Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides for the future management of Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA). It establishes strategic principles for conservation and protection of the outstanding universal value and other heritage values of KAVHA. It seeks to improve connections with the local community to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, including private landholders, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 09 Dec 2016
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR07-Feb-2017
Tabled Senate07-Feb-2017















































Text Box: Section 6: Challenging Issues





6.1                          Commonwealth and Norfolk Island Relationship

Norfolk Island is an external territory of Australia and one of its most geographically isolated communities. The Island has been part of the Commonwealth of Australia since 1914, when it was accepted as an Australian Territory under Section 122 of the Constitution.

Norfolk Island was a self-governing Australian Territory between 1979 and 2015. Under this model, the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly had all local, state and some federal responsibilities (more than any other government in Australia). The Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 provides for the introduction of Australian taxes and laws, resident access to Australia’s health and social  security systems, and for the Australian Government to assume responsibility for delivering a range of functions, including new management arrangements for the KAVHA site.

6.2                          Human Resources

In 2015 most of the staff working within the KAVHA site were Norfolk Island administration employees. The majority of these were included within a works crew of approximately 10 expert tradespeople, responsible for the conservation and maintenance of buildings, structures, gardens, landscape and infrastructure. The Research Centre had two staff. There was also an Administration Officer. The Norfolk Island administration operated the Norfolk Island Museum with its own permanent and casual staff, supported by volunteers. Other officers of the Norfolk Island administration, including the Conservator and Cemetery Sexton, worked within the KAVHA site, but reported separately from the works crew. In addition, the Australian Government employed a Commonwealth Heritage Manager.

In 2015–2016 the staff within the KAVHA site were split between maintenance of the grounds, gardens and buildings, coordination and administration, and the operation of the Research Centre. There was relatively little capacity for new capital work or new interpretive initiatives within the resourcing levels in place at that time. However, the Commonwealth has developed an ongoing capital program in 2015–2016 which has increased available funding. The works program was focused on maintenance works and based on a 1988 Maintenance Manual (which was under review). However, the Museum, which was separately funded by the Norfolk Island administration, was relatively well resourced and could adjust casual staffing to reflect visitor demand, entry fee and tour income.

The relatively small works crew is highly skilled and very experienced to undertake the required maintenance and work of the grounds, gardens, buildings and structures. The works crew are predominantly older men and, in time, if there is not a new generation of apprentices trained and offered opportunities to gain experience, this important skill set is in danger of being lost. However, the quantum of work undertaken and the absence of formally qualified tradespeople (who can be ‘masters’ for apprentices) present barriers to new apprenticeship opportunities. The facilities, and plant and equipment available to the works crew require review and upgrading.







6.3                          Private Landholdings

The KAVHA site includes approximately 50 hectares of freehold or leasehold land, mainly across the hillslopes that form an important landscape backdrop to the historic area. Some significant historic features associated with the phases of settlement at Kingston and Arthur’s Vale are located on some of these properties. There are 17 freehold and 15 leasehold properties within the KAVHA site. Many landholders have occupied these properties for generations. The landholders recognise that the site is an important part of Norfolk Island and Australian history, as well as a part of their own Pitcairner and Norfolk Island heritage.

Landholders have expressed frustration with the perceived complexities of planning approvals processes, the lack of clarity regarding what is permissible, and the costs associated with planning applications. They seek fewer restrictions on development, with development decisions based on careful assessment of the real impacts on the historic site. Better communication and clearer development guidelines by the Norfolk Island administration are seen to be needed, and landholders understandably believe that the same rules should apply to all landholders—government and private alike.

Landholders should have access to expertise, advice and other resources to contribute towards their own heritage and conservation efforts. Consultation with the Norfolk Island Planning Office by a landholder during the initial stages of a proposal could help define what use and development is permissible and the required procedures associated with an application. All landholders can avail themselves of exemptions from the need to obtain development consent for compliant works under the Norfolk Island Plan.

