Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides for the future management of Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA). It establishes strategic principles for conservation and protection of the outstanding universal value and other heritage values of KAVHA. It seeks to improve connections with the local community to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, including private landholders, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.
Administered by: Environment and Energy
Registered 09 Dec 2016
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR07-Feb-2017
Tabled Senate07-Feb-2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area
Heritage Management Plan
April 2016


 

 

The preparation of the Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Heritage Management Plan has been supported by the Australian Government’s Your Community Heritage Programme.

Report Register

 

Job No.

Issue No.

Notes/Description

Issue Date

13-0345

1

Exhibition Draft Report for KAVHA Board and Project Review Group Review

30 June 2014

13-0345

2

Revised Exhibition Draft Report

24 November 2014

13-0345

3

Revised Exhibition Draft Report

February 2015

13-0345

4

Final Report

June 2015

15-0574

5

Revised Report for Review

February 2016

15-0574

6

Revised Final Report

March 2016

15-0574

7

Final Report

April 2016

Quality Assurance

 

GML Heritage Pty Ltd operates under a quality management system which has been certified as complying with the Australian/New Zealand Standard for quality management systems AS/NZS ISO 9001:2008. The report has been reviewed and approved for issue in accordance with the GML quality assurance policy and procedures.

 

Project Director:

Sharon Veale

Issue No.

7

Signature

 

Position:

CEO

Date:

8 April 2016

Copyright

 

Historical sources and reference material used in the preparation of this report are acknowledged and referenced at the end of each section and/or in figure captions. Reasonable effort has been made to identify, contact, acknowledge and obtain permission to use material from the relevant copyright owners.

 

Unless otherwise specified or agreed, copyright in this report vests jointly in the Commonwealth of Australia, the Norfolk Island Administration, Jean Rice Architect, Context Pty Ltd and GML Heritage Pty Ltd and in the owners of any pre-existing historic source or reference material. Unless otherwise stated, all photographs used in this report were taken by the project team.

 

Moral Rights

 

Jean Rice Architect, Context Pty Ltd and GML Heritage Pty Ltd assert Moral Rights in this work, unless otherwise acknowledged, in accordance with the (Commonwealth) Copyright (Moral Rights) Amendment Act 2000. These moral rights include the attribution of authorship, the right not to have the work falsely attributed and the right to integrity of authorship.


 

Contents

 

 

Preamble

 

Section 1: Introduction	1

 

1.1               Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 2

1.2               Study Area........................................................................................................................... 4

1.2.1               Boundaries..................................................................................................................... 7

1.2.2              Terminology.................................................................................................................... 8

1.3               Methodology........................................................................................................................ 9

1.4                Reference Documents........................................................................................................ 10

1.4.1              Source Documents........................................................................................................ 11

1.4.2              Operating Documents..................................................................................................... 12

1.5             Limitations........................................................................................................................... 13

1.6             Authors............................................................................................................................... 13

1.7             Section 2: Vision and Key Objectives	15Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................. 13

2.1             Introduction......................................................................................................................... 16

2.2             Vision................................................................................................................................. 16

2.3             Section 3: The Place	19Key Objectives.................................................................................................................... 17

3.1               Introduction........................................................................................................................ 20

3.2               Precincts............................................................................................................................ 20

3.2.1                  Key Items in Each Precinct.......................................................................................... 22

3.3               History............................................................................................................................... 24

3.3.1                  Polynesian Settlement.................................................................................................. 24

3.3.2                  European Discovery..................................................................................................... 24

3.3.3                  First (Colonial) Settlement 1788–1814............................................................................ 24

3.3.4                  Second (Penal) Settlement 1825–1855........................................................................... 26

3.3.5                  Third (Pitcairn) Settlement 1856 to Present.................................................................... 29

3.4               Site Description.................................................................................................................. 31

3.4.1                  Introduction................................................................................................................. 31

3.4.2                  Remnant Natural Features............................................................................................ 31

3.4.3                  Natural Species........................................................................................................... 31

3.4.4                  Introduced Species...................................................................................................... 32

3.4.5                  Polynesian Remains..................................................................................................... 32

3.4.6                  First (Colonial) Settlement 1788–1814............................................................................ 33

3.4.7                  Subsequent Settlements............................................................................................... 34

3.5               Culture and Traditions.......................................................................................................... 41

