Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides for the future management of Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA). It establishes strategic principles for conservation and protection of the outstanding universal value and other heritage values of KAVHA. It seeks to improve connections with the local community to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, including private landholders, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 09 Dec 2016
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR07-Feb-2017
Tabled Senate07-Feb-2017


1.4.1  Source Documents


The following reports are the key source documents. The notes in the right-hand column below indicate the particular use or relevance of each source. More comprehensive references are provided in the Bibliography in Section 11.3.


Report Name


Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Management Plan, Department of Home Affairs and Environment, 1980

Associated documents:

Archaeological Survey, 2 volumes, Wilson & Davies, 1980/83

Architectural Historical Record, Department of Housing and Construction, 1981

The 1980 Management Plan is a foundation document which identified items and established the numbering system and nomenclature used in subsequent reports.

Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Conservation Management Plan, Clive Lucas, Stapleton and Partners, 1988

The 1988 Conservation Management Plan is now a historical source document.

Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Conservation Management Plan, Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, NSW Department of Commerce, Government Architect's Office and Otto Cserhalmi and Partners Pty Ltd, 2008

Associated documents:

Draft Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Conservation Management Plan, NSW Department of Commerce, Government Architect's Office and Otto Cserhalmi and Partners Pty Ltd, 2007

Site Inventory Database, 2002

Historic Image Database, 2002

The 2008 Conservation Management Plan will be superseded when the 2015 Heritage Management Plan is adopted.

Both the 2008 Conservation Management Plan and the 2007 draft CMP contain substantially more background and reference material than the 2015 Heritage Management Plan.

Interpretative Plan, Vol 1: Policy, Peter McLaren, Department of Housing and Construction, 1993

The 1993 Interpretive Plan is now superseded. Volume 2 was not adopted.







1.4.2    Operating Documents


The following reports are operating documents. Many of these reports are used in the conservation and management of the KAVHA site. Several reports require review and updating, as noted below.


Report Name


Government House Norfolk Island: Conservation and Management Plan, Philip Cox and Partners, 1983

Important operational document which requires review and updating.

Landscape Management and Conservation Plan, Tropman and Tropman, 1994

Important operational document which requires review and updating. It should inform the proposed KAVHA site masterplan.

Kingston Cemetery Study and Management Plan, Tropman and Tropman, 1994

Important operational document which requires review and updating.

Recreation Management Plan, Prosser and Lang, 1995

Important operational document which requires review and updating.

Conservation Management Plan: Government House and Quality Row Gardens, Tropman and Tropman, 1997

Important operational document which requires review and augmentation with more specific maintenance and planting instructions.

Water Quality Management Plan, Peter Davidson, 1997

Important operational document which requires review and updating in light of the 2014 Water Quality and Sewerage Infrastructure Management Strategy.

Prehistoric Human Colonisation Norfolk Island, Atholl Anderson, 1997


KAVHA Interpretation Strategy, Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd, 2011

Important operational document which requires review and expanding to become a project-based Interpretation Plan.

Site Inventory Database, 2002

The Site Inventory Database was associated with the 2008 Conservation Management Plan. The Site Inventory Database is a vital ongoing reference which can and should become the basis for documenting both historical data and current management and maintenance.

Archaeological Survey, 2 volumes, Wilson & Davies, 1980/83

The Archaeological Survey was associated with the 1980 Management Plan (as noted above). It continues to be a key operational and reference document.

Australian Convict Sites Strategic Management Framework, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2010

This framework was prepared to complement existing legislative structures to address Australia’s international responsibilities under the World Heritage Convention.




1.5   Limitations

This report is subject to the following limitations, arising from the HMP project scope:


·                 no new detailed documentary or historical research was undertaken; and


·                 no new comprehensive site investigation or fabric assessment has been conducted.


