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Part 61 Manual of Standards Instrument 2014

Authoritative Version
Standards/Other as amended, taking into account amendments up to Part 61 Manual of Standards Amendment Instrument 2016 (No. 1)
Administered by: Infrastructure and Regional Development
Registered 30 May 2016
Start Date 26 May 2016
Table of contents.

Schedule 3          Aeronautical knowledge standards

The following Table of Contents and Index of Codes are for guidance only and are not part of the Schedule.

Table of Contents

Appendix 1.          Flight crew licences and aircraft category ratings. 333

Section 1.1            Basic Aeronautical Knowledge (BAK) 333

Unit 1.1.1                 BAKC: Basic aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories. 333

Unit 1.1.2                 RBKA: Basic aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane. 340

Unit 1.1.3                 RBKH: RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – helicopter 343

Unit 1.1.4                 RBKG: RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – gyroplane – Reserved. 347

Unit 1.1.5                 RBKS: RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – airship – Reserved. 347

Section 1.2            General aeronautical knowledge (AK) 348

Unit 1.2.1                 RARO: RPL aeronautical radio operator 348

Unit 1.2.2                 PAKC: PPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories. 350

Unit 1.2.3                 GNSSC: Basic GNSS and en route GPS navigation principles – all categories. 353

Unit 1.2.4                 PAKA: PPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane. 354

Unit 1.2.5                 PAKH: PPL aeronautical knowledge – helicopter 355

Unit 1.2.6                 PAKG: PPL aeronautical knowledge – gyroplane. 356

Unit 1.2.7                 PAKP: PPL aeronautical knowledge – powered-lift – Reserved. 356

Unit 1.2.8                 PAKS: PPL aeronautical knowledge – airship – Reserved. 356

Unit 1.2.9                 CAKC: CPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories. 357

Unit 1.2.10               CAKA: CPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane. 362

Unit 1.2.11               CAKH: CPL aeronautical knowledge – helicopter 364

Unit 1.2.12               CAKG: CPL aeronautical knowledge – gyroplane – Reserved. 364

Unit 1.2.13               CAKP: CPL aeronautical knowledge – powered-lift – Reserved. 364

Unit 1.2.14               CAKS: CPL aeronautical knowledge – airship – Reserved. 364

Section 1.3            Aerodynamics (AD) 365

Unit 1.3.1                 CADC: CPL aerodynamics – all aircraft categories. 365

Unit 1.3.2                 CADA: CPL aerodynamics – aeroplane. 366

Unit 1.3.3                 CADH: CPL aerodynamics – helicopter 369

Unit 1.3.4                 CADG: CPL aerodynamics – gyroplane – Reserved. 370

Unit 1.3.5                 CADP: CPL aerodynamics – powered-lift – Reserved. 370

Unit 1.3.6                 CADS: CPL aerodynamics – airship – Reserved. 370

Section 1.4            ATPL Aircraft General Knowledge (AG) 371

Unit 1.4.1                 AAGC: ATPL aircraft general knowledge – all aircraft categories. 371

Unit 1.4.2                 AAGA: ATPL aircraft general knowledge – aeroplane. 377

Unit 1.4.3                 AAGH: ATPL aircraft general knowledge – helicopter 386

Unit 1.4.4                 AAGP: ATPL aircraft general knowledge – powered-lift – Reserved. 393

Unit 1.4.5                 FAGC: FE aircraft general knowledge – all categories. 394

Section 1.5            Flight rules and air law (FR) 403

Unit 1.5.1                 RFRC: RPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories. 403

Unit 1.5.2                 PFRC: PPL Flight rules and air law – All aircraft categories – Reserved. 406

Unit 1.5.3                 PFRA: PPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane. 407

Unit 1.5.4                 PFRH: PPL Flight rules and air law – Helicopter 410

Unit 1.5.5                 PFRG: PPL flight rules and air law – gyroplane – Reserved. 414

Unit 1.5.6                 PFRP: PPL flight rules and air law – powered-lift – Reserved. 414

Unit 1.5.7                 PFRS: PPL flight rules and air law – airship – Reserved. 414

Unit 1.5.8                 CFRC: CPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories. 415

Unit 1.5.9                 CFRA: CPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane. 419

Unit 1.5.10               CFRH: CPL flight rules and air law – helicopter 420

Unit 1.5.11               CFRG: CPL flight rules and air law – gyroplane – Reserved. 421

Unit 1.5.12               CFRP: CPL flight rules and air law – powered-lift – Reserved. 421

Unit 1.5.13               CFRS: CPL flight rules and air law – airship – Reserved. 421

Unit 1.5.14               AFRC: ATPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories. 422

Unit 1.5.15               AFRA: ATPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane. 429

Unit 1.5.16               AFRH: ATPL flight rules and air law – helicopter 430

Unit 1.5.17               AFRP: ATPL Flight rules and air law – powered-lift – Reserved. 431

Unit 1.5.18               FFRC: FE flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories. 432

Section 1.6            Human factors principes (HF) 436

Unit 1.6.1                 PHFC: PPL human factors – all categories. 436

Unit 1.6.2                 CHFC: CPL Human factors. 441

Unit 1.6.3                 AHFC: ATPL human factors. 446

Section 1.7            Navigation (NV) 452

Unit 1.7.1                 PNVC: PPL navigation – all aircraft categories. 452

Unit 1.7.2                 CNVC: CPL navigation – all aircraft categories. 455

Unit 1.7.3                 ANVC: ATPL navigation – all aircraft categories. 458

Unit 1.7.4                 ANVA: ATPL navigation – aeroplane – Reserved. 464

Unit 1.7.5                 ANVH: ATPL navigation – helicopter – Reserved. 464

Section 1.8            Meteorology (MT) 465

Unit 1.8.1                 RMTC: RPL meteorology – all aircraft categories. 465

Unit 1.8.2                 PMTC: PPL meteorology – all aircraft categories. 466

Unit 1.8.3                 CMTC: CPL meteorology – all aircraft categories. 468

Unit 1.8.4                 AMTC: ATPL meteorology – all aircraft categories. 471

Unit 1.8.5                 AMTA: ATPL meteorology – aeroplane. 475

Section 1.9            Operations, Performance and Planning (OP) 483

Unit 1.9.1                 POPC: PPL operations, performance and planning – all aircraft categories. 483

Unit 1.9.2                 POPA: PPL operations, performance and planning – aeroplane. 485

Unit 1.9.3                 POPH: PPL operations, performance and planning – helicopter 487

Unit 1.9.4                 POPG: PPL operations, performance and planning – gyroplane – Reserved. 490

Unit 1.9.5                 COPC: CPL operations, performance and planning – all aircraft categories. 491

Unit 1.9.6                 COPA: CPL operations, performance and planning – aeroplane. 495

Unit 1.9.7                 COPH: CPL operations, performance and planning – helicopter 496

Unit 1.9.8                 COPG: CPL operations, performance and planning – gyroplane – Reserved. 499

Unit 1.9.9                 COPP: CPL operations, performance and planning – powered-lift – Reserved. 499

Unit 1.9.10               COPS: CPL operations, performance and planning – airship – Reserved. 499

Section 1.10          Flight Planning (FP) 500

Unit 1.10.1               AFPC: ATPL flight planning – all aircraft categories – Reserved. 500

Unit 1.10.2               AFPA: ATPL flight planning – aeroplane. 500

Unit 1.10.3               AFPH: ATPL flight planning – helicopter 502

Section 1.11          ATPL Performance and Loading (PL) 504

Unit 1.11.1               APLC: ATPL performance and loading – all aircraft categories – Reserved. 504

Unit 1.11.2               APLA: ATPL performance and loading – aeroplane. 504

Unit 1.11.3               APLH: ATPL performance and loading – helicopter 511

Unit 1.11.4               APLP: ATPL performance and loading – powered-lift – Reserved. 515

Appendix 2.          Operational Ratings. 516

Section 2.1            Instrument Rating. 516

Unit 2.1.1                 IREX: Instrument rating. 516

Section 2.2            Private IFR rating. 524

Unit 2.2.1                 PIFR: Private IFR rating. 524

Section 2.3            Aerial application rating and endorsements. 530

Unit 2.3.1                 AAGR: aerial application rating – all aircraft categories. 530

Unit 2.3.2                 AAGA: aerial application rating – aeroplane endorsement 533

Unit 2.3.3                 AAGH: Aerial application rating – helicopter endorsement 534

Section 2.4            Instructor ratings. 536

Unit 2.4.1                 FIRC: Instructor rating – common. 536

Section 2.5            Low-level rating. 539

Unit 2.5.1                 LLLR: Low-level rating – all aircraft categories. 539

Section 2.6            Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS) rating. 541

Unit 2.6.1                 NVIS: NVIS rating – all aircraft categories. 541

Section 2.7            Night VFR rating. 542

Unit 2.7.1                 NVFR: NVFR rating – all aircraft categories. 542

Section 2.8            Examiner ratings. 543

Unit 2.8.1                 FERC: flight examiner rating – common – Reserved. 543

Appendix 3.          Aircraft ratings and endorsements. 544

Section 3.1            Class Ratings. 544

Unit 3.1.1                 MECR: multi-engine aeroplane class rating – all aircraft categories. 544

Section 3.2            Type Ratings. 545

Unit 3.2.1                 TYPA: Pilot type rating – aeroplane. 545

Unit 3.2.2                 TYPH: Pilot type rating – helicopter 549

Unit 3.2.3                 FETR: Flight engineer type rating – all aircraft 553

Appendix 4.          Foreign Licence conversion. 556

Section 4.1            CPL – Reserved. 556

Section 4.2            MPL/ATPL – Reserved. 556

 


 

INDEX to Unit Codes

 


AAGA.............................................. 379, 536

AAGC...................................................... 373

AAGH.............................................. 388, 537

AAGP...................................................... 396

AAGR...................................................... 533

AFPA....................................................... 503

AFPC....................................................... 503

AFPH....................................................... 505

AFRA....................................................... 432

AFRC....................................................... 425

AFRH....................................................... 433

AFRP....................................................... 434

AHFC....................................................... 449

AMTA...................................................... 478

AMTC...................................................... 474

ANVA....................................................... 467

ANVC...................................................... 461

ANVH...................................................... 467

APLA....................................................... 507

APLC....................................................... 507

APLH....................................................... 514

APLP....................................................... 518

BAKC....................................................... 333

CADA...................................................... 367

CADC...................................................... 366

CADG...................................................... 372

CADH...................................................... 370

CADP...................................................... 372

CADS...................................................... 372

CAKA....................................................... 362

CAKC...................................................... 357

CAKG...................................................... 365

CAKH...................................................... 364

CAKP....................................................... 365

CAKS....................................................... 365

CFRA....................................................... 422

CFRC...................................................... 418

CFRG...................................................... 424

CFRH...................................................... 423

CFRP....................................................... 424

CFRS....................................................... 424

CHFC...................................................... 444

CMTC...................................................... 471

CNVC...................................................... 458

COPA...................................................... 498

COPC...................................................... 494

COPG...................................................... 502

COPH...................................................... 499

COPP...................................................... 502

COPS...................................................... 502

FAGC...................................................... 397

FERC....................................................... 546

FETR....................................................... 556

FFRC....................................................... 435

FIRC........................................................ 539

GNSSC................................................... 353

IREX........................................................ 519

LLLR........................................................ 542

MECR...................................................... 547

NVFR....................................................... 545

NVIS........................................................ 544

PAKA....................................................... 354

PAKC....................................................... 350

PAKG...................................................... 356

PAKH....................................................... 355

PAKP....................................................... 356

PAKS....................................................... 356

PFRA....................................................... 410

PFRG...................................................... 417

PFRH....................................................... 413

PFRP....................................................... 417

PFRS....................................................... 417

PHFC....................................................... 439

PIFR........................................................ 527

PMTC...................................................... 469

PNVC...................................................... 455

POPA...................................................... 488

POPC...................................................... 486

POPG...................................................... 493

POPH...................................................... 490

RARO...................................................... 348

RBKA....................................................... 340

RBKG...................................................... 347

RBKH...................................................... 343

RBKS....................................................... 347

RFRC...................................................... 406

TYPA....................................................... 548

TYPH....................................................... 552


 

Appendix 1.           Flight crew licences and aircraft category ratings

Section 1.1           Basic Aeronautical Knowledge (BAK)

Unit 1.1.1                   BAKC:      Basic aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Terminology

2.1             Direction of flight

2.1.1          Describe direction using the following methods:

(a)        as a 3 figure group;

(b)        as a 2 figure group;

(c)        in the clock code.

