Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This instrument provides for the future management of Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area (KAVHA). It establishes strategic principles for conservation and protection of the outstanding universal value and other heritage values of KAVHA. It seeks to improve connections with the local community to demonstrate how heritage can benefit local people, including private landholders, to improve visitor experiences and to address resourcing and management issues.
Administered by: Agriculture, Water and the Environment
Registered 09 Dec 2016
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR07-Feb-2017
Tabled Senate07-Feb-2017

Section 11: Appendices

11.1 Glossary

The following definitions explain the terms commonly used in conservation planning or used in this document. They have been drawn from the Burra Charter, the NSW Heritage Office publication Heritage Terms and Abbreviations (1996), and the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts’ website, or as otherwise indicated in brackets.

Adaptation: Modifying a place to suit the existing use or a proposed use.

Advisory Council: An interim transitional council established under the (Cwlth) Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015, which will be elected in mid-2015.

Adze: A tool for cutting away the surface of wood.

Aesthetic Significance: An item having this value is significant because it has visual or sensory appeal, landmark qualities and/or creative or technical excellence.

Archaeological Assessment: A study undertaken to establish the archaeological significance (research potential) of a particular site and to propose appropriate management actions.

Archaeological Significance: A category of significance referring to scientific value or ‘research potential’; that is, the ability to yield information through investigation. 

Archaeological Site: A place that contains evidence of past human activity. Below ground archaeological sites include building foundations, occupation deposits, features and artefacts. Above ground archaeological sites include buildings, works, industrial structures and relics that are intact or ruined.

Archaeological Zoning Plan: A graphic plan of a place indicating relative archaeological potential of areas or zones within it. An archaeological zoning plan is prepared by undertaking broad-scale archaeological assessment over a large area. 

Associations: Special connections that exist between people and a place.

Authenticity: The degree to which the cultural values of a World Heritage property are truthfully and credibly expressed through a variety of attributes including form and design, materials, use and function, traditions, techniques and management systems, location and setting, language and other forms of intangible heritage. In some contexts, authenticity is specifically used to refer to the extent to which the fabric is in its original state.


Burra Charter (and associated Practice Notes): Adopted by Australia ICOMOS in 2013, it establishes the nationally accepted principles for the conservation of places of cultural significance.

Cairns Communiqué: A set of principles for management of Australia's World Heritage properties adopted by the participants at a national workshop convened by the Australian Committee for IUCN, held in Cairns as part of Australia’s celebration of the 40th Anniversary of the World Heritage Convention.

Calc (at the beginning of a word): includes lime.

Calcarenite: Limestone found at Kingston.

Clinker: A boat-building technique where the planks used to form the hull overlap.

Coble: A clinker built boat with a squared off stern. These flat bottomed boats could be brought straight up onto a beach and were used where no natural harbour existed.

Commissariat: An Imperial department, especially military, for supply of food, etc.

Commonwealth Heritage Manager: A Commonwealth official, reporting to the Administrator, who is responsible for oversight of the management of Commonwealth heritage assets on Norfolk Island and management of certain Commonwealth funded programs or projects.

Commonwealth Heritage Value: Heritage value determined in accordance with the Commonwealth Heritage criteria of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999 (Cwlth).

Conservation: All the processes of looking after a place so as to retain all its cultural significance.  Conservation includes maintenance and may (according to circumstance) include preservation, restoration and adaptation, and will more commonly be a combination of these.

Contemporary Community Esteem: The valuing of a heritage item by a recognised local, regional or state-wide community because it forms a strong part of their cultural identity.

Compatible Use: A use which respects and involves no, or minimal, impact on cultural significance.

Consensus: General agreement, an opinion or position reached by a group as a whole.

Coxswain: A coxswain is the person who directs the speed and rhythm of a boat crew.

Cultural Identity: Includes the language of a people, their collective memory, historiography and myths, iconic figures, ideologies and religion.

Cultural Landscape: The totality of the landscape which has been significantly modified by human activity, including rural lands such as farms, villages and mining towns, as well as country towns.

Cultural Significance: Aesthetic, historic, scientific, social or spiritual value for past, present or future generations. Cultural significance is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects. Places may have a range of values for different individual components, fixtures, contents and objects.