1.6   Authors

This HMP has been prepared by the project team, comprising:


·                 Prof Richard Mackay, AM from GML Heritage, Sydney;


·                 Sharon Veale from GML Heritage, Sydney;


·                 Chris Johnston from Context, Melbourne; and


·                 Jean Rice Architect, Sydney.


Research and field assistance was provided by Hannah Rice-Hayes; and online survey design was provided by Jessie Briggs from Context.

Suzy Pickles and Julie Wilcox designed and edited the HMP.


1.7  Acknowledgements

The project team would like to thank all those who provided assistance and support during the preparation of this Heritage Management Plan. In particular, we would like to thank Anita French who assisted the team immeasurably during and between our visits.

Many others have made important contributions throughout the project and our thanks go to:


·                 KAVHA Board members Andre Nobbs, David Buffett, Paul  McInnes, Robyn  Fleming, Glenda Kidman and Reece Walden.

·                 The Project Review Group: Brett Sanderson, Jodie Quintal, Kane Anderson, Liz McCoy, Miles Howe and Ron Nobbs.

·                 Members of the Norfolk Island Assembly: Lisle Snell (Chief Minister, Minister for Tourism); Ron Ward (Minister for the Environment); Robin Adams (Minister for Cultural Heritage and Community Services); David Buffett (Speaker); Ron Nobbs (MLA); Haydn Evans (MLA); Melissa Ward (MLA); and David Porter (MLA).

·                 Norfolk Island administrators: The Hon. Gary Hardgrave and The Hon. Neil Pope.


·                 Norfolk Island administration: Jon Gibbons (CEO); Jodie Quintal for assistance with Norfolk Island statutes, planning regulations and processes; and Cheryl Le Cren for assistance with maps, as well as other Norfolk Island administration staff.

·                 Commonwealth Heritage Managers: Matt Alexander and John Petersen.


·                 Landholders within the KAVHA site who contributed to round table discussions, with special thanks to Gaye Evans and Ikey Bataille for allowing us to visit their properties.

·                 KAVHA Administrative Officer, Anita French, the project manager for the Heritage Management Plan.

·                 KAVHA Conservation & Maintenance Team: David Magri and Kane Anderson for assisting with site inspections; and all the team for sharing their knowledge and bringing ideas to our round table discussions.


·                 KAVHA Research Centre staff: Judith Davidson and Angie Andresen.


·                 Norfolk Island Museum staff: Lisa Richards and Janelle Blucher.


·                 Shane Quintal, Cemetery Sexton, for guidance on the cemetery and its issues.


·                 Peter  Davidson,  Conservator,  for  information  on  natural  values,  water  issues  and  statutory requirements.

·                 The  Norfolk  Islander,  Norfolk  Online  and  Spider  Webb,  VL2NI  for  helping  to  publicise  the opportunities for the Norfolk Island community to participate.

·                 Glen Buffett, General Manager of Norfolk Island Tourism, for assistance with tourism data and the tourism operators who participated in group discussions.

·                 The Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development staff for maps.


·                 George (Puss) Anderson for a site tour and discussions on past KAVHA site conservation and works activities.

·                 Norfolk Island National Parks staff: Martin Fortescue and Anne Ferguson.


·                 Kristal Buckley for access to information on the consultations undertaken for the 2008 Conservation Management Plan.

·                 Kylie Hilton (Hyperion Design) for the design of the project website, postcards, advertisements, banner and updates.

The HMP project team is grateful to all those who contributed to the development of this HMP by contributing their visions, ideas and concerns through the round table and report back meetings, online surveys, one-on-one meetings with project team members, visiting the market stall and preparing thoughtful submissions. The level of participation exceeded expectations and has provided valuable input into the process.

The community of Norfolk Island welcomed the project team with warm hospitality, showing a keen interest in this project and offering support and encouragement.

The preparation of The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Heritage Management Plan has been supported by the Australian Government’s Your Community Heritage Program.
















































Text Box: Section 2:
Vision and Key Objectives





2.1            Introduction

This section sets out the overarching vision and key objectives for this HMP. The vision, principles and goals will help direct management activities and efforts across the KAVHA site to conserve heritage values and promote enjoyment and appreciation by current and future generations.