2.1.2          Define the meaning of aircraft heading (HDG).

2.1.3          Describe the differences between the following terms when used to describe direction:

(a)        true (T);

(b)        magnetic (M);

(c)        compass (C).

2.2             Distance, speed and velocity

2.2.1          State the units used for lateral distance in respect of the following:

(a)        navigation;

(b)        visibility.

2.2.2          Define the meaning of knot (kt) when used to express aircraft speed.

2.2.3          Define wind velocity (W/V).

2.2.4          Differentiate between the following acronyms:

(a)        IAS;

(b)        CAS;

(c)        TAS;

(d)        GS.

2.3             Time

2.3.1          Express time as a 4 figure group (24 hour time).

2.3.2          Convert local standard time to UTC.

2.3.3          Convert UTC to local standard time.

2.4             Units of measurement

2.4.1          State the units used to describe vertical measurement and the differences between the following:

(a)        height;

(b)        altitude;

(c)        elevation.

2.4.2          State the unit of measurement used to express:

(a)        runway dimensions;

(b)        temperature;

(c)        atmospheric pressure;

(d)        weight;

(e)        volume (liquids);

(f)         visibility.

2.5             Basic physics

2.5.1          Describe the meaning of kinetic and potential energy and the relationship to basic aircraft operations.

2.5.2          Describe the meaning of ‘aircraft energy state’ with respect to kinetic and potential energy.

2.5.3          Describe the effects on ‘aircraft energy state’ of acceleration, deceleration, climb and descent.

3.               Power plants and systems – basics

3.1             Piston engine aircraft

3.1.1          Describe the basic principle of operation of a 4 stroke cycle internal combustion engine and state the purpose and function of the following components:

(a)        cylinders;

(b)        pistons;

(c)        piston rings;

(d)        inlet/exhaust valves;

(e)        crank shaft;

(f)         cam shaft;

(g)        spark plugs.

3.1.2          Describe the effect of increasing altitude and temperature on engine performance and how the following affect the power output of an engine:

(a)        throttle lever position;

(b)        RPM.

3.1.3          State the function of the following engine components and/or features:

(a)        carburettor;

(b)        throttle;

(c)        magneto, dual ignition;

(d)        alternator;

(e)        battery, battery compartment vent;

(f)         propeller;

(g)        circuit breaker, fuse, bus bar;

(h)        impulse start;

(i)         oil cooler;

(j)         fuel tank vents.

3.1.4          In relation to power plants and systems, state the purpose and importance of monitoring the following gauges:

(a)        RPM (tachometer);

(b)        CHT and EGT;

(c)        voltmeter, ammeter, loadmeter;

(d)        fuel pressure;

(e)        oil temperature and pressure.

3.1.5          Describe the purpose and function of an engine lubrication system in relation to engine cooling.

3.1.6          State the purpose of mixture control and describe the effect of excessively rich and lean mixture strengths on engine operation.

3.1.7          Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a simple carburettor and a direct injection system.

3.1.8          List typical services provided by the following systems in a light aircraft and the actions a pilot would take to rectify or detect a malfunction:

(a)        hydraulic system;

(b)        electrical system;

(c)        ignition system;

(d)        vacuum system.

3.2             Fuels and oils

3.2.1          Describe the following in relation to fuels:

(a)        the sources of fuel contamination;

(b)        the advantages and disadvantages of fuelling prior to overnight parking;

(c)        how to identify different grades of aviation fuel;

(d)        the hazards/problems with:

(i)         mixing different hydraulic fluids;

(ii)        using incorrect grades of fuel.

3.3             Engine handling

3.3.1          State the causes and effects of detonation, limited to improper use of mixture control, MP/RPM, and use of incorrect fuel octane.

3.3.2          Describe the effect on an engine of the following:

(a)        prolonged idling;

(b)        using incorrect mixture settings in flight.

3.3.3          State reasons for the following limitations/actions:

(a)        minimum oil pressure;

(b)        minimum/maximum oil temperature;

(c)        minimum/maximum CHT;

(d)        maximum RPM;

(e)        ignition checks: pre-take-off and shutdown;

(f)         prolonged use of starter motor;

(g)        use of pitot heat on the ground;

(h)        engine warm up on prolonged descents.

3.3.4          Explain the significance of blue or black exhaust smoke produced by an aircraft piston engine.

3.4             Malfunctions

3.4.1          For paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), the components are listed in paragraph (d):

(a)        describe the cockpit indications which may suggest a malfunction or failure of a component;

(b)        state the actions (if any) a pilot should take to rectify a malfunction or failure of a component;

(c)        describe the consequences if a malfunction or failure of a component listed above cannot be rectified;

(d)        the following is a list of components that applies to paragraphs (a), (b) and (c):

                                (i)      alternator;

(i)         magneto;

(ii)        battery;

(iii)       ignition switch;

(iv)       fuel vent (blockage), fuel/booster pump;

(v)        oil cooler, cowl flaps;

(vi)       vacuum pump;

(vii)      hydraulic brakes.

3.4.2          For paragraphs (a) and (b), the piston-engine gauges are listed in paragraph (c):

(a)        with reference to engine gauge indications, identify reasons for an abnormality and state pilot actions (if any) to rectify a problem;

(b)        state the consequences if the problem cannot be rectified by the pilot;

(c)        the following is a list of piston-engine gauges that applies to paragraphs (a) and (b):

                                (i)      oil temperature and pressure;

(i)         CHT;

(ii)        fuel pressure;

(iii)       tachometer;

(iv)       ammeter/load meter;

(v)        voltmeter;

(vi)       engine icing.

3.4.3          Describe the method for checking the operation of carburettor heat prior to take-off.

3.4.4          State the atmospheric conditions of outside air temperature and relative humidity, engine control settings and power conditions which are conducive to the formation in a carburettor, including the severity of the icing, of the following:

(a)        throttle ice;

(b)        fuel evaporation ice;

(c)        impact ice.

3.4.5          State the danger of progressive throttle increments if engine icing is not diagnosed.

3.4.6          Describe the use of carburettor heat for:

(a)        anti-icing;

(b)        de-icing;

(c)        ground operation.

3.4.7          Describe the difference between the use of ‘alternate air’ and ‘carburettor heat’ controls.

3.4.8          State the effect of the application of carburettor heat on engine performance and engine instrument indications.

3.4.9          Describe the symptoms of fuel vaporisation and the method of rectification.

3.5             Flight instruments

3.5.1          Explain the colour code markings on an airspeed indicator (ASI).

3.5.2          Describe the basic operation of the primary flight instruments and associated systems.

3.5.3          State:

(a)        the effect of a blockage of the pitot or static source on the indications displayed by each pressure instrument; and

(b)        the effect of using an alternate static source located inside the cockpit, on the reliability of pressure instrument indications; and

(c)        the effect of low suction and loss of electrical power on the reliability of the gyroscopic flight instruments; and

(d)        the causes of toppling of gyroscopic instruments and identify conditions under which they would re-erect; and

(e)        how, when and why a directional indicating gyro should be synchronised with the magnetic compass.

3.5.4          Describe the methods to determine the serviceability of the primary flight instruments and magnetic compass.

4.               Aerodynamics

4.1             Basic aerodynamics

4.1.1          Basic physics – aircraft energy state in terms of the following:

(a)        kinetic energy;

(b)        potential energy;

(c)        inertia.

4.1.2          Explain the meaning of the following terms:

(a)        aerofoil, angle of attack, relative airflow;

(b)        centre of pressure, centre of gravity;

(c)        lift, weight, thrust, drag.

4.1.3          Describe the meaning of the following terms in respect of an aerofoil:

(a)        chord;

(b)        span;

(c)        camber;

(d)        aerodynamic stall.

4.2             Lift and drag

4.2.1          State whether lift and drag of an aerofoil will increase or decrease with changes in the following:

(a)        airspeed;

(b)        angle of attack.

4.2.2          Explain the following types of drag which affect a subsonic aircraft in flight:

(a)        parasite (zero lift) – form, interference, skin friction;

(b)        induced (lift dependent).

4.2.3          State how total drag varies with airspeed.

4.3             Climbing

4.3.1          Describe the difference between rate of climb and angle of climb.

4.4             Wake turbulence

4.4.1          List the factors that affect the strength of vortex flow with respect to the following:

(a)        aircraft weight;

(b)        speed;

(c)        wing shape.

4.4.2          State the primary control hazard that may result from a vortex encounter.

4.4.3          Describe the following:

(a)        approximate flow direction around each vortex; and

(b)        approximate location of vortices (in still air) generated by a preceding aeroplane during:

(i)         cruise flight; and

(ii)        take-off and landing; and

(c)        approximate take-off/touchdown points and flight profiles which should be used to avoid wake turbulence.

4.4.4          State the effect of wind and atmospheric turbulence on the following:

(a)        strength of vortices;

(b)        longevity of vortices;

(c)        location and direction of movement of vortices.

4.5             Thrust stream turbulence (jet blast or rotor downwash)

4.5.1          Describe how the hazard from thrust stream turbulence varies with changes in engine power and distance from the source.

5.               Navigation

5.1             Charts

5.1.1          Identify the major features displayed on visual charts.

5.1.2          State the charts used to identify controlled airspace (CTA) and prohibited, restricted and danger (PRD) areas.

5.2             Documentation

5.2.1          Determine runway data from ERSA for a given airport.

5.2.2          Determine data pertaining to Prohibited, Restricted and Danger areas.

5.2.3          Use ERSA to determine the time a restricted area is active.

6.               Operations, performance and planning

6.1             Airworthiness and aircraft equipment

6.1.1          State the documents required to determine the serviceability of an aircraft.

6.1.2          Describe how to certify the aircraft for flight.

6.1.3          Describe the process to record an aircraft defect on a release to service document (maintenance release).

6.2             Take-off and landing performance

6.2.1          Differentiate between pressure height and density height.

6.2.2          Describe how to use an altimeter to obtain:

(a)        local QNH at an aerodrome;

(b)        pressure height of an aerodrome;

(c)        elevation of an aerodrome.

6.2.3          Calculate the following:

(a)        density altitude given pressure altitude (or elevation and QNH) and temperature;

(b)        pressure altitude given airfield elevation and QNH.