Cultural Tradition: Includes all traditional customary practices and beliefs relating to the aspects of community life.

Culvert: A channel or conduit carrying water under a road.

Curtilage: The geographical area that provides the physical context for an item and which contributes to its heritage significance. Land title boundaries and heritage curtilages do not necessarily coincide.

Development Control Plan (DCP): A plan prepared by a local government agency to provide more detailed development controls and guidelines to accompany a broader planning instrument, such as the Norfolk Island Plan. Often used for Heritage Conservation Areas.

Drift Voyage: A relatively imprecise form of navigation relying on currents and trade winds. 

Endemic: Flora or fauna native to a particular geographic area only, for instance the Norfolk Island pine is endemic only to Norfolk Island.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth): EPBC Act—Commonwealth legislation that came into force on 16 July 2000, replacing several earlier statutes. It focuses Commonwealth interests on matters of national environmental significance, Commonwealth areas and actions; establishes an environmental assessment and approvals process; and establishes an integrated regime for biodiversity conservation and the management of important protected areas.

Fabric: The physical material of the place including components, fixtures, contents and objects.

Fauna: The animals of a particular region, both endemic and introduced species.

First (Colonial) Settlement: The settlement on Norfolk Island in the period between 1788 and 1814.

Flora: The plants of a particular region, both endemic and introduced species.

Heritage Significance: Aesthetic, historic, scientific, cultural, social, archaeological, natural or aesthetic value for past, present or future generations.

Historical Significance: An item having this value is significant because of the importance of its relationship to the evolving pattern of our cultural history.

ICOMOS: The International Council for Monuments and Sites. ICOMOS is one of the advisory bodies to the World Heritage Committee. ICOMOS advises in relation to cultural heritage.

Intangible Cultural Heritage: The practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills—as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith—that communities, groups and (in some cases) individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, interaction with nature and history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity.

Integrity: A measure of the wholeness and intactness of a World Heritage property and its attributes, particularly whether it includes all elements necessary to express its Outstanding Universal Value, is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey its significance, and/or is adversely affected by development neglect.

Interim KAVHA Steering Group: Appointed in 2015 to be responsible for KAVHA operations, the interim Steering Group comprises the Executive Director of Local Government and Territories Division and the Executive Director of Norfolk Island.

Interpretation: All of the ways of presenting the cultural significance of a place.

IUCN: The International Union for the Conservation of Nature. IUCN is one of the advisory bodies to the World Heritage Committee. IUCN advises in relation to natural heritage.

KAVHA: Kingston and Arthur's Vale Historic Area. This term is used colloquially to refer to the general area of Kingston and Watermill Valley (Arthur’s Vale). This term is not always used precisely with reference to the place which is included on the National Heritage List and forms one of the 11 properties that together constitute the Australian Convict Sites (see KAVHA site below).

KAVHA Advisory Committee: The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Advisory Committee appointed in 2015 to develop a strategic vision for the KAVHA site and provide advice on conservation and management priorities. The KAVHA Advisory Committee includes a minimum of five members with no less than two Norfolk Island community members, no less than two members who are expert in heritage and collections, plus a senior Australian Government official as Chair.

KAVHA Board: The former Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Management Board, established under the 1989 Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of Norfolk Island. In 2015 the KAVHA Board was replaced by the interim KAVHA Steering Group and the KAVHA Advisory Committee.

KAVHA Manager: The Australian Government officer responsible for the care control and management of the KAVHA site. At present, the Commonwealth Heritage Manager is the KAVHA Manager. The KAVHA Manager ultimately reports to the Australian Government and provides information to the KAVHA Advisory Committee. Both of these bodies receive input via the Director of Norfolk Island Contract and Heritage. The KAVHA Manager’s duties include:

·                 directing and managing the maintenance of public infrastructure within KAVHA in accordance with the Australian Government, applicable federal and territory laws, agreed plans, specifications and building codes;

·                 managing budgets and reporting on KAVHA’s financial activities and status;

·                 leading and managing KAVHA staff;

·                 developing measures to collect and distribute information regarding conservation and promotion activities undertaken within KAVHA;

·                 developing strategic plans for KAVHA;

·                 facilitating achievement of KAVHA’s objectives by developing and maintaining relationships with stakeholders; and

·                 developing and maintaining effective workplace health and safety (WHS) standards, disability access and public safety within KAVHA.

