ Quarters (Building 2) the gardens will be reinstated. The enclosed courtyard surface and central well has been investigated. The grassed courtyard to the west of Building 3 will be retained as an open courtyard space. (Refer to Policy 37).

 

The main circuit walk on the plateau, known as the Convict Trail, links the various features of the site that are associated with the Convict era, enabling visitors to appreciate that the whole island was once part of a gaol and labour camp complex – it was not just the most obviously visible remains such as the gaol compound and the sandstone workshop building. The walk features interpretive material that shows how each part of the island plateau was used and how it evolved. The circuit includes the:

 

§  Gaol compound;

§  Interpretive material about the lumber yard and quarry along the northern side of the workshop buildings and views into convict archaeological remains;

§  Cliff top walk to the east of the houses providing a view over the harbour and the eastern apron, with interpretive material showing the extent and use of that area;

§  The granaries excavated by Convicts on the south east corner of the plateau including a deck that enables viewing into the cut granary silos in the cliff face;

§  Water cistern along the southern edge of the plateau and;

§  Viewing areas over the convict built Fitzroy Dock.

 

The elements of the Convict Trail are shown in Figure 37. (Refer to Policies 33-37).

 

The Plateau Workshops

The central area of the plateau is characterised by a group of large industrial buildings including the Mould Loft (Building 6), Drawing Office (Building 10), the Joiners’ Shop (Building 12), Polishing Shop (Building 13) and Electrical Shop (Building 15). They are all 2-3 storey timber and steel framed sheds mostly clad with corrugated iron. The Timber Store (Building 19) is a timber building of two storeys clad with slatted timber and corrugated iron.

 

Although these buildings were built on the site of a number of former buildings and spaces, including the convict exercise yard, lumber yard, quarry and water tanks, the removal of individual buildings for interpretation purposes is not recommended. Given the level of significance of the workshop buildings in the context of the Island’s dockyard history, these buildings will be restored and adaptively re-used. (Refer to Policy 57). The footings of the Lumber Yard Workshop building that have been revealed within the Polishing Shop will be interpreted to illustrate the convict layer beneath these later Dockyard Buildings.

 

Any alterations and additions to the existing workshop buildings must maintain the character of the industrial nature of the buildings and retain the buildings’ relationship to the open spaces, particularly the alley ways between buildings and the open spaces and courtyards at their ends. The fit out and adaptation of the buildings must retain significant structures and fixtures – internal and external. The brick and breeze-block shelter and amenity block along the northern edge of the Drawing Office may be modified to improve access and provide a sense of entry between the courtyard and building via the graceful stairwell. The prominent silhouette created by the gable end roof forms and the water towers is to be retained.

 

The spaces in these buildings are varied. Some are open and with relatively exposed sides, some are partitioned into smaller “offices”. The buildings may be suitable for a wide range of uses including artist or design studios, offices, demonstrations, performance spaces, training or educational facilities or exhibitions or even dormitory style accommodation. Interpretation of their Dockyard uses will be an important ingredient in any new fitout. This is particularly important for the Mould Loft (Building 6) with its tangible history of shipbuilding on Cockatoo. (Refer to Policy 57).


 

 


Title: Figure 36: Outcomes for Plateau - Description: Figure 36: Outcomes for Plateau 

 

 

 


Figure 11: Outcomes – Plateau

Updated drawing

 


Title: Figure 37: Proposed Convict Trail - Description: Figure 37: Proposed Convict Trail 

 

 

 


Figure 12: Convict Trail

Updated drawing

 


 

 

Figure 13: Possible Convict Trail on Plateau

 

 

 

 


 

Figure 38: Artist's impression of possible convict on Plateau of Cockatoo Island.Archaeological investigations have been carried out around the perimeter and beneath parts of the workshop buildings, in particular the open spaces to the north of the buildings. The purpose is to improve our knowledge and assist with the interpretation of the previous uses of this area, in particular the convict era. Interpretation of the original water tanks cut into the rock, (which have since been covered by Buildings 15 and 17), will be a priority on the southern side of this area. (Refer to Policy 57).

 

The use of the existing water infrastructure (two water towers) for potential water collection, re-use and recycling will be investigated. The high water tower is along the main north-south axis of the Convict Trail on the island plateau. The interior of the ground level of the tower may therefore provide a suitable display area conveying the evolution of the plateau from the convict era. The potential for a viewing platform and some other public oriented use at the top of the water tower will also be investigated.

 

Mobile telecommunications infrastructure will only be considered if it can be demonstrated to be compatible with these public uses and if the new infrastructure is designed to be: of minimal visual impact on the simple silhouette, form and finish of the water tower and sympathetic with the island’s heritage values.

 


The Houses

 

The five houses located along the eastern portion of the plateau are being repaired and adaptively re-used. The most suitable future uses in terms of their heritage value, layout and character and the desired mix of activities for the island, are as dwellings for short-term accommodation or small office/studios. (Refer to Policies
34-36).

 

The gardens and fences of the houses will be repaired both to reflect the previous subdivision pattern and to retain and enhance significant cultural plantings. A sequence of garden spaces and plantings will be re-established along the north of the plateau. The vegetable gardens previously located to the north of Building 24 will be interpreted through either reinstatement or other landscape treatments. Gates will be provided to allow access through and between the gardens. Areas along the eastern edge will become part of the public parkland, particularly the tennis court, providing potential for small events and gatherings. Occasional public access with tours or open days will be required to a representative example of the houses. Biloela, the Superintendent’s Quarters, has remained open to the public and can be used for exhibitions and special functions.

 

Unrestricted public access will continue to be provided to the cliff top walk via the wide Common that extends between the private gardens from the area near the water tower to the cliff edge.

 

The area between the cliff edge and the gardens adjacent to the cliff top walk has been revegetated in a manner that helps to stabilise the embankments, and helps to convey the original landscape of the island.

 

Accessibility

The provision of public access is a fundamental objective of the Harbour Trust. This commitment entails a responsibility to create an environment that is accessible to all members of the community, including children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. This will be fulfilled as far as possible on Cockatoo Island. A consideration of accessibility issues will encompass transport to the island, navigation between the different precincts as well as access to individual buildings and spaces. (Refer to Policies 20-21).

 

As the uses for different buildings and precincts become clearer, detailed access audits will be carried out to identify barriers to access for people with a wide range of disabilities. Once identified, the Harbour Trust will employ different access solutions depending on the purpose of the building and its anticipated uses. The impact of each option upon the fabric of the buildings and heritage significance of the place will be considered and assessed before a final solution is selected.

 

Solutions chosen will be simple and wherever possible not result in major modifications to existing buildings and structures. Any modifications will be reversible and minimise damage to original materials.

 

New areas, such as the park on the Northern Apron, will be designed and planned to reflect the diversity and needs of the community. These provisions will benefit not only people using mobility aids such as wheelchairs but also aged visitors, children, and people with strollers. Facilities such as accessible toilets, water fountains and information posts will be clustered together. Shade and seating will be generously provided around the island so that people can rest and experience the landscape at their leisure.

 

Information about the accessibility of the island will be available prior to people reaching the island so they know what facilities and levels of access to expect. Once on the island, interpretative and directional signage will be provided to guide visitors, both around the precincts and within buildings and spaces. Harbour Trust signage complies with standards in relation to visibility, size of lettering and sign height.

 

Where appropriate, the Harbour Trust will consider producing specific interpretation for people with special needs and for people from non-English speaking backgrounds. The Harbour Trust will also actively respond to visitor surveys that may identify the special needs of specific groups.

 

While the aim at Cockatoo Island is to provide independent access wherever possible, in some cases the topography or the design of buildings will mean this is not able to be achieved. Buildings or areas of heritage significance or those that present too many obstacles to access may be able to be appreciated without entering the space. In other instances interpretative solutions such as models or diagrams could be used to interpret spaces that are inaccessible to the public.

 

Noise

Noise emissions must comply with the relevant NSW Environment Protection Authority standards and the guidelines contained in the Land Use Planning Noise Survey prepared for the Harbour Trust by Dick Benbow & Associates Pty Ltd. Certain events and activities, such as those identified in this survey, will require further noise assessment and management. Management techniques could include a range of options such as time restrictions, application of engineered controls or the preparation of a more detailed Noise Management Plan for specific events or activities.

 

Title: Photograph of Building 10 - Description: Photograph of Estimating & Drawing Offices (Building 10) (c2000s)

Water Sensitive Urban Design

The principles of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) are to be incorporated into the redevelopment of the maritime precinct in order to achieve water quality, water conservation and ecological objectives. Effective integration of these objectives will require the application of concepts on an island wide basis. The key concepts to be applied are:

 

§  Source controls – removal or mitigation of the pollutant source, and on-site rainwater use;

§  Conveyance controls – applied during the conveyance of stormwater to the harbour; and

§  Discharge controls – applied at the point where water leaves the site or island.

 

Remediation and Management Strategy

The overriding policy for the Harbour Trust for the management of contamination is to ensure that public health and the environment are protected with the application of consistent and sound environmental management practices. The remediation and management strategy proposed for the island is based on this policy, the Harbour Trust’s ESD commitment and the outcomes and requirements of the contaminated land audit. (Refer to Policy 19).

 

Significant volumes of contaminated materials were used as fill over the apron areas of the Island. Contamination of other areas of the island has also resulted from other ‘laydown’ mechanisms discussed earlier in this plan. Extensive environmental assessment has shown that some soils in all precincts across the Island are were contaminated at levels that exceeded one or more of the criteria that would be applicable to the proposed land use outcomes. As discussed earlier in this Plan, many of the known contaminants have now been safely removed or capped. However, remaining contaminants in solid media (soils, sediments and wastes) are also a source of contamination to ground and surface waters, and may provide an offsite environmental impact.

 

Capping Strategy for Filled Areas

The Harbour Trust considers that a capping strategy, supplemented by the excavation and offsite disposal of high level or gross contamination, is appropriate for the filled apron areas for the following reasons:

 

§  The heterogeneous nature of these materials means that it is not technically feasible to ‘treat’ these materials;

§  Large areas are already capped with concrete slabs such that the exposure to underlying soils is prevented;

§  The cost of removal of large volumes of materials to landfill, and replacement with clean soils would be prohibitive, and of limited benefit on ESD grounds;

§  The lands will remain in public ownership and an appropriate level of ongoing management will be applied; and

§  The lower cost of this strategy will allow remediation works to be undertaken at a greater rate, thereby allowing sooner and greater access to the island for the public and future users.

 

Capping may be achieved through the repair of existing pavements to form a continuous barrier and/ or installing new concrete or asphalt pavements of high integrity. Various capping systems would be appropriate depending on land use and environmental objectives. Those that have been used on the island include:

 

§  Asphalt and concrete – most suited to areas where a hardstand surface was required and/ or where it was appropriate to minimise water infiltration. This type of treatment has been implemented on the Southern Apron.

§  Soil/landscaped separation layer – most suited to parkland/ open space areas. This type of treatment has been implemented on the Eastern Apron.

§  Low permeability landscaped barrier (which has been implemented on the Northern Apron).

 

However, before capping, further requirements for implementation include:

 

1.       Building decontamination and hazardous materials removal works will be carried out prior to the commencement of any soil remediation works in an area. This will include removal and disposal of any remaining dangerous goods or materials. Following building decontamination programs in each area, any remaining hazardous materials, such as asbestos cement sheet in good condition will be managed in accordance with the hazardous materials registers and management plans being prepared for the island.

2.       Areas of high level or gross contamination or sources which may present potential unacceptable health risk or an ongoing source of contamination or off-site impact will be appropriately investigated and where required remediated, preferably by treatment and/or removal and disposal from the island. Gross contamination may include:

 

§  Any remaining asbestos materials in surface soils;

§  Concentrated washes in surface soils, such as grit blast wastes or where there is gross hydrocarbon (oil spill) contamination;

§  Contaminated wastes in the form of sediment, sludges or liquid wastes associated with septic systems, tanks or pits of the former stormwater or sewerage systems;

§  Any remaining solid or liquid wastes associated with former machine pits;

§  Potentially contaminated soils in the vicinity of the former substations, ASTs, coal bunkers, workshops, stores and remediation of gross contamination associated with these facilities.

 

3.       Demolition and remediation of any remaining underground tanks used for storing petroleum products. However, all known underground tanks have been removed and associated contaminated soils remediated.

4.       Capping systems for Cockatoo Island will be designed in accordance with ANZECC (September 1999), ‘Guidelines for the Assessment of On-site Containment of Contaminated Soil’, taking into account land use considerations and the nature of the fill. Capping systems will be designed to properly mitigate any adverse impacts arising from malodorous soils or volatile soil gas that may arise from the underlying contaminated soils.

5.       Ongoing management requirements of retained contamination will be documented and implemented in accordance with an Environmental Management Plan (EMP), and implemented by the Harbour Trust. The EMP will address management and monitoring of retained contamination, as well as potential environmental impact of projects, leasing or use. The EMP shall also address the ongoing monitoring of groundwater quality on the island.

6.       Remediation will be conducted on a precinct-by-precinct basis, with land use restrictions remaining in place until buildings and land have been remediated and certified for the intended land use.

7.       Review of the remediation process by an accredited independent auditor engaged by the Harbour Trust.

 

Surface and Groundwater

The Harbour Trust will continue the environmental monitoring program it has established for surface and groundwater on the island. The purpose of this program is to establish an up to date baseline and monitor trends in waters as the remediation and management actions are implemented. It is envisaged that implementation of the above strategy, including removal of potential mobile sources of contamination and appropriate capping design, will contribute to a gradual improvement in surface and groundwater contamination in the long term.

 

Near Shore Sediments

No active remediation of contaminated sediments surrounding the island has been recommended or proposed at this stage. However, the Harbour Trust will undertake required further assessment of sediments in consultation with the Roads and Maritime Services NSW to confirm management requirements in accordance with NSW DEC and auditor requirements. Regardless of further assessment, remediation and management of the island will be implemented to prevent any further contamination of sediments.

 

Important considerations are:

 

  • Remediation of former stormwater and sewer system wastes as described above;
  • Implementation of appropriate dust, sediment and erosion controls during remediation and civil work; and
  • Pollution controls systems and requirements for managing potential discharges from future site activities, such as boat maintenance and cleaning.

 

Management will also include implementing controls such as siltation curtains to prevent the spread of contaminated sediment when the Sutherland Dock caisson is moved. Should either of the dry docks be recommissioned, residual sediments within the docks will require removal, dewatering and disposal. A risk based approach, informed by an environmental assessment, will be implemented.

 

Specific works for each precinct will be documented in Remediation Action Plans (RAPs). The RAPs will detail further remedial works necessary for each area to achieve the following objectives:

 

  • Protection of human health;
  • Minimisation of ongoing active management of remaining contamination;
  • Cost effectiveness; and
  • Protection of heritage, cultural and natural values.

 

An outline of requirements for each area is provided as follows:

 

Plateau Area

The plateau area requires separate consideration, due to the lesser extent of fill materials and the presence of existing landscaped/grassed areas and heritage structures. Gross wastes, such as general waste debris, waste piles and asbestos-containing materials were removed and disposed of in 2005. Non sealed areas of the Plateau were stabilised with clean topsoil and grass or rolled VENM gravels, which is considered protective for short term visitation.

 

Remediation of soils in grassed or landscaped areas that contained metals (mainly lead), and PAH contamination exceeding appropriate risk based criteria for the proposed land uses (a combination of commercial, short term residential and public open space) has been carried out in accordance with the area specific RAP. Where soils were required to be removed, this was carried out to maximum 0.5m or bedrock and replaced with clean soil. Building slabs or pavements were considered to provide suitable containment for contaminated soils in these areas.

 

Southern Apron

A hazardous materials removal and abatement program has been carried out for buildings located to the west of the patrol boat jetty, and is being carried out for the remaining buildings and structures in this area. This includes removal and disposal of remaining chemicals and dangerous goods.

 

Eastern Apron

A hazardous materials removal and abatement program has been carried out for all buildings in this area. The existing capped area is to be maintained through any further works in accordance with the EMP.

 

Northern Apron

A hazardous materials removal and abatement program has been carried out for remaining buildings and structures in this area. These include the substation structures, the former amenities building and pipe sealing shop, and cranes.

 

An assessment was made of the former acid bath (a below ground concrete tank that was also known as the Pickling Tank). The tank was cleaned, sealed and recommissioned and is now suitable for use as a stormwater collection pit.