The vision and goals for the KAVHA site have been informed by the project brief, statutory requirements, the governance context of Norfolk Island, the range of heritage values attributed to the site, the current state of conservation, and the community’s views and aspirations. Building on the substantive work that has been achieved at the KAVHA site, while also responsive to values and views of today, the vision is future-oriented. It has been prepared to help orient and cohere efforts around realising the potential of the KAVHA site over the longer term.

2.2            Vision

The vision statement for the KAVHA site is an aspirational statement which outlines what should ideally be achieved through focused management and conservation.

The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area is a place of outstanding heritage value to the people of Norfolk Island, the Australian community and internationally.

The rich and interwoven natural and cultural landscape of the KAVHA site will be conserved, managed, protected and presented with authenticity as a vibrant place through effective governance, good management, improved support, best practice techniques/tools and enduring community partnerships.














2.3           Key Objectives

The key objectives of this HMP are:


·                to provide an integrated practical management plan for the heritage values of the KAVHA site at World, National, Commonwealth and Norfolk Island levels;


·                to provide direction to assist in the conservation, protection, management, continuation and transmission of all values of the KAVHA site to benefit current and future generations;


·                to provide guidance on a skilled and transparent organisational, decision-making and advisory structure for the KAVHA site to support its conservation, interpretation and use, commensurate with its status as one of the eleven sites which comprise the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage property;


·                to recognise the different roles of participants and the shared public and private responsibility for the conservation and management of the KAVHA site; to identify requirements including funding, human resources, knowledge and skills; and to promote capacity building for local people;


·                to ensure that the KAVHA site continues to respect, reflect, celebrate and support the evolving cultural practices and recreational life of the community of Norfolk Island and the wider Australian community;


·                to ensure that any future development and use of the KAVHA site is sustainable and does not significantly impact on the heritage values of the site;


·                to identify mechanisms for open and respectful communication between private landholders and other stakeholders, the Norfolk Island community and the KAVHA site management, so as to guide and inform decision-making;


·                to ensure that the authenticity of the tangible and intangible attributes at the KAVHA site is managed and maintained through traditions, techniques, design, use of materials and specific functions; and


·                to define opportunities to establish and grow high-quality tourism and visitor experiences at the KAVHA site—including commercial, recreational and sporting activities—through effective partnerships and collaboration with tourism operators and the community.



Section 2: Vision and Key Objectives 17























































































Text Box: Section 3: The Place





3.1              Introduction


This section provides an overview of the KAVHA site. The location of the KAVHA site on Norfolk Island and the characteristics of its natural landform and setting are described. The boundary of the KAVHA site and the various management precincts are defined based on work in previous conservation management documents. The items within each of the management precincts are listed.

A historical overview provides a summary of the historical evolution and settlement patterns within the KAVHA site. The historical overview herein is based on a detailed and fully referenced unpublished history that was prepared by Otto Cserhalmi Partners and Jean Rice Architect in 2002 and updated in 2007. An outline is provided of the various features including the natural and cultural landscape, such as the hills and lowlands, swamp, vale and valley, landing place, buildings and bridges, as well as the past and continuing cultures and traditions.

3.2              Precincts


The boundary of the KAVHA site was identified in the 1980 Management Plan. The identification system used since then divides the place into precincts expressed alphabetically as A–N. Within each area items are numbered—for example, the gaol is G4. The precincts form distinctive management areas (see Figure 3.1) as follows:

A          Government House Reserve B            Lowlands

C                    Cemetery Reserve


D                    Quality Row


E                     Uplands (land above the 100ft / 30m contour) and Stockyard Valley F            Swamp (known as Kingston Common)

G                    Prisoners’ Compounds


H                    Landing Place Ridge (known as Kingston Pier) not used

J           Beachfront (known as Slaughter Bay and Emily Bay) K            Windmill Ridge

L                     Chimney Hill


M                    Arthur’s Vale / Watermill Valley N            Bloody Bridge



Figure 3.1 The KAVHA site, showing the listed area and the location of the precincts. (Source: Jean Rice Architect based on the 1980 Management Plan)










3.2.1      Key Items in Each Precinct


This list summarises the items list used in site management and in the inventory.1 The full list and detailed maps are in earlier CMPs.