Private landholders feel a strong affinity for Kingston and Arthur’s Vale, reflecting their own long connections to this area. They would like to be regarded as partners in the management of the area, but at present feel excluded. Private landholders also feel that many people are not aware that part of the site is private land, and feel that greater recognition of this fact is needed. They were not represented on the former KAVHA Board and there were no regular consultation opportunities, such as through a community advisory committee or consultative forum. By working together, landholders see opportunities to tackle issues that have otherwise become intractable. These include weed management, especially woody weeds on the slopes, erosion control, thinning of pine plantations and water quality. Landholders have also expressed the view that the boundary of the KAVHA site is inappropriate. While it is beyond the scope of this HMP to consider boundary adjustments, consideration might be given to subdivision and rezoning of private lands along the KAVHA site boundary, thereby providing additional opportunities for some landholders, subject to the conservation of heritage values.

Leaseholders feel that they have been treated particularly unfairly as they have not been able to convert their leasehold land into freehold. They are concerned about the security of tenure over their leasehold land as they want to be able to pass it onto future generations.




6.4                          Cultural Landscape

An integrated approach is needed to manage the KAVHA site as a living cultural landscape. This includes ecosystems, the natural environment, characteristics, heritage values, and social and economic aspects of the place. The setting of a building or other structures is important, not only the building itself. Perceptions, beliefs, stories, experiences and practices can also be considered part of the cultural landscape. Appearance, vistas, atmosphere, sounds and smells contribute to the sense of place at Kingston and Arthur’s Vale, as well as physical elements.

The cultural landscape is subject to use pressures and natural influences, such as shifting sand dunes and significant vegetation. It is important to cater for practices and operational functions as well as protecting and conserving heritage fabric. This includes conserving heritage values while ensuring that operational requirements such as administration, safety, community access and parking continue. In the past, restoration concentrated on Georgian buildings in a neat, manicured landscape, and preservation of the environment and traditional use was not seen as core business.

The ruined elements have aesthetic value and are important to both the site’s historic character and an understanding of all aspects of its history. Earlier generations of Pitcairners avoided using the places of convict incarceration  and punishment, and instead mined these  sites for building materials for use throughout the Island. The agricultural character is not only made up of the pastures and traditional practices such as cattle grazing, but also significant agricultural elements such as irrigation management, road and field relationships, field boundaries and field huts, which contribute to the landscape character. However, sewerage discharge from buildings and cattle grazing contribute to the high level of nutrients within the channel; cattle also disturb archaeological remains. Management intervention is needed to limit negative impacts.

The landscape setting is identified in the Norfolk Island Plan which controls development within the cultural landscape setting. One of the objects of conserving the place is to protect important views to the KAVHA site and vistas from within it, such as the view from the pier, as well as views across the site from vantage points such as Flagstaff Hill and the Queen Elizabeth II lookout. Management involves the assessment of the impact of development within the KAVHA site and its vicinity to ensure that it does not have a detrimental impact on the setting and character of the place. The management of erosion by overly extensive single species tree planting has also impacted on the views and the important overall open agricultural heritage setting of the KAVHA site. Leasehold land outside KAVHA was able to be converted into freehold under an Australian Government land initiative in 2004.






6.5                          Land and Building Use

The private land within the KAVHA site is mainly used for residential and agricultural uses with some tourism uses. The properties have residential buildings, ancillary agricultural structures and landscape features including sheds and fences. Some larger tourist accommodation buildings are highly intrusive both visually and with potential impacts on highly significant structures, such as the silos. Because of the sensitive nature of the landscape setting and its heritage significance, extreme care is needed when considering proposals likely to have detrimental heritage impact. Government involvement in private land is generally limited to consideration of proposed developments or actions. There has been occasional liaison concerning issues such as cattle grazing, fencing, water access, erosion and weed control and heritage conservation.

