Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides for the future management of Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA). It establishes strategic principles for conservation and protection of the outstanding universal value and other heritage values of KAVHA. It seeks to improve connections with the local community to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, including private landholders, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 09 Dec 2016
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR07-Feb-2017
Tabled Senate07-Feb-2017


By the time Major Joseph Anderson of the 50th Regiment arrived in April 1834, the place was known as Kingston. Anderson directed construction of the Commissariat Store, the New Military Barracks, and in 1836 commenced work on a New Gaol based on the radiating-wing principle. Other works included improvements to drainage and the creation of an ornamental garden. His administration was based upon discipline and the use of informers within the convict population, supported by a loyal civil and military staff, as well as a body of former soldiers now under sentence. He was a feared and hated Commandant—the lash was freely used and many laboured in chains, some in the wet quarries. The use of ploughs was forbidden and only manual labour was used. In 1836 Reverend Atkins refused to sign a report on the death of a prisoner who he claimed died having been flogged while critically ill with dysentery. The year 1838 saw the arrival of the Royal Engineer, Lieutenant Lugard, who surveyed the settlement and later designed a number of the buildings. Lugard proposed improvements at the Landing Place, and construction of the Kingston Pier commenced in 1839 and continued until 1847, but it was never completed.

When Major Thomas Bunbury replaced Anderson in April 1839, there were 1200 prisoners and 180 soldiers. Bunbury reintroduced the plough, practical agricultural techniques and flax production. He constructed two underground silos above the Commissariat Store, and made changes to the Watermill dam system. He allocated easier labour to the well-behaved, encouraged church services and allowed individual gardens. Bunbury’s command was terminated abruptly in September 1839 after he attempted to

stamp  out irregularities  within  the  80th   Regiment by removing their  private  huts  and  gardens. This

precipitated a mutiny by the troops on 1 July 1839, resulting in the immediate recall of Bunbury and the entire garrison  and his replacement by a  caretaker, Commandant Major Thomas Ryan  of  the 50th Regiment. During his brief tenure, Ryan continued with building programs and was an enlightened Commandant with a disciplined and humane approach.

Prison reformer, Captain Alexander Maconochie RN, took command in March 1840—a time when the convict population reached its highest number of 1872. He found a lack of accommodation for prisoners, inadequate mess facilities and an absence of schools and places of worship. Maconochie implemented his system of reform among the English prisoners—that is, convicts sent directly from Britain as opposed to the colonial convicts sent as the result of a second conviction. English prisoners were stationed at the agricultural outstations at Longridge and Cascade, away from colonial prisoners in Kingston. Trusted prisoners were also permitted to establish their own quarters and gardens away from the main settlements, reducing overcrowding at Kingston and the need for new buildings.

However, between July and October 1840, Protestant and Catholic Chapels were constructed within the Prisoners’ Barracks Compound—without the permission of the Colonial Secretary or approval of the Commanding Royal Engineer. Maconochie suspended work on the New Gaol and saw it as a place fit for use only as a ‘quarry’. From 1842 to 1844, more houses were needed for additional Civil Officers; these were built on Military Road (Quality Row) to a plan developed by Anderson and Lugard in February 1839.




Maconochie's reforms faced criticism by 1843. Governor Gipps arrived on the Island to inspect it for himself and found the settlement an orderly community. Opposition to Maconochie's scheme, however, was such that Major Joseph Childs RM was commissioned to take charge of the Island in January 1844. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, control of the Norfolk Island Penal Station was transferred to Van Diemen’s Land from 1844. Captain Robert Gorges Hamilton of the Royal Engineers transferred from Hobart to superintend works.

Childs was required to enforce penalties and introduce greater discipline. He restored a harsh penal code and withdrew indulgences for good behaviour, including the opportunity to cultivate private gardens. Childs had a tenuous grasp of penal administration and a poor relationship with Stipendiary Magistrate, Samuel Barrow. Barrow had been sent to deal with the ‘Ring’, a group of recalcitrant old hands. He created a ‘police’ force answerable to himself and not to the Commandant. Further breakdowns in discipline forced Childs to resign in February 1846. Rev Naylor, Chaplain, reported in detail a regime of brutal punishment. The report of Robert Pringle Stewart, a former commissioner and magistrate, was critical and stressed the need for changes.

Childs’ resignation was accepted on 10 July 1846, nine days after the so-called ‘Cooking Pot Uprising’ of 1 July 1846. Barrow had ordered the withdrawal of convicts’ private cooking pots and Childs complied with the request. The subsequent uprising saw the murder of four minor officials and the beating of informers. Childs’ replacement was a civilian, John Price. Price arrived at the beginning of August 1846 to take charge and to administer punishment to those involved in the uprising. Twenty-six convicts implicated in the revolt were placed on trial; twelve were hanged in two groups of six on 13 October 1846. They were buried in an old saw pit on the eastern side of the cemetery, now known as Murderers’ Mound.

Price continued with the work on the New Gaol, and by 1847 it was substantially complete. In the same year, however, Britain’s Secretary of State for the Colonies informed the Governor of New South Wales that the penal settlement on Norfolk Island was to be abolished. The convict population was reduced from 1820 in December 1846 to 857 in December 1847, and the size of the garrison was halved. Norfolk Island was to be for colonial prisoners only, and works no longer needed were abandoned. Between 1849 and 1851, the treatment of convicts (particularly the increased use of corporal punishment) was of concern to the administration in Hobart. The convict population was reduced to 495 by the end of 1852, and Price left the Island in January 1853. There were only 119 convicts on the Island in October 1854. Van Diemen’s Land, under the name Tasmania, was preparing for a measure of self-government that entailed the cessation of transportation to its territories, including Norfolk Island.





3.3.5 Third (Pitcairn) Settlement 1856 to Present


In 1852, following several years of negotiations, the British Home Office decided to relocate the Pitcairners. By this time the community were devout Christians and had outgrown Pitcairn Island. With the penal settlement closure imminent, Norfolk Island was deemed to be a suitable place.