A                     Government House Reserve A1            Government House Complex A2 Garrison Stockade (site)

A3–5      Landscaping & bridges

A6–13  Items near Chimney Hill Quarry A14       Polynesian Settlement (site) A15 Chimney Hill Pines

B                     Lowlands

B1–2      Gardens & Farm (sites)

B3         Quarry and Rock Crushers (site) B4       Causeway (vestiges)

B5–8      Golf course & items on it B9    Murderers’ Mound

B10       Wet Quarry (site) C      Cemetery Reserve

C1    Cemetery (colonial) C2       Cemetery (Pitcairn) D          Quality Row

D1–11  Quality Row Officers’ Quarters D12        Old Military Barracks complex

D13–14 Parade Ground & Pitcairn Church (site) D15        Towns Creek Culvert & Officers’ Bath D16           New Military Barracks complex

D17       Commissariat Store complex D18–20 Quarters, Police Hut & Overseer’s D21–22 Dewville and Paradise Hotel (site) D23–24 Landscape items

E          Uplands & Stockyard Valley E1            Flagstaff & Signals

E2–11  Ruins, house, landscape items E12–14 House & tourist accommodation

E15       Grain silos E16      Flagstaff (site)

E17       Islander House (Simm’s Residence) E18–28 Landscape/agriculture items

E29       Seabury

E30–35 Landscape items, lookout F           Swamp/Kingston Common F1–2 Mill & Country Road

F3         Watermill/Swamp Creek & Serpentine F4–6  Drainage channels

F7         Civil Officer’s gardens/huts (vestiges) F8   Pier Street, bridge and causeway

F9         Pitcairn Street

F10       Agricultural Sheds (site) F11           War Memorial

F12–16 Hut & Quarters (sites)

F17–20 Landscape items

F21–22 Parterre (site) & sports field F23     Former Farming Area

F24       Memorial Planting to Quality Row G            Prisoners’ Compounds

G1–3     Sites various

G4        New Gaol (vestiges)

G5        Prisoners’ Barracks complex G6    Hospital (I)

G7        Lumber and Mess Yard G8            Changing Shed

G9        Bounty Street

H          Landing Place Ridge/Kingston Pier

H1        Surgeon’s Quarters, First Government

House (site)



1 The terminology and nomenclature used in this Heritage Management Plan follows the 1980 Management Plan and the 2002 Site Inventory Database—see Section 1.4.


H2–5      Quarters (site)


H6–7      Civil Hospital II (vestiges) & III (site) H8–16  Quarters (sites)

H16       Boat Shed (site)


H17       Landing Place and Slipway (site) H18 Kingston Pier

H19       Sea Wall—Western Section H20–22 Stockade, Flagstaff (sites) H23     Pier Store

H24–5  Settlement Guard House & Enclosure (site)

H28       Crankmill (vestiges) H29         Sites various

H30       Royal Engineer’s Office & Stables H31–33 (Sites) & Double Boat Shed

H34       Single Boat Shed H35           Flaghouses H36–37 Old Gaol (site)

H38       Constable’s Quarters (Munna’s) H39–43 Sites various

H44       Blacksmith’s compound & workshops H45–57 Sites various

J           Beachfront/Bays


J1         Sea Wall—Eastern Section


J2–11  Ruins, remains & landscape items J12–14 Gentlemen’s Bathing House (sites) J13         Resolution slip site, channel in reef K      Windmill Ridge