All of the existing public uses of the buildings and landscape within the KAVHA site are either compatible traditional uses or compatible contemporary uses. Most buildings, generally thought of as public buildings, are located on Crown Land owned by the Commonwealth. All Saints Church (the Commissariat Store) is freehold land owned by the Church of England; however, in many ways it is considered a community building. Part is leased to the Norfolk Island Museum. The long-term occupation of buildings on Crown Land such as Government  offices,  the  Museum and  residences in  Quality Row are authorised  as permissive. Other buildings are occupied under a long-term license or lease, for example the Lions and golf clubs. The current uses of Quality Row houses are compatible uses that operate in accordance with longstanding arrangements.

Temporary summer camping in Point Hunter Public Reserve is a traditional activity that occupies the same area each year—subject to the issuing of permits by the Conservator. Locals also used to holiday in some of the buildings but they are no longer available to rent, and Dewville was demolished. Camping should continue to be managed to avoid pressure on archaeologically sensitive areas, such as the Polynesian site.

Many community events including the Anniversary Day (Bounty Day) celebrations occur in the Prisoners’ Barracks Compound. Munna’s, the works team office and lunch room, is also used occasionally for events and functions. Other buildings and sites could be made available for community events or meetings if required (and if available), for example the boatsheds or the Lion’s Club. Use of various sites during large events has been very successful and appropriate, including the Compound for entertainment and the Parade Ground for parking. Continued resourcing is required to manage pressures from the various uses at the KAVHA site, including monitoring, planning and implementing positive conservation solutions.

6.6                          The Common

Kingston Common, within the KAVHA site, extends across public reserves which are managed by the Norfolk Island administration. Each public reserve has its own plan of management, with particular objectives and requirements. While protocols are in place that allow for provisions in an adopted CMP to prevail over requirements in a Reserve Plan of Management, the overlap and complexity created by this multiple suite of management documents is not desirable.

Kingston Common is used for sporting activities and as a public place for which the Norfolk Islander community feels a special affinity and right to use. Parts of the common are used for cattle grazing; a traditional activity which contributes to the local economy, but one which creates environmental and water quality impacts, and damages sensitive heritage fabric.


6.7                          Water Quality

Concerns have been expressed about the water quality in Watermill Valley and discharge into Emily Bay. Recent studies indicate that water quality is influenced by the grazing of cattle, local septic tanks and management of the wetland area between the Bounty Street Bridge and Emily Bay. Opinions differ about the effect of cattle grazing. This requires careful consideration given that the stock assist with the management of grass within the KAVHA site, as well as having historical associations with the site and providing interest for visitors. Grazing within the KAVHA site also assists the Norfolk Island community by providing pasture. Aquatic weeds may contribute to the removal of nutrients from the surface water flowing into the KAVHA site, but may become problems in themselves. The impact of septic tanks within the KAVHA site is not known.

A review of water quality for Watermill Creek (Emily Bay) catchment, commissioned by the Norfolk Island administration in 2013, identified both human and agricultural potential sources of pollution, including septic tanks and cattle grazing. The report concluded that the Watermill Creek catchment water quality is

consistent with the mix of urban, residential and rural land uses that occur on the fringe of any major metropolitan area or regional city.1 The report provides advice about a range of potential measures that could address water quality issues and potential contaminants within the Emily Bay catchment. It is

beyond the scope of this HMP to propose a specific management approach to water quality. However, it is important that this issue is included within the KAVHA site management.















1 URS, 2013, Norfolk Island Water Quality Study: Emily Bay & Cascade Creek Catchments. Report prepared for the administration of Norfolk Island.

6.8                          Physical Conservation

In view of the heritage value of the KAVHA site, physical conservation should accord with best conservation practice and methodology. It is general practice in conservation works for significant fabric to be conserved in situ. However, conserving heritage values may also depend on interpretation; conserving landscape may require replanting; and conserving traditions may need an organisational or educational response.

Generally, authentic original fabric should be preserved. For example, the only original fabric in the Old Military Barracks is the stone walls (the whole of the interior is reconstructed), whereas most of the fabric in the New Military Barracks is original. Therefore, intervention in the New Military Barracks would appropriately be more closely controlled.