6.2.4          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        strength of headwind/tailwind component;

(b)        air temperature;

(c)        QNH;

(d)        airfield elevation;

(e)        ground effect and windshear;

(f)         frost on an aircraft.

6.2.5          Explain the following terms:

(a)        maximum structural take-off and landing weight;

(b)        climb weight limit.

6.3             Speed limitations

6.3.1          Explain the following terms/abbreviations:

(a)        normal operating speed (VNO);

(b)        never exceed speed (VNE);

(c)        maximum manoeuvre speed (VA);

(d)        turbulence penetration speed (VB);

(e)        limit and design load factors.

6.3.2          Describe situations which may result in an aircraft exceeding speed limits and load factor limits.

6.4             Weight and balance

6.4.1          Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the computation of weight and balance data:

(a)        datum;

(b)        arm;

(c)        moment;

(d)        station;

(e)        centre of gravity and limits;

(f)         empty weight;

(g)        operating weight;

(h)        MTOW;

(i)         zero fuel weight (MZFW);

(j)         MLW.

6.4.2          Calculate the following weight and balance information:

(a)        MTOW;

(b)        capacity and arm of the baggage lockers;

(c)        capacity, arm, grade and specific gravity of the fuel;

(d)        location and arms of the seating.

6.4.3          Determine if an aircraft is loaded within the prescribed CG for the aircraft.

6.4.4          State the likely results of exceeding aircraft weight limits.

Unit 1.1.2                   RBKA:      Basic aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Power plants and systems

2.1             Piston engine

2.1.1          Describe the method of using a manual mixture control for an aircraft piston engine fitted with a fixed pitch propeller.

2.1.2          State what indications would signify the presence of engine icing in an aircraft fitted with a fixed pitch propeller.

3.               Aerodynamics

3.1             Lift and drag

3.1.1          State whether lift and drag of an aerofoil will increase or decrease with changes in flap settings.

3.1.2          For the following, recall the typical angles of attack at which a basic low-speed aerofoil:

(a)        generates maximum lift (16o);

(b)        is most efficient (best L/D: 4o).

3.1.3          Describe how the angles of attack relate to the following:

(a)        stall speed;

(b)        best glide speed.

3.1.4          State the relationship between attitude, angle of attack and airspeed in level flight.

3.2             Flight controls

3.2.1          Describe the primary and further effects of the elevator, rudder and aileron on an aeroplane’s movement about its longitudinal, lateral and normal (vertical) axes.

3.2.2          Describe the effect of changes in power and airspeed on pitch trim and on the effectiveness of the elevator, rudder and ailerons.

3.2.3          Describe the purpose of trim controls.

3.2.4          State the effect of lowering or raising flap on lift, drag and attitude.

3.3             Climbing

3.3.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) on climb rate and angle resulting from changes in the following:

(a)        weight;

(b)        power;

(c)        airspeed (changed from recommended);

(d)        flap deflection;

(e)        headwind/tailwind component, windshear;

(f)         bank angle;

(g)        altitude and density altitude.

3.4             Descents

3.4.1          State the effect on rate, angle of descent and attitude resulting from changes in the following:

(a)        power – constant IAS;

(b)        flap – constant IAS.

3.4.2          State the effect of headwind/tailwind on the glide path and glide distance (relevant to the earth’s surface).

3.4.3          Explain why gliding at any indicated airspeed other than the recommended glide speed will reduce the distance that can be achieved in still air.

3.5             Turning

3.5.1          Describe what is meant by a balanced turn.

3.5.2          Describe the terms ‘g’ wing loading load factor.

3.5.3          During a level turn, state the effect (increase/decrease) of bank angle on the following:

(a)        stall IAS, including the rate of increase of stall speed with increasing bank;

(b)        the aircraft’s structure (load factor) and possible airframe damage if limits are exceeded.

3.5.4          List reasons for avoiding steep turns:

(a)        shortly after take-off; and

(b)        during a glide, particularly on approach to land.

3.5.5          Explain why an aeroplane executing balanced level turns at low level may appear to slip or skid when turning downwind or into wind.

3.5.6          Given level flight stall speed, determine the stall speed and load factor during turns at 45 and 60 degrees bank.

3.6             Stalling, spinning and spiral dives

3.6.1          Describe:

(a)        the symptoms when approaching the stall; and

(b)        the characteristics of a stall.

3.6.2          Explain:

(a)        the effect of using ailerons when approaching and during the stall; and

(b)        why an aeroplane may stall at different speeds.

3.6.3          State the effect (increase/decrease/nil) of the following variables on the level flight stall IAS:

(a)        power;

(b)        flap;

(c)        wind shear vertical gusts;

(d)        manoeuvres;

(e)        weight;

(f)         frost and ice;

(g)        altitude.

3.6.4          Describe the aerodynamic principles of stall recovery.

3.6.5          Describe manoeuvres during which an aeroplane may stall at an angle which appears to be different to the true stalling angle.

3.6.6          Differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive in a light aeroplane and describe the standard recovery technique for each manoeuvre.

3.7             Taxi, take-off, landing

3.7.1          Describe situations which may cause an aeroplane to ‘wheel barrow’ and state the recommended pilot action in the event of such an occurrence.

3.7.2          Describe the effect of a cross-wind on high- and low-wing aeroplanes during taxi, take-off and landing.

3.7.3          List the advantages of taking-off and landing into wind.

3.7.4          Compare a flapless approach to an approach with flap in terms of:

(a)        attitude during descent; and

(b)        approach path angle; and

(c)        threshold and touchdown speeds; and

(d)        landing roll.

3.7.5          Describe the effect of wind shear (wind gradient) and ground effect on aerodynamic and flight characteristics and identify.

3.8             Structural damage

3.8.1          Describe the effect of structural damage, including bird strikes, with emphasis on:

(a)        stall characteristics; and

(b)        controllability.

4.               Operations and performance

4.1             Take-off and landing performance

4.1.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        runway slope;

(b)        wet runway surface;

(c)        slushy runway surface.

4.2             Aircraft limitations

4.2.1          Explain the following terms/abbreviations:

(a)        flap operating speed (VFO);

(b)        flap extended speed (VFE).

Unit 1.1.3                   RBKH:      RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Power plants and systems

2.1             Piston engine

2.1.1          Describe the method of setting the correct mixture in a helicopter fitted with a piston engine.

2.1.2          State what indications would signify the presence of carburettor or induction ice.

2.2             Helicopter engines and systems

2.2.1          Describe pilot actions that can be performed to rectify a malfunction related to the following:

(a)        main and tail rotor systems:

(i)         abnormal vibrations from main and tail rotor systems;

(ii)        flight control systems;

(iii)       trimming devices;

(iv)       stabilisers;

(b)        transmissions:

(i)         clutches;

(ii)        free-wheel units;

(iii)       rotor brakes;

(c)        oil systems:

(i)         reservoirs;

(ii)        pressure pumps and filters;

(iii)       pressure gauges;

(iv)       temperature gauges;

(v)        scavenge pumps;

(vi)       oil coolers;

(vii)      pressure relief valves;

(viii)     oil cooler by-pass valves;

(ix)       dipsticks.

3.               Aerodynamics – helicopter

3.1             Lift and drag

3.1.1          State the aerodynamic properties of a rotor blade in respect of the following:

(a)        aerofoil shape;

(b)        blade twist;

(c)        blade taper.

3.1.2          Match each of the following terms with an appropriate definition:

(a)        rotor thrust;

(b)        rotor drag;

(c)        total reaction;

(d)        relative airflow;

(e)        rotational airflow;

(f)         induced airflow;

(g)        centrifugal reaction;

(h)        rotor disc;

(i)         coning angle.

3.2             Hovering flight

3.2.1          Label a diagram showing the vectors acting on a rotor blade in hovering flight.

3.2.2          Define each of the following terms:

(a)        ground effect;

(b)        tail rotor drift;

(c)        rotor shaft tilt effect;

(d)        re-circulation.

3.2.3          Describe each of the following:

(a)        vortex ring state (settling with power);

(b)        loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE);

(c)        the conditions leading to LTE;

(d)        the appropriate recovery action.

3.3             Rotor blade freedom of movement

3.3.1          In regard to rotor blade freedom of movement describe each of the following terms:

(a)        feathering;

(b)        flapping;

(c)        flapping to equality;

(d)        dragging;

(e)        advance angle;

(f)         phase lag.

3.4             Forward flight

3.4.1          In regard to forward flight, define the following terms:

(a)        dissymmetry of lift;

(b)        flapback;

(c)        cyclic limits;

(d)        airflow reversal;

(e)        retreating blade stall;

(f)         compressibility;

(g)        inflow roll;

(h)        translational lift.

3.4.2          Describe the vectors acting on various sections of a rotor blade in forward flight.

3.5             Power requirements

3.5.1          Define each of the following terms:

(a)        rotor profile drag;

(b)        induced drag;

(c)        parasite drag.

3.5.2          Describe the power available and power required curves and their relationship to the following:

(a)        best speed for range;

(b)        best speed for endurance;

(c)        best rate of climb;

(d)        best angle of climb.

3.5.3          Select from a list, the statement which best describes:

(a)        overpitching;

(b)        the conditions leading thereto;

(c)        the appropriate recovery action.

3.6             Autorotative flight

3.6.1          Describe the following terms:

(a)        autorotative force;

(b)        autorotative section.

3.6.2          Describe the effect on autorotative flight from variations in the following:

(a)        all-up-weight;

(b)        density altitude;

(c)        airspeed;

(d)        rotor RPM.

3.6.3          Label a diagram showing the vectors acting on a rotor blade section during forward autorotative flight.

3.6.4          Label a diagram showing the vectors acting on a rotor blade section during an autorotative flare.

3.7             Other conditions

3.7.1          Select from a list the statement which best describes:

(a)        ground resonance;

(b)        mast bumping;

(c)        dynamic roll-over;

(d)        the conditions leading to:

                                (i)      ground resonance;

                               (ii)      mast bumping;

                               (iii)     dynamic roll-over;

(e)        the appropriate recovery action for each condition in paragraph (d).

4.               Operations, performance and planning

4.1             Helicopter limitations

4.1.1          State the reasons for the following limitations:

(a)        maximum rotor RPM – power on;

(b)        maximum rotor RPM – power off;

(c)        minimum rotor RPM – power on;

(d)        minimum rotor RPM – power off;

(e)        never exceed speed – power on;

(f)         never exceed speed – power off;

(g)        maximum sideways speed;

(h)        maximum rearward speed;

(i)         maximum take-off weight;

(j)         maximum all up weight;

(k)        minimum operating weight;

(l)         maximum positive and negative flight load factors.

4.2             Helicopter landing sites

4.2.1          Recall the requirements for basic and secondary HLS in respect of the following:

(a)        physical specifications;

(b)        operational requirements;

(c)        general conditions of use.

4.3             Take-off and landing weight

4.3.1          Describe the effect of the following variables on the take-off and/or landing performance of a helicopter:

(a)        weight;

(b)        power;

(c)        ground effect.

4.3.2          Determine hover performance in and out of ground effect given the following:

(a)        gross weight;

(b)        pressure altitude;

(c)        temperature;

(d)        flight manual performance charts.

4.4             Weight and balance

4.4.1          Recall the meaning of the term ‘lateral centre of gravity range’ when it is used in the computation of weight and balance data.