The Pitcairn community had its origins in the mutiny on HMAV Bounty. Under Captain Bligh, HMAV Bounty had sailed from Britain to Tahiti to acquire breadfruit plants to establish in the West Indies as a food supply for plantation slaves. On 28 April 1789, after leaving Tahiti, the crew led by Fletcher Christian mutinied and Bligh and 18 others were forced into the ship’s launch whilst the mutineers sailed the ship to Tahiti. Bligh sailed to Timor and returned to England in 1790. The mutineers and a group of Tahitians left Tahiti seeking to settle on a remote island. They established a community on Pitcairn Island where they scuttled the HMAV Bounty. The community remained isolated until 1808 when American whalers visited, by which time only a single mutineer, John Adams, and no Tahitian men remained alive, after a series of murders and other deaths.

On 20 September 1854 Sir William Denison, the new Governor of New South Wales, requested that Norfolk Island be placed under his jurisdiction. In September 1855, Denison dispatched Captain Stephen Fremantle in HMS Juno to Pitcairn to find out if the inhabitants wanted to move to Norfolk Island. The people of Pitcairn voted to make the transfer and they sailed on the Morayshire, landing at Kingston on 8 June 1856.

The Pitcairn Islanders first stayed in ‘barracks’, presumably the New Military Barracks, and were made familiar with the place and the operation of the mills and the blacksmith's shop. By 1857 the Islanders were in possession of the Kingston buildings, but they had difficulty repairing them owing to a lack of experience and skills, and the small number of adult males. They maintained only those they needed. Each household head was allocated a 50 acre lot, away from Kingston. A formal survey was made in 1858 and titles were issued in 1859. These regulations prevented the sale of land issued by grant from the Crown to people who did not have permission to live on the Island. This differed from the Pitcairners’ understanding that the Island had been

ceded to them.2  Divergent views about the ownership of Norfolk Island, and particularly whether the Pitcairn

Islanders received title to the entirety of Norfolk Island or specific lots, remain today.


The Pitcairn settlers built a timber church in 1870 on the former Parade Ground, but it was destroyed by a severe storm in 1874. It was not rebuilt; instead the church was transferred to the altered former Commissariat Store. Some buildings were used by shore whaling companies, one as a school and many as houses. Throughout the 1870s and 1880s, a number of the buildings at Kingston decayed—these were primarily buildings associated directly with the convicts, such as the New Gaol, Lumber Yard, Convict Barracks and Civil Hospital. Until 1900 few significant physical changes occurred in Kingston. A courtroom was built in the New Military Barracks in 1896 and some buildings were modified as needed for use. 1897 saw a regular steamship service to Sydney, run by Burns Philp who altered the Old Military Barracks as their office. Additions and alterations were also made to some of the houses.

The administration of Norfolk Island was transferred to the Governor of New South Wales, taking effect on 1 January 1901. In 1903 the New South Wales Government decided to issue licenses for occupation of the Kingston houses that were not held by deed of grant, in order to combat their continued decay. The licences were conditional on maintenance and limited the inheriting of properties. Evictions of protesting residents and ongoing tensions resulted in the burning of a number of houses in 1908. The Norfolk Island Act of 1913 established the place as a territory under the Commonwealth of Australia.

During the 1920s a number of the former convict buildings were renovated for use by the administration as offices and residences. Two new board and batten houses were built near the official buildings, and later houses were built on the surrounding hills. The tourist trade also saw the construction of a guest house (Dewville) to the east of the Quality Row houses, and the creation of the golf course (which also contained a racetrack). Channelling and drainage works were undertaken. During World War II, the Pier was the main


2 January 1859, Denison in a letter to the Islanders. ‘Journal’, November 1857, in ‘Denison, Varieties of Vice-regal Life’, Vol.1, London 1870, p

418. Published in Nobbs Norfolk Island and Its Third Settlement, 2006.


landing site for personnel and equipment associated with the construction of the airfield. Stone was quarried from Point Hunter, sand was removed from Emily and Cemetery Bays, and buildings were used as quarters. After World War II tourism increased, and in the 1950s a number of buildings were repaired. Some ruins were removed, leaving empty compounds for use as community facilities, and other buildings were used as government offices.

The Commonwealth Department of Housing commenced a program of restoration in 1962, which continued into the 1970s. During this period the Norfolk Island Act (1979) (now amended, see Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 No. 59, 2015) conferred a degree of self -government. In 1980 the Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Management Plan was prepared under the guidance of an interdepartmental committee. The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Management Board was established under a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 1989 (revised in 1994) to manage the conservation of the area and advise the Norfolk Island and Australian Governments.

The KAVHA works team continued to repair and maintain the site, and conducted restoration and interpretive works. Some intrusive buildings and additions were removed. The remaining buildings continue to be used by the Australian Government, the Norfolk Island administration, the Administrator, the Norfolk Island Museum, KAVHA office, the works team, the Golf Club, the All Saints Anglican Church and the Lions Club. Privately owned buildings continue to be residences and tourist accommodation, and some land is grazed and farmed. In 2006 the Australian Government undertook extensive works to the Pier, including the addition of concrete paving.

In August 2015 an interim KAVHA Steering Group was established, comprising the Executive Director of Local Government and Territories Division of the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development and the Executive Director of Norfolk Island. The former KAVHA Board was reconstituted as the KAVHA Advisory Committee, and the Commonwealth Heritage Manager became the manager of the KAVHA site. These arrangements replaced the 1994 MOU. In future, the management arrangements for KAVHA will be outlined in a Service Delivery Agreement between the Commonwealth and the Norfolk Island Regional Council.

A detailed historical chronology is provided at Appendix 11.5.



3.4 Site Description


3.4.1 Introduction


The settlement of Kingston is on the coastal lowland. On the foreshore are rocky headlands, two sandy beaches and Emily and Slaughter Bays, protected by a coral reef. Lookouts give views over the town to Nepean and  Phillip Islands. The convict built Georgian buildings of  Kingston are seen against the backdrop of open green hills and groves of Norfolk Island pines. The combination and juxtaposition of natural beauty, fine architecture and daily life with the reality of its convict penal settlement history give the KAVHA site a distinct sense of place and heritage value, aspects of which are important to Norfolk Island, Australia and the world.

