Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Standards/Australian Design Rules for Vehicles as made
This vehicle standard specifies requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on passenger cars and light commercial vehicles to reduce the risk of crashes involving a loss of directional control of the vehicle, including those resulting in vehicle rollover.
Administered by: Infrastructure and Regional Development
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 40
Made 25 Aug 2017
Registered 21 Sep 2017
Tabled HR 16 Oct 2017
Tabled Senate 16 Oct 2017

Title: Australian coat of arms - Description: Australian coat of arms

 

 

 

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 88/00 – Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems) 2017

I, PAUL FLETCHER, Minister for Urban Infrastructure, determine this vehicle standard under section 7 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989.

 

 

 

 

Dated                   25 August 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[SIGNED]

Paul Fletcher

 

Minister for Urban Infrastructure


 

CONTENTS

1.           legislative provisions. 3

2.           FUNCTION.. 3

3.           APPLICABILITY.. 3

4.           DEFINITIONS. 4

5.           REQUIREMENTS. 4

6.           EXEMPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES. 4

7.           ALTERNATIVE STANDARDS. 5

APPENDIX A.. 7

 

 


1.                                          LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS

1.1.                                    Name of Standard

1.1.1.                              This Standard is the Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 88/00 – Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems) 2017.

1.1.2.                              This Standard may also be cited as Australian Design Rule 88/00 — Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems.

1.2.                                    Commencement

1.2.1.                              This Standard commences on the day after it is registered.

2.                                          FUNCTION

2.1.                                    The function of this standard is to specify requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on passenger cars and light commercial vehicles to reduce the risk of crashes involving a loss of directional control of the vehicle, including those resulting in vehicle rollover.

3.                                          APPLICABILITY

3.1.                                    This vehicle standard applies to all category MA, MB, MC and NA vehicles; from the dates set out in clauses 3.1.1 to 3.1.2, and the table under clause 3.3 below.

3.1.1.                              1 July 2019 for all new model vehicles.

3.1.2.                              There is no mandatory application date for all other vehicles. They may comply with this vehicle standard, or continue to comply with ADR 31/03 or ADR 35/05, as applicable for the particular vehicle category.

3.2.                                    For the purposes of clause 3.1.1, a "new model" is a vehicle model first produced with a 'Date of manufacture' on or after the agreed date in that clause.

3.3.                                    Applicability Table

Vehicle Category

ADR Category Code*

UNECE Category Code*

Manufactured on or After

Acceptable Prior Rules

Moped 2 wheels

LA

L1

N/A

 

Moped 3 wheels

LB

L2

N/A

 

Motor cycle

LC

L3

N/A

 

Motor cycle and sidecar

LD

L4

N/A

 

Motor tricycle

LE

L5

N/A

 

Passenger car

MA

M1

1 July 2019**

see clause 3.1.2

Forward-control passenger vehicle

MB

M1

1 July 2019**

see clause 3.1.2

Off-road passenger vehicle

MC

M1

1 July 2019**

see clause 3.1.2

Light omnibus

MD

M2

N/A

 

Heavy omnibus

ME

M3

N/A

 

Light goods vehicle

NA

N1

1 July 2019**

see clause 3.1.2

Medium goods vehicle

NB

N2

N/A

 

Heavy goods vehicle

NC

N3

N/A

 

Very light trailer

TA

O1

N/A

 

Light trailer

TB

O2

N/A

 

Medium trailer

TC

O3

N/A

 

Heavy trailer

TD

O4

N/A

 

4.                                          DEFINITIONS

4.1.                                    For vehicle categories, definitions and meanings used in this standard, refer to:

4.1.1.                              Definitions in Appendix A of this standard or the alternative standards at clause 7; and where there is no conflict

4.1.2.                              Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule Definitions and Vehicle Categories) 2005.

5.                                          REQUIREMENTS

5.1.                                    Vehicles must be equipped with an Electronic Stability Control system meeting the requirements of Appendix A, except as varied by clause 6 Exemptions and Alternative Procedures.

5.2.                                    “Approval Authority” must be read as “Administrator of Vehicle Standards” (as defined in the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989).

5.3.                                    “Technical Service” must be read as “Manufacturer”.

6.                                          EXEMPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES

6.1.                                    Compliance with the following parts, sections and annexes of Appendix A is not required for the purposes of this standard:

Section 3         Application for approval

Section 4         Approval

Section 10       Modification of vehicle type or ESC system and extension of approval

Section 11       Conformity of production

Section 12       Penalties for non-conformity of production

Section 13       Production definitively discontinued

Section 14       Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of Type Approval       Authorities

Annexes

Annex 1          Communication

Annex 2          Arrangement of the approval mark

6.2.                                    Vehicles will be deemed, for the purposes of certification to this national standard, to meet the requirements of paragraph 7.7 of Appendix A, and Annexes 3 to 5 of Appendix A, if compliance can be demonstrated during a Conformity of Production assessment.

7.                                          ALTERNATIVE STANDARDS

7.1.                                    For vehicles equipped with an Electronic Stability Control system, the technical requirements of the United Nations Regulation No. 140 – UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF PASSENGER CARS WITH REGARD TO ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC) SYSTEMS, incorporating the 00 series of amendments, are deemed to be equivalent to the technical requirements of this standard.

7.1.1.                              Vehicles will be deemed, for the purposes of certification to this national standard, to meet the requirements of paragraph 7.7 of UN R 140/00, and Annexes 3 to 5 of UN R 140/00, if compliance can be demonstrated during a Conformity of Production assessment.

7.2.                                    The technical requirements of the United Nations Global technical regulation No.8 – ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL SYSTEMS, incorporating corrigenda 1 and 2, are deemed to be equivalent to the technical requirements of this standard.