KAVHA Site: The Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area, being both the study area for this Heritage Management Plan and the place which is included on the National Heritage List and forms one of the 11 sites that together constitute the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage property.

Lighter: Clinker built boat used for loading and unloading vessels moored at sea.

Local Significance: Items of heritage significance which are important to a local community and have heritage values, including fine or typical examples, or are rare at the local community level.

Maintenance: The continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and setting of a place. Maintenance is to be distinguished from repair, which involves restoration or reconstruction.

Meanings: Denote what a place signifies, indicates, evokes or expresses.

Mechanic: An old-fashioned term for a labourer.

Memorandum of Understanding: The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) about the Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Norfolk Island Government, originally signed in 1989 and updated in 1994.

Movable Heritage: Heritage Items not fixed to a site or place, for example furniture, locomotives and archives.

National Heritage Value: Heritage value determined by the Australian Heritage Council in accordance with the National Heritage criteria of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth).

National Parks and Wildlife Act 1975 (Cwlth): Commonwealth legislation which is now superseded by the EPBC Act.

Norfolk Island Administration: a term which encompasses the Administration of Norfolk Island (present) and the Norfolk Island Regional Council (once elected and operational).

Norfolk Island Advisory Council: An interim body established under the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015  to support the transition to the Norfolk Island Regional Council and to represent the community in the Norfolk Island reform process.

Norfolk Island Community: The people of Norfolk Island and those with continuing family and historical connections who do not live on Norfolk Island. The HMP is inclusive of all people associated with Norfolk Island, while recognising that there are also distinctive cultural groups.

Norfolk Island Government: The governing body for Norfolk Island that was in place from 1979 until 18 June 2015.

Norfolk Island Regional Council: A council established under the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 to be elected in 2016.

Norfolk Islander: See Norfolk Island community.

Obsidian: A dark vitreous lava or volcanic rock that appears like bottle glass. Obsidian found on Norfolk Island was determined to have been obtained from Raoul Island in the Kermadecs and Mayor Island. It was prized by Maoris and Polynesians for its cutting edge.

Operational Guidelines: The Operational Guidelines for Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. These guidelines are regularly reviewed and were most recently revised in 2013.

Oral Histories: Historical research carried out by interviewing people associated with a heritage item in a planned manner. These interviews are recorded so they can be transcribed and analysed.

Outstanding Universal Value (OUV): Heritage value for all of humanity as determined by the World Heritage Committee, in accordance with the criteria of the Operational Guidelines to the World Heritage Convention.

Overshot: Term used to describe the method of operation of a water-powered mill.

Parterre: Formerly laid out garden beds, often divided by small hedges, in the French manner.

Penitentiary: A reformatory prison derived from the word ‘penitent’, meaning to repent.

Pitcairn Settlement: See Third (Pitcairn) Settlement.

Place: Site, area, land, landscape, building or other work, group of buildings or other works, and may include components, contents, spaces and views.

Polynesian Settlement: The settlement of Polynesian people on Norfolk Island; archaeological evidence suggests a single phase of Polynesian occupation from c1150 to c1450AD.

Post mill: A windmill that revolved around a central post, and could be turned to face the wind.

Preservation: Maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state, and retarding deterioration.

Public / Stakeholder Participation: Local community (and affected persons or groups) involvement in the design, implementation and evaluation of a project or plan. A range of procedures and methods designed to consult, involve and inform the public to allow those that would be potentially affected by a decision or policy to have input into the process. May also involve:

·         Inform—to provide the public with balanced and objective information to assist them in understanding the problem, alternatives, opportunities and/or solutions.

·         Consult—to obtain public feedback on analysis, alternatives and/or decisions.

·         Involve—to work directly with the public throughout the process to ensure that public concerns and aspirations are consistently understood and considered.

·         Collaborate—to partner with the public in each aspect of the decision, including the development of alternatives and the identification of the preferred solution.