 

Soils in the vicinity of the former substations have been remediated.

 

Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

A draft EMP has been prepared for Cockatoo Island. The objective of the EMP is to guide the Harbour Trust in the achievement of environmental best practice and avoidance of any environmental harm from activities associated with rehabilitation, development and use of the Island.

 

The EMP documents the ongoing environmental management requirements and the broad remedial strategies for the island to achieve and maintain the defined environmental and land use outcomes. The EMP also provides guidance for detailed design of works and will be the basis for environmental specifications.

 

When finalised, the EMP will consider the potential impact of site activities on sediments surrounding the island and provide appropriate management controls. The Site Auditor has recommended that further studies be undertaken so that health and ecological risks of sediment contamination may be evaluated in accordance with the process outlined in the ANZECC (2000) Sediment Guidelines.

 

Ecologically Sustainable Development

The Harbour Trust has a legislated responsibility to manage Cockatoo Island in accordance with Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) principles using an approach to sustainability that considers economic, environmental and social factors in decision-making, performance, and reporting.

 

The Harbour Trust proposes an approach that is consistent with sustainability principles and that will enable the Harbour Trust to realise its vision of bringing life back to Cockatoo Island. The fundamental characteristic of this approach is that it considers sustainability to be a normal consideration in the Harbour Trust’s decision making concerning Cockatoo Island rather than as an ‘add-on’. This requires sustainability to be integrated into the Harbour Trust’s governance, culture, processes and procedures.

 

Cockatoo Island, and the Harbour Trust’s unique role in its management, presents a broad scope to implement innovative practices to ensure an economically thriving, socially vibrant and ecologically protected island. However, while an island context presents some advantages (for example reduced impact from neighbouring sites such as stormwater runoff), it also has some disadvantages (for example, additional transport costs). Some of the island’s existing infrastructure was in a state of disrepair, but has now been improved. Other buildings and structures present an opportunity for adaptive reuse. The location of the island in Sydney Harbour presents potential for it to become both a key attraction for the public and an important component of the working harbour. Using this range of opportunities to build knowledge about sustainability could present a key step forward for sustainability in Sydney.

 

Components of the Harbour Trust’s vision for achieving a sustainable island involve:

 

§  Bringing the place back to life as an iconic example of sustainability in practice;

§  Maximising its resilience in the context of future changes;

§  Using the island appropriately given its past and future; and

§  Providing learning experiences and building knowledge about sustainability.

 

To realise this vision, the following objectives, including the particular challenges associated with them, have been identified to guide the island’s sustainable development:

 


Built Environment

Aim: To provide flexible and resource-efficient accommodation to meet growing and evolving demand. This will be achieved by:

§  Providing and designing for suitable buildings, either through adaptive reuse, modification or additions, or by new construction;

§  Selecting appropriate building materials; and

§  Using appropriate construction methods.

 

Water

Aim: To reduce the use of water sourced off the island and to minimise pollution. This will be achieved by providing:

§  Water storage capacity to cope with peak loads and wastewater storage for post-event treatment;

§  Flexible infrastructure to meet the changing needs of the Island;

§  For the treatment of sewerage and stormwater, with treated water being, possibly used for underground irrigation or for firefighting;

§  Different levels of water quality to match requirements: for e.g. potable water for drinking, and treated water for other uses; and

§  Efficient facilities that reduce water consumption.

 

Energy

Aim: To reduce energy use and utilise renewable energy where possible. This will be achieved by:

§  Designing new buildings and retrofitting existing buildings (subject to practical constraints and heritage considerations) to minimise energy consumption; and

§  Installing devices such as photovoltaic cells and solar panels for hot water.

 


Transport

Aim: To promote sustainable forms of transport to and on the island. This will be achieved by:

§  Encouraging the majority of people to access the island by public transport;

§  Assessing the potential transport-related impact of proposed activities and events; and

§  Establishing a generally car-free island where people mostly get about by walking or cycling.

 

Materials and Waste

Aim: To reduce materials used and waste generated on the island. This will be achieved by:

§  Minimising the amount of waste generated by visitors and workers on Cockatoo Island;

§  Recycling building materials and other consumables; and

§  Providing the Island with an effective waste management system.

 

Interpretation

One of the primary objectives of the Harbour Trust, in conserving the heritage of its lands and opening them up to public access, is to convey their rich natural and cultural heritage in a meaningful, relevant and engaging way to the public. (Refer to Policy 25).

 

The proposed use of the Island, its buildings and spaces, the creation and the design of parklands and the development of public open days, events, and publications will all be considered as part of an interpretation program to convey the totality of the significant values of Cockatoo Island, its context and setting. This will need to include the past uses of the island from its pre-European landscape - original shoreline and form - and Aboriginal heritage through to the various phases of its development and use. The interpretation program will need to appeal to the general public, the formal education sector and special interest groups. See Figure 39 ­– Interpretation Opportunities.

 

The Harbour Trust has prepared an interpretation strategy for Cockatoo Island which provides recommendations as to how the Harbour Trust can best communicate the natural, cultural, social and other values and significance of the lands to the public. The strategy aims to ensure that the interpretive and educational needs and expectations of visitors, key stakeholders and the Harbour Trust are met.

 

The strategy has six main functions:

 

§  Define and articulate the interpretive vision, goals and objectives that will guide interpretation on Cockatoo Island;

§  Identify an overarching interpretive theme and a set of sub-themes and key stories around which interpretive information will be organised and structured;

§  Explore the interpretive needs and expectations of likely audiences and outline interpretive tools that will reach them;

§  Provide guidelines for suggested interpretive methods and techniques that will engage and enrich visitor experiences;

§  Recommend a strategic approach towards the spread of interpretation across the island; and

§  Recommend a process for monitoring and evaluating interpretive activities.

 

The strategy recommends that the interpretation program should include, but not be restricted to, the following elements:

 

  • Development of a visitors centre to provide a year round venue for community education programs and act as a porthole for visitors to the outdoor experience;
  • Adaptive reuse of buildings to include maritime related training / education facilities;
  • Thematic guided tours and self-guided walks for the general public;
  • Structured education programs for the formal education sector including schools, universities and centres for continuing education; including resource material for students and teachers;
  • School holiday programs;
  • Extended study tours in partnership with other agencies; for example working with Sydney Living Museums to interpret the Convict Gaols of Sydney, or with National Parks and Wildlife as landowner of other Sydney Harbour islands;
  • Public signage and artefact displays that convey the site’s rich mixture of convict, social and maritime history and related stories;
  • Soundscapes, lighting and audio-visual experiences;
  • Cockatoo Island themed publications (such as The Story of Cockatoo Island), tourist information brochures, maps, and merchandise;
  • Events, open days, art exhibitions and festivals;
  • Website;
  • Staff and tenant education programs; and
  • Oral History programs.

 

The Interpretation Strategy will be continually developed by the Harbour Trust. (Refer to Policy 25).

 


 


Title: Figure 39: Interpretation Opportunities - Description: Figure 39: Interpretation Opportunities on Cockstoo Island 

 

 


Figure 14: Interpretation Opportunities

Updated drawing

 


Title: Cover page - Chapter 9 - Description: Cover page - Chapter 9 - Implementation - Management Plan Cockatoo Island. Photograph of Steam Crane, Cockatoo Island. 

 


 11 IMPLEMETATION

INSERT FULL PAGE PHOTO

 

 


 


9.     Implementation

 

As identified in the Harbour Trust’s Comprehensive Plan, the implementation of this Management Plan will take place over a number of years.

 

Priorities for the implementation of the Management Plan have been determined in a manner consistent with Part 11 of the Harbour Trust’s Comprehensive Plan and in response to priorities identified in the relevant CMPs. The Harbour Trust has discretion as to the extent and staging of the work to be carried out.

 

The Implementation Plan overleaf summarises the outcomes to be achieved through the implementation of the Management Plan. It identifies individual projects and priorities for implementation. It also nominates the relevant policies to be used to guide the delivery of each project and to ensure works are carried out in a manner

 

 

which is consistent with the World, National and Commonwealth heritage management principles.

 

These priorities are indicative and may change over the life of this Plan in response to funding availability and other changing circumstances.

 

Proposed actions will be assessed for their potential impacts on heritage values and the environment in accordance with the EPBC Act and the Harbour Trust’s Comprehensive Plan (see Section 3, Planning Framework of this Plan). Approved actions will be subject to conditions to avoid potential impacts; or to put in place measures to minimise or mitigate impacts, and to manage activities in accordance with relevant legislation and standards.

 

 


 


Implementation Plan

 

Location

Outcome

Projects

Priority /Progress

Related

Conservation Policies

Whole Island

Improved Public Access

§  Negotiate with ferry operators to secure regular passenger service

 

Completed

20, 21,23,41,47

 

 

§  Landscape treatment and repair to pavements to allow safe public access

 

 

§  New pavements to provide access to vantage points around the island and to ‘corners’ of the island.

 

Partially completed / Ongoing

 

Medium / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,11-14,16,18-21, 25, 29-32, 37, 42-43,46-48, 52-56

 

1-8,11,13-16,19-21,23, 25-44, 46-48, 53-56

 

 

§  Preparation and presentation of interpretive material and signage in public domain areas

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-9,13-15,18,20,23,24,25-27, 33-36, 39, 40, 45-53, 55-57

 

 

§  Provision of public access along foreshore

 

Completed

1-8,13-15,20,21,23,25-27,47,56

 

 

§  Provision and / or upgrade of onsite services for island and building uses

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,10,16-19,23,26-32,34,36-39,42- 44, 46-57

 

 

§  Remediation of contaminated areas and hazardous materials in public areas in accordance with a Remediation Action Plan (reviewed by Auditor)

High / Ongoing

1-8,19,23,26,27,37,45

 

 

 

§  Installation of interpretive sculptures that convey a sense of the Island’s industrial heritage

 

Low / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,13-15,19,23,25-27,38-57

 

 

·         Manage natural environment to avoid adverse impacts on the island.

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,14,18,26,27

Eastern Apron

 

Parramatta Wharf Entry Improvements

 

§  Upgrade wharf to allow assisted disabled access, provision of shelter, seating, lighting and transport information

 

Completed

 

1-8,19-23, 26,27,41,47

 

 

§  Resurface pavements within entry precinct

 

Completed

 

1-8,11,14,16,19-21,23,25-27,38-42

 

 

§  Provision of new disabled access ramp to Administration building

 

Completed

1-12,19,20,21,23,25-27,38-41

 

 

§  Repair and maintenance of existing buildings including Administration Building, Muster Station and Timber Wharf shelter

 

Completed

1-12,19,27,47,53

 

 

§  Provision of public toilet facilities.

Completed

1-9,12,20,23,25-27,37,47

 

 

Eastern Apron

Open landscaped area

§  Landscape treatment to interpret previous uses

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8, 12-16,18-21,25-27,39,40,46-51

 

 

§  Repair pavements for use of space for events, functions etc.

 

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

 

1-8,12-15,19,21,23,25-27,38-40,46-51

 

 

§  Provision of boat berthing facilities

 

Medium / Partially completed

1-8,12,20,21,23,26, 27,38-41,47,51

 

 

§  Repairs to Bolt Shop Wharf

 

§  Possible reinstatement of Ruby Steps

 

Low

 

Low

1-8, 12,13,15,20,21,23,26, 27,37-40,48, 51

 

1-8,20,21,23,25-27,38-41

 

 

 

 

§  Boardwalk to provide public access along shoreline

 

Low

 

1-8,20,21,23,25-27,38-41

 

Workshop Area

 

 

§  Develop public promenade space in the ‘street’ with maritime retail, cafes, restaurants or exhibition spaces

 

High / Ongoing

1-12,20,21,23,25-27,38-41,48-51

 

 

 

§  Potential removal of building 118 to reveal views to the Convict workshop building

 

Low

 

1-8,12,19,23,25-27,40,48, 51

 

 

§  Review retention or removal of Apprentice Training Centre over Building 138

 

Medium

1-8,11,12,23,25-27,29-35,38,39,40,49-51

 

 

§  Investigate creation of spaces on western side of Building 138 to reveal form of the original buildings and improve roof drainage

Medium / High

1-8,11,12,23,25-27,29-35,38,39,40,49-51

Southern Apron

Improved access

§  Provision of roll on / roll off ramp near Camber Wharf

 

 

§  Reinstatement of Camber Wharf and pontoon

 

 

§  Repair Timber Wharf

 

Completed

 

 

Completed

 

 

Completed

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27,40, 41,43-44,46

 

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27, 40,41,43-44,46

 

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27, 40,41,43-44,46

 

 

§  Corrosion repairs to Sutherland Wharf

 

§  Repair works to slipways

 

§  Possible new wharf on eastern corner

 

Medium

 

High / Low

 

Low

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27, 40,41,43-44,46

 

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27, 40,41,43-44,46

 

1-8,12,13,14,23,26,27, 40,41,43-44,46

Southern Apron

Improved Access

§  Establish route for vehicular access from slipways adjacent to Camber Wharf and slipways on the Northern Apron.

 

Completed

 

1-8,12-21,39,41-45,46-56

 

 

§  Repair and reinstatement of stairway to plateau

 

Completed

 

1-8,12-21,23,26-33,35,37-40,44

 

Improved Environmental Conditions

§  Apron surfaces to be repaired and resurfaced to allow for appropriate management of environmental impacts

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,11-17,19-21,23,25-33,38,39,40,42,46

 

Works to enable use/ leasing of buildings and services

§  Modification and adaptive reuse of workshop buildings

 

High / Ongoing

1-8,12,18-20,23,25-27,38-40,42-44,46

 

 

§  Provision of public toilets

 

Completed

1-8,12,20,21,23,26,27,38,

39,43,44,46

 

 

§  Investigate possible reuse of Dock/s

Medium / Partially completed

1-14,18,19,23,25-33,38-40,42,43-44,46

 

Improved interpretation of cultural heritage

§  Repair, conserve and interpret the Powerhouse as a working artefact

 

Medium

1-14,18,19,20,23,25-27,38- 40,42-45

Northern Apron

Improved Access

§  Upgrade Slipway No.2 to provide roll on roll off access

 

Low

 

1-8,10,12-15,18,19,23,25-27,38-41,53-56

 

 

§  Consolidate hardstand area between Slipway No. 1 and No. 2 to provide service access and cater for boat building activity

Low

1-8,10,12-15,18,19,23,25-27,38-41,53-56

 

 

§  Investigate repair of wharf to allow barge access

 

Low

1-8,10,12-15,18,19,23,25-27,38-41,53-56

 

 

§  Develop open area as passive public parkland

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,10,12-15,18,19,23,25-27,38-41,53-56

 

Improved Environmental Conditions

 

§  Investigate use of open space for waste water recycling

 

Completed

1-9,12-14,16,19,23,25-27

 

Improved interpretation of cultural heritage

§  Interpret the large scale of the ships built on No.1 slipway by installation of large sculpture or similar means.

 

Low

1-8,11-15,20,21,23,25-27, 39-41,53-56

Plateau

Improved Public Access

§  Cliff top walk

 

§  Development of convict trail interpretive paths

 

 

 

 

Completed

 

Completed

1-8,12-18,20,23,25-37

 

1-8,11-17,19,20,23,25-27,29-37,57

 

Improved interpretation of the cultural heritage

§  Preparation and presentation of interpretive material and signage in Convict Ruins (Building 1), Courtyard work areas and administrative area

 

High / Ongoing

1-8,12-14,18-20,23,25-37

 

 

§  Undertake Archaeological Research program

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-7,12-14,16-19,23,25-30,33,34,36,37,57

 

 

 

Building uses, adaptive reuse and building removal

 

§  Undertake conservation works to convict era buildings

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,11,12-17,19,23,29-34,36,37

 

 

§  Repair and conserve building fabric of houses

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

1-8,11,12-17,19,23,29-34,36,37

 

 

 

§  Repair and conserve building fabric of workshops

 

 

§  Repair Gardens

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

 

High / Partially completed / Ongoing

 

1-8,11,12-17,19,23,29-33,36,37,57

 

1-8,12-20,23-37

 

 


Title: Photograph of Building 23 - Description: Photograph of Building 23 (Launch Driver and Coxwain's Residence), Cockatoo Island 

 


 


Monitoring and Review of the Plan

 

The plan will be continually monitored to assess the effectiveness of the Plan in protecting and conserving the World, National and Commonwealth heritage values. This monitoring will utilise the following methods:

 

·         The condition of the tangible and intangible heritage values will be monitored annually. The assessment will be informed by the baseline condition determined by the CMPs. The assessment will identify any conservation works undertaken, repairs and maintenance, deterioration over time or any significant damage or threat to heritage values.