3.4.2 Remnant Natural Features


The streams originally emptied into a swamp behind a foreshore ridge. Clay and organic matter were deposited and created a distinctive saprophytic deposit containing tree trunks, known as the ‘fossilised forest’. This formation is visible at low tide on Cemetery Beach. Many species have been introduced and many endemic species, particularly birds, have become extinct since human settlement. Some species survive only as archaeological remains. Corals, fish and rich marine life survive on the reef and in the bays off KAVHA. The Norfolk Island pine on Point Hunter, a group near Chimney Hill, one at Government House and some White Oaks near Tributary Creek may predate European settlement.

3.4.3 Natural Species


Significant natural species recorded within the KAVHA site include the rare coastal native plant Euphorbia obliqua and the endemic Senecio hooglandii, found in the Point Hunter Reserve. Other significant species include freshwater shrimp, the Short-finned and Long-finned Eel, seabirds including the Wedge-tailed Shearwater,  several  species  of  native  terrestrial  birds  such  as  the White-faced  Heron  and  Sacred

Kingfisher, and migratory waders such as the Ruddy Turnstone, Pacific Golden Plover, Bar-tailed Godwit and, occasionally, the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper.3

Norfolk Island has a diverse land snail fauna. Nine species of land snail were recorded within Kingston Common in 1997. One of the nine species recorded is rare and confined to a single rocky outcrop.

Within the Cemetery Reserve, the key natural features are copses of Melky Tree and White Oak, sand dune vegetation (particularly Calystegia), and fossil deposits and remains.

Watermill and Town Creeks feature freshwater  marsh and wetland habitats.  The freshwater  marsh provides habitat for the endemic freshwater shrimp and other native and endemic aquatic fauna, including wetland birds. The Kingston wetland is unique within reserves on Norfolk Island and important for native wetland species such as the Tarler Bird.



3 Point Hunter Reserve, Draft Plan of Management, Part B, p 10.


3.4.4 Introduced Species


There are a number of introduced species within the KAVHA site and reserves. These include chickens, geese, pigeons and Mallard ducks. Feral cats and rats are present. The destructive army worm (which may be a native species based on King’s description of damage to crops in the First (Colonial) Settlement period) has affected the grass cover within the KAVHA site public reserves.

Grazing stock is recognised as a significant feature of the cultural landscape, but contributes to ongoing land management issues such as erosion through overgrazing. Grazing also impacts on archaeological resources, natural vegetation and water quality.

Woody weeds such as Lantana, African Olive, Red Guava and Hakea are apparent on the hills and within some public reserve lands. Thistles, Hawaiian Holly, Wild Tobacco and Poison Bush occur in the bank of the Watermill Creek channel.

Root fungus (Phellinus noxius) has affected several mature Norfolk Island pines and White Oaks within the Government House Reserve.

Marram grass, though not native to Norfolk Island, plays an important role in dune stabilisation. It is likely to have been introduced to the KAVHA site to stabilise the foreshore after sand mining at Emily Bay and Cemetery Beach.

3.4.5 Polynesian Remains


Recent archaeological excavations revealed a Polynesian habitation site at Emily Bay dating from c1200AD. There is a dark-coloured cultural layer below the sand, structural remains, an extensive artefact assemblage and evidence of landscape modification. The structures include ovens, refuse pits, postholes and a paved structure interpreted as a rudimentary ‘marae’. The remains are covered with sand. Obsidian flakes found during the excavation, which were determined after analysis to be from the Kermadecs, and other artefacts are held in the Norfolk Island Museum.



3.4.6 First (Colonial) Settlement 1788–1814


The landing place used in 1788 was near the present Pier, but has eroded. A central road led from there to the first Government House. Foundations, underground drains and cuttings in the hillside survive of the mostly timber structures destroyed in 1814. Previous services excavations found extensive archaeological remains. There was one burial near the landing place and burials at Emily Bay before 1796–1798; remains, if found, would be highly significant.

First Government Houses


Archaeological remains of the first two Government Houses are under the later Surgeon’s Quarters. Artefacts, including samples of  building materials, are in the museum. The road alignment, on the common to the north, skirts what was the 1790s Governor’s Garden. The current Government House contains footings and walls (to about sill height) of the third Government House constructed c1803.

Other Buildings


At least 60 buildings—with associated plantings, farmlands, roads, drainage channels and services— existed within the KAVHA site before 1814. Only 15 remains are known, such as vestiges incorporated in later buildings. The first hospital, Surgeon’s Quarters and the hospital garden sites are beneath the site of the later Prisoners’ Compound and Lumberyard—this, and west of the New Gaol, may have archaeological deposits.

The Wreck of the HMS Sirius


The wreck of the Sirius is on the outer side of the reef. Artefacts have been recovered and some of the more significant objects are displayed in the Norfolk Island Museum, including an anchor. Two more anchors are on mainland Australia.

Agricultural and Industrial Activities


In Arthur’s Vale a section of channelled stream in its 1790s alignment remains, as well as faint field boundaries—these are the same as shown on George Raper’s map (which shows the first watermill, dam and millpond, channel, field boundaries, plantations, the government farm and small holdings in the valley). Plantings of lemon trees and guavas naturalised and now occur throughout the Island. Weeds such as Lantana and wild olive (hedging plants) may have escaped from early gardens. Building lime was manufactured from c1792 and one partly surviving kiln may date from pre 1814.

Landscape Modifications


Earthworks were undertaken for agriculture, roads and building. Roads were made up Flagstaff Hill into Arthur’s Vale, up a ridge near current Middlegate Road and along Soldiers Gully. The road up Flagstaff Hill eroded but has been stabilised. The road to Longridge is evident on the ridgeline. In Soldiers Gully there is a dam, a cutting in the hillside and a road route (some of which may date from the First (Colonial) Settlement).



3.4.7 Subsequent Settlements


The post-1825 features of the KAVHA site are discussed for each area, A to N, as shown in Figure 3.1.


A         Government House


Few structures survive from 1825–1830, but there may be remains of a stockade near Government House, the prisoners’ camp near the sports field, wattle and grass huts, and temporary weatherboard buildings. Rebuilt in 1825, Government House is remarkably intact with high quality joinery in doors, architraves, chimney pieces, built-in cupboards, window reveals and internal shutters. Hinges are stamped with the broad arrow. External stonework, including quoins, sills and verandah flagging survives. The house is still used as an official residence.