·         Empower—to place final decision-making in the hands of the public. (IAP2 2014)

Quern: Mill turned by hand in order to grind grain.

Quick lime: A white caustic alkaline earth (calcium oxide) obtained by heating limestone and used for making fertilizer and mortar.

Rarity: An item having this value is significant because it represents a rare, endangered or unusual aspect of our history or cultural heritage.

Reconstruction: Returning a place to a known earlier state, distinguished by the introduction of new material into the fabric. 

Refractory: Stubborn, unmanageable or rebellious—a term often applied to prisoners or convicts.

Regional Council: See Norfolk Island Regional Council.

Related Object: An object that contributes to the cultural significance of the place, but is not at that place.

Related Place: A place that contributes to the cultural significance of another place.

Representativeness: Items having this value are significant because they are fine representative examples of an important class of significant items or environments.

Restoration: Returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material.

Roughcast: A form of external plastering or render composed of lime, sand, water and small particles of gravel, pebbles or crushed stone, thrown into an undercoat of render before the render has dried. Also called pebble-dash or harling.

Ruin: Any convict structure where less than 50 per cent of original fabric remains, but more than footings.

Second (Penal) Settlement: The settlement on Norfolk Island in the period between 1825 and 1855.

Setting: The area around a place, which may include the visual catchment.

Significant Building: A building which has heritage value and contributes to the heritage value of the KAVHA site. Most, but not all, significant buildings within the KAVHA site are publicly-owned.

Significant Impact: An impact which is important, notable, or of consequence, having regard to its context or intensity. Whether or not an action is likely to have a significant impact depends upon the sensitivity, value, and quality of the environment which is impacted, and upon the intensity, duration, magnitude and geographic extent of the impacts.

Slab: A floor or external area made from concrete, either with or without reinforcement. The term is also applied to a vernacular form of construction, using large split planks (or slabs) of timber.

Slaked lime: Quick lime combined with water, forming calcium hydroxide. This form of lime is used to make mortar and whitewash.

Sloop: A small, single-masted, fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessel with a single headsail jib.

Social Significance: Items having this value are significant through their social, spiritual or cultural association with a recognisable community.

Statement of Heritage Impact (SOHI): Analyses the impact of proposed works on the significance of a heritage item.

Stipendiary Magistrate: A paid professional magistrate.

Strategic Management Framework: The Australian Convict Sites Strategic Management Framework, published by the Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2010), which functions as a management plan for the Australian Convict Sites.

Technical/Research Significance: Items having this value are significant because of their contribution or potential contribution to an understanding of our cultural history or environment.

Third (Pitcairn) Settlement: The settlement on Norfolk Island in the period from 1856 to the present. The Third (Pitcairn) Settlement commenced with the arrival of Pitcairners in 1856, but also includes the full period since, during which people from many other cultural backgrounds have come to live on Norfolk Island. While the settlement naming relates to the first arrivals in each period, the HMP adopts an inclusive approach to all sections of the Norfolk Island community.

Use: The functions of a place, as well as the activities and practices that may occur at the place

Values: The various values embodied in cultural heritage are considered in order to assess significance. Values may compete and change over time, and different people may have different values. The various values together show cultural heritage significance.

World Heritage Convention: The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) meeting in Paris, 1972.



11.2 Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used in the document:

AHC                 Australian Heritage Commission

AIA                   Australian Institute of Architects (formerly Royal RAIA)

AGSO               Australian Government Survey Office

ANPWS            Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service

AJCP                Australian Joint Copying Project

AONSW            Archives Office of New South Wales (now State Records)

A/TAS              Archives of Tasmania

ASLIG              Australian Surveying and Land Information Group

AZP                  Archaeological Zoning Plan

BL                    British Library

BP                    Before Present

BPP                 British Parliamentary Papers

BT                    Bonwick Transcripts

Col. A               Colonial Architect

CMP                 Conservation Management Plan

CP                    Conservation Plan

CSC                 Conservation Services Co-ordinator

DA                    Development Application

DCP                 Development Control Plan

DEH                 Department of Environment and Heritage, later DEHWA (Commonwealth)