The current presentation of the buildings—cream painted set in mown grass—although well-liked by visitors and locals, is not authentic. The original textures and colours differed substantially. A number of buildings were intended to be utilitarian and this is reflected in their restrained and austere detailing. Internally the buildings were plain with no elaborate decoration. It is appropriate to consider how to achieve more authentic presentation or more accurate interpretation by emphasising conservation of authentic fabric and interpretation of reconstructions.

Some structures have been deliberately conserved as ruins. The integrity of significant ruins vests in their ability to demonstrate historical processes and events, provide evidence of former structures and their locations, and contribute to the visual and evocative qualities of the KAVHA site. For example, the ruin at No. 2/3 Quality Row demonstrates the construction of the buildings, including internal finishes and ovens. The Gaol ruin shows the layout of the Gaol and its drains; its character evokes the sinister character of the place and its rejection by later settlers. Recognising current community pressure to ‘restore’ some ruins (particularly the Crankmill and 2/3 Quality Row), it would be appropriate to present their values more clearly. It is also important that new buildings respect the significance of the conserved ruins and that they are not incorporated within new structures.

Maintenance is fundamental to conservation. A regular program of built and landscape maintenance works has occurred over several decades. The maintenance program, however, has concentrated only on some elements of the main buildings and could be expanded to address other elements such as significant ruins, plantings, and features such as agricultural remains. Over recent years, funding for physical maintenance works and staff has been reduced, whilst some additional funding has been provided for other purposes. More complex and costly maintenance works have not progressed, but routine work such as mowing and painting has been ongoing.






6.9                          Tourism

The KAVHA site is a fundamental part of the Norfolk Island tourism industry; a must-see attraction which is included in virtually every tourist visit. Many Norfolk Island people participate in the tourism industry; often on a part-time or casual basis, depending on seasonality, visitation levels and the nature of tourism events. It is not uncommon to see the same person appear in multiple roles.

Tourist numbers have declined generally over the last decade, but there has been some recent improvement, likely the result of effective marketing by the Norfolk Island Tourism Board. There is a Norfolk Island Tourism Strategic Plan 2013–2023 which recognises the importance of the KAVHA site and acknowledges the need for greater focus on niche markets, development of new products and experiences, and the role of cultural tourism. At present, the tourism offer available at the KAVHA site is dated in style and limited in range—providing considerable opportunity for development of new products and support for the directions of the Norfolk Island Tourism Strategic Plan.

There are limited facilities available for tourist activities within the KAVHA site. There is no formal structure for engagement with participants in the tourism industry in order to identify and address issues. There are considerable opportunities for new tourism based commercial activities, ranging from food and beverage outlets to accommodation, events, or shared information and interpretive resources.

The golf course has potential to be included and more actively managed as part of the ‘tourism’ offer within the KAVHA site.



6.10                 Museum and Research Centre

The Norfolk Island Museum presents exhibitions at four locations: the Pier Store, No.10 Quality Row, the Commissariat Store and the HMS Sirius exhibition in the former Protestant Chapel. The Norfolk Island Museum also conducts a number of activities, including tag-along tours, and manages three significant collections:

·                 the Norfolk Island Museum Trust collection comprises objects from the Norfolk Island Historical Society, particularly artefacts that relate to the Norfolk Island story since 1856;

·                 the KAVHA collection comprises more than 14,000 artefacts recovered from the KAVHA site during conservation works and archaeological investigations; and

·                 the HMS Sirius collection includes approximately 6000 artefacts recovered during official maritime archaeology projects undertaken between 1983 and 2002.

The Norfolk Island Museum Trust collection is owned by the Norfolk Island administration, whereas the KAVHA and HMS Sirius collections are owned by the Australian Government. The KAVHA and HMS Sirius collections are each subject to a Memorandum of Understanding between the Australian Government and the Norfolk Island Government (formerly ANI in the case of the KAVHA collection).

The Norfolk Island Research and Information Centre at No. 9 Quality Row is open on weekdays and makes both archival resources and expertise available to those interested in undertaking research about the KAVHA site and its people, particularly convicts.