 

·         Intangible attributes of the values will also be monitored through assessment and evaluation of the Harbour Trust’s Interpretation Strategy and individual elements of that strategy.

 

·         Records of all Action proposals, associated decisions and reasons for decisions will be kept for reporting purposes. This will enable the Harbour Trust to determine how the Management Plan is being used by staff, tenants and contractors in decision making and will monitor the effectiveness of the assessment process.

 

·         The updating of the Harbour Trust’s Heritage Register will be an important part of the monitoring of the implementation of the Plan.

 

Review Process

 

A full review of the plan, in accordance with Sections 319, 324W and 341X of the EPBC Act 1999, as amended, will commence five years after it has been adopted. The review may be undertaken internally or using external consultants depending on the resources available at the time. All subsidiary plans will also be reviewed on a five-yearly basis or as outlined in the policies.

 

This review will mainly be focused on possible amendments associated with:

 

  • Any new research findings or information gained through community consultation;
  • Emergence of previously unforeseen management issues that impact on the heritage values of the place;
  • The result of the abovementioned monitoring programs, where they indicate that the policies contained in the plan do not achieve the stated management objectives; and
  • Any new policies recommended for improved protection of heritage values.

 

The plan will remain in force until such time as a new plan is adopted.



 

Title: Cover page - Chapter 10 - Description: Cover page - Chapter 10 - Images and Acknowledgements - Management Plan Cockatoo Island. Photograph of Eastern Apron, Cockatoo Island.12 IMAGES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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10. Images and Acknowledgements

 

Front Cover

Aerial Photograph of Cockatoo Island

Source: Sydney Harbour Federation Trust (2015)

 

Figure 3

Cockatoo Island, Parramatta River c.1843

Source: Rex Nan Kivell Collection, National Library of Australia. NK11146/2 U1428.

 

Figure 6

Biloela (Cockatoo Island) by B. E 1889.

Source: Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales. DL Pf101.

 

Figure 8

Section of Silo No. 5.

Source: Reproduced in J. S. Kerr Cockatoo Island: Penal and institutional remains, National Trust of Australia, Sydney, 1984.

 

Figure 9

View of labour yard showing stone quarry and stone dressed by prison labor, c.1890s.

Source: Department of Corrective Services.

 

Figure 10

1857 Plan of Cockatoo Island

Source: Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. ML M3 811.15 Cockatoo/1857/1

 

Figure 11

Gardening, HMNS Vernon boys on Cockatoo Island. [1870-1879]

Source: State Library of New South Wales. GPO 1-05167

 

 

 

Figure 12

Recreation ground belonging to N.S.S. (Nautical School Ship) Sobraon. 1898.

Source: State Library of New South Wales. GPO 1 – 12599

 

Figure 13

Main Walk from Military Officers’ Quarters. Offices on left hand side c.1890s.

Source: Department of Corrective Services.

 

Figure 14

Interior of Sewing Room No.1. c.1890s.

Source: Department of Corrective Services.

 

Figure 15

Cockatoo Island: H M S Galatea in dock, 1870.

Source: State Library of NSW. GPO 1 - 05320

 

Figure 16

Machine Shop: Cockatoo Island. [c.1860-1880].

Source: State Library of New South Wales. GPO 1 - 24668

 

Figure 17

Machine Shop Cockatoo Dockyard, 27 February 1914.

Source: J.C. Jeremy Collection.

 

Figure 18

Cockatoo Docks War Record 1939-1945, Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company, Sydney, 1950.

Source: SHFT Collection.

 

Figure 19

USS New Orleans, December 1942.

Source: J.C. Jeremy Collection.


 


Title: Photograph of disused machinery - Description: Photograph of disused machinery, Cockatoo Island
 



Figure 20

Dockyard apprentices assembled at Fitzroy Dock, 1947.

Source: SHFT Collection.

 

Figure 21

Drawing office at Cockatoo Dockyard. c.1945.

Source: J.C. Jeremy Collection.

 

Figure 22

Clean room where the telemotor and high pressure air components of Oberon class submarines were refitted.

Source: National Archives of Australia. M2680.

 

Figure 23

Launch of HMAS Success. March 1984.

Source: J.C. Jeremy Collection.

 

Figure 25

Land Bases for people and transfer of goods and services

Source: Map reproduced with permission of UBD.

Copyright Universal Publishers Pty. Ltd. DG 04/05

 

Figure 38

Possible Convict Trail on Plateau, 2005

Source: Nick Hollo.

 

Photographic Collages (Outcomes)

2002 - 2005, Contemporary scenes from Cockatoo Island.

Source: Ron Mason.

 

Oil Pastels by Nick Hollo 2003 - 2005

- Cockatoo Island from Dawn Fraser Pool, Balmain (Analysis and Assessment).

- Northern Apron from the Clifftop (Outcomes).

 

Other images throughout the Plan

Source: Sydney Harbour Federation Trust


 


Title: Cover page - Chapter 11 - Description: Cover page - Chapter 11 - Related Studies - Management Plan Cockatoo Island. Photograph of Crane with fireworks in background, Cockatoo Island.13 RELATED STUDIES

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11. Related Studies

 

Note: The following studies are available for viewing at the Harbour Trust Resource Centre. Contact the Harbour Trust on (02) 8969 2100 for further information. Extracts of the Conservation Management Plans (Historical Analysis and Conservation Policies) identified with an asterisk (*) can also be viewed through the Harbour Trust website www.harbourtrust.gov.au and Cockatoo Island website www.cockatooisland.gov.au

 

ANZECC, September 1999, Guidelines for the Assessment of On-site Containment of Contaminated Soil

 

ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000, Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Quality

 

Benbow Environmental, 2015, Noise Management Plan for Sydney Harbour Federation Trust – Cockatoo Island

 

Castrique, Sue, 2014, Under the Colony’s Eye

 

CH2MHill, 2007, Camber Wharf Validation

 

CH2MHill, 2007, Remedial Action Plan, Cockatoo Island, Zone B (Plateau Area) (Draft)

 

CH2MHill, 2007, Sampling, Analysis and Quality Plan, Zone B – Plateau Area, Cockatoo Island, (Draft)

 

CH2MHill, 2007, Cockatoo Island - Northern Apron NSW: validation plan: final

 

CH2MHill, 2010, Cockatoo Island - Northern Apron validation report: final 2010

 

Conybeare Morrison International Pty Ltd, 2004, Conservation Management Plans for Buildings 6, 12 & 13, Cockatoo Island, Volume 1 & 2

 

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2008) Australian Convict Sites – Strategic Management Framework

 

Dick Benbow & Associates Pty. Ltd, 2004, Land Use Planning Noise Survey – Cockatoo Island

 

GIS Environmental Consultants, 2003, Flora and Fauna Survey – Cockatoo Island

Godden Mackay Heritage Consultants, 1997, Conservation Management Plan – Cockatoo Island, Volume 1 Main Report, prepared for Department of Defence

 

Godden Mackay Heritage Consultants, 1997, Conservation Management Plan – Cockatoo Island, Volume 2 Inventory of Heritage Items, prepared for Department of Defence

 

*Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd, 2007, Conservation Management Plan – Cockatoo Island Dockyard Volumes 1-3

 

Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd, 2007, Conservation Management Plan – Cockatoo Island Powerhouse equipment and machinery

 

Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd and Government Architects’ Office, 2007, Cockatoo Island Archaeological Management Principles

 

*Government Architect’s Office, NSW Department of Commerce, 2009, Conservation Management Plan Cockatoo Island, Convict Buildings and Remains, Volume 1 - CMP

 

Government Architect’s Office, NSW Department of Commerce, 2009, Conservation Management Plan Cockatoo Island, Convict Buildings and Remains, Volume 2 – Inventory Sheets

 

Hibbs & Associates Pty Ltd, 2010, Remediation Strategy and Environmental Performance Standards, Fitzroy Dock Remediation Works, Cockatoo Island

 

Hibbs & Associates Pty Ltd, 2012, Hazardous Materials Survey, Scheme of Management, Cockatoo Island

 

HLA Envirosciences, 2005, Asbestos in Soils Investigation, Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour

 

HLA Envirosciences, 2005, Draft Soil Vapour and Groundwater Assessment - Pipe Laundry, Cockatoo Island

 

HLA Envirosciences, 2005, Draft Supplementary Soil Assessment - Zone B (Hill Area), Cockatoo Island

 

HLA Envirosciences, 2005, Groundwater and Surface Water Monitoring and Assessment, Cockatoo Island

 

Institute for Sustainable Futures, 2004, Sustainability on Cockatoo Island, Bringing Cockatoo Island Back To Life, Stage 1 Report

 

Jeremy, John 1998, Cockatoo Island – Sydney’s Historic Dockyard

 

Jeremy, John, 2004, To Build a Ship – The construction of HMAS Success at Cockatoo Island

 

Jeremy, John, 2005, Cockatoo Island – Sydney’s Historic Dockyard

 

Jeremy, John, 2005, Safe to Dive – Submarines at Cockatoo Island 1914-1991

 

Jeremy, John, 2013, The Island Shipyard – Shipbuilding at Cockatoo Island 1870-1987

 

Jeremy, John, 2013, Keeping the Ships at Sea

 

Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd, 2004, Cockatoo Island - Transport Management Plan

 

Parker, R. G, 1977, Cockatoo Island

 

Poshoglian, Yvette, 2013, Escape from Cockatoo Island

 

PPK Environment and Infrastructure, 2002, Site Services Survey – Cockatoo Island, Stages 2&3- Location of Services

 

Robertson & Hindmarsh Architects Pty Ltd, 2003, Conservation Management Plan - Building 10 Cockatoo Island Sydney Harbour

 

Robertson & Hindmarsh Architects Pty Ltd, 2003, Conservation Management Plan – Building 21 Cockatoo Island Sydney Harbour

 

Robertson & Hindmarsh Architects Pty Ltd, 2003, Conservation Management Plan – Building 23 Cockatoo Island Sydney Harbour

 

Robertson & Hindmarsh Architects Pty Ltd, 2003, Conservation Management Plan – Building 24 Cockatoo Island Sydney Harbour, Volumes 1 & 2

 

Semple Kerr, James, 1984, Cockatoo Island – Penal and Institutional Remains, prepared for the National Trust of Australia (NSW)

 

Semple Kerr, James & Jeremy, John, 2003, Cockatoo Island Sydney – A Thematic Presentation, prepared for the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust

 

Sinclair Knight Mertz Pty Ltd, 2003, Draft Summary Site Audit Report – Site Audit 43 Cockatoo Island, by Dr Ian Swaine for Sydney Harbour Federation Trust

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2007, Cockatoo Island Interpretation Strategy

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2010, The Story of Cockatoo Island

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2012, The Boys from Cockatoo – the Paintings and Drawings of Bill Nix

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2015, Harbour Trust Corporate Plan

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2016, Harbour Trust Events Policy

 

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust, 2016, Harbour Trust Event Support Policy

 

URS, 2002, Cockatoo Island, Completion Report, North East Apron Rehabilitation Works

 

URS, 2005, Remediation Action Plan, Northern Apron, Cockatoo Island, New South Wales

 

Woodward-Clyde & CMPS&F (formerly EGIS, now GHD), 1998, Cockatoo Island Environmental Characterisation Report, Volumes
1-5, prepared for Department of Defence


 

 


Title: Cover page - Chapter 12 - Description: Cover page - Chapter 12 - Appendices - Management Plan Cockatoo Island. Photograph of Eastern Apron, Cockatoo Island with Sydney Harbour Bridge in background. 


 14 APPENDICES

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12. Appendices

 


Appendix 1

Building numbers and their uses

 

Appendix 2

Landscape Studies

 

Appendix 3

Archaeological potential Convict Buildings and Remains

 

Appendix 4

Zones of Archaeological Potential Dockyards and Industrial Uses

 

Appendix 5

Schedule 5

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 – Regulation 10.01

 

Appendix 6

Combined Schedule 5A and 7A

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 – Regulation 10.01C and 10.03B

 

Appendix 7

Schedule 5B and 7B – Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 – Regulation 10.01E and 10.03D

 

Appendix 8

World Heritage Listing

 

Appendix 9

National Heritage Listing (including Summary Statement of Significance)

 

Appendix 10

Commonwealth Heritage Listings (including Summary Statement of Significance)


 

 


Title: Appendix 1: Plan showing building numbers and their uses - Description: Appendix 1: Plan showing building numbers and their uses 


Appendix 1: Building Numbers and their Uses

 

 


Title: Appendix 2: Plan showing Landscape studies - Description: Appendix 2: Plan showing Landscape studies 


Appendix 2: Landscape Studies

 

 

 


 

Appendix 3: Archaeological Potential – Convict Buildings and Remains

Title: Appendix 3: Plan showing areas of archaeological potentia - Description: Appendix 3: Plan showing areas of archaeological potential - convict buildings and remains 

 


Title: Appendix 4: Plan showing archaeological potential - Description: Appendix 4: Plan showing archaeological potential - dockyards and industrial uses 


Appendix 4: Zones of Archaeological Potential – Dockyards and Industrial Uses

 


 


Appendix 5

 

Schedule 5, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 – Regulation 10.01

 

Australian World Heritage Management Principles

 

A Management Plan for a World Heritage Place must not be inconsistent with the Australian World Heritage management principles

 

Relevant section of the Cockatoo Island Management Plan

1 General principles

 

1.01 The primary purpose of management of natural heritage and cultural heritage of a declared World Heritage property must be, in accordance with Australia's obligations under the World Heritage Convention, to identify, protect, conserve, present, transmit to future generations and, if appropriate, rehabilitate the World Heritage values of the property.

Aims of the Plan (Section 2)

1.02 The management should provide for public consultation on decisions and actions that may have a significant impact on the property.

Policies 1, 23 and 24

1.03 The management should make special provision, if appropriate, for the involvement in managing the property of people who:

Policies 1, 23 and 24

(a)     have a particular interest in the property; and

Policies 1, 23 and 24

(b)     may be affected by the management of the property.

Policies 1, 23 and 24

1.04 The management should provide for continuing community and technical input in managing the property.

Policies 1, 23 and 24

2 Management planning

 

2.01 At least 1 management plan should be prepared for each declared World Heritage property.

Introduction (Section 1)

2.02 A management plan for a declared World Heritage property should:

 

(a)     state the World Heritage values of the property for which it is prepared; and

Heritage Values (Section 7)

(b)     include adequate processes for public consultation on proposed elements of the plan; and

Policies 1, 23 and 24

(c)     state what must be done to ensure that the World Heritage values of the property are identified, conserved, protected, presented, transmitted to future generations and, if appropriate, rehabilitated; and

Introduction; Aims of the Plan; Planning Framework (Sections 1, 2 and 3); Policies 1, 2 and 3

(d)     state mechanisms to deal with the impacts of actions that  individually or cumulatively degrade, or threaten to degrade, the  World Heritage values of the property; and

Aims of the Plan; Planning Framework; Heritage Listings; Outcomes (Sections 2, 3, 7 and 8)

(e)     provide that management actions for values, that are not World Heritage values, are consistent with the management of the World Heritage values of the property; and

Introduction; Aims of the Plan; Planning Framework (Sections 1, 2 and 3); Policies 1, 2 and 3

(f)      promote the integration of Commonwealth, State or Territory and local government responsibilities for the property; and

Implementation (Section 9)

(g)     provide for continuing monitoring and reporting on the state of the World Heritage values of the property; and

Implementation (Section 9)

(h)     be reviewed at intervals of not more than 7 years.

Implementation (Section 9)

3 Environmental impact assessment and approval

 

3.01 This principle applies to the assessment of an action that is likely t  have a significant impact on the World Heritage values of a property (whether the action is to occur inside the property or not).

Planning Framework (Section 3)

3.02 Before the action is taken, the likely impact of the action on the World Heritage values of the property should be assessed under a statutory environmental impact assessment and approval process.

Planning Framework (Section 3)

3.03 The assessment process should:

 

(a)     identify the World Heritage values of the property that are likely to be affected by the action; and

Planning Framework (Section 3)

(b)     examine how the World Heritage values of the property might be affected; and

Planning Framework (Section 3)

(c)     provide for adequate opportunity for public consultation.