3.6               Image Credits..................................................................................................................... 44


 

Section 4: Heritage Values	45

4.1             Introduction......................................................................................................................... 46

4.2             Outstanding Universal Value................................................................................................. 47

4.3             National Heritage Values....................................................................................................... 50

4.3.1                  Criterion A—Events, Processes.................................................................................... 51

4.3.2                  Criterion B—Rarity....................................................................................................... 51

4.3.3                  Criterion C—Research.................................................................................................. 51

4.3.4                  Criterion D—Principal Characteristics of a Class of Places.............................................. 52

4.3.5                  Criterion E—Aesthetic Characteristics........................................................................... 53

4.3.6                  Criterion G—Social Value............................................................................................. 53

4.3.7                  Criterion H—Significant People...................................................................................... 53

4.4             Commonwealth Heritage Values............................................................................................ 54

4.4.1                  Criterion A—Processes................................................................................................ 54

4.4.2                  Criterion B—Rarity....................................................................................................... 56

4.4.3                  Criterion C—Research.................................................................................................. 56

4.4.4                  Criterion D—Characteristic Values................................................................................. 56

4.4.5                  Criterion E—Aesthetic Characteristics........................................................................... 56

4.4.6                  Criterion G—Social Value............................................................................................. 57

4.4.7                  Criterion H—Significant People...................................................................................... 57

4.5             Norfolk Island Heritage Act (2002) Heritage Register................................................................ 58

4.5.1                  Statement of Heritage Significance for the KAVHA site under the Norfolk Island Heritage  Act 2002               58

4.6             Summary Statement of Significance...................................................................................... 60

4.7               Section 5: Management Context	65Attributes of Heritage Value................................................................................................. 62

5.1             Introduction......................................................................................................................... 66

5.2             World Heritage Convention................................................................................................... 66

5.3               Commonwealth Legislation.................................................................................................. 68

5.3.1                  Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015............................................................. 68

5.3.2                  Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999...................................... 68

5.3.3                  Protection of Movable Cultural Heritage Act 1986............................................................ 69

5.4               Norfolk Island Legislation.................................................................................................... 69

5.4.1                  The Planning Act 2002 (NI)........................................................................................... 69

5.4.2                  The Norfolk Island Plan 2002........................................................................................ 70

5.4.3                  The Heritage Act 2002 (NI)............................................................................................ 70

5.4.4                  Norfolk Island Trees Act 1999 (NI)................................................................................. 70

5.4.5                  Building Act 2002 (NI) Building Codes & Standards......................................................... 71

5.4.6                  Public Reserves Act (NI).............................................................................................. 71

5.4.7                  Protection of Movable Cultural Heritage Act 1987 (NI)..................................................... 72

5.5             Development Approval Process............................................................................................ 73


 

5.6             Environmental Management.................................................................................................. 73

5.7             KAVHA Board...................................................................................................................... 74

5.8      KAVHA Advisory Committee................................................................................................. 74

5.9             Site Management Requirements............................................................................................ 74

5.10            Australian Convict Sites Strategic Management Framework.................................................... 74

5.11             Section 6: Challenging Issues	77Management Overview........................................................................................................ 75

6.1Commonwealth and Norfolk Island Relationship.................................................................... 78

6.2Human Resources............................................................................................................... 78

6.3Private Landholdings........................................................................................................... 79

6.4Cultural Landscape.............................................................................................................. 80

6.5Land and Building Use......................................................................................................... 81

6.6The Common...................................................................................................................... 81

6.7Water Quality...................................................................................................................... 82

6.8Physical Conservation......................................................................................................... 83

6.9Tourism.............................................................................................................................. 84

6.10            Museum and Research Centre....................................................................................... 85

6.11            Community Involvement............................................................................................... 86

6.12            Resources and Income................................................................................................. 87

6.13            Synthesis of Issues...................................................................................................... 88

     Section 7: Strategic Principles ............................................................................................... 89        

7.1             Approach to Heritage Management................................................................................ 90

7.2             Heritage Conservation................................................................................................... 92

7.3             Life in the Community.................................................................................................... 94

7.4             Sustainable Tourism...................................................................................................... 96

7.5             Education and Information............................................................................................. 98

7.6             Section 8: Conservation and Management Policies	101Governance and Capacity............................................................................................ 100