7.2.1.                              The following exemptions to the provisions of Global technical regulation No.8 apply:

7.2.1.1.                        Clause 5.4. (f), where the ESC malfunction tell-tale need not illuminate if it is combined in a two-part telltale with the “ESC Off” tell-tale, and this is illuminated;

7.2.1.2.                        Clause 5.5.3;

7.2.1.3.                        Clause 6.3.1., where the ESC system must be enabled for all testing, except where otherwise specified in the text;

7.2.1.4.                        Clause 6.3.2., where the fuel tank need only be filled to at least 75 per cent of capacity;

7.2.1.5.                        Clause 6.3.4., where outriggers may be used for vehicles with a Static Stability Factor (SSF) > 1.25;

7.2.1.6.                        Clause 6.3.4, where the vehicle mass may be the mass of the vehicle, fully fuelled, with a 73 kg driver; and

7.2.1.7.                        Clause 7.10.2., where the vehicle test speed need not be achieved within 30 seconds of starting the engine and more than one brake application may be made.


APPENDIX A

Agreement

Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions*

(Revision 2, including the amendments which entered into force on 16 October 1995)

                  

 

Addendum 139 – Regulation No. 140

 

Incorporating by the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development all valid text up to:

 

00 series of amendments - Date of entry into force: 22 January 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems


Regulation No. 140

               Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems

Contents

                                                                                                                                                                            Page

Regulation

                1.      Scope...........................................................................................................................                        9

                2.      Definitions...................................................................................................................                        9

                3.      Application for approval..........................................................................................                      10

                4.      Approval                                                                                                                                           11

                5.      General requirements ...............................................................................................                      12

                6.      Functional requirements ..........................................................................................                      13

                7.      Performance requirements ......................................................................................                      13

                8.      Test conditions ..........................................................................................................                      17

                9.      Test procedure............................................................................................................                      19

             10.      Modification of vehicle type or ESC system and extension of approval.......                      23

             11.      Conformity of production.......................................................................................                      23

             12.      Penalties for non-conformity of production.........................................................                      24

             13.      Production definitively discontinued.....................................................................                      24

          14.      Names and addresses of Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests,
and of Type Approval Authorities.........................................................................                      24

Annexes

                 1      Communication.........................................................................................................                      25

                 2      Arrangements of approval marks..........................................................................                      27

                 3      Use of the dynamic stability simulation................................................................                      28

                 4      Dynamic stability simulation tool and its validation .........................................                      29

                 5      Vehicle stability function simulation tool test report..........................................                      31


               1.            Scope

1.1.                  This Regulation applies to the approval of vehicles of category M1 and N1[1]  with regard to their electronic stability control system.

1.2                   This Regulation does not cover:

1.2.1.               vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25 km/h;

1.2.2.               vehicles fitted for invalid drivers.

               2.            Definitions

                         For the purposes of this Regulation,

2.1.                  "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to electronic stability control.

2.2.                  "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as:

2.2.1.               The manufacturer's trade name or mark;

2.2.2.               Vehicle features which significantly influence the performances of the Electronic Stability Control system (e.g. maximum mass, centre of gravity position, track width, distance between axles, tyres dimension and the design of the braking system);

2.2.3.               The design of the Electronic Stability Control system.

2.3.                  "Maximum mass" means the maximum mass stated by the vehicle manufacturer to be technically permissible (this mass may be higher than the "permissible maximum mass" laid down by the national administration).

2.4.                  "The distribution of mass among the axles" means the distribution of the effect of the gravity on the mass of the vehicle and/or its contents among the axles.

2.5.                  "Wheel/axle load" means the vertical static reaction (force) of the road surface in the contact area on the wheel/wheels of the axle.

2.6.                  "Ackerman steer angle" means the angle whose tangent is the wheelbase divided by the radius of the turn at a very low speed.

2.7.                  "Electronic Stability Control (ESC) System" means a system that has all of the following attributes:

2.7.1.               That improves vehicle directional stability by at least having the ability to automatically control individually the braking torques of the left and right wheels on each axle[2] to induce a correcting yaw moment based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver;

2.7.2.               That is computer controlled with the computer using a closed-loop algorithm to limit vehicle oversteer and to limit vehicle understeer based on the evaluation of actual vehicle behaviour in comparison with a determination of vehicle behaviour demanded by the driver;

2.7.3.               That has a means to determine directly the value of the vehicle's yaw rate and to estimate its side-slip or side-slip derivative with respect to time;

2.7.4.               That has a means to monitor driver steering inputs; and

2.7.5.               That has an algorithm to determine the need, and a means to modify propulsion torque, as necessary, to assist the driver in maintaining control of the vehicle.

2.8.                  "Lateral acceleration" means the component of the acceleration vector of a point in the vehicle perpendicular to the vehicle x axis (longitudinal) and parallel to the road plane.

2.9.                  "Oversteer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is greater than the yaw rate that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.

2.10.                "Side-slip or side-slip angle" means the arctangent of the ratio of the lateral velocity to the longitudinal velocity of the centre of gravity of the vehicle.

2.11.                "Understeer" means a condition in which the vehicle's yaw rate is less than the yaw rate that would occur at the vehicle's speed as a result of the Ackerman steer angle.

2.12.                "Yaw rate" means the rate of change of the vehicle's heading angle measured in degrees/second of rotation about a vertical axis through the vehicle's centre of gravity.

2.13.                "Peak braking coefficient (PBC)": means the measure of tyre to road surface friction based on the maximum deceleration of a rolling tyre.

2.14.                "Common space" means an area on which more than one tell-tale, indicator, identification symbol, or other message may be displayed but not simultaneously.

2.15.                "Static stability factor" means one-half the track width of a vehicle divided by the height of its center of gravity, also expressed as SSF = T/2H, where: T = track width (for vehicles with more than one track width the average is used; for axles with dual wheels, the outer wheels are used when calculating "T") and H = height of the center of gravity of the vehicle.

               3.            Application for approval

3.1.                  The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to ESC shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

3.2.                  It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following particulars:

3.2.1.               a description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in paragraph 2.2. above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and the engine type shall be specified;

3.2.2.               a list of the components, duly identified, constituting the ESC system;

3.2.3.               a diagram of the assembled ESC system and an indication of the position of its components on the vehicle;

3.2.4.               detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.