Policies 1, 23 and 24

3.04 An action should not be approved if it would be inconsistent with the protection, conservation, presentation or transmission to future generations of the World Heritage values of the property.

Planning Framework (Section 3)

3.05 Approval of the action should be subject to conditions that are necessary to ensure protection, conservation, presentation or transmission to future generations of the World Heritage values of the        property.

Planning Framework (Section 3)

3.06 The action should be monitored by the authority responsible for giving the approval (or another appropriate authority) and, if necessary, enforcement action should be taken to ensure compliance with the  onditions of the approval.

Implementation (Section 9)

 

 

 


 

Appendix 6

 

Combined Schedule 5A and 7A, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 – Regulations 10.01C and 10.03B

 

Management Plans for National and Commonwealth Heritage Places

 

A Management Plan for a National and Commonwealth Heritage Place must:

 

Relevant section of the Cockatoo Island Management Plan

 

(a)     establish objectives for the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission of the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of the place; and

 

Aims of the plan (Section 2)

 

Policy 1

(b)     provide a management framework that includes reference to any statutory requirements and agency mechanisms for the protection of the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of the place; and

 

Introduction; Aims of the plan; Planning Framework  (Sections 1, 2, 3)

 

Policies 1, 2, 3

(c)     provide a comprehensive description of the place, including information about its location, physical features, condition, historical context and current uses; and

Site Description  (Section 4)

Analysis and Assessment  (Section 6)

(d)     provide a description of the National and Commonwealth Heritage values and any other heritage values of the place; and

Heritage values  (Section 7)

(e)     describe the condition of the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of the place; and

 

Condition of National and Commonwealth Heritage Values

(Section 7)

(f)      describe the method used to assess the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of the place; and

Conservation Management Plans

(Section 6)

(g)     describe the current management requirements and goals including proposals for change and any potential pressures on the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of the place; and

Aims of the plan (Section 2)

Planning Framework (Section 3)

Heritage Listings (Section 7)

Outcomes (Section 8)

(h)     have policies to manage the National and Commonwealth Heritage values of a place, and include in those policies, guidance in relation to the following:

 

Conservation Policies  (Section 7)

                                 i.            the management and conservation processes to be used;

Policies 1-13, 16-19, 23, 24

                                ii.            the access and security arrangements, including access to the area for indigenous people to maintain cultural traditions;

Polices 20,21,22

 

                              iii.            the stakeholder and community consultation and liaison arrangements;

Policies 23, 24

                              iv.            the policies and protocols to ensure that indigenous people participate in the management process;

Policy 24

 

                                v.            the protocols for the management of sensitive information;

n/a

 

                              vi.            the planning and management of works, development, adaptive reuse and property divestment proposals;

Policies 4-12, 18, 19, 20-57

 

                             vii.            how unforeseen discoveries or disturbances of heritage are to be managed;

Policy 16

                           viii.            how, and under what circumstances, heritage advice is to be obtained;

Policies 4, 5, 12

                              ix.            how the condition of the National and Commonwealth Heritage values is to be monitored and reported;

Monitoring and Review of the plan

(Section 9)

Policies 12, 17, 27 & 28

                                x.            how records of intervention and maintenance of a heritage places register are kept;

Policies 17, 27 & 28

                              xi.            the research, training and resources needed to improve management;

Policy 26

                             xii.            how heritage values are to be interpreted and promoted; and

Interpretation  (Section 8)

Policies 9, 10, 13- 15, 25, 33-57.

(i)       include an implementation plan; and

Implementation table  (Section 9)

(j)       show how the implementation of policies will be monitored; and

 

Monitoring and Review of the Plan (Section 9)

Policies 27 and 28

(k)     show how the management plan will be reviewed.

 

Monitoring and Review of the Plan (Section 9)

 

 

 


Appendix 7

 

Schedule 5B and 7B, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000

Regulations 10.01E and 10.03D

 

Management Principles for National and Commonwealth Heritage Places

 

National and Commonwealth Heritage management principle

Issues to consider in the evaluation of management plans

 

 

1.       The objective in managing National and Commonwealth Heritage places is to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit, to all generations, their National and Commonwealth Heritage values.

Aims of the plan  (Section 2)

2.       The management of National and Commonwealth Heritage places should use the best available knowledge, skills and standards for those places, and include ongoing technical and community input to decisions and actions that may have a significant impact on their National or Commonwealth Heritage values.

Policies 4, 5, 23, 24, 26

 

 

3.       The management of National and Commonwealth Heritage places should respect all heritage values of the place and seek to integrate, where appropriate, any Commonwealth, State, Territory and local government responsibilities for those places.

Aims of the plan  (Section 2)

Planning framework  (Section 3)

4.       The management of National and Commonwealth Heritage places should ensure that their use and presentation is consistent with the conservation of their National and Commonwealth Heritage values.

Aims of the plan  (Section 2)

Policies 1, 2

5.       The management of National and Commonwealth Heritage places should make timely and appropriate provision for community involvement, especially by people who:

(a)     have a particular interest in, or associations with, the place; and

(b)     may be affected by the management of the place.

Policy 23 & 24

 

 

 

 

National and Commonwealth Heritage management principle

Issues to consider in the evaluation of management plans

 

 

6.       Indigenous people are the primary source of information on the value of their heritage. The active participation of Indigenous people in identification, assessment and management is integral to the effective protection of Indigenous heritage values.

Policy 24

 

7.       The management of National and Commonwealth Heritage places should provide for regular monitoring, review and reporting on the conservation of National and Commonwealth Heritage Values.

Monitoring and Review of the plan  (Section 9)


 

 

Appendix 8

 


World Heritage Listing

 

List:                                                              World Heritage List

Class:                                                           Historic

Legal Status:                                             Listed place

Place ID:                                                     1306-010

 

Outstanding Universal Value

 

Brief synthesis

 

The property consists of eleven complementary sites. It constitutes an outstanding and large-scale example of the forced migration of convicts, who were condemned to transportation to distant colonies of the British Empire; the same method was also used by other colonial states.

 

The sites illustrate the different types of convict settlement organized to serve the colonial development project by means of buildings, ports, infrastructure, the extraction of resources, etc. They illustrate the living conditions of the convicts, who were condemned to transportation far from their homes, deprived of freedom, and subjected to forced labour.

 

This transportation and associated forced labour was implemented on a large scale, both for criminals and for people convicted for relatively minor offences, as well as for expressing certain opinions or being political opponents. The penalty of transportation to Australia also applied to women and children from the age of nine. The convict stations are testimony to a legal form of punishment that dominated in the 18th and 19th centuries in the large European colonial states, at the same time as and after the abolition of slavery.

 

The property shows the various forms that the convict settlements took, closely reflecting the discussions and beliefs about the punishment of crime in 18th and 19th century Europe, both in terms of its exemplarity and the harshness of the punishment used as a deterrent, and of the aim of social rehabilitation through labour and discipline. They influenced the emergence of a penal model in Europe and America.

 

Within the colonial system established in Australia, the convict settlements simultaneously led to the Aboriginal population being forced back into the less fertile hinterland, and to the creation of a significant source of population of European origin.

 

Criterion (iv): The Australian convict sites constitute an outstanding example of the way in which conventional forced labour and national prison systems were transformed, in major European nations in the 18th and 19th centuries, into a system of deportation and forced labour forming part of the British Empire’s vast colonial project. They illustrate the variety of the creation of penal colonies to serve the many material needs created by the development of a new territory. They bear witness to a penitentiary system which had many objectives, ranging from severe punishment used as a deterrent to forced labour for men, women and children, and the rehabilitation of the convicts through labour and discipline.

 

Criterion (vi): The transportation of criminals, delinquents, and political prisoners to colonial lands by the great nation states between the 18th and 20th centuries is an important aspect of human history, especially with regard to its penal, political and colonial dimensions. The Australian convict settlements provide a particularly complete example of this history and the associated symbolic values derived from discussions in modern and contemporary European society. They illustrate an active phase in the occupation of colonial lands to the detriment of the Aboriginal peoples, and the process of creating a colonial population of European origin through the dialectic of punishment and transportation followed by forced labour and social rehabilitation to the eventual social integration of convicts as settlers.

 

 

 

Integrity and authenticity

 

The structural and landscape integrity of the property varies depending on the site, and on the type of evidence considered. It has been affected by local history, at times marked by reuse or lengthy periods of abandonment. The integrity varies between well preserved groups and others where it might be described as fragmentary. Apart from certain visual perspectives in urban settings, the level of the property’s integrity is well controlled by the site management plans.

 

Despite the inevitable complexity of a nomination made up of a series of eleven separate sites with more than 200 elements that convey the value of the property, the authenticity of the vast majority of them is good.

 

Protection and management requirements

 

All the sites forming the property are inscribed on the National Heritage List. They are also protected by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

 

 

 

 

There is no direct major threat to the sites forming the serial property.

 

The general protection and management of the property are satisfactory. Conservation is articulated around a positive dynamic driven by the application of the conservation plans at each of the sites. The Brickendon and Woolmers Estate domains are an exception, and require ongoing assistance, both in terms of protection and conservation.

 

The management systems of the sites forming the property are appropriate, and they are adequately coordinated by the Strategic Management Framework for the property and its Steering Committee. For the sites involving the participation of private stakeholders for visitor reception, improved interpretation is however necessary; that includes the common objectives outlined in the Strategic Management Framework. It is also important to consider visitor reception facilities and their development in a way which respects the landscape conservation of the sites.


 

 

 


 

 

Appendix 9

 

National Heritage Listing

 

List:                                                              National Heritage List

Class:                                                           Historic

Legal Status:                                             Listed place (01/08/2007)

Place ID:                                                     105928

Place File No:                                           1/12/022/0089

 

Summary Statement of Significance:

Cockatoo Island is highly significant for its associations with convicts and the nature and extent of its remains demonstrate the principal characteristics of a dual use convict site where incarceration is combined with hard labour.

 

Cockatoo Island operated as a penal establishment from 1839-69, primarily as a place of secondary punishment for convicts who had reoffended in the colonies. Convicts sent to Cockatoo Island were subject to harsh living and working conditions and the place is outstanding as a site of severe punishment and labour. The main form of hard labour on the Island was quarrying, labouring and construction. Convicts excavated 580 000 cubic feet of rock creating 45 feet (14 metre) sandstone cliffs to prepare an area to construct a dock. The Fitzroy Dock was constructed between 1839-1847 and is the only remaining dry dock in Australia built using convict and prisoner labour. Fitzroy Dock was strategically situated on Cockatoo Island to provide services to the Royal Navy which at that time had no depot in the South Pacific.

 

Convicts also constructed impressive underground silos to store wheat. These were hand hewn in rock and averaged 19 feet (5.8 metres) deep and 20 feet (6 metres) in diameter. The silos were built in response to the severe drought of 1837-39 and were part of a strategy to reduce the colony’s reliance on infrequent grain shipments.

 

Cockatoo Island contains an extensive suite of extant buildings and fabric related to the administration, incarceration and working conditions of convicts and has considerable potential to contribute to our understanding of the operation of a convict industrial site.

 

Cockatoo Island is also important to the nation as a pre and post Federation shipbuilding complex. It operated for 134 years between 1857 and1991. It was Australia’s primary shipbuilding facility for much of this time and contributed significantly to Australia’s naval and maritime history. It was Australia’s first naval dockyard for the Royal Australian Navy (1913-21) and continued to support and build ships for the Navy through two World Wars, Korea and Vietnam. It retains extensive fabric associated with ship building (including the Fitzroy and Sutherland docks). The place demonstrates the principal characteristics of a long running dockyard and ship building complex including evidence of key functions, structures and operational layout. Cockatoo Island contains the nation’s most extensive and varied record of shipbuilding and has the potential to enhance our understanding of maritime and heavy industrial processes in Australia from the mid nineteenth century.

 

Official Values:

 

Criterion A: Events, Processes

Cockatoo Island is a convict industrial settlement and pre and post-federation shipbuilding complex. It is important in the course of Australia’s cultural history for its use as a place of convict hard labour, secondary punishment and for public works, namely its history and contributions to the nation as a dockyard.

 

Fitzroy Dock is outstanding as the only remaining dry dock built using convict and prisoner labour and it is one of the largest convict-era public works surviving in Sydney. The dock was the earliest graving dock commenced in Australia and was one of the largest engineering projects completed in Australia to that time. Convicts excavated 580,000 cubic feet of rock creating 45 foot (14 metre) sandstone cliffs that extended around the site just to prepare the area for the dock, a huge technical achievement in itself.

 

The dockyard’s lengthy 134 years of operation and its significance during both world wars, and in Australia’s naval development and service as the Commonwealth dockyard all contribute to its outstanding value to the nation. It is the only surviving example of a 19th century dockyard in Australia to retain some of the original service buildings including the pump house and machine shop. The powerhouse, constructed in 1918, contains the most extensive collection of early Australian electrical, hydraulic power and pumping equipment in Australia.

 

The surviving fabric related to convict administration includes the prisoners' barracks, hospital, mess hall, military guard and officers' room, free overseers' quarters and the superintendent’s cottage. Evidence of convict hard labour includes the sandstone buildings, quarried cliffs, the underground silos and the Fitzroy Dock.

 

Cockatoo Island’s dockyard, through its contribution to Australia’s naval and maritime history, demonstrates outstanding significance to the nation. Fitzroy Dock is the oldest surviving dry dock in Australia operating continuously for over 134 years (1857-1991). The dockyard has direct associations with the convict era, Australia’s naval relationship with its allies (particularly Britain during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) and Australia’s naval development, especially during the First and Second World Wars. Cockatoo Island’s development into Australia’s primary shipbuilding facility and Australia’s first Naval Dockyard for the RAN (1913-21) further demonstrates its outstanding importance in the course of Australia’s history.

 

Criterion: C Research

There has been considerable archaeological investigation on Cockatoo Island by the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust. This has indicated that it has significant research potential in terms of enhancing the knowledge of the operation of a convict industrial site and a long running dockyard.

 

The surviving archaeological elements of now demolished or obscured structures and functions of the dockyard, in particular the remains of docks, equipment, warehouse and industrial buildings and a range of cranes, wharves, slipways and jetties, have potential to illustrate and reveal the materials, construction techniques and technical skills employed in the construction of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities that are no longer available through other sources in Australia. The archaeological resources also have importance in demonstrating changes to maritime and heavy industrial processes and activities in Australia from the mid-nineteenth century.

 

The dockyard contains the earliest, most extensive and most varied record of shipbuilding, both commercial and naval, in Australia. This is supported by extensive documentary evidence in the National Archives.

 

Criterion: D Principal characteristics of a class of places

Cockatoo Island represents some of the principal characteristics of Australian convict sites including: hard labour as a means of punishment and deterrence to the British 'criminal class'; use of convict labour for the establishment of the colony through public works; and secondary punishment for re-offending convicts.

 

Cockatoo Island is of outstanding importance to the nation as a site of severe punishment. The level of severity is expressed through the policy to extend convicts with 'no indulgence beyond the strict Government ration'. The fundamental purpose of Cockatoo Island was to be the worst possible place imaginable and the ultimate deterrent and is a fine example as a symbol of the harsh treatment used to deter the 'criminal class' in Britain. Fitzroy Dock and its associated excavation and buildings are outstanding examples of the use of convict and prisoner labour for public works. The underground silos, remaining evidence from quarrying and the group of convict built structures on the island are also a testament to public works undertaken by the convicts. Although convicts under various sentences ended up at Cockatoo Island, it was established specifically as, and primarily was a place of secondary punishment for re-offending convicts.

 

Cockatoo Island critically represents the principal characteristics of a dual use convict site, one that both incarcerates convicts and provides them with hard labour.

 

The values expressed at Cockatoo Island are important for their ability to demonstrate the function, planning layout and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of an imperial convict public works establishment of the 1840s; and the functions, planning layout and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of a range of structures and facilities associated with the development and processes of the dockyard and shipbuilding industry over a period of 134 years. 

 

Description:

In its original state it was 12.9 hectares in size, however it has been expanded to 17.9 hectares through cutting, filling and reclamation. Almost all of the original vegetation of the island has been removed, and the current vegetation includes plants growing on the quarried cliff faces and planting of exotic species in the garden areas. Its landscape is articulated by man made cliffs, stone walls and steps, docks, cranes, slipways and built forms (GAO CMP:2005:p2).