There is an inherent logic in combining the resources and functions of the Norfolk Island Museum and the Research and Information Centre as part of the overall KAVHA site management and interpretation. However, a number of practical issues would need to be resolved regarding venues, coordination of collections, resourcing, responsibilities and roles.















6.11                 Community Involvement

For the community of Norfolk Island, the KAVHA site is of vital importance as part of their heritage, a place for leisure and recreation and an important attraction for visitors. Because of these strong, multi-faceted connections, Norfolk Islanders have strong views about the conservation, use and management of the KAVHA site.

When asked as part of the consultation what should not change at the KAVHA site, there was strong Norfolk Islander agreement that free access should continue to be available for the Norfolk Island community. Respondents indicated that the KAVHA site should continue to be a focus for community uses, events and traditions, including recreation and leisure activities. They ascribe importance to the quality of the landscape and building maintenance, and want the scenic beauty of the area to continue to be protected. A clear message from the consultation process was that the Norfolk Island community should have a strong and continuing role in governance and management, and through a local workforce.

The desire to retain community access, uses, events and traditions reflects the importance of this place as part of local identity and community life; it warrants support through more simple approvals processes for formal events and activities. There may also be opportunities to enable more community traditions to be demonstrated within the KAVHA site; for example, harvesting flax for weaving and using conservation projects to demonstrate traditional skills. Policies introduced in this HMP should support and enhance ongoing community connections to the site, and respect for all of the heritage values.

There is a fear in the Norfolk Island community that an entry fee may be imposed in the future, as has been done at other historic sites; this would be strongly resisted. However, the need for increased funding is widely acknowledged, and there are many ideas across the community as to how this could be achieved, including a levy on tourists and introducing some commercial activities on the site.

The most challenging issue identified through community engagement on the HMP was reform of the former KAVHA Board—its role, membership and processes. Opening up communication between KAVHA and the Norfolk Island community, and enabling the community to engage more actively in decisions about future uses and activities across the site is seen as essential. The consultation undertaken to date in the development of this plan has demonstrated a high level of community interest in a greater level of involvement. It has also indicated a strong desire that KAVHA management be more transparent and accountable.







6.12                 Resources and Income

The Norfolk Island administration funds the Norfolk Island Museum, the Conservator and Cemetery Sexton, as well as other services including road maintenance, the cleaning of public amenities, and financial and contract management services.

Some activities within the KAVHA site operate financially independently. These include All Saints Anglican Church, the Museum and the golf club. There are small tenancy revenues generated by some of these uses. Private landholders care for, control and manage their own lands.

The Australian Government provides resources to the KAVHA site through Comcare Insurance. Resources include contractual and administrative support, communications and graphic design and funds contributed by the Office of the Administrator. In addition, maintenance, landscaping and collection care for the Office of the Administrator, Quality Row Residences and Government House is supported.

The KAVHA site currently has limited access to Australian Government grant programs. However, non- Commonwealth institutions can seek Australian Government grant funding for projects within the KAVHA site. There are also other potential grant funding opportunities available from independent sources, as well as through sponsorship or philanthropy.

At present, there is no direct financial contribution from private tourism operations within the KAVHA site towards conservation and management.

The recurrent resources available to the KAVHA site are not commensurate with its regular management and maintenance needs. However in 2015–2016 and beyond, resources for the care, control and management of the KAVHA site will be provided according to a funding agreement negotiated between the Australian Government and Norfolk Island administration. This may comprise co-contributions and additional capital works funded by the Australian Government. Additionally, the Australian Government will explore opportunities to raise revenue from other sources.













6.13                 Synthesis of Issues

The KAVHA site is a heritage place which commands outstanding conservation. Norfolk Islanders and visitors regard the site as well maintained, and the buildings and verdant surrounding cultural landscape as truly beautiful. However, the paradox of the place is that by contrast with its great heritage value, the resources available are modest and recent governance arrangements have been problematic.