The flower garden layout is similar to how it was historically. There are also remains of a rectangular ornamental garden surrounded by Norfolk Island pines, now old trees. Driveways survive but some modern plantings interfere with views. The rear service yard and some outbuildings remain, and other ruins were re-roofed in 1970–1980 as storerooms and workshops. A curved stone gateway has been partly reconstructed. There are remains of a gatekeeper’s lodge and early stockyards.

B & C Lowlands and Cemetery Reserve


The cemetery has been in use since c1798. The initial area has a stone gate, corner posts and memorials of calcarenite. After 1856, the cemetery extended west and marble headstones were used. Some lettering was re-cut in the 1960s, possibly earlier. Further east, on land that was at that time unconsecrated ground, is Murderers’ Mound—the unmarked burial site of members of the 1846 convict uprising.

In 1836 a long mound was formed to stop drifting sand. Much of the mound was removed by c1950 for fill but sections remain. Road formations remain to Point Hunter and to the quarries and windmill. The area was a golf course by the early twentieth century, sharing the site with a racetrack. A cutting remains where there was a line of rock crushers during World War II, when the old quarry was also reworked. They produced road base for the airstrip. During World War II Point Hunter was quarried; the hole was later used as a tip and is now a picnic area.

D             Quality Row


The 1830s formal layout of Kingston had the convict establishment on the foreshore and the military establishment on the north side of the swamp.








The Old Military Barracks


The compound wall, with corner observation towers, encloses the central 1832 barracks and flanking officers’ quarters. Ancillary buildings are the former officers’ outbuilding, officers’ privy, guard room, powder magazine, military hospital and wells. In 1855 the main barracks became a Methodist Church with the first floor and the unstable upper (third) storey removed and a new gable roof added. Burns Philp’s early twentieth-century additions have been removed, as have changes for the c1945–1979 Works Depot. In 1979 the earlier form was partly reinstated and the buildings adapted for the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly and Court.

The New Military Barracks


This complex, constructed in 1835–1837, has a larger central barracks flanked by officers’ quarters (reconstructed after a fire) and the archaeological remains of a military hospital. The central building has two large rooms on each floor (now subdivided by internally by partitions, however, they retain their original volume and some of the original plaster finish). The rooms are articulated externally through the fenestration pattern. A series of turned timber columns support the front verandah at ground level. The central stair hall has sandstone flagging and a stone stair. The officer’s outbuilding became a lock-up c1910. The Powder Magazine, which originally had a slate roof, is largely intact as is the guard house, although only the stonework is original. The compound wall, including the main archway and corner turrets, survives.

In 1856, Pitcairners initially lived in the barracks. The school was on the second floor from 1856 to 1911, and the Pitcairners’ courtroom (built in 1896) was on the ground floor. The board and batten ceilings are from this time. In 1926, buildings in this compound were extensively renovated for the administration of Norfolk Island. The disused upper floor was renovated as offices in 1946. The courtroom joinery was removed after 1974 and is in the museum.




The Former Commissariat Store


The building is largely intact with stone walls, timber internal floors, roof structure and the impressive front stair. On the parapet is a dedication to Major Anderson. Sheds along the north and west walls have been removed but their rooflines are evident in the compound wall. When the building was converted into an Anglican Church in 1874, the first floor was removed to create a double height space and a stained glass window was added. The museum’s archaeological collection is now in the ground floor and the upper floor is unused.

Officers’ Quarters, Quality Row


In 1832–1847, 11 residences were built and now form an impressive streetscape. They are set back from the road, sitting on a high plinth with verandahs. They have masonry walls, timber verandah columns and roof structure, and originally had timber shingled roofs. Each has a central hall with two rooms on each side, a rear service courtyard, a well, a separate kitchen block and servants quarters, and one has stables. Four larger first-class quarters were built (D1, D7, D9 and D11), six second-class quarters and one duplex (D2/3). There are timber entry gates in stone front walls that enclose a front presentation garden, rear garden (utility and productive) and side and courtyard gardens (utility, productive or presentation).

The houses were allocated to Pitcairn families by a lottery. Their board and batten additions have been removed but introduced tropical plants and fruits survive at Nos 6, 9 and 10, as well as hedges of tecoma, hibiscus and red leaf. In the past, Nos 1, 5 and 8 Quality Row were destroyed by fire, while Nos 3, 4, and 9 have been damaged by fire at various times, and other houses have deteriorated. Nos 2, 3 and 4, which have also been burnt, are conserved as ruins. No. 11 is offices, No. 10 is a house museum, No. 9 a research centre and No. 1 the golf clubhouse. The others are residences. In the early and mid-twentieth century, tourist accommodation—Dewville and the later Paradise Hotel—were built east of the houses but later demolished. The site is now a picnic area. The ruin of a police hut survives further east.

The Parade Ground was formed c1834 with fill from the Commissariat Store site, and a stone vaulted drain was built over the creek. A sunken public water tank was built, now called the Officers Bath.

Reconstruction Program


From 1962 compound walls were stabilised and bagged. Architects supervised works at No. 8 Quality Row in 1969–1970, developing the approach used subsequently. Buildings have been reconstructed to their mid-nineteenth century configuration. Some details have been changed including the use of smooth render to the walls, which were originally rougher pebbledash. Much of the joinery has been replaced and original joinery samples are in the museum. White PVC rainwater goods are evident as is asbestos andlater fibre cement shingle roofing, some of which has now been replaced with timber shingles. Often works were  initialled and dated. Physical evidence shows changes in conservation practice. Some stabilised ruins have evidence of the original construction and finishes.

E             Uplands and Stockyard Valley


To the north of the buildings and houses along Quality Row, Stockyard Valley includes remains of the Roman Catholic Priests and Commissariat Storekeepers gardens, basalt pigsties and a dwelling, and cultural plantings, including citrus and bananas. A nearby level area crossed by drains in a rectangular pattern is the site of the military officers’ gardens. An unpaved road leads up the valley to the north. Parts of the 1840s reticulated water supply, and earthen and timber remains of a dam survive in this area, as does archaeological evidence of stockyards. Large underground grain storage silos, above the Commissariat Store, have bottle-shaped necks lined with stone, and bases and walls cut into the earth.