8.1             Natural Environment........................................................................................................... 102

8.1.1               Conservation............................................................................................................... 102

8.1.2               Water......................................................................................................................... 102

8.1.3               Biodiversity................................................................................................................. 102

8.1.4               Climate Change........................................................................................................... 102

8.1.5               Waste Management..................................................................................................... 102

8.1.6               Weed Control.............................................................................................................. 103

8.1.7               Introduced Species Management.................................................................................. 103

8.1.8               Land Management....................................................................................................... 103

8.1.9               Community Awareness................................................................................................. 103

8.2             Cultural Landscape............................................................................................................. 104

8.2.1               Cultural Landscape...................................................................................................... 104


 

8.2.2               New Works................................................................................................................. 104

8.2.3               Views and Vistas......................................................................................................... 104

8.2.4               Setting and Subdivision................................................................................................ 105

8.2.5               Cultural Plantings......................................................................................................... 105

8.2.6               Public Gardens............................................................................................................ 105

8.3             Structures and Objects....................................................................................................... 107

8.3.1               Fabric Conservation..................................................................................................... 107

8.3.2               Maintenance................................................................................................................ 108

8.3.3               Buildings..................................................................................................................... 108

8.3.4               Ruins.......................................................................................................................... 109

8.3.5               Cemetery.................................................................................................................... 109

8.3.6               Other Structures.......................................................................................................... 110

8.3.7               Movable Items............................................................................................................. 110

8.4             Archaeology...................................................................................................................... 111

8.4.1               Conservation of the Resource....................................................................................... 111

8.4.2               Pre-Colonial................................................................................................................. 111

8.4.3               Colonial and Post-Colonial Archaeology......................................................................... 112

8.4.4               Artefacts..................................................................................................................... 112

8.4.5               Research.................................................................................................................... 112

8.4.6               Archaeological Records................................................................................................ 112

8.5             Living Cultural Traditions and Community Connections.......................................................... 113

8.5.1               Cultural Traditions........................................................................................................ 113

8.5.2               Traditional and Community Uses................................................................................... 113

8.5.3               Specific Uses.............................................................................................................. 114

8.5.4               The Continuation and Transmission of Values................................................................ 114

8.6             Sustainable Development................................................................................................... 115

8.6.1               Ownership................................................................................................................... 115

8.6.2       Use............................................................................................................................ 115

8.6.3               New Buildings and Works............................................................................................. 115

8.6.4               Alterations, Additions and New Work to Significant Buildings and Structures.................... 116

8.6.5               Infrastructure and Services........................................................................................... 116

8.6.6               Commercial Development............................................................................................. 117

8.6.7               Approval Processes..................................................................................................... 117

8.6.8               Impact Assessment..................................................................................................... 118

8.6.9               Monitoring................................................................................................................... 118

8.7             Tourism............................................................................................................................. 119

8.7.1               Sustainable Tourism.................................................................................................... 119

8.7.2               Visitor Experience........................................................................................................ 119

8.7.3               Conservation............................................................................................................... 119

8.7.4               Community Benefits..................................................................................................... 120


8.7.5               Communication of Heritage Values................................................................................ 120

8.7.6               Industry Partnership..................................................................................................... 120

8.8             Education and Interpretation................................................................................................ 121

8.8.1               Education.................................................................................................................... 121

8.8.2               Interpretation............................................................................................................... 122

8.8.3               Museum...................................................................................................................... 122

8.9             Governance and Capacity................................................................................................... 123

8.9.1               Management Structure................................................................................................. 123

8.9.2               Intergovernmental Relationships and Roles.................................................................... 123

8.9.3               KAVHA Advisory Committee........................................................................................ 123

8.9.4               Institutional Capacity.................................................................................................... 124

8.9.5               Funding....................................................................................................................... 125

8.9.6               Records and Inventories............................................................................................... 125

8.9.7               Adoption and Status..................................................................................................... 126

8.9.8               Transition and Implementation...................................................................................... 126

8.9.9               Review of the Heritage Management Plan...................................................................... 126

8.10             Communication and Engagement...................................................................................... 127

8.10.1                Participation.............................................................................................................. 127

8.10.2                Communication—Internal............................................................................................ 127

8.10.3                Communication—External.......................................................................................... 127