3.3.                  A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the Technical Service conducting the approval tests.

4.            Approval

4.1.                  If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraphs 5., 6. and 7. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.

4.2.                  An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved, its first two digits shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type with regard to electronic stability control.

4.3.                  Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation and of a summary of the information contained in the documents referred to in paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.4. above, the drawings supplied by the applicant for approval being in a format not exceeding A4 (210 x 297 mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate scale.

4.4.                  There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of:

4.4.1.               a circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval,[3] and of

4.4.2.               the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. above.

4.5.                  If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other regulations, annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. above, need not be repeated; in such a case, the regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. above.

4.6.                  The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

4.7.                  The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate.

4.8.                  Annex 1 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

               5.            General requirements

5.1.                  Vehicles equipped with an ESC shall meet the functional requirements specified in paragraph 6. and the performance requirements in paragraph 7. under the test procedures specified in paragraph 9. and under the test conditions specified in paragraph 8. of this Regulation.

5.1.1.               As an alternative to the requirements of paragraph 5.1., vehicles of categories M1 and N1 with a mass in running order of more than 1,735 kg may be equipped with a vehicle stability function which includes roll-over control and directional control and meets the technical requirements and transitional provisions of Regulation No. 13, Annex 21. These vehicles do not need to meet the functional requirements specified in paragraph 6. and the performance requirements specified in paragraph 7. under the test procedures specified in paragraph 9. and under the test conditions specified in paragraph 8. of this Regulation.

5.2.                  The ESC shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation.

5.3.                  In particular, the ESC shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able to resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed.

5.4.                  The effectiveness of the ESC shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling the technical requirements and respecting the transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10 by applying:

(a)        The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging the Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries);

(b)        The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the Rechargeable Electric Energy Storage System (traction batteries).

5.5.                  The assessment of the safety aspects of ESC, with respect to its direct effect on the braking system, shall be included in the overall safety assessment of the braking system as specified in Regulation No. 13-H requirements associated with complex electronic control systems. This is deemed to be fulfilled on the presentation of a Regulation No. 13-H certificate which includes the ESC system to be approved.

5.6.                  Provisions for the periodic technical inspection of ESC systems

5.6.1.               It shall be possible at a periodic technical inspection to confirm the correct operational status by visual observation of the warning signals following a power-on.

5.6.2.               At the time of type approval, the means implemented to protect against simple unauthorized modification of the operation of the warning signals shall be confidentially outlined. Alternatively, this protection requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking the correct operational status is available.

               6.            Functional requirements

                         Each vehicle submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation shall be equipped with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system that:

6.1.                  Is capable of applying braking torques individually to all four wheels[4] and has a control algorithm that utilizes this capability;

6.2.                  Is operational over the full speed range of the vehicle, during all phases of driving including acceleration, coasting, and deceleration (including braking), except:

6.2.1.               When the driver has disabled ESC;

6.2.2.               When the vehicle speed is below 20 km/h;

6.2.3.               While the initial start-up self-test and plausibility checks are completed, not to exceed two minutes when driven under the conditions of paragraph 9.10.2.;

6.2.4.               When the vehicle is being driven in reverse.

6.3.                  Remains capable of activation even if the antilock braking system or traction control system is also activated.

    7.            Performance requirements

                         During each test performed under the test conditions of paragraph 8. and the test procedure of paragraph. 9.9., the vehicle with the ESC system engaged shall satisfy the directional stability criteria of paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2., and it shall satisfy the responsiveness criterion of paragraph 7.3. during each of those tests conducted with a commanded steering wheel[5] angle of 5A or greater but limited as per paragraph 9.9.4., where A is the steering wheel angle computed in paragraph 9.6.1.

                         Where a vehicle has been physically tested in accordance with paragraph 8., the compliance of versions or variants of that same vehicle type may be demonstrated by a computer simulation, which respects the test conditions of paragraph 8. and the test procedure of paragraph 9.9. The use of the simulator is defined in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

7.1                   The yaw rate measured 1 second after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time T0 + 1 in Figure 1) shall not exceed 35 per cent of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the steering wheel angle changes sign (between first and second peaks) (Title: Figure 1 - Description: Steering wheel position and yaw velocity information userd to assess lateral stability.in Figure 1) during the same test run.

Figure 1

Steering wheel position and yaw velocity information used to assess lateral stability

Title: Figure 1 - Description: Steering wheel position and yaw velocity information used to assess lateral stability.

7.2.                  The yaw rate measured 1.75 seconds after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input shall not exceed twenty per cent of the first peak value of yaw rate recorded after the steering wheel angle changes sign (between first and second peaks) during the same test run.

7.3.                  The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial straight path shall be at least 1.83 m for vehicles with a GVM of 3,500 kg or less, and 1.52 m for vehicles with a maximum mass greater than 3,500 kg when computed 1.07 seconds after the Beginning of Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in paragraph 9.11.6.

7.3.1.               The computation of lateral displacement is performed using double integration with respect to time of the measurement of lateral acceleration at the vehicle centre of gravity, as expressed by the formula:

Equation: lateral displacement

 

                         An alternative measuring method may be allowed for type approval testing, provided it demonstrates at least an equivalent level of precision as the double integration method.

7.3.2.               Time t = 0 for the integration operation is the instant of steering initiation, known as the Beginning of Steer (BOS). BOS is defined in paragraph 9.11.6.

7.4.                  ESC malfunction detection

                         The vehicle shall be equipped with a tell-tale that provides a warning to the driver of the occurrence of any malfunction that affects the generation or transmission of control or response signals in the vehicle's electronic stability control system.