 

Cockatoo Island consists of a sandstone plateau up to 79 feet (24 metres) above water level that has been gradually reduced from its original extent by quarrying for sandstone building blocks and excavation for docks and buildings. Spoil from these activities over time has been used to help create the surrounding flat apron areas.

 

The plateau area can be divided into three main areas dictated by the convict era layout. The western end comprises the prisoners barracks and hospital (1839-42) form three sides of an open courtyard with the mess hall (1847-51) comprising the fourth side. West of the barracks a formal lawn encloses the roofless military guard house (1842), and the military officers’ quarters (1845-57).

 

The central part has the two Free Overseers Quarters and evidence of the Prison Quarry area. The latter has been built over by a group of six large dockyard buildings. The Electrical shop is built in the area excavated for the water cisterns. These large buildings plus two concrete elevated water tanks are part of the island’s distinctive silhouette.

 

The eastern end of the plateau is the residential area comprising the remaining convict era structures; the Superintendent’s residence substantially enlarged in 1860, and the Clerk of Petty Sessions residence adjacent to Biloela house. A second free overseers quarters was converted to an air raid shelter in 1942. The rock hewn silos are visible only as covers at ground level and two half silos are exposed from prior quarrying. The symmetrical silos are bottle shaped, and an incision on the surface of the rock indicates the diameter of the silo below ground, averaging 19 feet (5.8 metres) deep and 20 feet (6 metres) in diameter. Additions were made to three Federation style residences constructed by the dockyard in 1915-16.

 

The lower part of the island, which surrounds the central area, has been mostly levelled and developed for dockyard purposes and still accommodates over 80 industrial buildings, concrete pads from demolished buildings, cranes, dry docks and wharf related structures. Many buildings and wharves were demolished after the closure of the dockyard, and this has resulted in large open areas on the northern and eastern foreshores. A detailed description of the remaining buildings, machinery and equipment associated with the dockyard can be found in the Godden Mackay Logan Conservation Management Plan, February 2006.

 

The apron areas beneath the plateau can also be divided into distinct precincts.

 

The southern area with the two docks Fitzroy Dock and Sutherland Dock:

 

Fitzroy Dock is an excavated dry dock 472 feet (144 metres) in length and maximum beam of vessel which could be docked is 49 feet (14.8 metres). Its sides are lined and stepped with sandstone masonry blocks to facilitate shoring of ships and access to ships for maintenance and repair. The dock can be pumped out by the electrical pumping plant located in the Powerhouse building and is connected to the pump wells by a deep conduit alongside the Sutherland Dock. Twelve of the original 15 gun barrel bollards remain in place (three are held in storage). The present caisson was completed by the dockyard in July 1932.

 

The Sutherland Dock is an excavated dry dock lined with bluestone concrete blocks (partly replaced by new concrete in the late 20th century). The dock is 686 feet (209 metres) long when the caisson is in the inner fit, 89 feet (27 metres) in breadth and the depth of the water over the sill at high tide is 32 feet (9.75 metres). The lower altars are bluestone concrete, the broad altars and copings are granite and the upper altars sandstone ashlar. A sliding steel caisson was installed in 1975 to replace the original wrought iron caisson.

 

The eastern area with the large group of interconnected sheds abutting the convict built Steam Workshop built at the same time to support the Fitzroy Dock. The northern part of this apron has had its buildings demolished (1991) except for the Administration Building adjacent to the Parramatta wharf to the main point of entry to the island.

 

The northern apron is also devoid of its main buildings and is now a grassed area ending in the two concrete slipways. At the western end of the island is the brick Powerhouse with its landmark brick chimney.

 

History:

Unless otherwise specified, the history is sourced from the Godden Mackay Logan and Government Architects Office CMPs, 2006.

 

In the early 1820s convict assignment was increased to provide cheap labour to free settlers and to relieve the burden on the British Treasury. For those who continued to offend, or whose crimes were such that they could not be assigned, life was often much harder. A report from Governor Bourke in 1837 on the overcrowded secondary punishment penal establishment at Norfolk Island stated the system of convict management produced ‘no real reformation of heart’. This resulted in passing of ‘An Act for the Conditional remission of Sentences of Convict transported to Norfolk Island and Moreton Bay and to enforce the conditions thereof’ (The Public General Statutes of New South Wales: 1838-46). The Act substituting hard labour for transportation to a place of secondary punishment was introduced in June 1838. Secondary offenders ‘of good conduct’ who had been sentenced by the colonial courts to Norfolk Island or Moreton Bay could earn conditional remission of parts of their sentences by working in irons on the roads or other public works. The Act made labour available for public works where it was most needed, and remitting sentences reduced costs by removing men from the convict system early. In a climate of changing views about the object of punishment, it also provided a rather different opportunity for prisoner reform (2005 CMP: 2005:16). Cockatoo Island was selected by Governor George Gipps as the ideal location for a place of hard labour; isolated, easy to provision and secure, but not distant and so was ‘under the very eye of authority’.

 

Convict settlement of Cockatoo Island 1839 - 1841

 

In February 1839, under direction of Governor Sir George Gipps, an initial contingent of sixty commuted prisoners from Norfolk Island was sent to Cockatoo under military escort. The initial establishment was a convict stockade, worked by men in irons, with ‘no indulgence beyond the strict Government ration’ to construct the convict establishment. By May, convict numbers had increased to 167. The island had ample supply of sandstone for quarrying and more permanent prisoners barracks commenced. Convicts constructed a wharf to receive essential supplies of goods and provisions, extensive terraced gardens and walling and with no fresh source of water, cut water tanks in the rock above the escarpment. In response to drought, fluctuating wheat prices and infrequent shipments of grain to the colony, Governor Gipps ordered convicts to excavate up to 20 grain silos by hand in solid rock to store grain for future use in the colony. This was later (1841) seen by British Government as an interference with free market forces and all grain was ordered to be sold.

 

In 1840 transportation to New South Wales was suspended, but it was to be many years before all its convicts ceased to be a burden on the British Treasury. The majority of those who had been transported to New South Wales were assigned, or had tickets of leave, but there remained about 5 000 prisoners who were still under punishment, or who through illness or disability were still maintained by the government.

 

Governor Gipps responded to the considerable pressure for convict accommodation by gazetting Cockatoo Island in 1841 as a place for the reception of male offenders under sentence of transportation (GAO CMP p4(2.1.6)). Transportation to New South Wales had ended, but the worst offenders were now housed much closer to the heart of the colony.

 

The second building phase – 1841-44

 

With an increasing workforce, the second phase of building construction included permanent accommodation for the military guard and a combined guard house and barracks for 56 soldiers. Two cells under the cookhouse and a range of twelve solitary cells was completed in 1843. The cells were excavated out of solid rock and accessed by ladder through a trap door from above. By 1844 all of the major penal buildings on Cockatoo Island were complete.

 

In 1842 there were 342 prisoners on the island. With accommodation already overcrowded it was difficult to carry out the only form of classification that had been ordered by the Governor, to keep the Norfolk Island men separate from those who had been sentenced to transportation (State Records NSW in GAO CMP 2005: p20).

 

The numbers decrease, and increase

 

Captain Alexander Maconochie’s social experiment in penal reform on Norfolk Island meant that it solely received prisoners newly arrived from Britain. Those convicted in New South Wales of transportable offences were sent to Cockatoo Island. The experiment was abandoned in 1844 and all doubly convicted prisoners under sentence of transportation on Cockatoo Island were sent to Norfolk Island. As the remaining convict population of the colony decreased rapidly in the 1840s, the population on Cockatoo Island did likewise, to 85 by 1847. By this time there were no prisoners trustworthy enough to serve as overseers, an integral part of the system. In total, about 1 440 prisoners had been brought to Cockatoo Island from Norfolk Island, the majority of whom had their sentences commuted. Their conduct, Governor Gipps reported, ‘both on the Island and after their release from it, has been such as fully to vindicate the Act, indeed to prove in a remarkable degree the policy no less than the mercy of it.’ (GOA CMP: 2005:21).

 

In October 1847 Earl Grey sent instructions for as many prisoners as possible to be given tickets of leave or conditional pardons, to relieve the government of the expense of their upkeep. Those who could not be released on such terms would be sent to Van Diemen’s Land. Once again, insufficient accommodation for this in Van Diemen’s Land resulted in the use of Cockatoo Island. Norfolk Island would be used for convicts still serving their original sentences and requiring strict coercion, while secondary offenders and those sentenced to punishment, deprived of their tickets of leave or returned from private service, would be placed on Cockatoo Island (2005 CMP: 21).

 

As Cockatoo Island changed from a British penal establishment to a colonial one, the number of civil officers employed in its administration increased. From 1839 to 1847 the island was run by the Superintendent and his assistant, with security maintained by the military guard and prison labour under the Engineer’s Department. All other tasks necessary to run the penal establishment, including the supervision of labour, were carried out by prisoners (2005 CMP: 26).

 

A dry dock to serve the British Navy

 

As the population of the colony grew; Governor Gipps among others hoped that Port Jackson might become a naval station for the British Fleet. Cockatoo Island was a sheltered, easily accessible but safe and defensible location surrounded by deep water with a workforce that had been sentenced to hard labour, and identified by Governor Gipps as a the best place in Sydney Harbour for a naval establishment (GAO CMP:2005:p22). Although not sanctioned until 1847, Governor Gipps directed convicts to begin clearing and preparing the island for construction of a dry dock in 1845 (Birmingham: 1984: 20). Convicts removed large sandstone rock cliffs with an average height of 45 feet (15 metres), just to clear a level space large enough to accommodate the dock. Construction of the dock commenced in 1851 (Parker: 1977:13). As a distant and remote British settlement, shipping was a vital lifeline for the Australian colonies. The construction of a dry dock within the harbour of Port Jackson ‘would be of great and permanent advantage to the Colony’ and would be built using prisoner labour (2005 CMP: 22). The Royal Navy contributed to the cost of the dock on the condition the Royal Navy ships had preferential use rights (Jeremy: 1998:19). Gother Kerr Mann was responsible for the design and construction of the dockyard. Work on the dock progressed more slowly than anticipated, with a largely unskilled, and often unwilling prisoner workforce. A strong demand for labour in the Colony following the gold rush, combined with Cockatoo Island’s penal status meant that free labour was not an option. The Resident Engineer, under pressure to have the dock completed promptly so it could receive vessels, pushed the prisoners hard, but some refused to work after hours. Alongside the dry dock were engine houses, a police barracks, offices a chapel and a mess room. The dock was finally completed in 1857 and the first ship to use the dock was the survey frigate HMS Herald, which docked on 1 December 1857 (Jeremy: 1998:p9). Of equal importance with the dock were its pumps, the machinery for ship repairs and the workshops in which to the house them. By c 1858-59 the engine house and six bays of workshops had been completed (2005 CMP: 26). As soon as the dry dock was finished there were plans to extend it and by 1858 the work was under way. Like the original dock, this took a long time as more of the adjacent cliff had to be excavated.

 

Overcrowding in the penal establishment became a regular problem and by 1861 around 500 convicts were held in accommodation built for no more than 328 (Kerr: 1984:26). Overcrowded wards and lack of supervision also lead to physical suffering through lack of fresh air and practices ‘grossly obscene’ between the male prisoners (Kerr: 1984:26).

 

Dual use – Public Works and Social Institutions

 

The period from 1869 saw the administration of the prison and dockyard split. The land above the escarpment remained in institutional use under the newly appointed NSW Department of Prisons and the foreshores became dedicated to dockyard use under the Public Works Department.

 

Disturbing reports concerning the harsh treatment of prisoners had caused considerable public concern for years and in 1869 the penal settlement was disbanded and prisoners were transferred to Darlinghurst. The name was changed to ‘Biloela’ (Aboriginal for cockatoo) in order to try to present a new image.

 

From 1871 to 1888 the prison barracks became an industrial school for girls and a separate reformatory for girls under 16 convicted of a crime (Kerr: 1984:9). In 1871 the wooden sailing ship, the NSS Vernon moored at Cockatoo Island for the training of delinquent, homeless or orphaned boys in seamanship. An initiative of Henry Parkes, the ship was administered by the Department of Education and housed up to 500 students (Kerr: 1984:9). The boys were given an area on the island for recreation with swimming bathes and a vegetable garden to tend (Parker: 1977:8). The dilapidated Vernon was replaced in 1891 by the NSS Sobraon which remained until 1911. Although kept separate from the dock, later the more trustworthy students were given trade training in some of the dockyard workshops on ship building and repairs (Parker:1977: 8). The girls reformatory was relocated to Watson’s Bay in 1879 and the industrial school for girls closed in early 1888.

 

By the time the last extension of the Fitzroy Dock was completed in 1880, the NSW Parliament, keen to see Australia capable of serving bigger vessels in the Royal Navy, decided to build a new dock (GML CMP:2006:2). Construction of the Sutherland Dock commenced in 1882 and was completed in 1890. It was built by free labour under the guidance of a young engineer, Louis Samuel, who died in 1887 at the age of 26. The work was completed under the supervision of his younger brother Edward. The new dock was a spectacular sight. It was a significant engineering achievement designed to be one of the most advanced docking facilities in the southern hemisphere and is reported to have been able to accommodate the largest ships then in service in the world (Jeremy:2006:1). In an official NSW Government publication in 1886, the Sutherland Dock is referred to: ‘The dock is the largest single graving dock yet constructed, and will be capable of receiving the largest vessel afloat’ (Docks, Slips and Engineering Establishments of Port Jackson:p5).

 

With closure of the prison, departure of the school ship and increased international shipping, the shipbuilding, ship repair and engineering activities expanded rapidly and dockyard facilities spread over the whole island. The dockyard at Cockatoo Island was the only one in Australian which was big enough to accommodate (after modification) the flagship of the new Australian Navy, the battle cruiser HMAS Australia. The preoccupation with keeping the Royal Navy engaged with the Colonies port facilities would continue into the new century.

 

Return to a gaol 1888-1909

 

Overcrowding elsewhere in the colony forced the return of prisoners to Cockatoo Island on 8 June 1888 (Kerr: 1984:11). ‘Biloela gaol’ was a temporary establishment to hold habitual petty offenders, vagrants and prostitutes. Although considered ‘unsuitable’ and ‘temporary’ they were to remain in penal use for a further 20 years (Kerr: 1984:26). Men were accommodated in convict barracks and females housed in buildings in the lumber yard. By 1889, Biloela housed 85 male and 106 female prisoners, with approximately two thirds in some form of employment. By 1896 Biloela could claim to be the oldest establishment reformatory in Australasia, with 560 prisoners.

 

Following Federation in 1901 the name returned back to and has since remained Cockatoo Island (Parker: 1977:5). The male prison section was closed in 1906 and prisoners were transferred to the new Long Bay Gaol. In 1909 female prisoners were similarly relocated to Long Bay. NSS Sobraon was relocated in 1911 by the Commonwealth Government for use as a naval training ship and the boys were moved to a boy’s farm at Gosford (Parker: 1977:5).

 

Between 1904 and 1908 extensions were made to the shops and yard plant, new slipways were built, and cranes and other machinery were acquired. The formation of the Australian Navy (the RAN from 1911) opened the way for local construction of warships. The first RAN warship built at Cockatoo Island was the destroyer HMAS Warrego, completed in 1912. Warrego was built in pieces in Scotland and re-assembled in Sydney.

 

Commonwealth-owned Dockyard

 

In 1913, the Commonwealth Government purchased Cockatoo Island for the building of major naval vessels as well as for ship repair (Balint et al: 1982:47). It was the first Naval Dockyard for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and continued to support and build and service ships for the Navy for some 80 years through two World wars, Korea and Vietnam. In 1928, the Commonwealth Shipping Act 1923 stated that ‘where possible, all repairs, construction etc. of Commonwealth vessels to be at Cockatoo Island’ (Balint et al: 1982:49). The first steel warship to be wholly built in Australia, HMAS Huon, was completed on the island in 1916. Cockatoo dockyard also built the first steel ship ever built in Australia, the tug Hinton, in 1886, assembled from imported components.

 

The period from 1910-19 saw the greatest expansion of the facilities on Cockatoo Island since construction of the docks. Prior to World War One 800-900 men were employed on Cockatoo Island, by the end of the war this had increased to a maximum of 4 085 in December 1919 (Jeremy:1998: p250). In 1918 a large powerhouse and chimney was built to provide electricity to the island. The building housed steam-turbine generating plant, the dock pumping machinery and hydraulic pumps and air compressors for dockyard services.