Unit 1.1.4                   RBKG:     RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – gyroplaneReserved

 

Unit 1.1.5                   RBKS:      RPL Basic aeronautical knowledge – airshipReserved

 

Section 1.2           General aeronautical knowledge (AK)

Unit 1.2.1                   RARO:     RPL aeronautical radio operator

1.               Reserved

2.               Aeronautical radio telephony

2.1             Operation of aeronautical radio systems

2.1.1          Meets the English language to Aviation English language standard (AEL).

2.1.2          Recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals.

2.1.3          Recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs.

2.1.4          State standard radio procedures for outside controlled airspace (OCTA).

2.1.5          State how transmission of time is conducted.

2.1.6          State how to listening to the radio.

2.1.7          State how to establish and maintain communications.

2.1.8          State the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

2.1.9          Correct procedure for the conduct of a routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone, including the following:

(a)        use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

(b)        turning radio on;

(c)        selecting correct frequencies;

(d)        use of squelch control;

(e)        selection of radio navigation equipment;

(f)         correct use of a microphone;

(g)        use of intercom and public address system;

(h)        voice activated systems.

2.1.10       Describe the correct procedure for routine fault finding and correction.

2.1.11       State the standard phraseology to be used to report aircraft positions in the circuit and the required calls for local flights.

2.1.12       State the responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator in relation to the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

2.1.13       Describe the function of each of the following components of an aeronautical radio system:

(a)        power source/battery switch;

(b)        radio master;

(c)        fuses and circuit breakers;

(d)        microphone;

(e)        transmitter;

(f)         receiver;

(g)        antenna;

(h)        headphones and speaker.

2.1.14       Describe the difference between a distress and an emergency message and the standard phrases used in both cases.

2.1.15       Accurately extract radio failure procedures from ERSA.

2.1.16       In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone, describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

2.2             Radio waves

2.2.1          Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception for the following:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of radio waves:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves;

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

2.2.2          Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.2                   PAKC:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Power plants and systems

2.1             Piston engines

2.1.1          Describe the meaning of full throttle height.

2.1.2          Describe the effect of increasing altitude and temperature on engine performance.

2.1.3          Describe the effect of the following factors on engine performance:

(a)        fuel/air mixture strength;

(b)        density height and altitude for:

                                (i)      normally aspirated engines; and

                               (ii)      turbocharged/supercharged engines.

2.2             Supercharging

2.2.1          Describe the purpose of supercharging.

2.2.2          Describe the common methods used to achieve supercharging.

2.2.3          Describe the device(s) used to limit supercharging of the intake system.

2.2.4          Describe the actions a pilot should take if engine limits are exceeded due to supercharging.

2.3             Flight instruments

2.3.1          Explain the following terms:

(a)        pitot-static system;

(b)        pitot pressure static pressure;

(c)        alternate static source;

(d)        pressure error;

2.3.2          Describe the meaning of the following airspeeds:

(a)        indicated (IAS);

(b)        calibrated (CAS);

(c)        true (TAS).

2.3.3          For the following pressure instruments, state the effect of the factors listed under each instrument on the accuracy of the indications for that instrument:

(a)        ASI:

                                (i)      blockage/leaks (pitot or static);

                               (ii)      manoeuvre induced errors (for example, sharp pull out from a dive);

(b)        VSI:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source;

                               (ii)      lag;

                               (iii)     the benefits of a IVSI;

(c)        Altimeter:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source;

                               (ii)      lag;

                               (iii)     incorrect subscale settings;

                               (iv)     errors due to changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure.

2.3.4          For a direct reading magnetic compass, describe the principles of construction in relation to the following:

(a)        magnetic needles point to magnetic north;

(b)        fluid decreases oscillations and friction;

(c)        fluid in the compass should not contain bubbles;

(d)        pendulosity of magnet systems causes errors.

2.3.5          State the effect of the following errors on compass indications in the southern hemisphere:

(a)        turning errors;

(b)        acceleration errors.

2.3.6          State the purpose and use of a compass correction card to determine magnetic heading.

2.3.7          Describe the methods used to determine the serviceability of the primary flight instruments before commencing a flight.

3.               Aeronautical radio telephony

3.1             Operation of aeronautical radio systems

(a)        recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals;

(b)        recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs;

(c)        state standard radio procedures for OCTA;

(d)        state how time is transmitted in a message;

(e)        state how to effectively listen to the radio;

(f)         state how to establish and maintain communications;

(g)        state the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

3.2             Routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone

(a)        for the following, describe the correct technique and procedure for conducting a routine pre‑flight test of an aircraft radio telephone:

                                (i)      use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

                               (ii)      turning radio on;

                               (iii)     selecting correct frequencies;

                               (iv)     use of squelch control;

                               (v)      selection of radio nav equipment;

                               (vi)     correct use of a microphone;

                              (vii)     use of intercom and public address system;

                              (viii)    voice activated systems.

3.3             Fault finding and corrective action

3.3.1          State the correct procedure for routine fault finding and the corrective actions a pilot should take in relation to a fault.

3.4             Reporting position in circuit and for local flights

3.4.1          State the standard phraseology to be used to report the position of an aircraft in the circuit and required calls for local flights.

3.5             Responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator

3.5.1          State the responsibility of an aeronautical radio operator for the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

3.6             State the function of the following components of an aeronautical radio system

(a)        power source/battery switch;

(b)        radio master;

(c)        fuses and circuit breakers;

(d)        microphone;

(e)        transmitter;

(f)         receiver;

(g)        antenna;

(h)        headphones and speaker.

3.7             Distress and emergency messages

3.7.1          Describe the difference between a distress and emergency message and the standard phrases used.

3.8             Radio failure procedures

3.8.1          Extract and use the radio failure procedures from ERSA.

3.9             Radiotelephone controls

3.9.1          In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone, describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

3.10           Radio waves

3.10.1       Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of radio waves:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves.

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

3.10.2       Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.3                   GNSSC:   Basic GNSS and en route GPS navigation principles – all categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)

2.1             GNSS operation

2.1.1          Describe the principles of operation, performance limitations and errors of a GNSS system, including the following:

(a)        methods of position fixing using a GNSS system;

(b)        the GNSS operating procedures which provide safeguards against navigational error and loss of situational awareness;

(c)        GNSS operating procedures for typical navigational tasks using a specific type of aircraft equipment;

(d)        indications of waypoint passage;

(e)        GNSS operational and serviceability checks;

(f)         the human factors limitations associated with the use of GNSS equipment;

(g)        the requirements applicable to pilots and equipment for GNSS operations.

Unit 1.2.4                   PAKA:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Power plants and systems

2.1             Propellers

2.1.1          List reasons for propeller overspeed in aeroplanes fitted with a fixed pitch propeller and state the remedial action a pilot should take in the event of an overspeed.

2.2             Aircraft systems

2.2.1          Describe or state the function of the following typical components installed in aeroplanes, including the possibility of ‘overpowering the system and associated precautions a pilot should take:

(a)        stall warning devices;

(b)        auto-pilot components, including the following:

                                (i)      roll attitude heading pitch controls;

                               (ii)      trim indicator;

                               (iii)     cut-out mechanisms.

3.               Take-off and landing performance

Note: Use of take-off and landing charts is included in ‘Type’ training.

3.1.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        strength of headwind/tailwind component;

(b)        air temperature;

(c)        QNH;

(d)        density height (non-standard conditions);

(e)        airfield elevation;

(f)         runway slope;

(g)        surface conditions, including the following:

(i)         wet runway;

(ii)        dry runway;

(iii)       slushy runway;

(h)        ground effect and windshear;

(i)         frost on an aircraft.

3.1.2          Differentiate between pressure height and density height.

3.1.3          Describe how to use an altimeter to obtain the following:

(a)        local QNH at an aerodrome;

(b)        pressure height of an aerodrome;

(c)        elevation of an aerodrome.

3.1.4          Explain the following terms:

(a)        maximum structural take-off and landing weight;

(b)        climb weight limit.

3.1.5          State the likely results of exceeding aircraft weight limits.

Unit 1.2.5                   PAKH:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Aircraft general knowledge

2.1             Engine and transmission systems

2.1.1          Describe the actions a pilot should take in the event of a malfunction of an exhaust driven supercharger or waste gate and the likely indication of the malfunction.

2.1.2          Reserved.

Unit 1.2.6                   PAKG:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – gyroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Power plants and systems

2.1             Propellers

2.1.1          List reasons for propeller overspeed in gyroplanes fitted with a fixed pitch propeller and state the associated remedial pilot action.

2.2             Aircraft systems

2.2.1          Describe or state the function of the stall warning devices installed in gyroplanes.

3.               Take-off and landing performance

3.1.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        strength of headwind/tailwind component;

(b)        air temperature;

(c)        QNH;

(d)        density height (non-standard conditions);

(e)        airfield elevation;

(f)         runway slope and surface, including wet and slushy runways;

(g)        ground effect and windshear;

(h)        frost on an aircraft.

3.1.2          Differentiate between pressure height and density height.

3.1.3          Describe how to use an altimeter to obtain:

(a)        local QNH at an aerodrome;

(b)        pressure height of an aerodrome;

(c)        elevation of an aerodrome.

3.1.4          Explain the following terms:

(a)        maximum structural take-off and landing weight;

(b)        climb weight limit.

3.1.5          State the likely results of exceeding aircraft weight limits.

 

 

 

Unit 1.2.7                   PAKP:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.2.8                   PAKS:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – airshipReserved

Unit 1.2.9                   CAKC:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Aircraft general knowledge

2.1             Power plants

2.1.1          Describe the purpose and principle of operation of a simple carburettor in terms of the following:

(a)        idling jets;

(b)        main jets;

(c)        acceleration jets.

2.1.2          State the precautions to be observed to avoid detonation when operating a supercharged engine.

2.1.3          Supercharging

(a)        state the purpose of supercharging;

(b)        list the types of superchargers for the following:

                                (i)      geared (mechanically driven:

                               (ii)      turbo (exhaust driven);

(c)        state the purpose and function of the following components:

(i)         geared superchargers:

(ii)        impeller;

(A)       diffuser;

(iii)       turbo-chargers

(A)       compressor;

(B)       waste gate (fixed, manual and automatic).

2.2             Aircraft systems

2.2.1          Explain the function of the following typical components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks:

(a)        fuel system components, including the following:

                                (i)      auxiliary/booster pump;

                               (ii)      fuel drain;

                               (iii)     fuel pressure gauge;

                               (iv)     fuel flow gauge;

                               (v)      check valves;

(b)        lubrication system, including the following:

                                (i)      by-pass valves;

                               (ii)      oil cooler;

                               (iii)     wet sump system;

                               (iv)     dip stick;

(c)        electrical and ignition systems, including the following:

                                (i)      alternator generator;

                               (ii)      voltage regulator overvoltage relay;

                               (iii)     ammeter voltmeter;

                               (iv)     circuit breaker fuse;

                               (v)      battery ampere hours;

                               (vi)     bus bar battery master switch;

                              (vii)     starter motor starter relay;

                              (viii)    dual ignition distributor ignition switch;

                               (ix)     external power receptacle, ground/flight switch;

(d)        hydraulic system components, including the following:

                                (i)      accumulator;

                               (ii)      actuators;

                               (iii)     check valve restrictors;

(e)        typical fire protection detectors, including the following:

                                (i)      overheat – thermal switches;

                               (ii)      rate of temperature rise – thermocouple;

                               (iii)     flame;

(f)         typical fire protection warning devices, including the following:

                                (i)      lights;

                               (ii)      audio;

(g)        types of fire extinguisher and usage;

(h)        engine cooling devices, including the following:

                                (i)      fins;

                               (ii)      baffles;

                               (iii)     cowl flaps.