K1         Quarry (site)


K2         Windmill Complex (vestiges)


K3         Site of the Ladies Bathing House L    Chimney Hill

L1–5      Lime Shed (site) & Lime Kilns L5–6     Salt House & Salt Tanks

L7         Chimney Hill Quarry L8–10  Landscape items


Field Boundaries (site)



Bloody     Bridge,     Cemetery      Road garden



M          Arthur’s Vale/Watermill Valley M1–9     Ruins, landscape items, house M10–14 Mill Pond Complex & ruins M15–25 Ruins Cottage (vestiges) M26–27 Original & New Watercourse M28–37 Ruins & landscape items







3.3              History


3.3.1      Polynesian Settlement


Polynesians occupied Norfolk Island prior to Europeans. Archaeological remains at the cemetery and Emily Bay were investigated in 1995, 1996 and 1997 by Professor Atholl Anderson. The Emily Bay site suggests a single phase of occupation in the period between c1150 and c1450AD, with settlers probably arriving from East Polynesia by way of the Kermadec Islands. Other evidence for prior Polynesian settlement was the discovery of bananas growing in Arthur’s Vale in 1788, as well as stone artefacts, remains of a canoe at Ball Bay and human remains. Numerous artefacts have been found at many locations on Norfolk Island. The Norfolk Island Museum has a collection of Polynesian artefacts recovered from the KAVHA site.

3.3.2      European Discovery


On 10 October 1774, Captain James Cook RN sighted Norfolk Island and then claimed it for the British Crown. Cook noted the presence of large pines and abundant flax; this may have influenced the later British decision to settle the Island. Jean-Françoise de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse, sighted the Island in 1788 but was unable to land.

3.3.3      First (Colonial) Settlement 1788–1814


Arthur Phillip’s instructions were that Norfolk Island was to be settled and secured as soon as possible after landing at Botany Bay. The HMS Supply, with Lieutenant Philip Gidley King, arrived on the Island on 2 March 1788 with four military officers, four civil officers, nine male convicts and six female convicts. The settlement site had fresh water, flat ground and a landing place formed by a rocky projection from the shoreline.

During the initial months, thick undergrowth near the shore was cleared, shelters  and storehouses constructed, and areas cleared for cultivation and livestock. Work on a timber house for King began on 9 April 1788. By the end of the year, the town on Sydney Bay (as King named it) had a number of thatched and weatherboard buildings. In 1789 channels were cut to drain the swamp. By 1790 cultivated areas stretched along Arthur’s Vale (Watermill Valley) to Cemetery Bay. The foreshore was cleared, new buildings had been built in the town, and a barn was constructed in the vale. There were crop failures from grub, rat and bird attacks, and setbacks due to gales.





The colony’s only links to the outside world were HMS Sirius and HMS Supply. On 19 March 1790, the HMS Sirius was wrecked on the reef. Crew and passengers were forced to remain while King left on the HMS Supply. Major Ross of the Royal Marines took command and proclaimed martial law. The settlers survived on sparse rations and by eating ground nesting birds and their eggs, including the so-called ‘Providence Petrel’. Under Ross, a hospital, bakehouse, storehouse and a ditch for conveying clean water to the town were built. When King returned in 1791, a log gaol and penitentiary were constructed and lime burning commenced. King attempted to regularise the layout by pulling down huts not in alignment. A new Government House with a stone foundation was built near the first. The population reached a maximum of 1156 in 1792. By 1793, the settlement (then called Sydney) had four main streets and roads leading to other parts of the Island. It had a school, a theatre and some stone buildings. During 1795, the convict Nathaniel Lucas constructed a dam and watermill in Arthur’s Vale and a windmill for himself at the end of Point Hunter. William Neate Chapman’s 1796 Plan of the Town of Sydney shows the settlement. In October 1796, King left Norfolk Island in the command of officers of the New South Wales Corps. They reduced public works and expanded private trade, particularly distilling. In June 1800, Major Joseph Foveaux took command and began a building campaign that included new barracks, storehouses, a stone gaol and improvements to landing facilities. At the end of 1800, there was a convict conspiracy and two ringleaders were arrested and hanged without trial. In 1803/1804, Foveaux built a new Government House away from the landing place at the site of the current Government House.