DEWHA            Department of Environment, Heritage and the Arts (Commonwealth)

DEW                 Department of Environment and Water Resources (Commonwealth)

DHA&E             Department of Home Affairs and Environment (Commonwealth)

DHC                 Department of Housing and Construction (Commonwealth)

DoC                  Department of Commerce (NSW)

DOTRS             Department of Transport & Regional Services (Commonwealth)

DUAP               Department of Urban Affairs & Planning (NSW), later Planning NSW

DG                   Dixson Gallery (SLNSW)

EA                    Environment Australia (Commonwealth)

EIS                   Environmental Impact Statement

EPBC               Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999 (Cwlth)

GA                   Government Architect (of NSW)

GAB                 Government Architects Branch (NSW)

GIS                  Global Imaging System

GRL                 General Reference Library (SLNSW)

HMP                 Heritage Management Plan

HO                   Heritage Office (NSW)

HRA                 Historical Records of Australia

HRNSW            Historical Records of NSW

ICOMOS           International Council of Monuments and Sites

KAVHA             Kingston and Arthur’s Vale Historic Area

LEP                  Local Environmental Plan

ML                   Mitchell Library

MOU                 Memorandum of Understanding

MP                   Management Plan

NAA                 National Archives of Australia (Canberra)

NHM                 Natural History Museum (London)

NI                     Norfolk Island

NIA                   Norfolk Island administration

NIG                  Norfolk Island Government

NIHR                Norfolk Island Heritage Register

NIM                  Norfolk Island Museum

NIP                   Norfolk Island Plan

NLA                  National Library of Australia (Canberra)

NMM                National Maritime Museum (London)

NSW                 New South Wales

NT                    National Trust of Australia

NZ                    New Zealand

OCP                 Otto Cserhalmi and Partners Pty Ltd (Jean Rice)

PM                   Project Manager

PRO                 Public Records Office, London

RAHS               Royal Australian Historical Society

REO                 Royal Engineers Office

RNE                 Register of the National Estate (Australian Heritage Commission)

SLVIC              State Library of Victoria

SLNSW            State Library of New South Wales

SPF                  Small Picture File (Mitchell Library)

UNESCO          United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation



11.3 Bibliography

Anderson, Atholl, 1997, Prehistoric Human Colonisation of Norfolk Island.

Australia ICOMOS, 1998. Code on the Ethics of Co-existence in Conserving Significant Places. <http://australia.icomos.org/publications/charters/>.

Australia ICOMOS, 2013. The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance. <http://australia.icomos.org/publications/charters/>.

Australian Committee for IUCN (2012) The Cairns Communiqué: Keeping the Outstanding Exceptional: the Future of World Heritage in Australia.  Adopted by the participants at a National Workshop held in Cairns as part of Australia’s celebration of the 40th Anniversary of the World Heritage Convention, 9-10 August 2012, Sydney. <http://aciucn.org.au/index.php/world-heritage/>.

Belcher, (Lady) D., Mutineers of the Bounty and their descendants in Pitcairn and Norfolk Island. 1870.

Best, A.B., The Journal of Ensign Best 1837-43, intro. and notes by N.M. Taylor, Wellington 1966.

Clive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners.1988, Conservation Management Plan.

Clifton, Graeme, NSW Department of Conservation and Land Management, 1993, Land Degradation Study and Management Plan.

Commonwealth of Australia, 2010. Australian World Heritage Intergovernmental Agreement. Department of Environment, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia, 2000, Australian World Heritage Management Principles: Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation Regulations. < http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/about>.

Cox, P. and Stacey, W., Building Norfolk Island. Melb. 1971.

Davies, Martin, 1980. ‘Archaeological Documentation Report on the Conservation Programme, Kingston-Arthur’s Vale Historic Area - Working Draft,’ for the Commonwealth Department of Housing and Construction, July 1980.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2008. Australian Convict Sites World Heritage Nomination, ISBN 978 0 642 55390 4. Canberra ACT.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2010. Australian Convict Sites Strategic Management Framework. Canberra, <http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/publications/aust-convict-sites-strategic-management-framework>.

Department of Home Affairs and Environment, 1980, KAVHA Management Plan.