7.4.1.               The ESC malfunction tell-tale:

7.4.1.1.            Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121;

7.4.1.2.            Except as provided in paragraph 7.4.1.3., the ESC malfunction tell-tale shall illuminate when a malfunction exists and shall remain continuously illuminated under the conditions specified in paragraph 7.4. for as long as the malfunction exists, whenever the ignition locking system is in the "On" ("Run") position;

7.4.1.3.            Except as provided in paragraph 7.4.2., each ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the "On" ("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is in a position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a check position;

7.4.1.4.            Shall extinguish at the next ignition cycle after the malfunction has been corrected in accordance with paragraph 9.10.4.;

7.4.1.5.            May also be used to indicate the malfunction of related systems/functions, including traction control, trailer stability assist, corner brake control, and other similar functions that use throttle and/or individual torque control to operate and share common components with ESC.

7.4.2.               The ESC malfunction tell-tale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.

7.4.3.               The requirement of paragraph 7.4.1.3. does not apply to tell-tales shown in a common space.

7.4.4.               The manufacturer may use the ESC malfunction tell-tale in a flashing mode to indicate ESC intervention and/or the intervention of ESC-related systems (as listed in paragraph 7.4.1.5.)

7.5.                  ESC Off and other system controls

                         The manufacturer may include an "ESC Off" control, which shall be illuminated when the vehicle's headlamps are activated, and which has a purpose to place the ESC system in a mode in which it will no longer satisfy the performance requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. Manufacturers may also provide controls for other systems that have an ancillary effect upon ESC operation. Controls of either kind that place the ESC system in a mode in which it may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. are permitted, provided that the system also meets the requirements of paragraphs 7.5.1., 7.5.2. and 7.5.3.

7.5.1.               The vehicle's ESC system shall always return to the manufacturer's original default mode that satisfies the requirements of paragraphs 6. and 7. at the initiation of each new ignition cycle, regardless of what mode the driver had previously selected. However, the vehicle's ESC system need not return to a mode that satisfies the requirements of paragraphs 7. through 7.3. at the initiation of each new ignition cycle if:

7.5.1.1.            The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration which has the effect of locking the drive gears at the front and rear axles together and providing an additional gear reduction between the engine speed and vehicle speed of at least 1.6, selected by the driver for low-speed, off-road driving; or

7.5.1.2.            The vehicle is in a four-wheel drive configuration selected by the driver that is designed for operation at higher speeds on snow-, sand-, or dirt-packed roads and that has the effect of locking the drive gears at the front and rear axles together, provided that in this mode the vehicle meets the stability performance requirements of paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. under the test conditions specified in paragraph 8. However, if the system has more than one ESC mode that satisfies the requirements of paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. within the drive configuration selected for the previous ignition cycle, the ESC shall return to the manufacturer's original default ESC mode for that drive configuration at the initiation of each new ignition cycle.

7.5.2.               A control, whose only purpose is to place the ESC system in a mode in which it will no longer satisfy the performance requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3., shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.

7.5.3.               A control for an ESC system whose purpose is to place the ESC system in different modes, at least one of which may no longer satisfy the performance requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2., and 7.3., shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.

                         Alternatively, in the case where the ESC system mode is controlled by a multi-functional control, the driver display shall identify clearly to the driver the control position for this mode using the "off" symbol for electronic stability control system as defined in Regulation No. 121.

7.5.4.               A control for another system that has the ancillary effect of placing the ESC system in a mode in which it no longer satisfies the performance requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. need not be identified by the "ESC Off" symbol of paragraph 7.5.2.

7.6.                  ESC Off tell-tale

                         If the manufacturer elects to install a control to turn off or reduce the performance of the ESC system under paragraph 7.5., the tell-tale requirements of paragraphs 7.6.1. to 7.6.4. shall be met in order to alert the driver to the inhibited or reduced state of ESC system functionality. This requirement does not apply for the driver-selected mode referred to in paragraph 7.5.1.2.

7.6.1.               The vehicle manufacturer shall provide a tell-tale indicating that the vehicle has been put into a mode that renders it unable to satisfy the requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3., if such a mode is provided.

7.6.2.               The "ESC Off" tell-tale:

7.6.2.1.            Shall fulfil the relevant technical requirements of Regulation No. 121.

7.6.2.2.            Shall remain continuously illuminated for as long as the ESC is in a mode that renders it unable to satisfy the requirements of paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3;

7.6.2.3.            Except as provided in paragraphs 7.6.3. and 7.6.4. each "ESC Off" tell-tale shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when the ignition locking system is turned to the "On" ("Run") position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition locking system is in a position between "On" ("Run") and "Start" that is designated by the manufacturer as a check position.

7.6.2.4.            Shall extinguish after the ESC system has been returned to the manufacturer’s original default mode.

7.6.3.               The "ESC Off" tell-tale need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.

7.6.4.               The requirement of paragraph 7.6.2.3. of this section does not apply to tell-tales shown in a common space.

7.6.5.               The manufacturer may use the "ESC Off" tell-tale to indicate an ESC level of function other than the manufacturer’s original default mode even if the vehicle would meet paragraphs 7., 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. of this section at that level of ESC function.

7.7.                  ESC system technical documentation

                         The documentation package shall, as confirmation that the vehicle is equipped with an ESC system that meets the definition of an "ESC System" as in paragraph 2.7. to this Regulation, include the vehicle manufacturer's documentation as specified in paragraphs 7.7.1. to 7.7.4. below.

7.7.1.               System diagram identifying all ESC system hardware. The diagram shall identify those components that are used to generate brake torques at each wheel, determine vehicle yaw rate, estimated side-slip or the side-slip derivative and driver steering inputs.

7.7.2.               A brief written explanation sufficient to describe the ESC system's basic operational characteristics. This explanation shall include the outline description of the system's capability to apply braking torques at each wheel and how the system modifies propulsion torque during ESC system activation, and show that the vehicle yaw rate is directly determined even under the conditions where no wheel speed information is available. The explanation shall also specify the vehicle speed range and the driving phases (acceleration, deceleration, coasting, during activation of the ABS or traction control) under which the ESC system can activate.

7.7.3.               Logic diagram. This diagram supports the explanation provided under paragraph 7.7.2.

7.7.4.               Understeer information. An outline description of the pertinent inputs to the computer that control ESC system hardware and how they are used to limit vehicle understeer.