 

With the outbreak of World War Two development of the dockyard increased dramatically. From 1933 the dockyard was leased from the Commonwealth by Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Co Ltd and during World War Two the workforce, which reached an average of 3 043 in 1942, was employed on the island fitting out troop ships, building naval vessels and repairing allied warships (Birmingham: 1984:p11,12). After the war the lessee company became a member of the world-wide Vickers Group and dockyard undertook a continuing program of re-converting ships for commercial service, modernising warships and constructing warships for the RAN, including the construction of the first all-welded warships to be built in Australia. Cockatoo Island dockyard also built the propulsion machinery for most of these ships. Cockatoo Dockyard was the largest steam turbine builder and repairer in Australia, servicing turbines for ships, power plants, sugar mills, oil refineries and other industries throughout Australia.

 

For over a hundred years, since the late 19th century, Cockatoo Dockyard contributed to the development of Australia by producing products for power stations, bridges, dams, ports, mines and major projects including the Snowy Mountains Scheme. From 1960 to 1991 the dockyard undertook a long program of submarine refitting for which special facilities were built in 1969-71. For the last 20 years of operation the refit and maintenance of the RAN’s Oberon-class submarines was the main role of the dockyard during which time it had one of the most advanced (non-nuclear) submarine refit facilities in the world.

 

In its 137 year history, Cockatoo Dockyard docked or slipped some 12 000 vessels, more than any other dockyard in Australia, it built Australia’s first modern warship and the largest (at the time) roll on/roll off passenger ship in the world. Cockatoo Dockyard introduced the first formal quality control system in any Australian dockyard and trained many thousands of young Australians through the dockyard apprentice training scheme. The combination of such a wide range of work in one establishment reflects the strength of the position of Cockatoo Dockyard in the heavy engineering industry of the day.

 

In the run-down prior to closure of the dockyard at the end of 1992, most Commonwealth and company assets were sold, a number of buildings were sold and demolished for scrap, and the docks flooded. Sale of the island was proposed. ‘Friends of Cockatoo Island’ a group of mainly ex dockyard employees fought the sale and the island became vested in the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust (SHFT).

 

Condition and Integrity:

Cockatoo Island has been vacant from all industrial activity since 1992 and many buildings have deteriorated during this time. The various uses of the island since the convict era have resulted in the layering of fabric and some destruction and adaptation of original fabric. The Sydney Harbour Federation Trust commissioned a survey of all external penal settlement building stonework on the island and the results show that it is in good to reasonable condition with the main areas for remediation being mortar joints and some refacing with only minimum stone replacement needed. A program of stonework repairs is scheduled to commence in 2007. Decontamination works have been completed for all buildings.

 

The buildings and machinery such as cranes are subject to corrosion in the exposed maritime environment and require conservation and maintenance (GML CMP 2006:134).

 

The prisoner’s barracks was converted to an air raid shelter during World War Two which saw a concrete roof, supported on freestanding internal concrete columns, and blast walls added to the northern and eastern wings. The sequence of finishes and bed arrangements are only partly visible, obscured in many areas by later modifications. The two wards have both been subdivided and their original volumes are not evident. The eastern quarters building has good stonework, but the building’s integrity was significantly reduced through partitioning for later dockyard uses. The southern wing of the barracks, which was used as the infirmary, is in good condition and was fitted out as offices and boardroom for the dockyard. The original roof framing may exist under the existing metal roofing. The courtyard has been covered in bitumen and large puddles are formed during rain. The central division walls largely survive as does evidence of the sequence of institutional colour schemes and plugs in the walls.

 

The military guard room and kitchen is roofless. Stonework is in sound condition and all external metalwork, for example the iron gun racks and window bars, were conserved in 2000. There is some weed and other vegetation growth.

 

The mess hall is substantially intact, and the stonework is in mainly good sound condition. Pine floor boards lie on top of original flagged stone flooring, the condition of which is not known. Windows have been elongated to suit dockyard use of the building.

 

The officers’ quarters has been added to substantially over time. It is in fair to good condition. The building is divided into two units.

 

The free overseers’ quarters is in fair to good condition and will be the subject of major conservation works (2007-08). The other remaining structure of the three dwellings has been significantly altered in its conversion to an air raid shelter with only its external and middle interior stone walls remaining.

 

Biloela House has been divided into two with a wall and is in good condition. It has been re-roofed losing the original separate curved veranda roof profile. This will be rectified when future conservation works take place (2007-08). Stonework of the north and south wings is in mainly good condition.

 

The original stone clerk of petty sessions cottage has been extended and the whole building is in fair to good condition.

 

One intact silo is able to be viewed and is in excellent condition. A grill covers the mouth of the silo and rain water has built up inside. No investigations have been done to date to check the condition of the other silos.

 

Dockyard buildings

Over 80 buildings remain from the dockyard periods. A more detailed description can be found in the Godden Mackay Logan Conservation Management Plan 2006.

 

Two Dockyard Residences, two brick detailed cottages and a two storey semi detached have been conserved externally in 2001 and are in good condition.

 

The Drawing Office was the home of the embryonic Australian aircraft manufacturing business. The building is in fair condition and will be the subject of a program of conservation works (2007-08).

 

The Powerhouse Building brickwork is mostly in good condition. Repairs to windows have been completed and re-roofing will be completed in 2007 to fix current leaks. The basement area including the pumps has been pumped dry.

 

The Mould Loft is a steel-framed galvanized iron clad building dating from about 1910. It is possibly the only surviving full-size shipbuilding mould loft remaining in Australia, and is certainly the oldest. Recent cleaning of the floor by the SHFT has revealed the full-size body plans of the last ships lofted at the dockyard and there is evidence that lines scribed into the floor may date back to World War Two, although this is still to be confirmed. Conservation works will be completed during 2007.

 

The Fitzroy Dock is now filled with water. The sandstone dock has been extended and the floor reconfigured but the original stone altars and coping with gun barrel bollards remain intact. The caisson for Fitzroy dock is in excellent condition as are the 12 bollards. The stonework has been subject to extensive weathering and wear.

 

The Sutherland Dock stonework has been subject to extensive weathering and wear. Some of the dock’s original equipment is still intact, including the steam travelling jib cranes. It is thought the condition of the Sutherland Dock caisson is good.

 

The Engine House workshops and Pump house, built in a number of stages suffers from rising damp (currently being treated with sacrificial render) and roof leaks. Otherwise this robust building is in fair to good condition.

 

The Turbine Shop group of steel framed sheds that abut the engine house workshops to the west are in fair to good condition.

 

The group of five buildings to the east of the engine house workshops varies from fair to good condition.

 

The group of buildings on the southern apron are mainly robust brick structures that are in good condition.

 

Many items of plant and machinery were sold in 1991. Demolition removed some forty buildings from the island. All slipways existing in the last decades of the dockyards operation are still present. Several other structures are no longer extant including Fitzroy Wharf, Destroyer Wharf, Plate Wharf, Coal Wharf and Cruiser Wharf. New sea walls were constructed at the site of the Cruiser, Destroyer and Plate Wharfs, and around the northern shipyard fill.

 

Location:

About 18ha, in Sydney Harbour, between Birchgrove Point and Woolwich Point, comprising the whole of the Island to low water.

 

 


 


 

Appendix 10

Commonwealth Heritage Listings

 


Cockatoo Island Industrial Conservation Area, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:   None

List:                      Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:    Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:            105262

Place File No: 1/12/022/0089

Summary Statement of Significance: Cockatoo Island is important for its association with the administration of Governor Gipps who was responsible for the establishment on the Island of an Imperially funded prison for convicts withdrawn from Norfolk Island in the 1840s; the establishment of maritime activities during the 1840s culminating in the construction of Fitzroy Dock 1851-57 under Gother Kerr Mann, one of Australia's foremost nineteenth century engineers; and the construction of twelve in-ground grain silos following a government order that provision would be made to store 10,000 bushels of grain on the island. The subsequent development of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities has clearly been in response to Federation in 1901, when the New South Wales government took over management of the island; the formation of the Royal Australian Navy in 1911; and the Commonwealth Government's purchase of the island in 1913. The first steel warship built in Australia, HMAS Heron, was completed on the island in 1916. During World War Two Cockatoo Island became the primary shipbuilding and dockyard facility in the Pacific following the fall of Singapore. Post war development of the facility reflects the importance of the island facility to the Commonwealth Government (Criteria A.4 and H.1).

 

The industrial character of the cultural landscape of the Island has developed from the interaction of maritime and prison activity and retains clear evidence of both in a number of precincts. The cultural landscape is articulated by man made cliffs, stone walls and steps, docks, cranes, slipways and built forms. Extant structures within the precincts are important for their ability to demonstrate: the functions and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of an imperial convict public works establishment of the 1840s; and the functions and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of the range of structures and facilities associated with the development and processes of the dockyard and shipbuilding industry over a period of 140 years. Cockatoo Island is the only surviving Imperial convict public works establishment in New South Wales. Individual elements of the convict Public Works Department period include the rock cut grain silos, the Prisoners Barracks and Mess Hall 1839-42, the Military Guard House, the Military Officers Quarters and Biloela House c1841. The range of elements associated with the shipbuilding and dockyard facility date from the 1850s and include items of remnant equipment, warehouse and industrial buildings and a range of cranes, wharves, slipways and jetties which illustrate the materials, construction techniques and technical skills employed in the construction of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities over 140 years. Individual elements within the dockyard facility include Fitzroy Dock and Caisson 1851-57, Sutherland Dock 1882-90 the Powerhouse 1918, the Engineer's and Blacksmith's Shop c1853 and the former pump building for Fitzroy Dock. (Criteria B.2 and D.2)

 

(Historic Themes: 2.3 Coming to Australia as a punishment, 3.7 Moving goods and people, 3.12 Developing an Australian manufacturing capacity, 3.13 Developing an Australian engineering and construction industry, 5.1 Organising workers and work places, 7.1 Governing Australia as a province of the British Empire)

 

It is possible that Aboriginal values of National Estate significance also exist at this place. As yet these have not been identified, documented or assessed by the Australian Heritage Commission.

Official Values:

Criteria                              Values

A Processes          Cockatoo Island is important for its association with the administration of Governor Gipps who was responsible for the establishment on the Island of an Imperially funded prison for convicts withdrawn from Norfolk Island in the 1840s; the establishment of maritime activities during the 1840s culminating in the construction of Fitzroy Dock 1851-57 under Gother Kerr Mann, one of Australia's foremost nineteenth century engineers; and the construction of twelve in-ground grain silos following a government order that provision would be made to store 10,000 bushels of grain on the island. The subsequent development of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities has clearly been in response to Federation in 1901, when the New South Wales government took over management of the island; the formation of the Royal Australian Navy in 1911; and the Commonwealth Government's purchase of the island in 1913. The first steel warship built in Australia, HMAS Heron, was completed on the island in 1916. During World War Two Cockatoo Island became the primary shipbuilding and dockyard facility in the Pacific following the fall of Singapore. Post war development of the facility reflects the importance of the island facility to the Commonwealth Government.

 

Attributes

 

All remaining evidence of industrial occupation, function and use from the island's initial occupation in the 1840s until its closure in 1992.

B Rarity  Cockatoo Island is the only surviving Imperial convict public works establishment in New South Wales. Individual elements of the convict Public Works Department period include the rock cut grain silos, the Prisoners Barracks and Mess Hall 1839-42, the Military Guard House, the Military Officers Quarters and Biloela House c1841. The range of elements associated with the shipbuilding and dockyard facility date from the 1850s and include items of remnant equipment, warehouse and industrial buildings and a range of cranes, wharves, slipways and jetties which illustrate the materials, construction techniques and technical skills employed in the construction of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities over 140 years. Individual elements within the dockyard facility include Fitzroy Dock and Caisson 1851-57, Sutherland Dock 1882-90 the Powerhouse 1918, the Engineer's and Blacksmith's Shop c1853 and the former pump building for Fitzroy Dock.

 

Attributes

 

The rock cut grain silos, the Prisoners Barracks and Mess Hall, the Military Guard House, the Military Officers Quarters and Biloela House.

 

Fitzroy Dock and Caisson, Sutherland Dock, the Powerhouse, the Engineers' and Blacksmiths' Shop and the former pump building for Fitzroy Dock.

 

D Characteristic values      

The industrial character of the cultural landscape of the Island has developed from the interaction of maritime and prison activity and retains clear evidence of both in a number of precincts. The cultural landscape is articulated by man made cliffs, stone walls and steps, docks, cranes, slipways and built forms. Extant structures within the precincts are important for their ability to demonstrate: the functions and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of an imperial convict public works establishment of the 1840s; and the functions and architectural idiom and principal characteristics of the range of structures and facilities associated with the development and processes of the dockyard and shipbuilding industry over a period of 140 years. The range of elements associated with the shipbuilding and dockyard facility date from the 1850s and include items of remnant equipment, warehouse and industrial buildings and a range of cranes, wharves, slipways and jetties which illustrate the materials, construction techniques and technical skills employed in the construction of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities over 140 years.

 

Attributes

 

The cultural landscape, which is articulated by man made cliffs, stone walls and steps, docks, cranes, slipways and built forms. Individual elements of the convict Public Works Department period including the rock cut grain silos, the Prisoners Barracks and Mess Hall, the Military Guard House, the Military Officers Quarters and Biloela House. The range of elements associated with the shipbuilding and dockyard facility from the 1850s including items of remnant equipment, warehouse and industrial buildings and a range of cranes, wharves, slipways and jetties which illustrate the materials, construction techniques and technical skills employed in the construction of shipbuilding and dockyard facilities over 140 years. Individual elements within the dockyard facility include Fitzroy Dock and Caisson, Sutherland Dock, the Powerhouse, the Engineer's and Blacksmith's Shop and the former pump building for Fitzroy Dock.

H Significant people            Cockatoo Island is important for its association with the administration of Governor Gipps in the 1840s, the construction of Fitzroy Dock from 1851-57 under Gother Kerr Mann, Federation in 1901, the formation of the Royal Australian Navy in 1911 and the construction of the first steel warship built in Australia, HMAS Heron.

 

Attributes

 

All of the remaining historic fabric in the former industrial area.

 

Description:

History:

 

Cockatoo Island is the largest island in Sydney Harbour. It is not known who first called it Cockatoo Island, though it was known as such long before it was called Biloela. This name was given to the Island in 1870 by the Reverend William Ridley, a student of an Aboriginal language, in response to a request from the Governor for a suitable name. The Island has been subject to five major administrative/occupation phases.

 

1) Prison Dockyard 1839-64. The expansion of settlement 1810-20 under Governor Macquarie led to the construction of places of confinement including Norfolk Island and Macquarie Harbour. Assigned convicts were left under the control of landowners but convicts in government service and secondary offenders in penal settlements were housed in barracks as soon as these could be constructed. In time the settlements on Norfolk Island and in Tasmania were defeated by isolation and the inability of Sydney and Hobart based administrators to exercise adequate control. In 1839 Governor Gipps advised the Secretary of State for the Colonies that he was forming an establishment on Cockatoo Island for Imperial prisoners withdrawn from Norfolk Island. Unlike contemporary New South Wales (NSW) penal establishments which were executed under contract, the work on Cockatoo Island was carried out by the prisoners. Expenses were met from Imperial, not Colonial, funds emphasising the role of the Imperial Government in the establishment of Cockatoo Island. The buildings were constructed to the design of the commanding Royal Engineer, George Barney, responsible for convict and military buildings in NSW. Twelve grain silos were also cut out of the rock in 1839 to store grain, following Gipps' order that the government would make provision for the storage of 10,000 bushels on the island within two years. The year 1839 also saw the expansion of the island's convict gaol with the construction of the barracks; U-shaped in plan, the barracks held accommodation for 344 convicts. As transportation ceased in 1840 the prison was used to house an increasing number of colonially sentenced convicts. As the island was surrounded by deep water it was ideal for maritime activities as a British outpost at a time of increasing rivalry between European nations and the United States of America in the Pacific. In 1846 Governor Gipps reported to the British Government that convicts would be employed in clearing and preparing the island for the construction of a dry dock. Approved in 1847 the colonial government built Fitzroy Dock between 1847-57 with convict labour. The first ship, HM Surveying Brig Herald, docked in 1858. Gother Kerr Mann, one of Australia's foremost nineteenth century engineers, was responsible for the design and construction of Fitzroy Dock, the first begun in the southern hemisphere and contemporary with Mort Dock at Woolwich. Captain Gother Mann was Engineer in Chief at Cockatoo Island from 1847 and later became Superintendent of Convicts. During this time additions were made to the gaol including an ornate mess hall and houses for prison officials including Biloela for the Prison Governors. This period was also one of brutality against any unrest from the prisoners leading to a Select Committee of Inquiry chaired by Henry Parkes in 1861. The brutalising conditions of the Island were admitted but no discernible improvements occurred. Up to 500 prisoners were held there but the usual number was about 250. Officers' accommodation was erected in the 1840s-50s including superintendent's quarters, clerk of petty sessions, military officers quarters and quarters for the free overseer.