Two Islander houses, built after 1900, have timber frames, board and batten cladding and a sand paint finish. There is a panoramic view from the Queen Elizabeth II Lookout, where there is a memorial that marks the royal visit to Norfolk Island in 1974. Water for the fire hydrants is supplied from a tank located on Rooty Hill, which is filled with water pumped from Towns Creek.


In 1957 eucalypts were planted to stabilise the north side of Flagstaff Hill. They were cut in 2002, leaving good regeneration in the understorey. Tree planting, mostly Norfolk Island pines, has been used to stabilise badly eroded hillsides. Private tourist accommodation buildings include Islander Lodge, Panorama Apartments and Kingston Cottages.

F             Kingston Common (the Swamp)


The channel was cut to drain the swamp, and a road (now Pier Street) was made across it by 1796. By 1839 two more roads and several stone bridges were constructed which are still used today. In the mid- 1830s a public parterre was formed and the watercourse was curved, forming a serpentine channel which was subsequently filled in. The stone and concrete-lined open drain was built in 1938–1942. The road network was formed prior to 1856 and there are many stone retaining walls, kerbs, culverts and drains. In the early twentieth century, roads were topped with coral rock (later bitumen) and sealed with grass verges. Longridge Road was abandoned due to erosion by 1856, as was Mill Road. Foundations remain of lower ranking officers’ quarters built in the swamp, including a row or terrace and a police hut.

A sports field was formed c1840 for cricket, football and other games. The vaulted drain under the sports field was rebuilt after it collapsed in recent years; it ends near the Bounty Street Bridge. The War Memorial, opened on ANZAC Day 1929, is white painted masonry on a stepped plinth. Plaques were added after World War II.

G            Prisoners’ Compounds


The buildings of the convict establishment are not intact and were not used after 1856. Building materials were salvaged for other projects on the Island, including construction of the Saint Barnabas Chapel.

Extensive earthworks from 1836 created the level site for the New Gaol—built over the following 15 years. The compound wall survives, with an impressive entrance, and vestiges of the radial cell blocks, service buildings and gaoler’s quarters, and extensive underground drainage. The compound walls of the c1829 Prisoner’s Barracks survive but the large three-storey building was demolished. There is evidence in the compound wall of former attached structures. Part of the former Protestant Chapel has been reconstructed and is now part of the museum. The compound is used for the Anniversary (Bounty) Day picnic and general community use. In the Lumberyard compound, all that survives is the large saw pit and the base of the north and south walls. Evidence of the layout and other structures is likely to survive underground. The modern change shed is in the area of the former Mess Yard.











H             Kingston Pier (Landing Place Ridge)


After 1825 ramps were cut into the reef to land—these may be under the pier. The current ramp has been rebuilt often and its east wall is comprised of cut stones in an irregular pattern, the fill is rubble and the surface is now concrete. The restored flaghouse was to store different pennants used for signalling shipping, and the adjacent buildings were privies. The flagstaffs were on the hill to the west.

Kingston Pier


This substantial engineering structure is constructed in a gentle curve with external stonework and rubble fill. One of two sets of stone stairs remains. The pier was repaired after World War II damage and again in 2006 with modern materials, including sheet steel piles and concrete. Goods are still transferred from moored ships into small boats or lighters and brought ashore. The lighters are stored in the boat sheds.

The Seawalls


East of the pier is a stone seawall along the whole foreshore. There are attached structures including the remains of a roadway (at the east end on the seaward side) made of rubble with a hardened surface. In 1943 the wall was breached to take stores off the Ronaki shipwreck. The wall was repaired in the early 1950s and subsequently. Some repairs use stone from buildings, including dressed sills with bar holes.

Boatsheds & Workshops


The calcarenite walls of the Double Boat Shed were constructed c1841 on the First Colonial Settlement 1788–1814 remains. There were several changes in roof configuration after 1856. The timber shingle roof has now been reconstructed and additions removed. The exterior of the Single Boatshed, the former Police Office, has been restored to its 1890s configuration. The Blacksmith’s compound is now used as a workshop and timber store.

The Pier Store and Crankmill


The 1825 Pier Store is a two-storey stone building which was originally designed as a Commissariat Store. Yet the building was prone to flood, so when the new store was built it was converted for milling with the installation of handmills. In 1841 it was converted to a Guardroom and the verandah was added for surveillance. The internal timber stairs and flooring are recent and today it is used as a museum.

The Crankmill is a pair to the Pier Store and originally housed a human-powered mill for grinding grain. Sections of the Crankmill machinery are in the museum. In the mid-twentieth century, the Crankmill was used by a whaling company as a boatshed and boiling down works, and the wide opening in the west wall was made for boats. It was conserved and interpreted as a ruin.

The Settlement Guard House


The lower parts of the walls are thought to date from the First Colonial Settlement 1788–1814, and to have been incorporated into the single-storey guard house c1826. The building was a guard house until 1841 and later altered to be a boatshed. It was reconstructed in 1977–1979 and is now used by the museum.



Hospital and Surgeon’s Quarters


Built for civil officers, these quarters are one of two prefabricated timber buildings sent from Sydney c1827. Off-cuts of the dressed timber mouldings, wood shavings and casuarina shingles found under the floor are held in the archaeological collection. It was used as a residence after 1856 and is now occupied by the Lions Club. Substantial remains of the stone walls of the Civil (or Convict) Hospital are east of the quarters. Excavations revealed artefacts related to the hospital, now held in the museum. There is an informal collection of artefacts in the Surgeon’s Kitchen—a stone two-room cottage with a timber shingle roof.

Royal Engineer’s Office and Stables


The Royal Engineer’s Office was built from 1848 with a hall and two front rooms. The portico and additional rooms were soon added, as well as a stables block. The building is stone with a timber-shingled gabled roof and a formal stone portico with columns and pediment. The front rooms have elaborate chimney pieces and evidence of internal window shutters. In c1897, internal modifications included lining boards. It has been used by the museum, including previous use as a café. The stables block was unroofed by 1892 and was, much later, reconstructed as a toilet block.

Quarters for the Lower Ranks


Archaeological deposits remain of quarters built in a line along the foreshore, east of the Blacksmith’s compound and others west of the Crankmill. One building remains of a row of six semi-detached cottages built in 1850–1853. Each had two rooms, a privy and a detached kitchen. The remaining cottage is now the restoration office and known as Munna’s.