    8.            Test conditions

8.1.                  Ambient conditions

8.1.1.               The ambient temperature is between 0 °C and 45 °C.

8.1.2.               The maximum wind speed is no greater than 10 m/s for vehicles with SSF > 1.25, and 5 m/s for vehicles with SSF ≤ 1.25.

8.2.                  Road test surface

8.2.1.               Tests are conducted on a dry, uniform, solid-paved surface. Surfaces with irregularities and undulations, such as dips and large cracks, are unsuitable.

8.2.2.               The road test surface has a nominal[6] peak braking coefficient (PBC) of 0.9, unless otherwise specified, when measured using either:

8.2.2.1.            The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1136 standard reference test tyre, in accordance with ASTM Method E1337‑90, at a speed of 40 mph; or

8.2.2.2.            The k-test method specified in Appendix 2 to Annex 6 of Regulation No. 13-H.

8.2.3.               The test surface has a consistent slope between level and 1 per cent.

8.3.                  Vehicle conditions

8.3.1.               The ESC system is enabled for all testing.

8.3.2.               Vehicle mass. The vehicle is loaded with the fuel tank filled to at least 90 per cent of capacity, and a total interior load of 168 kg comprised of the test driver, approximately 59 kg of test equipment (automated steering machine, data acquisition system and the power supply for the steering machine), and ballast as required to make up for any shortfall in the weight of test drivers and test equipment. Where required, ballast shall be placed on the floor behind the passenger front seat or if necessary in the front passenger foot well area. All ballast shall be secured in a way that prevents it from becoming dislodged during testing.

8.3.3.               Tyres. The tyres are inflated to the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure(s) e.g. as specified on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label. Tubes may be installed to prevent tyre de-beading.

8.3.4.               Outriggers. Outriggers may be used for testing if deemed necessary for test drivers' safety. In this case, the following applies for vehicles with a Static Stability Factor (SSF) ≤ 1.25:

8.3.4.1.            Vehicles with a mass in running order under 1,588 kg shall be equipped with "lightweight" outriggers. Lightweight outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 27 kg and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 27 kg∙m2.

8.3.4.2.            Vehicles with a mass in running order between 1,588 kg and 2,722 kg shall be equipped with "standard" outriggers. Standard outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 32 kg and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 35.9 kg∙m2.

8.3.4.3.            Vehicles with a mass in running order equal to or greater than 2,722 kg shall be equipped with "heavy" outriggers. Heavy outriggers shall be designed with a maximum mass of 39 kg and a maximum roll moment of inertia of 40.7 kg∙m2.

8.3.5.               Automated steering machine. A steering robot programmed to execute the required steering pattern shall be used in paragraphs 9.5.2., 9.5.3., 9.6. and 9.9. The steering machine shall be capable of supplying steering torques between 40 to 60 Nm. The steering machine shall be able to apply these torques when operating with steering wheel velocities up to 1,200 degrees per second.

9.            Test Procedure

9.1.                  Inflate the vehicles' tyres to the manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure(s) e.g. as provided on the vehicle's placard or the tyre inflation pressure label.

9.2.                  Tell-tale bulb check. With the vehicle stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition to the "On" ("Run") position or, where applicable, the appropriate position for the lamp check. The ESC malfunction tell-tale shall be illuminated as a check of lamp function, as specified in paragraph 7.4.1.3., and if equipped, the "ESC Off" tell-tale shall also be illuminated as a check of lamp function, as specified in paragraph 7.6.2.3. The tell-tale bulb check is not required for a tell-tale shown in a common space as specified in paragraphs 7.4.3. and 7.6.4.

9.3.                  "ESC Off" control check. For vehicles equipped with an "ESC Off" control, with the vehicle stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition locking system to the "On" ("Run") position. Activate the "ESC Off" control and verify that the "ESC Off" tell-tale is illuminated, as specified in paragraph 7.6.2. Turn the ignition locking system to the "Lock" or "Off" position. Again, switch the ignition locking system to the "On" ("Run") position and verify that the "ESC Off" tell-tale has extinguished indicating that the ESC system has been restored as specified in paragraph 7.5.1.

9.4.                  Brake conditioning

                         Condition the vehicle brakes in the manner described in paragraphs 9.4.1. to 9.4.4.

9.4.1.               Ten stops are performed from a speed of 56 km/h, with an average deceleration of approximately 0.5g.

9.4.2.               Immediately following the series of ten 56 km/h stops, three additional stops are performed from 72 km/h at higher deceleration.

9.4.3.               When executing the stops in paragraph 9.4.2., sufficient force is applied to the brake pedal to bring the vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) into operation for a majority of each braking event.

9.4.4.               Following completion of the final stop in 9.4.2., the vehicle is driven at a speed of 72 km/h for five minutes to cool the brakes.

9.5.                  Tyre Conditioning

                         Condition the tyres using the procedure of paragraphs 9.5.1. to 9.5.3. to wear away mould sheen and achieve operating temperature immediately before beginning the test runs of paragraphs 9.6. and 9.9.

9.5.1.               The test vehicle is driven around a circle 30 meters in diameter at a speed that produces a lateral acceleration of approximately 0.5 to 0.6g for three clockwise laps followed by three anticlockwise laps.

9.5.2.               Using a sinusoidal steering pattern at a frequency of 1 Hz, a peak steering wheel angle amplitude corresponding to a peak lateral acceleration of 0.5 to 0.6g, and a vehicle speed of 56 km/h, the vehicle is driven through four passes performing 10 cycles of sinusoidal steering during each pass.

9.5.3.               The steering wheel angle amplitude of the final cycle of the final pass shall be twice that of the other cycles. The maximum time permitted between each of the laps and passes is five minutes.

9.6.                  Slowly increasing steer procedure

                         The vehicle is subjected to two series of runs of the slowly increasing steer test using a constant vehicle speed of 80 ± 2 km/h and a steering pattern that increases by 13.5 degrees per second until a lateral acceleration of approximately 0.5g is obtained. Three repetitions are performed for each test series. One series uses anticlockwise steering, and the other series uses clockwise steering. The maximum time permitted between each test run is five minutes.