Major issues which can be addressed through this HMP include opportunities for:


·                improving governance and management arrangements;

·                instigating values-based decision-making which considers all heritage values;

·                protecting and caring for the natural environment;

·                caring for original historic fabric which is rare, finite, fragile and precious;

·                increasing available resources by broadening the funding base;

·                retaining and looking after highly skilled staff, while providing for the next generation;

·                recognising the importance of the place to the whole Norfolk Island community;

·                responding to the concerns of landholders who want to be more involved;

·                establishing better connections with the tourism industry;

·                fostering the growth of tourism and development of new tourism products;

·                pursuing sympathetic commercial development;

·                improving interpretation, education and transmission of heritage values; and

·                ensuring that the KAVHA site continues to have a life in the Norfolk Island community.




























































Text Box: Section 7: Strategic Principles





7.1            Approach to Heritage Management

The KAVHA site is at a key point in its history. The KAVHA site is one of the properties which comprise the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage property. However, the current resourcing and management arrangements are  not adequate for  long-term conservation or the continuation and transmission of heritage values. There has been an uneasy relationship between the place, government agencies, the previous KAVHA Board, managers, local people (including private landholders), and the broader Norfolk Island community. Government arrangements for Norfolk Island itself are changing.

The KAVHA site is an essential attraction for Norfolk Island tourism. Opportunities are available to improve the experience for visitors, while providing benefits to local people and the tourism industry. There are also opportunities to extend and improve the interpretation of the place, both for Norfolk Island visitors and in a wider educational context. Improving governance and management arrangements for the KAVHA site and re-engaging the Norfolk Island community will require some changes by the Australian Government and the Norfolk Island administration. Such change is fundamental to successful conservation. Management of the KAVHA site should reflect best practice heritage management principles such as those established in The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance 2013 (the Burra Charter), the Cairns Communiqué, the Australian Convict Sites Strategic Management Framework and the Australian World Heritage management principles under the EPBC Regulations 2000:

Heritage management principles provide a guiding framework for excellence in managing heritage properties. They set the standard and scope for the way places should be managed in order to best protect the heritage values for the generations ahead.1



1 Heritage Management Principles <http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/c7817f92-4490-49b2-a02a-845b7f1f2ef3/files/mgt- principles.pdf>.

Places on the Australian National Heritage List are required to have management plans which set out how the heritage values will be managed and protected over time. The five overarching strategic principles set out in this section of the HMP embody the following seven National Heritage management principles:

1.                The objective in managing National Heritage places is to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit, to all generations, their National Heritage values.

2.                The management of National Heritage places should use the best available knowledge, skills and standards for those places, and include ongoing technical and community input to decisions and actions that may have a significant impact on their National Heritage values.

3.                The management of National Heritage places should respect all heritage values and seek to integrate, where appropriate, any Commonwealth, state, territory and local government responsibilities for those places.

4.                The management of National Heritage places should ensure that their use and presentation is consistent with the conservation of their National Heritage values.

5.                The management of National Heritage places should make timely and appropriate provision for community involvement, especially by people who:

(a)             have a particular interest in, or associations with, the place, and


(b)             may be affected by the management of the place.


6.                Indigenous people are the primary source of information on the value of their heritage and the active participation of Indigenous people in identification, assessment and management is integral to the effective protection of Indigenous heritage values.

7.                The management of National Heritage places should provide for regular monitoring, review and reporting on the conservation of National Heritage values.2

The KAVHA site needs committed action and focus so that heritage values are conserved and transmitted in accordance with the requirements of the World Heritage Convention (and its Operational Guidelines) to enable the Australian Government to comply with the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth), to meet the seven National Heritage management principles, and for the Norfolk Island administration to meet its obligations to the place, its environment and the Norfolk Island community.

Drawing from the preceding analysis of challenging issues, this section of the HMP presents the strategic approach required to manage and conserve the KAVHA site for current and future generations. The strategic principles are intended to guide decision-making, whereas the policies in Section 8 set out what will be done to conserve and manage the KAVHA site. Within each of the following sections, a relevant citation is provided from the Operational Guidelines to the World Heritage Convention, along with key principles that have emerged from background research and community consultation and engagement.