8.10.4                Access to Information................................................................................................ 128

8.10.5                Skills and Capacity.................................................................................................... 128

8.10.6                Section 9: Priority Programs	129Conflict Resolution..................................................................................................... 128

9.1             Priority Setting................................................................................................................... 130

9.2             Heritage Conservation........................................................................................................ 132

9.3             Life in the Community......................................................................................................... 133

9.4             Sustainable Tourism........................................................................................................... 134

9.5             Education and Information.................................................................................................. 135

9.6             Section 10: Recommendations	137Governance and Capacity................................................................................................... 136

10.1             Introduction...................................................................................................................... 138

10.2             Natural Environment.......................................................................................................... 138

10.3             Cultural Landscape........................................................................................................... 139

10.4             Structures and Objects...................................................................................................... 140

10.5             Archaeology.................................................................................................................... 141

10.6             Living Cultural Traditions and Community Connections........................................................ 142

10.7             Sustainable Development................................................................................................. 143

10.8             Tourism........................................................................................................................... 144

10.9             Education and Interpretation.............................................................................................. 145


 

10.10              Governance and Capacity................................................................................................ 146

10.11              Section 11: Appendices	151Communication and Engagement..................................................................................... 149

11.1             Glossary.......................................................................................................................... 152

11.2             Abbreviations................................................................................................................... 158

11.3             Bibliography.................................................................................................................... 160

11.4             Land Status...................................................................................................................... 162

11.5             Chronology...................................................................................................................... 163

11.6             Heritage Listing Citations................................................................................................... 168

11.6.1                World Heritage List.................................................................................................... 168

11.6.2                National Heritage List................................................................................................. 171

11.6.3                Commonwealth Heritage List....................................................................................... 175

11.6.4                Norfolk Island Heritage Register.................................................................................. 180

11.7            Australian Convict Sites Management Framework................................................................ 184


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preamble


 

Preamble

The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area is a place of outstanding heritage value to the people of Norfolk Island, the Australian community, and internationally.

The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA), on Norfolk Island, is recognised for its picturesque character, historic associations, outstanding Georgian buildings and townscape, and evocative ruins. The site contributes to the life, identity and culture of the Norfolk Island community and the wider Australian community. The KAVHA site was previously occupied by the seafaring Polynesians, then as a British convict settlement from 1788 until 1814. A subsequent phase of convict settlement occurred between 1825 and 1855. In 1856 the KAVHA site was settled by the Pitcairn Island descendants of the Bounty mutineers and Tahitians.

The KAVHA site was listed by the National Trust (NSW) and included on the Register of the National Estate in the early 1980s, listed on the Norfolk Island Heritage Register in 2003, Australia's National Heritage List in 2007 and included as one of the eleven places that comprise the Australian Convict Sites property, which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2010. At the time, the World Heritage Committee requested that efforts be made to strengthen and develop consultation with the private landholders and other stakeholders for both the KAVHA site and the Port Arthur Historic Site, and to foster a shared approach to conservation and management.

The KAVHA site includes Commonwealth crown land, freehold land owned by the Norfolk Island administration, and privately managed freehold and leasehold lands. With the passing of the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 (Cwlth) the Australian Government has assumed greater responsibility for Norfolk Island and interim arrangements are in place pending election of a regional council. This Heritage Management Plan (HMP) reflects that governance arrangements for Norfolk Island are changing.

The HMP complies with the requirements of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth) and establishes strategic principles for conservation of the Outstanding Universal Value and other heritage values of the KAVHA site. The HMP seeks to improve connections with the Norfolk Island community, including landholders, as well as with the wider Australian community, to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.

The KAVHA site is at a critical juncture and requires major changes for heritage values to be conserved, interpreted and passed on to future generations. Revised operational arrangements, a broader funding base, better engagement with stakeholders and improved presentation are essential. The HMP establishes ten over-arching policies and a program for implementing the necessary changes, along with specific recommendations for future projects. Strong and sustained support is needed from all levels of government, people who work at the site, landholders, the tourism industry and the Norfolk Island community generally, through an inclusive and engaging heritage management process.

The rich and interwoven natural and cultural landscape of the KAVHA site will be conserved, managed, protected and presented with authenticity as a vibrant place through effective governance, good management, improved support, best practice techniques/tools and enduring community partnerships.