 

2) NSW Department of Public Works 1864-1913. During this period the administration of the dockyard and prison split. The land above the escarpment remained in institutional use but, as the docks expanded, the foreshores became dedicated to dockyard use. During the latter part of the nineteenth century Sydney's population increased rapidly producing a poorly educated, dysfunctional, community. Punishment, reform and education became key concerns. Cockatoo Island is associated with this period through the training ship Vernon and the establishment of the Girls Institution and Reformatory from 1871-88. In 1871 the training ship Vernon for boys, an initiative of Henry Parkes, was anchored at the north-east corner of the island with recreation grounds and swimming baths by 1896. Although the young prisoners were kept separate from the dock they worked there on ship building and repairs. From 1861 dock development had occurred with the first stone workshop buildings for metal working, foundry and general activities, drawing and administrative offices. In 1868 Fitzroy Dock was reported to be the third most important dry dock in the country after Mort's Woolwich dock and the ASN works in Pyrmont. By 1870 a new dock was recommended at Cockatoo Island by Captain Gother Kerr Mann. While this was being debated the male prisoners were transferred to Darlinghurst gaol from the island in 1871. During the 1870s the silos were pressed into service for water storage. In 1869 the Executive Council had approved the transfer of prisoners from Cockatoo to Darlinghurst; the prison buildings subsequently became an Industrial School for Girls and a Reformatory in 1871. However, overcrowding elsewhere forced the return of male prisoners and the barracks were divided between prisoners of both sexes. The new dock, approved in 1882, was longer than any existing in the world. This dock, the Sutherland Dock, built by private contractors and free labour, eventually cost 268,000 pounds and was completed in 1890. The tender was awarded to twenty-three year old Australian engineer Lewis Samuel. New workshops were also built with wharfage for repair work. However, during the 1880s prison accommodation continued to deteriorate and the number of prisoners declined to about 100 each, male and female. In 1888 the girls departed and the establishment was again proclaimed a prison. Further additions included a fumigation building, surgeon's consulting rooms and isolation cells were added in 1897 with stone quarried on site. Although the prison was condemned in 1899 by the Public Works Committee it remained in operation. Electricity was installed in 1901, the birth year of the new independent nation, Australia. As British control ceased in 1901 the NSW government took over with further building of workshops in corrugated iron on steel frames forming additions to the original stone workshops. The dockyards expanded rapidly. Major new workshops were provided, now largely in brick, along the eastern shore with docking wharves and included an erecting shop, foundry, blacksmith and shipwright shop. In 1903 a Royal Commission was established to look at all aspects of the working of the Government docks and workshops. In 1908 a steel foundry was established on the Island followed by a range of new workshops. By 1905 parts of the men's prison quarters collapsed so that in 1906 they were transferred to shore for the last time and relocated at Long Bay Gaol. The female prison division was similarly closed in 1909; NSS Sobraon, the school ship, was relocated elsewhere in 1911.

 

3) Commonwealth Dockyard 1913-33. In 1911 the Royal Australian Navy was established and in 1913 the Commonwealth Government bought the island from NSW for 870,000 pounds. Despite the building expansion from 1900 much of the dock and workshops equipment was in poor shape and major expansion and upgrading of equipment was increased. Development occurred on the escarpment above the dockyard. By 1912 a lift had been constructed up the escarpment with most of the structures in the centre of the Island demolished and replaced by more efficient structures. The prison buildings were converted into drawing offices and new boiler and turbine shops added. The old power house, containing a steam driven dock pump and consisting of a brick building with columns and arches attached to the facade, was demolished. The new larger power house and chimney built in 1918, which still stands, provided for steam turbine electric generating equipment, electrically driven air compressors, dock-dewatering pumps and hydraulic pumps. The Commonwealth Government had ordered several naval vessels in 1912, including the cruisers Brisbane and Adelaide each of 5,600 tonnes and 25,000 shaft horse power (18,650kw) and several destroyers. One of these, HMAS Heron, was handed over in February 1916 to become the first steel warship to be built in Australia. No 1 slipway was lengthened whilst Brisbane was being built for its launching in 1915 and the floating crane Titan was assembled from British made sections. Little further development occurred between the wars. As naval activity decreased commercial shipbuilding grew until the Depression when all activity declined. Under Navy control until 1921 it was then placed under a Board of Control responsible to the Prime Minister's Department soon superseded by the Australian Commonwealth Shipping Board. During the 1920s, in addition to industrial structures, three pairs of houses were erected on the island. In 1928 the Sutherland Dock was enlarged and a decision made to lease the dockyard to private enterprise.

 

4) Cockatoo Docks and Engineering 1933-48. In 1933 the island was leased to Cockatoo Dock and Engineering Company Ltd (later Pty Ltd). With the outbreak of World War Two the island became the major ship repair facility in the Western Pacific, following the loss of Singapore. Major repairs and fitting out were undertaken at the docks including work on troop carriers, the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, Aquitania and Mauritania and major vessels of the Royal Australian Navy and United States Navy. Two tunnels were constructed during the war under the plateau to improve material movement on the island. New buildings were erected throughout this period. The war years, 1939-46, saw the reconstruction of roads and the construction of a new road giving access to the upper part of the island. Six wharves, once covered by five ton and fifteen ton travelling cranes, were available for berthing ships for fitting out or refitting. The maximum depth of water alongside wharves was about 26ft. The Titan, a 150 ton floating crane commissioned in 1917, was another important facility. During the war period it operated almost continuously. It was used for commercial as well as naval work and dealt with numerous lifts of heavy and important equipment in the port. The workshops included the engineering shop, the electrical section, the tool section and the sheet metal section and a well equipped standards room and meteorology section. The yard's own quality control section operated above and beyond the normal navy overseeing staff. In 1947 Vickers UK purchased Cockatoo Dock and Engineering Pty Ltd and established Vickers Cockatoo Docks and Engineering.

 

5) Vickers Cockatoo 1948-92. In 1950 the Australian Commonwealth Shipping Board ceased to function and was replaced by the Cockatoo Island Lease Supervising Committee. The top level of the island had by now drawing offices for each of the hull, engineering and electrical sections, the estimating, planning and costing offices and residences for several of the executive staff of the yard. More recently, two large concrete water towers were constructed on the plateau and several brick and concrete buildings were added to the southern and eastern shores. In December 1992 the original lease expired; the island is still owned by the Commonwealth.

 

Between 1992-93 some forty buildings were demolished. Several other structures are no longer extant.

 

Physical Description:

 

Cockatoo Island contains a wide variety of extant buildings and structures which contribute to the cultural landscape. The vistas to and from the island play an important role in the character of the setting. The island's present landform has been developed through quarrying and landfill with natural elements limited in extent and profile. The cultural landscape is articulated by man-made cliffs, stone walls and steps, docks, cranes, slipways and simple built forms. A number of areas or precincts have been identified within the cultural landscape (Godden Mackay 1997:43). These include the area of the Colonial Prison, the Docks precinct, the timber boatbuilding and workshops precinct, the docks workshops precinct, the powerhouse and slipways precinct, the technical offices and workshops precinct and the residential precinct. The building types and architectural styles generally reflect the administrative/occupation period in which they were constructed.

 

1) 1839-64. Construction generally occurred on the upper parts of the Island and included the prisoner's barracks 1839-42, mess hall 1847-51 and the military guard house of 1842 in the Colonial Georgian style and the two storey military officers quarters 1845-57 and the free overseers quarters 1850-57 in a restrained Victorian Georgian style all in the local sandstone. To the east residential buildings include the superintendent's quarters (Biloela House) c 1841 and the clerk of petty sessions residence c 1845-50 and a number of smaller structures characterised by their simple plans, stone walls and hipped or gabled roofs. Among the latter is the former iron and steel foundry erected c 1856 as a sandstone machine shop. Other items include the in-ground water tanks and grain silos the (former) engine house and workshop and the rock cut Fitzroy Dock or No 2 Dock; length 474ft maximum beam of vessel Fitzroy Dock, which could be docked 48ft maximum draft 18ft HWOST. The dock retains its entrance caisson in place. Associated with the construction of the Fitzroy Dock is the engineers and blacksmith's shop of c 1853 in the Victorian Georgian style. This building is one of the earliest surviving industrial structures on the island and a vital feature of the nineteenth century industrial environment of Sydney. The associated two storey boilers, pumping engines and offices building was erected c 1845-57 in the Victorian Georgian style; the primary building housed the Fitzroy Dock pumping station from 1853.

 

2) 1864-1913. Less built development occurred during this period with new uses accommodated through adaptation and alteration. Additions were made to the dockyards and several new warehouses built. These include a Federation style brick and stone building, as well as a combination of steel framed and clad buildings on the east, south and west sides of the Fitzroy Dock. The latter include the mould loft, the shipwrights shed, and the pattern storage buildings. The powerhouse built with Sutherland Dock at the western end of the Island was replaced in 1918 by the present Federation Warehouse style power house on the docks. Sutherland Dock, or No 1 Dock, completed 1882-90 has a length of 690ft, a breadth of 88ft and a depth over the sill of 32ft. At HWOST maximum breadth at which a ship could be docked, 85ft. Largest ship, mv Dominion Monarch, 26,500 tons, 620ft x 84ft 10 inches. The heavy machine shop of 1896 abuts the engineers and blacksmith's shop of 1853. Other warehouse type structures which survive from this period include the boiler house of 1908, the engine house of 1909 and the coppersmith's shop.

 

3) and 4) 1913-47. Substantial built development took place during this period related to the expansion of the dockyards. Several larger scale industrial warehouse buildings were erected in the centre of the island on the site of the former Biloela Female Gaol. These buildings are primarily steel framed with corrugated galvanised iron cladding. Extant buildings of this type include the estimating and drawing offices 1915-18 and the electrical Shop 1915-16. Other buildings were constructed in the dockyards area; these appear to have been subsequently demolished with the exception of the Federation styled timber vernacular administration buildings to the south. The powerhouse of 1918 in the Federation Warehouse style is constructed of load bearing brickwork below a steeply pitched gabled roof. The powerhouse chimney remains in place. Residential buildings in the western part of the higher ground include primarily Federation style semi-detached structures executed characteristically in red brick with tiled roofs. These semis have been extended with fibro additions. A two storey semi 1913-16 to the north is more impressive in its architectural expression and features sunhoods, decorative eaves and balustrades. During the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Phase (1933-48) numerous warehouses were built which dominate the lower levels of the island. These are predominantly steel framed and clad with corrugated iron sheeting. Other structures are related to the importance of local river traffic on the surrounding waterways; the Parramatta Wharf turnstile shelter of 1945 is one of these. The muster station of 1945 is a reminder of the post war operation of the dockyards. Other structures, including air raid shelters and administration buildings, are evidence of the importance and operation of the island during the hostilities of World War Two.

 

5) 1948-92. Numerous warehouses were built during this phase. Many are steel framed with corrugated iron sheeting cladding. A group of red brick warehouses with curved roofscapes were constructed primarily after World War Two. A group of international style buildings at the south-eastern corner of the dockyards forms a distinct group. Among the latter is the former weapons workshop of 1971.

 

In addition to the standing buildings described above the island contains numerous items of remnant equipment. Significant items include two Bellis and Morcom steam engines, lathes, planing equipment, hydraulic presses, plate bending machinery, boring machines, rivet presses, threading machinery, plate rolls, steam hammers and cutting equipment. The only building which retains its equipment intact is the powerhouse; equipment includes the dewatering system, the air compressors, the hydraulic pumps and the mercury rectifier bank used to convert AC to DC. The dockyard areas include a steam driven rail mounted jib crane of mixed parentage (possibly 1870), electric travelling portal jib cranes and long jib cantilever cranes of the 1920s, electric travelling jib cranes of the 1940s, fixed tower cranes of the 1960s and electric portal jib cranes of the 1970s. The waterfront areas also accommodate wharves, slipways and shipbuilding berths. Among the latter are shipbuilding berths No 1 and No 2, slipways 3 and 4 and the 250 ton patent slipway. Smaller slipways include a boathouse slipway, yacht slip and an unmarked slipway. The cruiser wharf (No 2) of 1914 (demolished 1999) is constructed on timber piles and was used to unload items for the island and for fitting out ships built in the yards. Wharf No 3 the Bolt Wharf is a concrete wharf erected in the post war period 1945-60. Destroyer Wharf (demolished 1999) is based on an old stone lined wharf of 1891 below the present timber wharf of c 1914. The nearby Ruby Wharf and Steps is a timber longshore wharf on piles which includes a set of timber steps to water level; the original Ruby steps below the present structure date to c 1853. Other wharves and jetties include Camber Wharf, Timber Wharf, Patrol Boat Wharf, Sutherland Wharf, Old Plate Wharf, Patrol Boat Jetty and New Plate Wharf. Other elements associated with the transport of goods and materials include remnant trolley tracks, tunnels, roads (the Burma Road) and stores tunnels. Cockatoo Island has substantial standing and sub-surface archaeological features associated with the above. Some areas of the island are likely to contain stratified material while other areas of the foreshore may contain buried early structures such as wharves and jetties.

 

History: Not Available

 

Condition and Integrity:

All but the most significant items of plant and machinery were sold in 1991 and all industrial buildings not of exceptional significance were sold in 1992. The demolition removed some forty buildings from the island, mostly in poor condition. These were mainly warehouse type buildings with pitched roofs, clad in steel. Other demolished structures included ancillary and small industrial buildings. Several other structures are no longer extant including Fitzroy Wharf, Coal Wharf and a number of slipways.

 

Location:

About 18ha, in Sydney Harbour, between Birchgrove Point and Woolwich Point, comprising the whole of the Island to low water.

 

Bibliography:

Cockatoo Island, R.C. Parker, Thomas Nelson (Aust) 1977.

 

Cockatoo Island, D.W. Muir and K.A.V. Wheeler, (Thesis) Uni of Sydney 1974.

 

Kerr, J.S. Cockatoo Island penal and institutional remains. National Trust (NSW), 1984.

 

Godden Mackay, Cockatoo Island CMP Volume 1, May 1997 for Defence.

 

Balint E, The Inventive Mind of Gother Kerr Mann, in Heritage Australia Winter 1991, 10(2):pp12-17

 

 

 

Barracks Block, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105257

Place File No:    1/12/022/0085

Summary Statement of Significance:

The barracks block, completed in the early 1840s, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school and as a major shipyard. (Criterion A.4)

 

The block is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. As such, it is also important as a rare example of a convict barracks block of the period. (Criteria B.2 and D.2)

 

 

The block was designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a notable role in the colony. (Criterion H.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

The barracks block, completed in the early 1840s, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school and as a major shipyard.

 

Attributes

 

All of the place's fabric, plus its relationship to associated structures.

B Rarity

The block is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is important as a rare example of a convict barracks block of the period.

 

Attributes

 

Its U shaped plan and enclosed courtyard.

D Characteristic values

The block is part of one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia and is important as a rare example of a convict barracks block of the period.

 

Attributes

 

Its sandstone construction, its U shaped plan with courtyard, associated former hospital wards, cookhouse and mess, and its relationship to other convict period buildings in the complex.

H Significant people

The block was designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a notable role in the colony.

 

Attributes: Remnant fabric that demonstrates the building's design.