Department of Housing and Construction, 1981, The Architectural Historical Record of KAVHA.

IAP2, 2014, IAP2’s Public Participation Spectrum. IAP2 Federation. <https://www.iap2.org.au/resources/iap2s-public-participation-spectrum>.

Jean Rice Architect, 2003, database Historic Images and Their Sources.

Johnston, C and Travers, I, with assistance from Jessie Briggs. Ruins: A Guide to Conservation and Management, Australian Heritage Council, Canberra, ACT.

Hoare, M., Norfolk Island: An outline of its history, 1774-1968. Brisbane 1969.

Hoare, M., Norfolk Island: A history through illustration, 1774-1974. Canberra 1979.

Hoare, M., The Winds of Change. Norfolk Island 1950-1982, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, 1983.

Hoare, M., Norfolk Island in the 1930s. Administrator Pinney’s Term, Boolarong Press, Norfolk Island, 1996.

Hoare, M., Norfolk Island. A Revised and Enlarged History 1774-1998, Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton, 1999.

McLaren, Peter, 1993, Interpretative Plan, Volume 1: Policy, (Note: volume 2 was never adopted).

National Trusts. Australian Council of, The Historic Buildings of Norfolk Island: Their Restoration, Preservation and Maintenance. 1968.

Nobbs, R., Norfolk Island and its First Settlement 1788-1814.  Library of Australian History, Sydney 1988.

Nobbs, R., Norfolk Island and its Second Settlement 1825-1855.  Library of Australian History, Sydney 1991.

Nobbs, R., Norfolk Island and its Third Settlement 1855-1956.  Library of Australian History, Sydney 2006.

NSW Department of Commerce & Otto Cserhalmi and Partners Pty Ltd, 2007. Draft Kingston & Arthur’s Vale Historic Area Conservation Management Plan 2007. Unpublished draft report prepared for the KAVHA Management Board.

NSW Heritage Office, 1996, Heritage Terms and Abbreviations, NSW Heritage Office, Parramatta.

Otto Cserhalmi Partners Pty Ltd (Jean Rice), 2003, database KAVHA Inventory.

Peter M. Davidson Pty Ltd, 1997, Water Quality Management Plan.

Philip Cox & Partners Pty Ltd, 1983, Government House Norfolk Island: Conservation and Management Plan.

Prosser, Gary and Lang, Jill, 1995, Recreation Management Plan.

Staton, J. and O’ Sullivan, J. 2006, Stock and Waterways: A Managers Guide. Land and Water Australia, Australian Government, Canberra.

Tropman and Tropman Architects.1994, Landscape Management and Conservation Plan.

Tropman and Tropman Architects.1994, Kingston Cemetery Study and Management Plan.

Tropman and Tropman Architects.1997, CMP: Government House and Quality Row Residences Gardens.

UNESCO, 1972. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (the World Heritage Convention), adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, Paris.

UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 2010.  World Heritage Committee Decision 34 COM 8B.16 Cultural Properties - Australian Convict Sites (Australia). <http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/3995>.


UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 2013 Operational Guidelines for Implementation of the World Heritage Convention,<http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines/>.


URS, 2013, Norfolk Island Water Quality Study: Emily Bay & Cascade Creek Catchments. Report Prepared for Administration of Norfolk Island.


Wilson, G. and Davies, M. 1980 (printed 1983), Archaeological Survey, KAVHA.  (2 volumes).


11.4  Land Status




Crown/ Commonwealth

194.16 ha


Freehold not Commonwealth

  45.39 ha


Total Land in KAVHA

239.55 ha






Freehold privately managed

44.41 ha


Leasehold privately managed

97.14 ha


Freehold managed by KAVHA

5.02 ha


Other managed by KAVHA

16.70 ha


Reserve managed by NI Administration (Forestry)

68.93 ha


Reserve managed by Administrators Office (Government House grounds)

7.35 ha


Total Land in KAVHA

239.55 ha




1 Acre = 4,046m2

1 Hectare = 10,000m2   

1 Hectare = 2.47 Acres




11.5   Chronology

Otto Cserhalmi Partners and Jean Rice Architect