J              Beachfront (Slaughter and Emily Bays)


At Emily Bay there has been a range of bathing houses, and at one stage a Beach Master’s house. In the 1920s, the ship the Resolution was built and launched in Emily Bay. Remains may exist but are unlikely as there has been sand mining in the area. Norfolk Island pines were planted c1949 to stabilise the dunes. The current road around Emily Bay was built in 1975 in the depression left by sand mining. A pontoon is moored in the bay where whale boats previously anchored and, in World War II, air sea rescue craft. There are change facilities, picnic tables and barbeques in several locations.

K              Windmill Ridge


The solid masonry base of the 1842–1844 windmill survives and foundations of the miller’s cottage. Some remains are covered with earthworks for the golf course. It was a post-mill turning on a central post with an angled timber at the back—a tail-pole—enabling it to be turned into the wind and to stabilise. A stone lined circle in the ground shows where the wheel of the tail-pole ran.



L             Chimney Hill


One complete kiln remains, built into the quarry face; and the remains of two others, largely eroded by the sea. The surviving kiln was used occasionally until World War II. There are archaeological remains of a police hut, later occupied as a dwelling, and there may be remains of the 1840s stonecutters yard and a shingle shed. Two evaporation tanks for salt production are cut into the calcarenite on the foreshore. The stone walls and the massive square stone chimney of the salt house are on the point.

M            Arthur’s Vale/Watermill Valley


The new watermill was built in 1828. The millpond and ruins of the two-storey mill, and races and footings of outbuildings survive. The original head race remains but the inlet is sealed. Water now flows out of the dam into the original stream bed. There are substantial remains of a basalt agricultural building. The masonry walls survive of two huts that may be c1840 ticket of leave men’s huts, or may predate this. They have been roofed to protect the walls. Other building platforms and chimney breasts survive, as well as vestiges of barns and cottages. One hundred pines were planted in 1974 along Country Road to commemorate Aunt Jemima Robinson's 100 years. There are several modern houses in the valley and on surrounding ridges.

N             Bloody Bridge


This stone bridge was constructed on the road to Ball’s Bay in the mid-1830s. A section of the stone wall collapsed c1910 and was not reconstructed in the same alignment. The road over the bridge was sealed c1960. The Pitcairners conducted tours for visitors and there are early photos of tour vehicles on the bridge. Place names—in particular Bloody Bridge, Quality Row and Gallows Gate—appear to date from this period.





3.5 Culture and Traditions


The Norfolk Island community has a distinctive culture and traditions that reflect its history. The resettlement of the Pitcairners to Norfolk Island in 1856, along with the establishment of a particular system of laws and administration, has resulted in a contemporary community that strongly values and celebrates its traditions and culture. Today, the strong Pitcairner cultural influences which derive from the earlier settlement period are interwoven with other cultural influences and expressions. There are strong

continuing links between Norfolk and Pitcairn Islands, with many people visiting the other island to renew links with family.4

Key aspects of this distinctive culture include the Norf’k language, a strong sense of independence and self-reliance, celebratory events, distinctive building styles, land use and farming practices, crafts, maritime skills, and expressed in many other ways. The mutiny, the relocation to Norfolk Island and the

gift of Norfolk Island to the Pitcairners by Queen Victoria are important foundational stories5. Though  the

‘gifting’ of the entire Island is believed by many, research has not revealed any clear documentary evidence verifying this. This section briefly summarises some of the distinctive aspects of Norfolk Islander culture and traditions that are relevant to the KAVHA site.

To Pitcairn descendants, customs and language, cuisine, crafts and dancing provide an important foundation for Norfolk Islander identity. The language known as Norfuk or Norf’k is a blend of eighteenth- century English and Tahitian (and other elements), and is used alongside English on Norfolk Island. On

the Island, Norf’k is often heard in conversations between locals. There is a standard orthography for Norf’k and language learning is now part of the school curriculum.Norf’k was listed as an endangered language by the United Nations in 2007.7 Family names of Norfolk Islanders still indicate specific historical connections. Adams, Christian, McCoy, Qunital and Young are the Bounty names; and Buffet, Evans and Nobbs are the Pitcairn names.


Community events are an important way in which connections to the past are signified. Anniversary (Bounty) Day marks the arrival of the Pitcairners on Norfolk Island on 8 June 1856, and is the Island’s major day of celebration. The day features a sequence of activities, starting with a re-enactment of the landing at historic Kingston Pier, followed by a procession to the War Memorial and the graveyard of the original settlers, where wreaths are laid. The descendants of the original families are received at Government House for morning tea, and a prize is awarded to one of the original families judged to be the best turned out family group. In this context, ‘turned out’ means more than costumed; it includes the number of generations included in the group. Afterwards, children find it fun to roll down the hill from Government House in order to proceed to the huge picnic celebrated by the whole Norfolk Island community. The present picnic site is in the shelter of the Prisoners’ Compound walls. Previously it was on the north of the Prisoners’ Compound wall.



4 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 265.

5 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 263.

6 Buffett, Alice & Donald Laycock, 1988. Speak Norfuk Today; Buffett, Alice, 1999. An Encyclopædia of the Norfolk Island Language.

7 ‘UN adds Norfolk language to endangered list’. ABC News. Accessed 29 May 2014. <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-08-17/un-adds-norfolk- language-to-endangered-list/643104>.


Another annual celebration, started in 1850 on Pitcairn Island, marks the anniversary of the burning of HMAV Bounty on 23 January. It continues to be celebrated on Pitcairn Island each year, and in recent times has also been taken up as a celebration on Norfolk Island. Yet another important celebration is Foundation Day, which marks the date of the first penal settlement on Norfolk Island. Norfolk Island also celebrates Thanksgiving Day, a tradition linked to American whalers.

Food is a key part of important celebrations such as Anniversary (Bounty) Day, where passed-down family recipes are used to cook up a shared feast. Norfolk cuisine uses local wild produce (eg lemons, bananas and guavas) in distinctive dishes such as pilhi and mudda8, as well as seafood and Norfolk-raised beef. Norfolk cuisine is presented in some local restaurants. Crafts still practised include the making of wreaths

for Anniversary (Bounty) Day, funerals and other memorial services; these are made from flowers gathered from private gardens. Flax is woven into hats and baskets.