2 <http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/c7817f92-4490-49b2-a02a-845b7f1f2ef3/files/mgt-principles.pdf>


7.2           Heritage Conservation

Protection and management of World Heritage properties should ensure that their Outstanding Universal Value, including the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity at the time of inscription, are sustained or enhanced over time.3


Text Box: The key principles are:

•	Management   of   the   KAVHA   site   should   be   based   on   understanding   and conservation of identified heritage values.
•	The KAVHA site should be conserved in accordance with the Burra Charter of Australia ICOMOS.
•	Conservation should focus on authenticity and integrity.
•	Adequate resources should be allocated to conserve heritage values.

•	The condition of heritage values should be monitored.



The KAVHA site is recognised as a place with attributes of Outstanding Universal Value which encompass both natural and cultural attributes, evident in individual site elements, the totality of the landscape, authentic and reconstructed historic fabric, plus a rich array of important uses, strong associations and powerful meanings. The values are multiple, complex, interrelated and not always readily apparent. Some values are universally held, whereas others relate to particular people or communities. All values—local, national or international, whether reflected in individual tangible and intangible elements or in the totality of the place—need to be identified; management decision-making should be framed by the guiding principle that all of these values should be retained.

The KAVHA site has other values, such as those related to amenity or economic activity, that may not necessarily be integral aspects of heritage value. These values are also important considerations for management decision-making. As a means of ensuring that management is well-informed and values- based, the conservation and management of the KAVHA site should accord with the Burra Charter. The Burra Charter provides a structured framework for understanding heritage significance, evaluating relevant issues, and thereby developing balanced conservation policies. The Burra Charter also provides useful principles, processes and guidelines for cultural heritage place management.





3 <http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines> II.F 96.

One of the most outstanding attributes of the KAVHA site is its authenticity. The place presents an extremely rare eighteenth and nineteenth-century cultural landscape, with one of the finest collections of Georgian period buildings in a structured rural setting. The totality of the composition, including landscape elements, archaeological resources, structures and associations that attach to what is known or believed about the place, displays a high degree of integrity and authenticity. As a cultural resource, the place is rare, precious and fragile—it is irreplaceable (either in whole or in part) if damaged or destroyed. Conservation and management decisions, including consideration of opportunities for change or intervention, should therefore be framed by an overall intention to conserve original design elements and historic fabric. Physical conservation also involves maintenance, which may require the replacement of defective fabric with new fabric of the same form and function. New uses or other changes may be appropriate, but in such cases an important principle is that change should be reversible. Traditions and cultural expressions may require support for their continuation or revival.

Monitoring of decisions and physical works is required to ensure that the KAVHA site is being conserved and managed in a manner which retains identified values. It would therefore be appropriate to instigate a regular evaluation of the state of heritage at the KAVHA site. Such an evaluation should inform the Commonwealth’s compulsory periodic reporting to the World Heritage Committee on the Australian Convict Sites.

Despite the allocations of funding made in previous years through the Memorandum of Understanding between the Commonwealth and the Government of Norfolk Island (and additional Australian Government funded capital programs), the resources currently available for conservation of the KAVHA site, including physical work and other conservation activities such as interpretation, are not commensurate with the calibre of  the place. Recognising the current limits on available Commonwealth and Norfolk Island funding, it is important to instigate additional resource streams including, for example, commercial income from appropriate new site uses, contributions from tourism or access to additional grant funding.

One of the most important resources for effective conservation of the KAVHA site is adequate knowledge, skills and expertise. To this end, the existing knowledge and highly developed skills of the current staff who contribute to conservation and management of the KAVHA site should be recognised, recorded and passed onto future generations; and access should be available to relevant specialist professional and heritage trades expertise.











7.3           Life in the Community

State Parties to the World Heritage Convention have the responsibility to adopt general policies to… give the heritage a function in the life of the community.4


Text Box: The key principles are:

•	Local people and their cultures should be respected.