9.6.1.               From the slowly increasing steer tests, the quantity "A" is determined. "A" is the steering wheel angle in degrees that produces a steady state lateral acceleration (corrected using the methods specified in paragraph 9.11.3.) of 0.3g for the test vehicle. Utilizing linear regression, A is calculated, to the nearest 0.1 degrees, from each of the six slowly increasing steer tests. The absolute value of the six A values calculated is averaged and rounded to the nearest 0.1 degrees to produce the final quantity, A, used below.

9.7.                  After the quantity A has been determined, without replacing the tyres, the tyre conditioning procedure described in paragraph 9.5. is performed again immediately prior to conducting the Sine with Dwell test of paragraph 9.9. Initiation of the first Sine with Dwell test series shall begin within two hours after completion of the slowly increasing steer tests of paragraph 9.6.

9.8.                  Check that the ESC system is enabled by ensuring that the ESC malfunction and "ESC Off" (if provided) tell-tales are not illuminated.

9.9.                  Sine with Dwell test of oversteer intervention and responsiveness

                         The vehicle is subjected to two series of test runs using a steering pattern of a sine wave at 0.7 Hz frequency with a 500 ms delay beginning at the second peak amplitude as shown in Figure 2 (the Sine with Dwell tests). One series uses anticlockwise steering for the first half cycle, and the other series uses clockwise steering for the first half cycle. The vehicle is allowed to cool-down between each test runs for a period of 1.5 to 5 minutes, with the vehicle stationary.

Figure 2 

Sine with Dwell

Title: Figure 2 - Sine with Dwell

9.9.1.               The steering motion is initiated with the vehicle coasting in high gear at 80 ± 2 km/h.

9.9.2.               The steering amplitude for the initial run of each series is 1.5 A, where A is the steering wheel angle determined in paragraph 9.6.1.

9.9.3.               In each series of test runs, the steering amplitude is increased from run to run, by 0.5 A, provided that no such run will result in a steering amplitude greater than that of the final run specified in paragraph 9.9.4.

9.9.4.               The steering amplitude of the final run in each series is the greater of 6.5 A or 270 degrees, provided the calculated magnitude of 6.5 A is less than or equal to 300 degrees. If any 0.5 A increment, up to 6.5 A, is greater than 300 degrees, the steering amplitude of the final run shall be 300 degrees.

9.9.5.               Upon completion of the two series of test runs, post processing of yaw rate and lateral acceleration data is done as specified in paragraph 9.11.

9.10.                ESC malfunction detection

9.10.1.             Simulate one or more ESC malfunction(s) by disconnecting the power source to any ESC component, or disconnecting any electrical connection between ESC components (with the vehicle power off). When simulating an ESC malfunction, the electrical connections for the tell-tale lamp(s) and/or optional ESC system control(s) are not to be disconnected.

9.10.2.             With the vehicle initially stationary and the ignition locking system in the "Lock" or "Off" position, switch the ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Drive the vehicle forward to obtain a vehicle speed of 48 ± 8 km/h. 30 seconds, at the latest, after the engine has been started and within the next two minutes at this speed, conduct at least one left and one right smooth turning manoeuvre without losing directional stability and one brake application. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator illuminates in accordance with paragraph 7.4. by the end of these manoeuvres.

9.10.3.             Stop the vehicle, switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. After a five-minute period, switch the vehicle's ignition locking system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Verify that the ESC malfunction indicator again illuminates to signal a malfunction and remains illuminated as long as the engine is running or until the fault is corrected.

9.10.4.             Switch the ignition locking system to the "Off" or "Lock" position. Restore the ESC system to normal operation, switch the ignition system to the "Start" position and start the engine. Re-perform the manoeuvre described in paragraph 9.10.2. and verify that the tell-tale has extinguished within this time or immediately afterwards.

9.11.                Post data processing – calculations for performance metrics

                         Yaw rate and lateral displacement measurements and calculations shall be processed utilizing the techniques specified in paragraphs 9.11.1. to 9.11.8.

9.11.1.             Raw steering wheel angle data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing static pre-test data.

9.11.2.             Raw yaw rate data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing static pre-test data.

9.11.3.             Raw lateral acceleration data is filtered with a 12-pole phaseless Butterworth filter and a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz. The filtered data is then zeroed to remove sensor offset utilizing static pre-test data. The lateral acceleration data at the vehicle centre of gravity is determined by removing the effects caused by vehicle body roll and by correcting for sensor placement via the use of coordinate transformation. For data collection, the lateral accelerometer shall be located as close as possible to the position of the vehicle's longitudinal and lateral centres of gravity.

9.11.4.             Steering wheel velocity is determined by differentiating the filtered steering wheel angle data. The steering wheel velocity data is then filtered with a moving 0.1 second running average filter.

9.11.5.             Lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle data channels are zeroed utilizing a defined "zeroing range." The methods used to establish the zeroing range are defined in paragraphs 9.11.5.1. and 9.11.5.2.

9.11.5.1.         Using the steering wheel rate data calculated using the methods described in paragraph 9.11.4., the first instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75 deg/sec is identified. From this point, steering wheel rate shall remain greater than 75 deg/sec for at least 200 ms. If the second condition is not met, the next instant that the steering wheel rate exceeds 75 deg/sec is identified and the 200 ms validity check applied. This iterative process continues until both conditions are ultimately satisfied.

9.11.5.2.         The "zeroing range" is defined as the 1.0 second time period prior to the instant the steering wheel rate exceeds 75 deg/sec (i.e. the instant the steering wheel velocity exceeds 75 deg/sec defines the end of the "zeroing range").

9.11.6.             The Beginning of Steer (BOS) is defined as the first instance when the filtered and zeroed steering wheel angle data reaches -5 degrees (when the initial steering input is anticlockwise) or +5 degrees (when the initial steering input is clockwise) after a time defining the end of the "zeroing range." The value for time at the BOS is interpolated.