 

Prison Barracks Precinct, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105256

Place File No:    1/12/022/0085

Summary Statement of Significance:

Dating from c.1839-57, the barracks precinct is historically highly significant for its direct association with convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school and as a major government shipyard. (Criterion A.4)

 

The precinct, together with the separately registered Biloela Group, is the only remaining imperially funded convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. As such, the buildings in the precinct are important as examples of convict structures of the period. (Criteria B.2 and D.2)

 

Several of the buildings in the precinct were designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a significant engineering role in the colony for a number of years. (Criterion H.1)

 

Sited high on the island, the precinct has important aesthetic qualities despite later alterations. The buildings' sandstone construction, Georgian styling and the evocative nature of the group as a strong reminder of the convict era all contribute to the place's significance. (Criterion E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

Dating from c.1839-57, the barracks precinct is historically highly significant for its direct association with convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school and as a major government shipyard.

 

Attributes

 

The barracks complex of prison and hospital wards, cook house and mess shed and its enclosed court; the former Officer's guard room; the former military guard room, kitchen and grassed enclosure; the cottage, former free officer's quarters; and north-west escarpment, including trees, that crown the ridge on the south-west corner of Cockatoo Island.

 

B Rarity

The precinct, together with the separately registered Biloela Group, is the only remaining imperially funded convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia.

 

 

Attributes

 

The place's historic fabric.

D Characteristic values

The precinct is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia and as such, the buildings in the precinct are important as examples of convict structures of the period.

 

Attributes

 

The place's historic fabric and associations.

E Aesthetic characteristics

Sited high on the island, the precinct has important aesthetic qualities despite later alterations. The buildings' sandstone construction, Georgian styling and the evocative nature of the group as a strong reminder of the convict era all contribute to the place's significance.

 

Attributes

 

The buildings' prominence on the island, sandstone construction and Georgian styling.

H Significant people

Several of the buildings in the precinct were designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a significant engineering role in the colony for a number of years.

 

Attributes

 

The Barrack's Block including the wards, cookhouse and mess, and the Military Guards room including the detached kitchen and toilet.

 

Mess Hall (former), Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105259

Place File No:    1/12/022/0085

 

Summary Statement of Significance:

The mess hall, completed c.1847-51, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school for females and as a major shipyard. (Criterion A.4)

 

The building is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. As such, the mess hall is also an important example of this type of convict structure of the period. (Criteria B.2 and D.2)

 

The mess hall, with its fine detail and dominating gabled design in Old Colonial/Victorian Georgian style, has architectural significance and makes an important aesthetic contribution to the precinct. (Criteria F.1, D.2 and E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

The mess hall, completed c.1847-51, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school for females and as a major shipyard.

 

Attributes

 

All of the fabric of the place.

B Rarity

The building is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia.

 

Attributes

The building's fabric and finish, and its associations with the rest of the group.

 

D Characteristic values

The mess hall is also an important example of the Colonial/Victorian Georgian style of convict structure of the period.

 

Attributes

 

The fine detail and dominating gable.

 

E Aesthetic characteristics

The mess hall, with its fine detail and dominating gabled design in Old Colonial/Victorian Georgian style, has architectural significance and makes an important aesthetic contribution to the precinct.

 

Attributes

 

The fine detail, dominating gable and Colonial/Victorian Georgian style.

 

F Technical achievement

The mess hall, with its fine detail and dominating gabled design in Old Colonial/Victorian Georgian style, has architectural significance.

 

Attributes

 

Finely detailed sandstone work and dominating gable.

 

Military Guard Room, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105258

Place File No:    1/12/022/0085

Summary Statement of Significance:

The military guard room (and detached kitchen), completed in 1842, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school for females and as a major shipyard. (Criterion A.4)

 

The building is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. As such, the building is also a rare and important example of a guard house of the period, still exhibiting features directly related to its use. (Criteria B.2 and D.2)

 

The building was designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a notable role in the colony. (Criterion H.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

The military guard room (and detached kitchen), completed in 1842, is historically highly significant for its association with early convict administration in the Australian colonies. It is also associated with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, as an industrial school for females and as a major shipyard.

 

Attributes

 

The historic fabric and form of the structure.

B Rarity

The building is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. The building is a rare and important example of a guard house of the period, still exhibiting features directly related to its use.

 

Attributes

 

All remaining sandstone block work, the stone slab floors, iron wall-rods and hat pegs.

 

 

 

D Characteristic values

The building is part of a group of convict buildings which is the only remaining imperial convict public works complex in NSW, and is one of the most complete groups of convict structures in Australia. As such, the building is also a rare and important example of a guard house of the period, still exhibiting features directly related to its use.

 

Attributes

 

The historic fabric, form and layout of the place, and its relationship to other components in the precinct.

 

H Significant people

The building was designed by Colonel George Barney, who as Commanding Royal Engineer played a notable role in the colony.

 

Attributes

 

The building's form.

 

Underground Grain Silos, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105264

Place File No:    1/12/022/0092

 

Summary Statement of Significance:

Excavated during 1839-40, the grain silos are historically highly significant for their direct association with the convict era in New South Wales. They are also associated, as water storage facilities, with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, when the island was used as an industrial school and as a major government shipyard. Further, the silos reflect aspects of food supply and government administration in the early years of the colony. (Criterion A.4)

 

The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia. Additionally, they are finely excavated and reflect a high degree of stonemasonry skills on the part of their builders. (Criteria B.2 and F.1)

 

The silos also have significance for their association with Colonel George Barney, who played a notable engineering role in colonial NSW for a number of years. (Criterion H.1)

 

Official Values:

 

Criteria

Values

A Processes

Excavated during 1839-40, the grain silos are historically highly significant for their direct association with the convict era in New South Wales. They are also associated, as water storage facilities, with the other phases of Cockatoo Island's history, when the island was used as an industrial school and as a major government shipyard. Further, the silos reflect aspects of food supply and government administration in the early years of the colony.

 

Attributes

 

All of the fabric above and below ground associated with the silos.

B Rarity

The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia.

 

Attributes

 

All of the fabric above and below ground associated with the silos.

F Technical achievement

The silos are finely excavated and reflect a high degree of stonemasonry skills on the part of their builders.

 

Attributes

 

All of the fabric above and below ground associated with the silos.

 

H Significant people

The silos also have significance for their association with Colonel George Barney, who played a notable engineering role in colonial NSW for a number of years.

 

Attributes

 

All of the fabric above and below ground associated with the silos, including the partially demolished silos.

 

Biloela Group, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105263

Place File No:    1/12/022/0090

Summary Statement of Significance:

Constructed mainly in the early 1840s, the elements of the Biloela Group are historically highly significant for their direct association with convict administration in the Australian colonies. The group is also associated with Cockatoo Island's role as a major government shipyard. (Criterion A.4)

 

The group, along with the separately registered prison barracks precinct, is the only remaining imperially funded convict public works complex in NSW. As such, the buildings in the group are important examples of convict structures of the period. The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia. Additionally, they are finely excavated and reflect a high degree of stonemasonry skills on the part of their builders. (Criteria B.2, D.2 and F.1)

 

The group has a close association with Colonel George Barney, the commander of the Royal Engineers, who played a notable engineering role in NSW during the period. (Criterion H.1)

 

Located on the summit of Cockatoo Island (the largest island in Sydney Harbour), the group has an impressive harbour outlook and is evocative of the convict era. As such, the group with its sandstone forms has significant aesthetic qualities. (Criterion E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

Constructed mainly in the early 1840s, the elements of the Biloela Group are historically highly significant for their direct association with convict administration in the Australian colonies. The group is also associated with Cockatoo Island's role as a major government shipyard.

 

Attributes

 

The historic fabric of the following structures: Biloela, the former superintendent's quarters and extensions; the stone cottage to the west of Biloela; the remaining underground silos to south-east of Biloela and the north-east part of the small sandstone cottage south-east of Biloela house.

B Rarity

The group, along with the separately registered prison barracks precinct, is the only remaining imperially funded convict public works complex in NSW. The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia.

 

Attributes

 

The historic fabric of the following structures: Biloela, the former superintendent's quarters and extensions; the stone cottage to the west of Biloela; the remaining underground silos to south-east of Biloela and the north-east part of the small sandstone cottage south-east of Biloela house.

 

D Characteristic values

The group, along with the separately registered prison barracks precinct, is the only remaining imperially funded convict public works complex in NSW. As such, the buildings in the group are important examples of convict structures of the period. The silos on the island are believed to be the only major group of convict-cut rock silos in Australia.

 

Attributes

 

The historic fabric of the following structures: Biloela, the former superintendent's quarters and extensions; the stone cottage to the west of Biloela; the remaining underground silos to south-east of Biloela and the north-east part of the small sandstone cottage south-east of Biloela house.

 

E Aesthetic characteristics

Located on the summit of Cockatoo Island (the largest island in Sydney Harbour), the group has an impressive harbour outlook and is evocative of the convict era. As such, the group with its sandstone forms has significant aesthetic qualities.

 

Attributes

 

The character and form of the above-ground buildings, and their location on the island.

F Technical achievement

The silos are finely excavated and reflect a high degree of stonemasonry skills on the part of their builders.

 

Attributes

 

All of the silos' stonework, including their excavation, neck and mouth.

H Significant people

The group has a close association with Colonel George Barney, the commander of the Royal Engineers, who played a notable engineering role in NSW during the period.

 

Attributes

 

Biloela House, Clerk of Petty Sessions cottage and the silos, all of which were designed by Barney.

 

 

Fitzroy Dock, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105261

Place File No:    1/12/022/0088

Summary Statement of Significance:

Fitzroy Dock, completed in 1857, is the oldest surviving dry dock in Australia and has direct associations with the convict era in Sydney, the state's maritime history, Australia's naval relationship with its allies (Britain particularly during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) and Australia's naval development, especially during the First and Second World Wars. It is one of the nation's most important former graving docks and has great historical significance. (Criterion A.4)

 

The dock was the earliest dry dock commenced in Australia, was the largest engineering project completed in Australia to that time and was large by world standards. It therefore has considerable technological significance and also reflects good design and construction qualities. (Criterion F.1)

 

Fitzroy Dock is important as an example of a nineteenth century harbour facility of this type. (Criterion D.2)

 

The dock is one of the largest convict-era public works surviving in Sydney. (Criterion B.2)

 

Fitzroy Dock is a major element of Cockatoo Island's built landscape, a key foreshore element on the island, and, contributing strongly to the island's maritime and convict associations and atmosphere, it has considerable aesthetic value. (Criterion E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

Fitzroy Dock, completed in 1857, is the oldest surviving dry dock in Australia and has direct associations with the convict era in Sydney, the state's maritime history, Australia's naval relationship with its allies (Britain particularly during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) and Australia's naval development, especially during the First and Second World Wars. It is one of the nation's most important former graving docks and has great historical significance.

 

Attributes

 

The excavation, evidence of the dock's sequential enlargement, and all remaining fabric associated with the dock's operation.

B Rarity

The dock is one of the largest convict-era public works surviving in Sydney.

 

Attributes

 

Evidence of the dock's initial dimensions, and any evidence of its construction technique.

D Characteristic values

Fitzroy Dock is important as an example of a nineteenth century harbour facility of this type.

 

Attributes:

 

The excavation and any fabric remaining from its nineteenth century use.

E Aesthetic characteristics

Fitzroy Dock is a major element of Cockatoo Island's built landscape, a key foreshore element on the island, and, contributing strongly to the island's maritime and convict associations and atmosphere, it has considerable aesthetic value.

 

Attributes:

 

The form, fabric and setting of the dock, including scale, texture and massing.

F Technical achievement

The dock was the earliest dry dock commenced in Australia, was the largest engineering project completed in Australia to that time and was large by world standards. It therefore has considerable technological significance and also reflects good design and construction qualities.

 

Attributes

 

The dock's dimensions and all associated fabric.

 

Sutherland Dock, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105260

Place File No:    1/12/022/0087

Summary Statement of Significance:

Sutherland Dock, completed in 1890, has a direct and lengthy association with NSW's maritime history, Australia's naval relationship with its allies, and Australia's naval development, particularly during the First and Second World Wars. It is one of the nation's most important former graving docks and has great historical significance. (Criterion A.4)

 

At the time of its opening, Sutherland was said to be the biggest dry dock in the world. It was one of Australia's greatest engineering projects (and remained the nation's largest dry dock until 1945), and therefore has considerable technological significance. It also reflects good design and construction qualities. Further, the original caisson and its distinctive mechanism are still extant. (Criterion F.1)

 

Sutherland Dock is important as an example of a nineteenth century harbour facility of this type. (Criterion D.2)

 

The enlargement of the dock over time reflects the development in warship construction, and ship-building more generally, during the early twentieth century. (Criterion B.2)

 

Sutherland Dock is a major element of Cockatoo Island's built landscape, a key foreshore element on the island, and, contributing strongly to the island's maritime associations and atmosphere, it has considerable aesthetic value. (Criterion E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

Sutherland Dock, completed in 1890, has a direct and lengthy association with NSW's maritime history, Australia's naval relationship with its allies, and Australia's naval development, particularly during the First and Second World Wars. It is one of the nation's most important former graving docks and has great historical significance.

 

Attributes

 

All the fabric of the dock including the dock excavation, any evidence of sequential extension and further excavation, evidence of use including, but not limited to, dock gates, travelling cranes and tracks.

B Rarity

The enlargement of the dock over time reflects the development in warship construction, and ship-building more generally, during the early twentieth century.

 

Attributes

 

Any evidence of the dock's enlargement.

 

D Characteristic values

Sutherland Dock is important as an example of a nineteenth century harbour facility of this type.

 

Attributes

 

The initial excavation and the dock gates.

E Aesthetic characteristics

Sutherland Dock is a major element of Cockatoo Island's built landscape, a key foreshore element on the island, and, contributing strongly to the island's maritime associations and atmosphere, it has considerable aesthetic value.

 

Attributes

 

All remaining evidence of the dock including caisson, technical equipment and sandstone work.

F Technical achievement

At the time of its opening, Sutherland was said to be the biggest dry dock in the world. It was one of Australia's greatest engineering projects (and remained the nation's largest dry dock until 1945), and therefore has considerable technological significance. It also reflects good design and construction qualities. Further, the original caisson and its distinctive mechanism are still extant.

 

Attributes

 

Evidence of the dock's original dimensions, the caisson (gates) and mechanism and any other evidence remaining from its initial construction phase.

 

Power House / Pump House, Cockatoo Island, NSW, Australia

Photographs:    None

List:                     Commonwealth Heritage List

Class:                  Historic

Legal Status:     Listed place (22/06/2004)

Place ID:             105265

Place File No:    1/12/022/0086

Summary Statement of Significance:

The powerhouse is historically significant for its role in providing all of the island's electrical power from the time of its construction in 1918. The powerhouse thus has a direct association with the operation of what was a major Australian naval dockyard, including during both world wars. (Criterion A.4)

 

Further, the powerhouse contains the most extensive and rare collection of early Australian electrical, hydraulic power and pumping equipment in the country. Throughout its period of operation, the building was the largest DC generating plant in Australia. (Criterion B.2)

 

With its distinctive round-arched design, the powerhouse is a good example of Federation Romanesque style. (Criterion D.2)

 

The chimney is a particularly finely constructed brick structure, being one of the finest such stacks surviving in Sydney. (Criterion F.1)

 

A landmark of Sydney Harbour, the chimney possesses significant aesthetic values. (Criterion E.1)

 

Official Values:

Criteria

Values

A Processes

The powerhouse is historically significant for its role in providing all of the island's electrical power from the time of its construction in 1918. The powerhouse thus has a direct association with the operation of what was a major Australian naval dockyard, including during both world wars.

 

Attributes

 

The building, the tower and all of its internal equipment.

B Rarity

The powerhouse contains the most extensive and rare collection of early Australian electrical, hydraulic power and pumping equipment in the country. Throughout its period of operation, the building was the largest DC generating plant in Australia.

 

Attributes

 

The early Australian electrical equipment, hydraulic power and pumping equipment.

D Characteristic values

With its distinctive round-arched design, the powerhouse is a good example of Federation Romanesque style.

 

Attributes

 

All of the buildings fabric and detailing, including round arched design, brickwork, capitals, string courses, sills and cornices.

E Aesthetic characteristics

A landmark of Sydney Harbour, the chimney possesses significant aesthetic values.

 

Attributes

 

The chimney's size, brickwork construction, detailing and visibility.

F Technical achievement

The chimney is a particularly finely constructed brick structure, being one of the finest such stacks surviving in Sydney.

 

Attributes

 

All of the chimney's fabric.