•	Celebration of local traditions, uses and activities, including recreation and leisure, should be encouraged and continued.
•	The Norfolk Island community, including private landholders, should be engaged with the KAVHA site and should participate in its conservation, interpretation and management.



Kingston and Arthur’s Vale is part of the everyday and celebratory life of the community of Norfolk Island. This area represents the origins of the Norfolk Island community, being the focus of three eighteenth and nineteenth-century settlements, including the first home for the Pitcairn Islanders when resettled on Norfolk Island in 1856. Through continuing community use, it represents a palimpsest of community connections and values.

Respect for local people, culture and traditional practices is fundamental. The KAVHA site represents key stories that are a significant part of community identity. In this place, the Norfolk Island community celebrates and connects with the past through traditions and celebrations, engaging, recognising and including the whole community from Pitcairn descendants through to newcomers. The KAVHA site is also a place where a wide range of community traditions continue; from enacting the Pitcairner landing on Anniversary (Bounty) Day to gathering hi hi and unloading ships using lighters. The KAVHA site also contains the Island’s cemetery, which is a place of great importance to the Norfolk Island community.






4 <http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines> I.C 15. The World Heritage Committee recommended strengthening and developing consultation between the site manager and landholders through a ‘shared charter of good conduct.’ This strategic principle and associated policies and actions address this recommendation.

The KAVHA site is also a place enjoyed by Norfolk Islanders for its beauty, as a place of reflection, and as a focus for a range of recreation, sport and leisure activities and events. Many of these activities are long- standing and contribute to what it means to be a Norfolk Islander—examples include fishing, having a picnic and swimming in Emily Bay.

Maintaining the vitally important roles of the KAVHA site in the life of the Norfolk Island community means ensuring that Norfolk Islanders can continue to engage with the site in both traditional and contemporary ways. This continuing engagement can and should respect and conserve both associative values and other heritage values of the KAVHA site. Traditions and cultural expressions are not immutable; over time adaptations may occur which help to retain them as part of community life. Revival of activities on the KAVHA site may further enhance important aspects of local culture, as well as offering new ways for visitors to engage with the site and local people.

The local community is a key stakeholder. The depth of community connection to the KAVHA site means that it is vital to engage the community in the consideration of actions that will affect the overall conservation, use and development of the site. Community engagement should also include opportunities to be actively involved in caring for and interpreting the history of the KAVHA site, especially in relation to people’s own experiences and their family history. The KAVHA site includes both public and private land, and land uses and land management practices across the site are also an expression of Norfolk Islander values. Effective partnerships between public and private landholders are needed to tackle problematic issues and conserve evidence of each settlement period, regardless of land tenure.

Opportunities should be pursued to provide benefits for private landholders in recognition of their contribution to the care and management of the KAVHA site.




7.4           Sustainable Tourism

World Heritage properties may support a variety of ongoing and proposed uses that are ecologically and culturally sustainable and which may contribute to the quality of life of communities concerned.5


Text Box: The key principles are:

•	Tourism	should	provide	positive	and	engaging	visitor	experiences	which communicate heritage values.
•	Tourism should support local traditions.

•	Tourism should provide benefits to local people.

•	Tourism at the KAVHA site should minimise impacts on heritage values.

•	The  tourism  industry  should  be  contributing  partners  in  the  conservation  and management of the KAVHA site.



Sustainable tourism involves balancing environmental, cultural, social and economic demands to deliver intergenerational equity—that is, to meet the needs of current generations without compromising the needs of future generations.

Tourism at the KAVHA site should provide visitors with information about the values of the place and its conservation, thereby encouraging appropriate visitor behaviour and enhancing visitor experience. The history and significance of the place, including individual elements and related places, should be communicated to visitors in a way that is consistent, coordinated and inspirational. Appropriate experiences should be offered for different markets so that the full range of visitors will have a positive experience that meets, or preferably exceeds, their needs and expectations.








5 <http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines> II.F 119.