From the beginning, the Pitcairn customs of sharing were evident in their new settlement on Norfolk Island. Examples include the establishment of a common store for their food and the designation of

common grazing lands at the KAVHA site and elsewhere on the Island, indicating the community’s continued sharing of resources as an important cultural tradition.9 The free-roaming chickens and cattle appear to be an expression of this custom.


As well as community celebrations and events, Kingston and Arthur’s Vale are a significant focus for family and leisure activities. Swimming, surfing and fishing were activities that Pitcairners enjoyed on Pitcairn, and these activities continued on Norfolk Island. Local families would holiday at Kingston, renting space in one of the buildings or camping at Emily Bay, with swimming there a continuing tradition.10 Many

other activities are also enjoyed at Kingston; it is a place for picnics, walking, playing golf or other sports, or just relaxing. Over the years, Kingston has also been home for many families and witnessed innumerable social gatherings. The convict era buildings have been used for schooling, court and government administration. The church established there in 1874 continues to be used as a place of worship today, with the Pitcairn hymns and Norf’k language used.










8 Pilhi is a savoury banana slice made with green or ripe bananas, salt and flour; and mudda is green banana dumplings cooked in coconut milk.

9 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 249–260.

10 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 270, 261.


The sea provided the main communication and trading route for Norfolk Island prior to the construction of the airport. Maritime skills, used in the past in whaling and the unloading of ships using wooden lighters, were vital and remain highly regarded.

The method of loading and unloading and the skills involved are rooted in seafaring traditions and techniques handed down from the Bounty sailors, used on Pitcairn Island and reinforced on Norfolk by unloading facilities of the penal colony and by the American whalers. 11

Norfolk Island’s relative isolation, its bio-geography and cultural landscape are also integral to aspects of its culture. The Norfolk Island pine has been adopted as a symbol of the Island since the earliest colonial settlement, and today this tree graces the Norfolk Island flag. Memorial plantings using the Norfolk Island

pine occur across the Island and within the KAVHA site, illustrating its symbolic importance to Norfolk Islanders.12 The hundred pines planted along Watermill Valley commemorate Aunt Jemima’s 100th birthday; this is one of a number of plantings of 100 trees.13

Timber was a familiar building material to the Pitcairners, and they used it widely for their buildings, preferring it over masonry14. Timber vernacular architecture expressed in traditional Islander houses is highly regarded, although it has only limited expression in the KAVHA site.


The cemetery within the KAVHA site has been a burial place since the 1820s, and continues as such today. Many Norfolk Islanders feel a deep connection to the cemetery, seeing it as a place that connects them to their ancestors. Funerals are significant events within this small community. Similarly, the War Memorial, built following World War I, reflects the impact that those deaths must have had on a small community.



11 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 271.

12 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 263–64, 269–70.

13 NSW Dept of Commerce 2007: 255.

14 The use of timber and the vernacular building forms are said to be strongly influenced by the Melanesian Mission buildings (KAVHA CMP2007 [draft] 2007: 310).


3.6 Image Credits


Figure 3.1 Site precincts, project team.


Figure 3.2 New Gaol, project team.


Figure 3.3 Murderers’ Mound, taken by Rev. Montgomery for JW Beattie in1892, ML PXA Vol. 2 plate 33.


Figure 3.4 Project team.


Figure 3.5 Civil Hospital, project team.


Figure 3.6 Overlay by Jean Rice of aerial photo and George Raper’s Plan of Arthur’s Vale, Norfolk Island, 1790. Natural History Museum London, Raper Collection, Drawing 25. Jean Rice 1997.


Figure 3.7 Project team.


Figure 3.8 View of the East Side of Arthur's Vale, 1796, probably by WN Chapman, ML Banks Papers Volume 15 Folio 15.


Figure 3.9 View of the West Side of Arthur's Vale, 1796, probably by WN Chapman, ML Banks Papers Volume 15 Folio 14.


Figure 3.10 View of Silos entitled ‘Granary’ 1935, hand coloured lantern slide by Henry Spencer-Salt, NLA PIC P2126 LOC Album 931, slide 17.


Figure 3.11 Part of Panorama, Convict Settlement. In Melanesian Mission Views, 1867–1869, by Rev. Bice, NLA Bice Album 465a. Figure 3.12 View of Slaughter Bay looking towards Prisoners Compound, 1843, by Anna Maria or Bishop Francis Nixon, ML PXD 95 f7. Figure 3.13 Page from surveyors’ field book, Jamieson and Kennedy, 1860, Book 1 page 91, NAA & NLA.

Figure 3.14 Plan of the Settlement, Norfolk Island, 1838 & 1841, GFW Bordes, Royal Engineer, ML M4 819.2/1838/1.


Figure 3.15 Overlay by Jean Rice of aerial photo and two 1848 drawings—‘Project for Supplying with Water, Principal Buildings on Settlement, Norfolk Island—General Plan’, Tas. Archives PWD 266/1949 and ‘Plan of Settlement, Norfolk Island’, PRO MPG 1/677 both by Captain RG Hamilton, Chief Royal Engineer.


Figure 3.16 Lithograph of Naomi and Jane Nobbs published in ‘Mutineers of the Bounty and their Descendants in Pitcairn and Norfolk Islands’ published in 1870. Based on photo taken by Fortescue Moresby.


Figure 3.17 Norfolk Island Infantry Detachment, 1941, on the steps of the Commissariat Store.


Figure 3.18 School Girls, Norfolk Island, c1896, ML GPO 1 Still 08586.


Figure 3.19 Watermill Valley, c1920, Les Brown Collection.


Figure 3.20 Mount Pitt Bird, 1790, by George Raper, Natural History Museum, Raper Drawing No 69. T15169. Figure 3.21 Fishes of Norfolk Island, 1789, George Raper, Natural History Museum, Raper Drawing No. 40. T15140. Figure 3.22 Magnified cross / thin section of calcarenite, Brenda Franklin.

Figure 3.23 Polynesian stone tool from collection of Norfolk Island Museum.


Figure 3.24 Polynesian stone tool from collection of Norfolk Island Museum.