2.2.2          Describe or state the function of the typical retractable undercarriage system components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks, including the following:

(a)        uplocks/downlocks;

(b)        anti-retraction devices;

(c)        aural/visual warning devices;

(d)        emergency systems;

(e)        free fall;

(f)         electric, hydraulic, pneumatic.

2.2.3          Describe or state the function of the following typical components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks, including considering the possibility of overpowering the system and the associated precautions pilots should take when operating these system:

(a)        fuel system components, including the following:

                                (i)      auxiliary/booster pump;

                               (ii)      fuel drain;

                               (iii)     fuel pressure gauge;

                               (iv)     fuel flow gauge;

                               (v)      check valves.

(b)        lubrication system, including the following:

                                (i)      by-pass valves;

                               (ii)      oil cooler;

                               (iii)     wet sump system;

                               (iv)     dip stick.

(c)        stall warning devices;

(d)        electrical and ignition systems, including the following:

                                (i)      alternator generator;

                               (ii)      voltage regulator overvoltage relay;

                               (iii)     ammeter voltmeter;

                               (iv)     circuit breaker fuse;

                               (v)      battery ampere hours;

                               (vi)     bus bar battery master switch;

                              (vii)     starter motor starter relay;

                              (viii)    dual ignition distributor ignition switch;

                               (ix)     external power receptacle, ground/flight switch;

(e)        hydraulic system, including the following:

                                (i)      accumulator;

                               (ii)      actuators;

                               (iii)     brake master cylinder;

                               (iv)     check valve restrictors.

(f)         auto-pilot, including the following:

                                (i)      roll attitude heading pitch controls;

                               (ii)      trim indicator;

                               (iii)     cut-out mechanisms.

(g)        typical fire protection detectors, including the following:

                                (i)      overheat – thermal switches;

                                (i)      rate of temperature rise – thermocouple;

                               (ii)      flame;

(h)        typical fire protection warning devices, including the following:

                                (i)      lights;

                               (ii)      audio;

(i)         types of fire extinguishers and usage;

(j)         engine cooling devices, including the following:

                                (i)      fins;

                               (ii)      baffles;

                               (iii)     cowl flaps.

2.3             Barometric flight instruments

2.3.1          Explain the relationship between the following airspeeds:

(a)        indicated (IAS);

(b)        calibrated (CAS);

(c)        true (TAS);

(d)        equivalent (EAS).

2.3.2          Explain the basic principle of operation and construction of the following instruments:

(a)        ASI;

(b)        VSI;

(c)        altimeter;

(d)        artificial horizon;

(e)        direction indicator;

(f)         rate of turn indicator;

(g)        turn coordinator.

2.3.3          State the effect of the following factors on the accuracy of pressure instrument indications:

(a)        ASI:

                                (i)      blockage/leaks (pitot or static); and

                               (ii)      manoeuvre induced errors (for example, sharp pull out from a dive);

(b)        VSI:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source; and

                               (ii)      lag;

Note:  Student should be aware that an IVSI compensates for lag errors.

(c)        altimeter:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source; and

                               (ii)      lag; and

                               (iii)     incorrect subscale settings; and

                               (iv)     errors due to changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure.

2.4             Gyroscopic flight instruments

2.4.1          Explain the gyroscopic properties of rigidity and precession.

2.4.2          In relation to gyroscopic flight instruments:

(a)        compare the advantages and disadvantages of air driven and electrically driven gyroscopes;

(b)        state the effect on a directional indicator of the following:

                                (i)      apparent wander/drift;

                               (ii)      maximum at the poles, zero at the equator;

                               (iii)     transport wander;

(c)        describe the advantages of a directional indicator fitted with a flux valve.

2.5             Direct reading magnetic compass

2.5.1          Describe the principle of construction of a magnetic compass.

2.5.2          Explain how needles point to magnetic north.

2.5.3          Describe how fluid decreases oscillations and friction and why the chamber should not contain air bubbles.

2.5.4          Explain how pendulosity of magnet systems causes errors.

2.6             Aeronautical radio telephony

2.6.1          Operation of aeronautical radio systems:

(a)        recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals;

(b)        recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs;

(c)        state standard radio procedures for OCTA;

(d)        state how transmission of time is conducted;

(e)        state how to listening to the radio;

(f)         state how to establish and maintain communications;

(g)        state the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

2.6.2          Correct procedure for the conduct of a routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone in the following:

(a)        use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

(b)        turning radio on;

(c)        selecting correct frequencies;

(d)        use of squelch control;

(e)        selection of radio navigation equipment;

(f)         correct use of a microphone;

(g)        use of intercom and public address system;

(h)        voice activated systems.

2.6.3          State procedure for routine fault finding and correction.

2.6.4          State the standard phraseology for positions in the circuit and required calls for local flights.

2.6.5          State the responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator with respect to the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

2.6.6          State the function of the following components of an aeronautical radio system:

(a)        power source/battery switch, radio master, fuses and circuit breakers;

(b)        microphone;

(c)        transmitter;

(d)        receiver;

(e)        antenna;

(f)         headphones and speaker.

2.6.7          Describe the difference between a distress and emergency message and the standard phrases used.

2.6.8          Extract radio failure procedures from ERSA.

2.6.9          In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

2.7             Radio waves

2.7.1          Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of the following types of radio wave:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves;

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception with respect to the following:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        the following types of radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

2.7.2          Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.10                CAKA:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Engine and systems

2.1             Propellers

2.1.1          Compare the performance characteristics of various propeller and engine systems, including the following:

(a)        aeroplanes with fixed pitch propellers and those fitted with a variable pitch propeller;

(b)        engine operation (within limits) at high MP/low RPM and low MP/high RPM;

(c)        normally aspirated and turbocharged/supercharged engines.

2.1.2          Explain the following with regard to a variable pitch propeller adopting either a full fine or full coarse pitch when the propeller oil pressure is lost:

(a)        centrifugal twisting moment (CTM) tends to reduce (fine) pitch;

(b)        counter weights, when used, increase (coarsen) pitch;

(c)        oil pressure is used to decrease pitch if counterweights are fitted;

(d)        oil pressure is used to increase pitch if counterweights are not fitted.

2.1.3          Describe the following terms:

(a)        blade angle, helix angle/pitch;

(b)        propeller thrust and torque;

(c)        thrust horsepower (THP);

(d)        brake horsepower (BHP);

(e)        asymmetric blade effect.

2.1.4          Describe how a propeller converts engine power into thrust and explain what is meant by fine and course pitch stops.

2.2             Constant speed units (CSU)

2.2.1          Explain the principle of operation of a CSU.

2.2.2          Describe the effect of a CSU malfunction on engine operation.

2.2.3          Explain the method of using engine controls in the event of a malfunction of a CSU.

2.2.4          Describe the cockpit indications in an aeroplane fitted with a variable pitch propeller which could signify:

(a)        the presence of engine ice; and

(b)        when engine ice has been cleared after application of ‘carb heat’.

2.2.5          Explain the effect of using carburettor heat on aeroplanes fitted with a CSU.

2.2.6          Describe how power output is controlled when operating aeroplanes fitted with a variable pitch propeller and describe how engine instruments are used to monitor power.

2.2.7          List the precautions necessary if operating a variable pitch propeller when:

(a)        conducting ground checks; and

(b)        changing power (i.e. use of throttle/RPM levers).

2.3             Undercarriage system

(a)        describe the purpose and function of the following:

                                (i)      oleos/shock struts;

                               (ii)      shimmy dampers;

                               (iii)     nose wheel steering/castering;

(b)        describe the purpose and function of the following retractable undercarriage components:

                                (i)      uplocks/downlocks;

                               (ii)      anti-retraction devices;

                               (iii)     aural/visual warning devices;

                               (iv)     emergency systems;

                               (v)      free fall;

                               (vi)     electric, hydraulic, pneumatic.

Unit 1.2.11                CAKH:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Helicopter general knowledge

2.1             Engine and transmission systems

2.1.1          For each of the following systems, explain its function and that of the major components listed below the system and state the indications that a pilot would observe if the system or one of the components malfunctioned:

(a)        exhaust driven supercharger systems (turbochargers):

                                (i)      compressors;

                               (ii)      turbines;

                               (iii)     waste gates;

(b)        main and tail rotor systems:

                                (i)      abnormal vibrations from main and tail rotor systems;

                               (ii)      flight control systems;

                               (iii)     trimming devices;

                               (iv)     stabilisers;

(c)        transmissions:

                                (i)      clutches;

                               (ii)      free-wheel units;

                               (iii)     rotor brakes;

(d)        oil systems:

                                (i)      reservoirs;

                               (ii)      pressure pumps and filters;

                               (iii)     pressure gauges;

                               (iv)     temperature gauges;

                               (v)      scavenge pumps;

                               (vi)     oil coolers;

                              (vii)     pressure relief valves;

                              (viii)    oil cooler by-pass valves;

                               (ix)     dipsticks.

Unit 1.2.12                CAKG:     CPL aeronautical knowledge – gyroplaneReserved

Unit 1.2.13                CAKP:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.2.14                CAKS:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – airshipReserved

Section 1.3           Aerodynamics (AD)

Unit 1.3.1                   CADC:      CPL aerodynamics – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Aerodynamics

2.1             Terminology

2.1.1          Explain the following terms and their effect on lift and drag production:

(a)        aerofoil span, chord, camber, thickness/chord ratio;

(b)        relative airflow and angle of attack;

(c)        laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

2.1.2          Explain the different types of drag and state the effect on total drag resulting from changes in IAS, aircraft weight and height, if any.

2.2             Bernoulli’s theorem and Coanda theory

2.2.1          Apply Bernoulli’s theorem of constant energy flow to describe how an aerofoil produces lift, limited to the variation of kinetic energy (dynamic pressure) and potential energy (static pressure) as air flows through a venturi or over a aerofoil.

2.2.2          Explain Coanda theory and the effect on lift production.

2.3             Power requirements

2.3.1          Describe the power available and power required curves and best speeds for range and endurance, best rate of climb and best angle of climb.

2.4             Lift and drag

2.4.1          Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the lift and drag formulae viz:

(a)        CL and CD – depend on shape and angle of attack of an aerofoil;

(b)        ½ P V2 – defines dynamic pressure (IAS);

(c)        S – defines surface area.

2.5             Manoeuvres

2.5.1          Explain the forces of lift, weight, thrust and drag acting on an aircraft in the following cases:

(a)        steady level flight;

(b)        a steady climb;

(c)        a steady descent;

(d)        a balanced level turn.

2.6             Performance considerations

2.6.1          Give reasons for flying for maximum still air range and endurance.

2.6.2          Given that certain flight conditions remain constant, explain the effect of changes in headwind/tailwind component on level flight range and endurance.

2.6.3          List/identify aerodynamic and engine considerations which are required to achieve maximum still air range and endurance when operating an aircraft with the following types of engine:

(a)        normally aspirated engine;

(b)        turbocharged/supercharged engine.