9.11.7.             The Completion of Steer (COS) is defined as the time the steering wheel angle returns to zero at the completion of the Sine with Dwell steering manoeuvre. The value for time at the zero degree steering wheel angle is interpolated.

9.11.8.             The second peak yaw rate is defined as the first local yaw rate peak produced by the reversal of the steering wheel. The yaw rates at 1.000 and 1.750 seconds after COS are determined by interpolation.

9.11.9.             Determine lateral velocity by integrating corrected, filtered and zeroed lateral acceleration data. Zero lateral velocity at the BOS point. Determine lateral displacement by integrating zeroed lateral velocity. Zero lateral displacement at the BOS point. The lateral displacement measurement is made at 1.07 seconds after BOS point and is determined by interpolation.

10.          Modification of vehicle type or ESC system and extension of approval

10.1.                Every modification to an existing vehicle type shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type.

                         The Authority shall then either:

(a)        Decide, in consultation with the manufacturer, that a new type-approval is to be granted; or

(b)        Apply the procedure contained in paragraph 10.1.1. (Revision) and, if applicable, the procedure contained in paragraph 10.1.2. (Extension).

10.1.1.             Revision

When particulars recorded in the information documents have changed and the Type Approval Authority considers that the modifications made are unlikely to have appreciable adverse effects and that in any case the foot controls still meet the requirements, the modification shall be designated a "revision". 

In such a case, the Type Approval Authority shall issue the revised pages of the information documents as necessary, marking each revised page to show clearly the nature of the modification and the date of re-issue. A consolidated, updated version of the information documents, accompanied by a detailed description of the modification, shall be deemed to meet this requirement.

10.1.2.             Extension

The modification shall be designated an "extension" if, in addition to the change of the particulars recorded in the information documents

(a)            Frther inspections or tests are required; or

(b)            Any information on the communication document (with the exception of its attachments) has changed; or

(c)            Approval to a later series of amendments is requested after its entry into force.

10.2.                Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alteration, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3. above to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation. In addition, the index to the information documents and to the test reports, attached to the communication document of Annex 1, shall be amended accordingly to show the date of the most recent revision or extension.

10.3.                The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a serial number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension."

11.          Conformity of production

                         The conformity of production procedures shall comply with those set out in the Agreement, Appendix 2 (E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2) with the following requirements:

11.1.                A vehicle approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in paragraphs 5., 6. and 7. above.

11.2.                The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applied in each production facility. The normal frequency of these verifications shall be once every two years.

12.          Penalties for non-conformity of production

12.1.                The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with.

12.2.                If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

               13.          Production definitively discontinued

                         If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Authority shall inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of copies of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 5 to this Regulation.

14.          Names and addresses of the Technical Services conducting approval tests, and of Type Approval Authorities

                         The Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to which forms, certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

          


Annex 1

               Communication

                         (Maximum format: A4 (210 x 297 mm))

issued by :			Name of administration:
......................................
......................................
......................................
 - Title: Approval mark issuer - Description: Approval mark issuer
 


Title: Approval mark[7]

                        Concerning:[8]   Approval granted

                                                   Approval extended

                                                   Approval refused

                                                   Approval withdrawn

                                                   Production definitively discontinued

                        of a vehicle type with regard to ESC, pursuant to Regulation No. 140

                        Approval No.                                                                                 Extension No.

                         1.                Trade name or mark of the vehicle ................................................................................

                         2.                Vehicle type ........................................................................................................................

                         3.                Manufacturer's name and address .................................................................................

                         4.                If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative .........................

                                                                                                                                                                                            

                         5.                Mass of vehicle ..................................................................................................................

                         5.1.            Maximum mass of vehicle ..............................................................................................

                         5.2.            Minimum mass of vehicle ................................................................................................

                         6.                Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) .................................................

                         8.                Engine type .........................................................................................................................

                         9.                Number and ratios of gears ..............................................................................................

                         10.             Final drive ratio(s) ..............................................................................................................

                         11.             If applicable, maximum mass of trailer which may be coupled ..............................

                         11.1.          Unbraked trailer .................................................................................................................

                         12.             Tyre dimension ...................................................................................................................

                        


13.             Maximum design speed ....................................................................................................

                         14.             Brief description of braking equipment .........................................................................

                         15.             Mass of vehicle when tested: ...........................................................................................

 

Load

(kg)

Axle No. 1

 

Axle No. 2

 

Total

 

                         20.             (Reserved)

                         21.             The ESC system has been tested according to and fulfils the
                                            requirements of
this Regulation........................................................................ Yes / No

                                            or:  The vehicle stability function has been tested according to and fulfils the
                                            requirements of Annex 21 to Regulation No. 13........................................... Yes / No

                         23.             Vehicle submitted for approval on [date]......................................................................

                         24.             Technical Service responsible for conducting approval .............................................

                         25.             Date of report issued by that Service .............................................................................

                         26.             Number of report issued by that Service........................................................................

                         27.             Approval granted / refused / extended / withdrawn2

                         28.             Position of approval mark on the vehicle......................................................................

                         29.             Place......................................................................................................................................

                         30.             Date.......................................................................................................................................

                         31.             Signature...............................................................................................................................

                         32.             The summary referred to in paragraph 4.3. of this Regulation is annexed to this communication


Annex 2

               Arrangements of approval marks

Model A

(See paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)

 

Title: Approval mark with dimensioning

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in Belgium (E 6) with regard to the Electronic Stability Control pursuant to Regulation No. 140. The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 140 in its original form.

Model B

Title: Approval mark with dimensioning

(See paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in Belgium (E 6) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 140 and 24[9]. (In the case of the latter Regulation the corrected absorption coefficient is 1.30 m-1). The approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No. 140 was in its original form and Regulation No. 24 included the 02 series of amendments.


Annex 3

               Use of the dynamic stability simulation

                         The effectiveness of the electronic stability control system may be determined by computer simulation.