Figure 3.25 Extract of George Raper’s Plan of Arthur’s Vale, Norfolk Island, 1790, Natural History Museum London, Raper Collection, Drawing 25.


Figure 3.26 Cow, project team.


Figure 3.27 View of Sydney on Norfolk Island, 1805, John Eyre, based on drawing by WN Chapman, ML V8/NORF I/1.


Figure 3.28 View of the timber watermill, Arthur’s Vale, 1796, WN Chapman, PRO and ML ZSV8/NORF I/1. All other photos by the project team.















































Text Box: Section 4: Heritage Values





4.1            Introduction

The KAVHA site is valued by Norfolk Islanders, the wider Australian community, Polynesian people and all humanity. The KAVHA site is valued highly by the community of Norfolk Island, as part of their identity and as a place which plays a vital role in their everyday life. There is a deep history and heritage that is linked to continuing cultural traditions and events. As such, the KAVHA site holds a special place in the hearts and minds of the local community who have a strong attachment to the place.

Over time a richer and more detailed appreciation of the KAVHA site has evolved. The values and significance attributed to the site have been periodically revised to reflect the shifting perceptions and understanding of the natural environment, history and social values of the community. Research activity, combined with philosophical shifts and new concepts in heritage conservation, have also influenced how the KAVHA site has been assessed. Today, the heritage values of the KAVHA site are understood to be deep, varied and mutable.

The values of the KAVHA site are formally recognised and protected through heritage listings at National, Commonwealth and Territory (local) levels. At an international level, the KAVHA site is one of the 11 sites which comprise the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage property. The World Heritage inscribed area and the NHL area share the same boundary (see Figure 1.1). The Commonwealth listed area excludes private freehold land (see Figure 1.3) as listing only applies to land owned, managed or controlled by the Commonwealth. The statutory heritage listings that apply to the KAVHA site are included in the table below. The listings are arranged from international level to local level.





















Statutory Listing



Date Listed

Australia’s World Heritage List (WHL)

To qualify for inscription on the World Heritage List, properties must have values that are outstanding and universal as outlined in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention.

·         The KAVHA site is one of the 11 places which comprise the Australian Convict Sites and contributes to the Outstanding Universal Value of the inscribed World Heritage property

Outstanding Universal Value (OUV)

OUV is the central concept in listing under the World Heritage Convention (Article 11). The operational guidelines (paragraph

49) define outstanding universal value as 'cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity.

Criteria (iv) and (vi)

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999


31 July 2010

National Heritage List (NHL)

·         The National Heritage List includes places of outstanding heritage significance to Australia. It includes natural, historic and Indigenous places that are of outstanding national heritage value to the Australian nation.

Outstanding value to the Nation.

Of outstanding heritage value to the nation as a convict settlement spanning the era of transportation to eastern Australia between1788– 1855.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999


1 August 2007

Commonwealth Heritage List (CHL)

·         The CHL is a list of heritage places on Commonwealth land, or owned or managed by the Commonwealth.

·         Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Commonwealth Tenure Area, Quality Row, Kingston. Comprises the area known as KAVHA with the exclusion of areas of freehold tenure.

Has significant heritage values under the following CHL listing criteria: Criterion A Processes; Criterion B Rarity; Criterion D Characteristic values; Criterion G Social value; and Criterion H Significant people.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999


22 June 2004

Norfolk Island Heritage Register

·         The Heritage Register identifies properties and sites on Norfolk Island that are considered, following an extensive consultation process, to be of heritage significance.

KAVHA is of special significance for Norfolk Island.

Norfolk Island Heritage Act 2002 (NI) and

Norfolk Island Plan 2002



The management and safeguarding of the full spectrum of values is essential for the sustainable conservation of the KAVHA site over the long term. Generally, the various listings reflect and reinforce the key values, however, there are some differences.

This section of the HMP provides an overview of the natural and cultural values of the KAVHA site.


4.2            Outstanding Universal Value

The KAVHA site is one of the 11 sites which comprise the Australian Convict Sites property that was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2010.1 The Australian Convict Sites are considered to be testament to the transcontinental migration and forced transportation of convicts. To be inscribed on the World


1 This discussion is adapted from the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2008. Australian Convict Sites World Heritage Nomination, ISBN 978 0 642 55390 4. Canberra ACT.


Heritage List, a site must be assessed to be of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). Assessment of OUV includes evaluation against 10 selection criteria, and consideration of the authenticity and integrity, as well as the protection and management of properties.

The Australian Convict Sites were deemed to satisfy criteria (iv) and (vi):


(iv) to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;

(vi) to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);

The Australian Convict Sites were assessed as a group and found to maintain authenticity and integrity, despite some impacts of local circumstances such as urban context, or periods of abandonment and reuse. The inclusion of these sites on the National Heritage List and the protection under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 contributed to the conclusion that the protection and management arrangements for the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage property were satisfactory.

The specific response to the criteria in the official Statement of Outstanding Universal Value for the Australian Convict Sites reads as follows:


The KAVHA site specifically illustrates criterion (iv) with key elements of the forced migration of convicts including expanded geo-political spheres of influence, punishment and deterrence, and the reformation of convicts. Convicts at Norfolk Island were used as a geo-political tool to secure its strategic military importance, potential naval resources and role as an outpost of NSW from other European powers. The KAVHA site is a material record of this, with its surviving layout and the majority of the penal colony’s structures. Additionally, the harbour, pier and outbuildings maintain their function as a port, and many pine trees from the convict period still remain. Some of the most significant collections of convict materials are housed at the KAVHA site such as artefacts, official documents, personal narratives, paintings, poetry and fictionalised accounts of convict life.

The Second (Penal) Settlement 1825–1855 at the KAVHA site was designed to deter crime in Britain and the colonies by reviving the fear of transportation. The place soon earned an international reputation as ‘hell on earth’ through the severity of punishment, comparative to some of the world’s harshest penal settlements. Key features that illustrate this are the Crankmill, the Convict Barracks, the New Gaol, the Police Office, the Civil Hospital and the cemetery. In the Crankmill, 96 convicts at a time were used to crank  heavy  machinery  to  grind  maize  in  strict  silence.  Although  more  efficient  and  productive