2.6.4          From (theoretical) power required and power available graphs identify the following:

(a)        best still air range speed;

(b)        best endurance speed;

(c)        maximum level flight speed.

Unit 1.3.2                   CADA:      CPL aerodynamics – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Aerodynamics

2.1             Changes in angle of attack

2.1.1          Explain the effect of changes in angle of attack up to the stalling angle on the following:

(a)        pressure changes above and below an aerofoil;

(b)        changes in airflow characteristics streamlined to turbulent;

(c)        lift and drag;

(d)        the boundary layer.

2.1.2          With reference to CL, CD, CL/CD graphs identify angles of attack associated with the following:

(a)        minimum drag – maximum level flight speed;

(b)        maximum lift – stalling angle;

(c)        best CL/CD – best glide range and still air range.

2.2             Aerodynamic design features

2.2.1          Explain the purpose of the following design features/controls:

(a)        anhedral dihedral aspect ratio sweepback wash-out;

(b)        wing spoilers flaps vortex generators;

(c)        trim tabs.

2.3             Lift and drag

2.3.1          With reference to CL, CD, CL/CD graphs, explain the angles of attack associated with the following:

(a)        minimum drag – maximum level flight speed;

(b)        maximum lift – stalling angle;

(c)        best CL/CD – best glide range and still air range.

2.3.2          State the effect on total drag resulting from changes in IAS, aircraft weight and height.

2.4             Manoeuvres

2.4.1          Explain the relationship between speed, bank angle, radius and rate of turn during a balanced level turn.

2.4.2          For a given IAS, determine the approximate angle of bank to achieve a rate 1 turn (360o in 2 minutes).

2.4.3          Explain the following:

(a)        power must be applied to maintain speed in a level turn;

(b)        an aeroplane tends to overbank in level and climbing turns and not in descending turns.

2.4.4          Explain the following:

(a)        the effect of aileron drag on turn performance at low airspeed;

(b)        how the following design features offset this drag:

                                (i)      frise ailerons;

                               (ii)      differential ailerons.

2.5             Performance considerations

2.5.1          Using power required and power available graphs, identify the following:

(a)        stall speed (power on);

(b)        the region of reverse command (sometimes described as the ‘back of the power curve’).

2.5.2          Describe the following terms and cite situations that may result in an aeroplane exceeding load factor and wing loading limits:

(a)        load factor;

(b)        ‘g’;

(c)        wing loading.

2.5.3          Given that certain flight conditions remain constant, explain the effect of the following:

(a)        changes in weight and altitude (height) on:

                                (i)      angle of attack and IAS in level flight;

                               (ii)      level flight range and endurance;

                               (iii)     turn rate and radius;

                               (iv)     glide range and endurance;

(b)        changes in headwind/tailwind component on:

                                (i)      glide range;

                               (ii)      endurance;

(c)        changes in power on turn rate and radius.

2.5.4          Explain how the energy state of an aircraft changes with changes in altitude and airspeed.

2.6             Stability and control

2.6.1          Explain the effect of the factors listed below on the stability and control of an aeroplane in each of the following 3 planes of movement:

(a)        longitudinal stability:

                                (i)      position of CG;

                               (ii)      movement of centre of pressure;

                               (iii)     changes in thrust;

                               (iv)     tailplane moment;

(b)        lateral stability:

                                (i)      high versus low set wings;

                               (ii)      dihedral versus anhedral;

                               (iii)     sweepback;

(c)        directional stability:

                                (i)      large fore/aft displacement of the CG;

                               (ii)      large versus small fin and rudder moment.

2.6.2          Describe the relationship between directional and lateral stability (spiral instability) and state the effect of spiral instability on the control of an aeroplane.

2.6.3          Recognise statements/diagrams which describe static and dynamic stability.

2.6.4          Describe the controllability problems associated with flight in the region of reverse command.

2.6.5          Explain the purpose of the following:

(a)        trim tabs (fixed and cockpit controlled);

(b)        balance tabs;

(c)        anti-balance tabs;

(d)        aerodynamic balance;

(e)        mass balance.

2.6.6          Explain the function of the items mentioned in 2.6.5 in relation to the movement of a main control surface.

2.7             Taxi, take-off and landing

2.7.1          Describe the stability and control characteristics of nose wheel aeroplanes during ground operation.

2.7.2          Describe the result of the following factors on the controllability of an aeroplane:

(a)        propeller torque and slipstream effect;

(b)        gyroscopic effect;

(c)        asymmetric blade effect.

2.7.3          Describe the term ‘ground effect’ and its effect on aeroplane performance.

2.8             Stalling, spinning and spiral dives

2.8.1          Describe the following:

(a)        the symptoms when approaching the stall;

(b)        the characteristics of a stall.

2.8.2          Explain the following:

(a)        the effect of using ailerons when approaching and during the stall;

(b)        why an aeroplane may stall at different speeds.

2.8.3          List the effect (increase/decrease/nil) of the following variables on the level flight stall IAS:

(a)        power;

(b)        flap;

(c)        wind shear vertical gusts;

(d)        manoeuvres;

(e)        weight;

(f)         frost and ice;

(g)        altitude.

2.8.4          Describe the aerodynamic principles of stall recovery.

2.8.5          Describe manoeuvres during which an aeroplane may stall at an angle which appears to be different to the true stalling angle.

2.8.6          Differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive in a light aeroplane and describe the standard recovery technique for each manoeuvre.

Unit 1.3.3                   CADH:      CPL aerodynamics – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Aerodynamics

2.1             Rotorblade aerodynamics

2.1.1          Explain the aerodynamic properties of a rotor blade in respect to the following:

(a)        aerofoil shape;

(b)        blade twist;

(c)        blade taper.

2.1.2          Explain the following terms:

(a)        rotor thrust;

(b)        rotor drag;

(c)        total reaction;

(d)        relative airflow;

(e)        rotational airflow;

(f)         induced airflow;

(g)        centrifugal reaction;

(h)        rotor disc;

(i)         coning angle.

2.2             Hovering flight

2.2.1          Describe the vectors acting on a rotor blade in hovering flight.

2.2.2          Define each of the following items:

(a)        ground effect;

(b)        tail rotor drift;

(c)        rotor shaft tilt effect;

(d)        recirculation.

2.2.3          Explain the meaning the following, including the conditions leading thereto and appropriate recovery action:

(a)        vortex ring state (settling with power);

(b)        loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE).

2.3             Rotor blade freedom of movement

2.3.1          Describe the following terms:

(a)        feathering;

(b)        flapping;

(c)        flapping to equality;

(d)        dragging;

(e)        advance angle;

(f)         phase lag.

2.4             Forward flight

2.4.1          Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:

(a)        dissymmetry of lift;

(b)        flapback;

(c)        cyclic limits;

(d)        airflow reversal;

(e)        retreating blade stall;

(f)         compressibility;

(g)        inflow roll;

(h)        translational lift.

2.4.2          Describe the vectors acting on various sections of a rotor blade in forward flight.

2.5             Power requirements

2.5.1          Select from a list the statement which best describes:

(a)        overpitching;

(b)        the conditions leading thereto;

(c)        the appropriate recovery action.

2.6             Autorotative flight

2.6.1          Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:

(a)        autorotative force;

(b)        autorotative section.

2.6.2          Describe the effect on autorotative flight of variations in:

(a)        all-up-weight;

(b)        density altitude;

(c)        airspeed;

(d)        rotor RPM.

2.6.3          Describe the vectors acting on a rotor blade section during forward autorotative flight.

2.6.4          Explain the vectors acting on a rotor blade section during an autorotative flare.

2.7             Other conditions

2.7.1          Explain the following phenomena and the conditions that can lead to them arising and the appropriate recovery actions to be taken when they arise:

(a)        ground resonance;

(b)        mast bumping;

(c)        dynamic roll-over.

Unit 1.3.4                   CADG:     CPL aerodynamics – gyroplaneReserved

Unit 1.3.5                   CADP:      CPL aerodynamics – powered-lift – Reserved

Unit 1.3.6                   CADS:      CPL aerodynamics – airship – Reserved

Section 1.4           ATPL Aircraft General Knowledge (AG)

Unit 1.4.1                   AAGC:     ATPL aircraft general knowledge – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Advanced aerodynamics

2.1.1          Explain the following airspeeds;

(a)        IAS;

(b)        CAS;

(c)        EAS;

(d)        TAS.

2.1.2          Explain the aerodynamic forces acting on an aircraft in flight.

3.               Airframe and systems

3.1             Actuating systems

3.1.1          With reference to the basic principles of hydromechanics, explain and compare the following:

(a)        transmission of force by an incompressible fluid;

(b)        transmission of force by a compressible fluid.

3.2             Hydraulic systems

3.2.1          For the following:

(a)        describe the functioning of a typical hydraulic system comprising main, standby and emergency systems that have multiple pumps and services;

(b)        describe the purpose and function of the major components of a hydraulic system comprising:

                                (i)      pumps;

                               (ii)      accumulators;

                               (iii)     reservoirs;

                               (iv)     selector valves;

                               (v)      check (one-way) valves;

(c)        recognise on a diagram the symbols for major components of a hydraulic system and be able to trace the functioning of a diagrammatic system (system detail at the level of typical operations manual diagram);

(d)        describe the typical services operated by a hydraulic system and for a typical system, how priority is allocated to certain services.

3.3             Fuel system

3.3.1          Jet fuels

(a)        Avtur (Jet A1) – difference from other fuel cuts:

(i)         volatility;

(ii)        additives (discussion only);

(b)        specific gravity:

(i)         meaning;

(ii)        variation with temperature;

(iii)       effect of variation.

3.3.2          Carriage of fuel on aircraft

(a)        fuel tanks:

                                (i)      individual tanks;

(b)        CG balance during fuel usage;

(c)        problems:

                                (i)      algae, corrosion, water content;

(d)        need for venting.

3.3.3          Operation of fuel system

(a)        understand function of a typical multi-engine fuel system with multiple fuel tanks, tank-to-tank transfer;

(b)        understand purpose/function of major components (for example, engine-driven pumps (HP/LP), fuel tank pumps, override/transfer pumps jettison pumps, fuel/oil heat exchange, vent lines, single-point refuelling;

(c)        recognise on diagrams the symbols for major components and be able to trace the functioning off a diagrammatic system (system details at level of flight manual diagrams);

(d)        understand suction feed/transfer as backup for pressure feed/transfer.

3.3.4          Operational considerations

(a)        fuel temperature (max/min):

(i)         need for fuel heating (oil, bleed air);

(b)        cooling/lubrication of pumps;

(c)        cooling of oil/hydraulic systems:

(i)         effect of fuel flow rates;

(d)        minimum fuel level:

(i)         pick-up for delivery to engine;

(ii)        maintain oil/hydraulic cooling;

(iii)       effects of aircraft attitude;

(iv)       fuel jettison.

3.3.5          Fuel system monitoring

(a)        gauges:

(i)         fuel contents, flow meters;

(ii)        effect of check angle;

(iii)       likely errors;

(b)        warning systems;

                                (i)      low fuel level, low pressure warning;

(c)        measurement of tank contents:

(i)         dipstick/dripstick/floatsticks;

(ii)        importance of having aircraft level;

(iii)       precautions in use.

3.4             Electrical systems

3.4.1          Selected components

(a)        bus:

(i)         concept of a bus;

(ii)        common terminology:

hot bus, emergency bus, essential bus.