1.                      Use of the simulation

1.1.                  The vehicle stability function shall be demonstrated by the vehicle manufacturer to the Type Approval Authority or Technical Service by simulating the dynamic manoeuvres of paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation.

1.2.                  The simulation shall be a means whereby the vehicle stability performance shall be demonstrated with:

(a)        The yaw rate, one second after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input (time T0 + 1);

(b)        The yaw rate, 1.75 seconds after completion of the Sine with Dwell steering input;

(c)        The lateral displacement of the vehicle centre of gravity with respect to its initial straight path.

1.3.                  The simulation shall be carried out with a validated modelling and simulation tool and using the dynamic manoeuvres of paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation under the test conditions of paragraph 8. of this Regulation.

                         The method by which the simulation tool is validated is given in Annex 4 to this Regulation.


Annex 4

               Dynamic stability simulation tool and its validation

1.                      Specification of the simulation tool

1.1.                  The simulation method shall take into account the main factors which influence the directional and roll motion of the vehicle. A typical model may include the following vehicle parameters in an explicit or implicit form:

(a)        Axle/wheel;

(b)        Suspension;

(c)        Tyre;

(d)        Chassis/vehicle body;

(e)        Power train/driveline, if applicable;

(f)        Brake system;

(g)        Pay load.

1.2.                  The Vehicle Stability Function shall be added to the simulation model by means of:

(a)        A subsystem (software model) of the simulation tool; or

(b)        The electronic control box in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration.

2.                      Validation of the simulation tool

2.1.                  The validity of the applied modelling and simulation tool shall be verified by means of comparisons with practical vehicle tests. The tests utilised for the validation shall be the dynamic manoeuvres of paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation.

                         During the tests, the following motion variables, as appropriate, shall be recorded or calculated in accordance with ISO 15037 Part 1:2005: General conditions for passenger cars or Part 2:2002: General conditions for heavy vehicles and buses (depending on the vehicle category):

(a)        Steering-wheel angle (dH);

(b)        Longitudinal velocity (vX);

(c)        Sideslip angle (b) or lateral velocity (vY);(optional);

(d)        Longitudinal acceleration (aX); (optional);

(e)        Lateral acceleration (aY);

(f)        Yaw velocity (dy/dt);

(g)        Roll velocity (dj/dt);

(h)        Pitch velocity (dq/dt);

(i)         Roll angle (j);

(j)         Pitch angle (q).

2.2.                  The objective is to show that the simulated vehicle behaviour and operation of the vehicle stability function is comparable with that seen in practical vehicle tests.

2.3.                  The simulator shall be deemed to be validated when its output is comparable to the practical test results produced by a given vehicle type during the dynamic manoeuvres of paragraph 9.9. of this Regulation. The relationship of activation and sequence of the vehicle stability function in the simulation and in the practical vehicle test shall be the means of making the comparison.

2.4.                  The physical parameters that are different between the reference vehicle and simulated vehicle configurations shall be modified accordingly in the simulation.

2.5.                  A simulator test report shall be produced, a model of which is defined in Annex 5 to this Regulation, and a copy attached to the vehicle approval report.


Annex 5

               Vehicle stability function simulation tool test report

Test Report Number: ............................................................................................................................

1.                      Identification

1.1.................. Name and address of the simulation tool manufacturer......................................

1.2.................. Simulation tool identification: name/model/number (hardware and software)             

...................................................................................................................................................................

2...................... Scope of application

2.1.................. Vehicle type:..................................................................................................................

2.2.................. Vehicle configurations:................................................................................................

3.                      Verifying vehicle test

3.1.................. Description of vehicle(s):.............................................................................................

3.1.1............... Vehicle(s) identification: make/model/VIN.............................................................

3.1.2............... Vehicle description, including suspension/wheels, engine and drive line, braking system(s), steering system, with name/model/number identification:...................................

...................................................................................................................................................................

3.1.3............... Vehicle data used in the simulation (explicit):.........................................................

3.2.................. Description of location(s), road/test area surface conditions, temperature and date(s):           

3.3.................. Results with the vehicle stability function switched on and off, including the motion variables referred to in Annex 4, paragraph 2.1. as appropriate:..........................................

4.                      Simulation results

4.1.................. Vehicle parameters and the values used in the simulation that are not taken from the actual test vehicle (implicit):...........................................................................................................

4.2.................. Yaw stability and lateral displacement according to paragraphs 7.1. to 7.3. of this Regulation:..........................................................................................................................................

5.                      This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 4 to Regulation No. 140.

........................ Technical Service conducting the test[10] .....................................................................

                         Signed: ……………………..                                      Date: ..……………………

                         Approval Authority1 ……………………………………....…………………..

                         Signed: …………………….                          Date: …..……………… "

                                                  



* The category code may also be in the format L1, L2, L3 etc.

** See clause 3.1.

             *           Former title of the Agreement: Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of Approval and Reciprocal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicle Equipment and Parts, done at Geneva on 20 March 1958.

[1]           M1 and N1 categories of vehicles are defined in the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3.), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev. 4, para. 2. - www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html

[2]           An axle group shall be treated as a single axle and dual wheels shall be treated as a single wheel.

[3]           The distinguishing numbers of the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement are reproduced in Annex 3 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev. 4, Annex 3 - www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html

[4]           An axle group shall be treated as a single axle and dual wheels shall be treated as a single wheel.

[5]           The text in this Regulation assumes that the vehicle steering is controlled by means of a steering wheel. Vehicles using other types of steering control may also be approved to this annex provided the manufacturer is able to demonstrate to the Technical Service that the performance requirements of this Regulation can be met using equivalent steering inputs to the steering inputs stipulated under paragraph 7. of this Regulation.

             [6]           The "nominal" value is understood as being the theoretical target value.

[7]           Distinguishing number of the country which has granted/extended/refused/withdrawn approval (see provisions in the regulation).

[8]           Strike out what does not apply.

[9]           This number is given merely as an example.

[10]           To be signed by different persons if the Technical Service and the Type Approval Authority is the same organization.