Former convicts and the military were granted land for private use across the Island. Two villages— Queenborough (formerly Charlotte Field) and Phillipburgh (formerly Cascade)—had been formed adjacent to areas that were free of trees. On 23 September 1803, Foveaux left Norfolk Island for Port Jackson where he and Governor King discussed the future of the Norfolk settlement. In 1803, a group of now free settlers petitioned to remain on Norfolk Island. Eventually it was recognised that Norfolk Island could not support itself independently of Port Jackson, and that the expense and danger of sending freight was too great.

In late 1804, Captain John Piper of the New South Wales Corps became Commandant. A series of five evacuations to Van Diemen’s Land took place in the years 1807 and 1808, reducing the population to 255. In 1810 orders were given for the settlement’s closure; removal of the remaining settlers commenced in February 1813. By March 1813 only a caretaker population of 43, including three soldiers, remained to slaughter and salt the remaining livestock. This work was completed on 28 February 1814, and the final act was to destroy the buildings by fire so others could not use them. In February 1814 the brig Kangaroo sailed for Sydney with the remnants of the Norfolk community. The Island was unoccupied for the next eleven years.







3.3.4      Second (Penal) Settlement 1825–1855


In August 1822, Commissioner Bigge reported on how transportation could again be made a deterrent to crime and recommended that Norfolk Island be re-opened. On 22 July 1824, Earl Bathurst instructed Governor Brisbane to re-occupy the Island on the principles of a ‘great hulk or penitentiary’ as a means of secondary punishment, with the absence of the hope of mitigation being the main object. Governor Darling’s object was that it was to be a place for the most extreme punishment, short of death.

A party, under the command of Major Robert Turton of the 40th Regiment, landed on Norfolk on 6 June 1825. The initial settlers were a detachment of soldiers, six women, six children and 57 convicts, most of them ‘mechanics’. Turton found the former settlement in ruins but had many of the original buildings roofed and occupied within two months. By December 1825, Turton had erected a storehouse at the Landing Place and had undertaken works to Foveaux's Government House and the Gaol (Government House was not completed until 1829, with additional works following). The remainder of the settlement was grass huts or tents. Roads were re-formed and the Garrison was placed behind Government House, giving it a view of both the Prisoners' Camp and the Garrison Farm. A garden was formed in Arthur's Vale for the detachment, and facilities to produce building materials were prepared. In December 1825 a further 31 convicts arrived, as well as a number of women who may have been associated with the detachment.

In March 1826, Captain Vance Young Donaldson and the 57th Regiment relieved Turton. His orders included the removal of all women, both bond and free. Women continued to be excluded until 1829 when officers’ wives and families were allowed, but no female convicts. A convict uprising on 25 September 1826 resulted in four deaths and the later execution of two convicts in Sydney. In 1833, after a series of murders, authorities decided that accused prisoners should be tried on Norfolk Island—three prisoners were tried and executed. Hard labour included work in gangs, in the mills and at quarries. By 1833 there were 600 prisoners and 130 troops. A series of Commandants over the next eight years saw the construction of the Prisoners’ Barracks, the Old Military Barracks, the Lumber Yard, the Beach (or Pier) Store and Crankmill.

An official report on the conditions described convicts working from dawn to dusk in building and agriculture. Well behaved prisoners could be given land to cultivate food and responsible positions. A further prisoner mutiny took place on 15 January 1834. It was controlled, but nine convicts died and 13 more were found guilty and executed. Some of their headstones are in the cemetery at Kingston.