(b)        circuit breaker:

(i)         function, precautions if resetting;

(ii)        multiple CB panels – need for identification;

(iii)       grid system of nomenclature (for example, CB G22 on P3 panel);

(c)        battery:

(i)         types of high performance batteries in common use;

(ii)        charge/discharge characteristics;

(iii)       precautions needed;

(d)        AC generation:

(i)         advantages of AC versus DC;

(ii)        types of generator:

(A)       permanent magnet generator;

(B)       field excitation generator;

(C)       differences between them;

(iii)       constant speed drive:

(A)       purpose;

(B)       disconnecting drive;

(e)        TR unit:

                                (i)      purpose;

                               (ii)      function of diodes/RCRs;

(f)         power distribution:

(i)         connecting generator to a bus;

(ii)        connecting multiple generators to bus system;

(A)       split buses;

(B)       paralleling generators;

(iii)       priority supplies in event of partial failure.

3.4.2          Operation of electrical system

(a)        functioning of a typical AC-based electrical system with multiple generators, multiple AC and DC buses, APU and GPU;

(b)        recognise on a diagram the symbols for the major components, and be able to trace the functioning of the diagrammatic system. (system detail at the level of typical Operations Manager diagram).

3.4.3          The aircraft structure as an electrical conductor.

4.               Power plants – turbine engine

4.1             Theory of thrust

4.1.1          Explain the thrust formula for turbine engines and for thrust, state the functional relationship between airspeed, air density, pressure and temperature, and RPM.

4.2             Principle of operation

4.2.1          Describe the basic principles of jet propulsion theory with reference to the following:

(a)        working cycle:

(i)         gas flow;

(ii)        changes in velocity, pressure, temperature;

(iii)       engine pressure ratio;

(b)        the differences and advantages of the following types of engine:

(i)         centrifugal flow;

(ii)        axial flow.

5.               Engine instruments

5.1             Displays

5.1.1          Describe the basic features of the following commonly available types of displays:

(a)        pointer-and-dial;

(b)        vertical strip;

(c)        EICAS.

5.1.2          Explain the purpose of monitoring engine parameters in regards to the following:

(a)        comparison of engine performance;

(b)        trends;

(c)        identification of malfunctions/failures.

5.1.3          In relation to identifying an engine gauge with its engine:

(a)        explain the desirability of being able to rapidly identify the correct gauge engine combination; and

(b)        give examples of good/bad instrumentation layouts; and

(c)        describe the consequence of engine misidentification.

6.               Flight instrumentation systems

6.1             Application of computers used in aircraft

6.1.1          Describe how the following computer-based systems and technologies are used in aircraft:

(a)        flight management systems;

(b)        performance management systems;

(c)        fly-by-wire aircraft.

6.2             Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)

6.2.1          In relation to EFIS:

(a)        describe the advantages of EFIS compared to conventional system; and

(b)        list typical inputs and outputs; and

(c)        describe typical data inputs; and

(d)        describe typical control panels and display units; and

(e)        provide examples of typical aircraft installation.

6.3             Flight management system (FMS)

6.3.1          In relation to a typical FMS:

(a)        describe the advantages of FMS compared to conventional system; and

(b)        explain the general principles of operation; and

(c)        list the typical inputs and outputs; and

(d)        describe typical control panel and display units; and

(e)        provide examples of typical aircraft installations.

6.4             Total air temperature (TAT) gauge

6.4.1          In relation to TAT:

(a)        explain the purpose and operation of TAT gauges and the following terms:

(i)         ram rise;

(ii)        recovery factor; and

(b)        describe typical indicators of a TAT gauge in relation to malfunctions.

7.               Warning and recording equipment

7.1             Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWS)

7.1.1          In relation to typical GPWS:

(a)        explain the purpose and operation of GPWS; and

(b)        describe the modes of operation and operating envelopes; and

(c)        describe hard and soft aural and visual warnings; and

(d)        list the typical inputs and outputs; and

(e)        describe the limitations and restrictions in function and use; and

(f)         describe typical GPWS displays and control panels.

7.2             Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS)

7.2.1          Explain the basic concepts of ACAS operation.

7.2.2          Describe the effect on ACAS operation for each mode of operation that an be selected on the TCAS/Transponder control panel selected by the flight crew.

7.2.3          Describe the limitation of ACAS for tracking aircraft fitted with Mode A/C transponders.

7.2.4          Describe the range of the altitude band in which traffic are displayed in normal operation.

7.2.5          Explain the traffic display visual symbology used to determine the possibility of conflict with other aircraft and associated aural warnings.

7.2.6          Describe how ‘proximate’ aircraft are displayed on the traffic display.

7.2.7          Describe the aural and visual alerts for the following:

(a)        ‘intruder’ aircraft;

(b)        ’threat’ aircraft.

7.2.8          Describe pilot actions in response to the following:

(a)        ACAS Traffic Advisory (TA) alert;

(b)        ACAS Resolution Advisory (RA) alerts.

7.2.9          State the standard phraseology pilots should use to communicate with ATC in the following cases:

(a)        in response to an ACAS RA alert;

(b)        on cessation of a RA alert.

7.2.10       Explain the requirements for complying with ACAS RA instructions as overriding Air traffic Control (ATC) directions.

7.2.11       Describe the reporting/notification obligations when ACAS alerts are generated.

7.3             Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR)

7.3.1          In relation to a typical DFDR system:

(a)        explain the purpose and function of DFDR; and

(b)        describe the typical data coverage available; and

(c)        describe the physical appearance of a set of gauges of typical recorder and recorded data.

7.4             Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS)

7.4.1          Explain the purpose and function of HUMS, including the following:

(a)        actuation;

(b)        down loading.

7.5             Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)

7.5.1          In relation to a typical CVR system:

(a)        explain the purpose and function of a CVS; and

(b)        describe a typical audio/radio channel coverage available in a multi-seat flight deck environment; and

(c)        describe the physical appearance of a set of gauges of a typical recorder and control panel.

7.6             Master Warning Systems (MWS)

7.6.1          In relation to a typical MWS:

(a)        explain the purpose and function of the system; and

(b)        describe the typical warning systems incorporated or covered by a MWS; and

(c)        describe the aural and visual outputs for the following:

(i)         warnings;

(ii)        cautions;

(d)        describe the features of a typical displays;

(e)        explain take-off inhibiting of MWS outputs.

7.7             Fire Detection, Warning, Extinguishing Systems

7.7.1          Describe the following in relation to fire detection, warning and extinguishing systems:

(a)        types of systems commonly used in aircraft; and

(b)        typical warnings; and

(c)        system limitations; and

(d)        actuation mechanisms; and

(e)        effects.

8.               Global Navigation Satellite Systems

8.1             GNSS operation

8.1.1          For the following, describe:

(a)        the principles of operation, performance limitations and errors of a GNSS system, including:

(i)         methods of position fixing using a GNSS system;

(ii)        the GNSS operating procedures which provide safeguards against navigational error and loss of situational awareness;

(iii)       GNSS operating procedures for typical navigational tasks using a specific type of aircraft equipment;

(iv)       indications of waypoint passage;

(v)        GNSS operational and serviceability checks;

(vi)       the human factors limitations associated with the use of GNSS equipment;

(vii)      the requirements applicable to pilots and equipment for GNSS operations.

Unit 1.4.2                   AAGA:     ATPL aircraft general knowledge – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Advanced aerodynamics

2.1             Review of terminology

2.1.1          Definitions

(a)        Mach No;

(b)        reference speeds, including MCRIT, VMO, MMO, VS.

2.2             Aerodynamic forces

(a)        review forces acting in flight;

(b)        balance of forces in trimmed asymmetric flight;

(c)        VMCA and VMCG.

2.3             Shock waves

(a)        reasons for their formation at subsonic speeds;

(b)        their effect on the handling and operation of the aircraft;

(c)        high-speed buffet and its possible similarity to low-speed buffet and speedbrake buffet.

2.4             Performance and speed

(a)        manoeuvring and gust envelope;

(b)        changes to CL and CD with increasing speed at constant angle of attack;

(c)        performance degradation, the effect of Mach drag on thrust required and fuel flow;

(d)        aileron reversal;

(e)        effects of wing sweep back;

(f)         maximising low-speed performance (use windshear on take-off as discussion case).

2.5             Performance and altitude

(a)        effect of high altitude on:

(i)         buffet boundaries;

(ii)        stall and stability;

(iii)       manoeuvring capability (inertia effects);

(b)        stall and VMCA considerations with engine failure at high altitude.

3.               Airframe and systems

3.1             Flight controls

3.1.1          Review flight controls

(a)        primary flight controls:

                                (i)      ailerons; and

                               (ii)      elevators; and

                               (iii)     rudder;

(b)        secondary flight controls:

(i)         spoilers/airbrakes;

(ii)        trim systems:

(iii)       flying tail, stabiliser trim.

3.1.2          Leading edge flaps

(a)        review trailing edge flaps;

(b)        leading edge flaps/devices:

(i)         purpose/function of leading edge flaps;

(ii)        types in common use;

(iii)       typical interconnection with trailing edge flaps;

(c)        common methods of operation:

(i)         hydraulic;

(ii)        electric;

(iii)       pneumatic (outline knowledge only is required; actuating systems are at later section).

3.1.3          Powered controls

(a)        methods of transmitting demand to control surfaces;

(b)        feedback;

(c)        feel, natural or artificial;

(d)        possibility or availability of manual reversion.

3.2             Landing gear

3.2.1          Wheel systems

(a)        arrangements:

(i)         multi-wheel;

(ii)        bogie wheel;

(iii)       effects on PCN/ACN;

(b)        main components;

(c)        brief outline of typical retract/extend operation:

(i)         normal, alternate, emergency operation;

(ii)        landing gear doors may be disabled under some conditions.

3.2.2          Wheels and tyres

(a)        wheels and brake energy limits, thermal plugs;

(b)        cooling charts, minimum turn-around times.

3.2.3          Braking systems

(a)        typical multi-wheel systems:

                                (i)      typical sources of power for normal, alternate, emergency use;

(A)       hydraulic supply and back-up;

(B)       emergency air bottles.

(b)        parking brake;

(c)        principles of operations/limitations of:

(i)         anti-skid system;

(ii)        auto brake system.

3.2.4          Hydroplaning

(a)        cause and effect;

(b)        factors affecting hydroplaning, including speed formulae.

3.2.5          Steering systems

(a)        types available:

(i)         rudder pedal steering;

(ii)        hand/wheel/tiller steering;

(iii)       body-gear steering on some aircraft;

(b)        degree of steering commonly available with each:

(i)         understand that some steering systems are incompatible with asymmetric brake and/or power, while others are improved by them.

3.3             Actuating systems

3.3.1          Pneumatic systems

(a)        basic system knowledge as for hydraulics;

(b)        compare system differences with hydraulic system;

(c)        compare operating differences with hydraulic system;

(i)         speed of response;

(ii)        force available;

(iii)       supply of operating fluid;

(iv)       weight of system.

3.4             Airconditioning and pressurisation

3.4.1          Typical air supply system

(a)        power sources:

(i)         engine driven compressors;

(ii)        bleed air:

(A)       gas turbine compressor;

(B)       turbo charger compressor;

(b)        typical services provided;

(c)        availability of services:

(d)        possibility of limitations under take-off or asymmetric power conditions, or during engine start.

3.4.2          Airconditioning system

(a)        types of systems:

(i)         freon;

(ii)        air cycle machine;

(b)        brief outline of operation of system;

(i)         single zone cabin;

(ii)        multiple zones;

(c)        purpose of/necessity for humidifiers.

3.4.3          Pressurisation system

(a)        terminology:

(i)         cabin altitude, differential pressure;

(b)        brief outline of operation of typical system:

(i)         supply;

(ii)        outflow valves;

(iii)       overpressure and negative pressure relief;

(iv)       control of cabin altitude and rate (no detail of internal mechanism of controller required);

(c)        normal pressurised zones in the aircraft;

(d)        rapid decompression, cabin altitude warning.

3.5             Ice and rain protection

3.5.1          Distinction between anti-ice and de-ice system.

3.5.2          Pneumatic systems (brief coverage only)

(a)        where used:

(i)         leading edges;

(b)        limitations.

3.5.3          Thermal ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         propellers, flying surfaces, air intakes, pitot and other sensors, windshields;

(b)        methods:

(i)         electrical, air, oil;

(c)        limitations.

3.5.4          Fluid ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         inflight leading edge of flying surfaces, propellers, windshield;

(ii)        ground de-icing;

(b)        limitations.

3.5.5          Rain removal from windscreen

(a)        methods:

(i)         wipers;

(ii)        fluid dispersant;

(iii)       air jets.

3.5.6          Effects on aeroplane performance (discussion only)

(a)        ice accumulations;

(b)        use of ice control systems.

3.6             Fuel system

3.6.1          Carriage of fuel on aircraft

(a)        structural consequences:

(i)         wing bending;

(ii)        zero-fuel weight;

(iii)       CG movement;

(b)        understand suction feed and gravity feed/transfer as backup for pressure feed/transfer.

3.6.2          Operational considerations

(a)        minimum fuel levels:

(i)         pick-up for delivery to engine;

(ii)        maintain oil/hydraulic cooling;

(iii)       effect of aircraft attitude (for example, missed approach);

(b)        fuel jettison:

(i)         legislation;

(ii)        precautions to be observed;

(iii)       minimum fuel after jettison (stand-pipes).

4.               Power plants – turbine engine

4.1             Principle of operation

(a)        types of engine:

(i)         differences and advantages:

(ii)        bypass ratio;

(b)        turboprop:

(i)         advantages and limitations/problems.

4.2             Engine constructions

(a)        intake (subsonic only):

(i)         location on airframe relative to free-stream airflow;

(ii)        location relative to engine (for example, B727 centre engine);

(iii)       vulnerability to icing;

(b)        compressor:

(i)         purpose/function of compressor;

(ii)        centrifugal;

(A)       single/multiple;

(iii)       axial;

(A)       single/twin;

(iv)       inlet guide vanes;

(v)        vulnerability to icing;

(vi)       bleed air provisions;

(vii)      compressor stalling:

(A)       causes, symptoms, avoidance;

(B)       unloading compressor during start;

(c)        fan:

(i)         purpose and function of fan;

(ii)        relationship to compressor;

(iii)       inlet guide vanes;

(iv)       reverse thrust;

(d)        combustion system:

(i)         purpose and function of combustion system;

(ii)        combustion chamber:

(A)       individual;

(B)       annular;

(iii)       fuel injectors;

(iv)       igniters;

(v)        air/fuel ratios;

(e)        turbine:

(i)         purpose/function of turbine;

(ii)        single, twin, and triple turbines:

(A)       for example, driving two-stage compressor with fan;

(iii)       thermal and mechanical stress;

(iv)       effects of damage;

(v)        monitoring turbine temperature:

(A)       desired to monitor inlet temperature;

(B)       difficulties/compromise in monitoring;

(C)       terminology – EGT, TGT, TIT;

(vi)       reverse thrust mechanisms;

(A)       cascade, buckets;

(B)       safety interlocks;

(f)         exhaust:

(i)         purpose and function of exhaust;

(ii)        sources of noise;

(iii)       hushkits.

4.3             Turbo-prop

(a)        drive train from engine:

(i)         flight range; and

(ii)        ground range;

(b)        control of propeller:

(i)         variable speed engine;

(ii)        constant speed engine;

(c)        reverse thrust:

(i)         concept of zero thrust;

(d)        feathering;

(e)        propeller brake.

4.4             Auxiliary power unit (APU)

(a)        purpose/function of APU;

(b)        types commonly available;

(c)        outputs available;

(d)        availability determined by AFM:

(i)         use in flight;

(ii)        start in flight;

(iii)       outputs available in flight.

4.5             Operational considerations

(a)        use of reverse thrust:

(i)         effectiveness with decreasing speed;

(ii)        instability of airflow in reverse at low ground speeds;

(iii)       monitoring and precautions;

(iv)       deliberate or inadvertent use in flight (where not permitted by AFM);

(b)        use of bleed air:

(i)         effect on thrust and performance;

(ii)        engine indications:

(A)       EGT;

(B)       RPM;

(C)       EPR.

4.6             Engine starting

(a)        air-driven starters:

(i)         characteristics;

(ii)        sources of air;

(iii)       failure to disconnect;

(b)        critical engine RPM:

(i)         initiating fuel flow/ignition;

(ii)        self-sustaining RPM;

(iii)       stable idle;

(c)        typical engine start sequence;

(d)        typical start malfunctions:

(i)         cause and remedy for each of the following:

(A)       fails to light off;

(B)       hot start;

(C)       hung start;

(D)       fails to stabilise at idle;

(E)       starter fails to disengage;

(F)        torching/tailpipe fire.

5.               Engine instruments

5.1             EPR gauge

(a)        inputs;

(b)        displays:

(i)         analogue and digital readout;

(ii)        setting target EPR:

(A)       manual and auto settings;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.2             Torque meter

(a)        inputs and methods of functioning;

(b)        types of indicators and units of torque;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.3             RPM indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         RPM or percentage;

(ii)        100% not necessarily a limit and markings;

(b)        multiple RPM displays – N1, N2, N3:

(i)         conventional order of numbering;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.4             Turbine temperature indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         analogue;

(ii)        digital;

(b)        overtemp warnings;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.5             Fuel consumption

(a)        flowmeters:

(i)         analogue and digital indications;

(ii)        importance on start-up and shutdown;

(b)        fuel-used gauges:

(i)         may be separate or incorporated with flowmeter;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

6.               Automatic flight control system (AFCS)

6.1             Autopilot (AP)

(a)        purpose/function of AP;

(b)        common types (different axes);

(c)        components;

(d)        typical heavy aircraft AP controller;

(e)        command and manual modes, including typical submodes:

(i)         ALT/HDG/IAS/MACH/VS hold;

(ii)        VORLOC/ILS/INS tracking;

(iii)       FMS coupling;

(iv)       autoland and auto-go-around;

(f)         typical limitations/restrictions.

6.2             Flight Director (FD)

(a)        purpose/function of FD;

(b)        common types of presentation:

(i)         V-bars;

(ii)        cross-bars;

(c)        typical components;

(d)        typical heavy aircraft FD controller;

(e)        typical modes of operation; mode indicator.

6.3             Auto-throttle (AT)

(a)        purpose/function of AT;

(b)        typical modes of operation:

(i)         thrust hold;

(ii)        speed hold;

(iii)       VNAV coupling;

(c)        auto-derate of take-off power;

(d)        typical engage/disengage/go-around controls;

(e)        typical limitations/restrictions.

6.4             Autoflight

(a)        relationship between AT, FD and AP;

(b)        relationship between FMS and AT/FD/AP;

(c)        redundancy requirements for autoland.

6.5             Flight envelope protection in autoflight

(a)        types for protection available:

(i)         high speed; low speed;

(ii)        alpha floor;

(iii)       flap/gear speed protection;

(b)        functioning of typical system:

(i)         inputs; and

(ii)        outputs;

(c)        modified functioning during flare and touchdown;

(d)        alternate law, reversionary modes.

6.6             Associated autosystems

(a)        yaw damper:

(i)         purpose and function of yaw damper:

(A)       typical low and high speed behaviour requiring installation of yaw damper;

(ii)        method of functioning:

(A)       input and output;

(iii)       series and parallel types;

(A)       advantages and disadvantages of each type;

(iv)       typical yaw damper controls;

(b)        automatic pitch trim:

(i)         purpose and function of auto-trim;

(ii)        input and output;

(iii)       typical auto-trim controls;

(c)        thrust computation:

(i)         purpose and function of thrust computation system;

(ii)        input and output;

(iii)       relationship to FMS.

7.               Warning and recording equipment

7.1             Overspeed Warning System

(a)        components:

(i)         inputs; and

(ii)        outputs;

(b)        may be selectable according to weight/CG/fuel distribution;

(c)        typical selectors and warning indicators:

(i)         aural warnings; and

(ii)        visual warnings.

7.2             Stall Warning

(a)        purpose/function of system;

(b)        components of a typical heavy aircraft system:

(i)         ADC inputs, including AOA;

(ii)        stick shaker and pusher;

(iii)       visual and aural warnings.

7.3             Take-off Warning System (TWS)

(a)        Purpose and function of TWS;

(b)        typical items monitored;

(c)        aural/visual warnings.

Unit 1.4.3                   AAGH:     ATPL aircraft general knowledge – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Advanced aerodynamics

2.1             Review of terminology

2.1.1          Definitions

(a)        reference speeds, including VTOSS, CDP, landing decision point (LDP);

(b)        define; tip path, tip path plane, axis of rotation, shaft axis, disc area, chord line, pitch angle, angle of attack, coning angle, feathering, feathering axis, disc loading, blade loading, solidity, flapping, dragging, teetering rotor, articulated rotor, semi rigid rotor.

2.1.2          Aerodynamic forces

(a)        Effect of RAF on angle of attack, induced airflow and effects, total reaction, rotor thrust, torque, torque reaction, rotor thrust/rotor drag ratio, forces opposing weight, factors influencing rotor thrust, Bernoulli's theorem, Hookes joint effect.

2.1.3          Stability

(a)        static and dynamic stability;

(b)        stability during hover;

(c)        stability during forward flight;

(d)        effect of off-set flapping hinges;

(e)        effect of stabiliser bar;

(f)         effect of centre of gravity (CG);

(g)        effects of altitude and speed on stability;

(h)        effect of horizontal stabilizer.

2.1.4          Forward flight

(a)        arrangement of forces and effects of CG position;

(b)        basic aspects-tilting the disc through cyclic;

(c)        dissymmetry of lift, dissymmetry lift elimination through flapping;

(d)        flapback, designs to reduce flapping amplitude, Delta-3 hinge, offset pitch horn;

(e)        reverse flow, transitional lift, inflow roll.

2.1.5          Climbing and descending

(a)        forces in a vertical climb;

(b)        horse power available (HPAV) curve and factors affecting the HPAV: altitude, DA, collective setting;

(c)        rate and angle of climb and relationship to HPAV and horse power required (HPREQ) curve;

(d)        effect of wind, altitude, and sling loads on rate and angle of climb;

(e)        forces in a vertical descent;

(f)         over pitching;

(g)        rate and angle of descent and relationship to HPAV and HPREQ curves;

(h)        effect of wind, all up weight (AUW), altitude and sling loads on rate and angle of descent.

2.1.6          Hovering

(a)        definition;

(b)        hover in and out of ground effect (IGE, OGE);

(c)        factors affecting ground effect, height, DA, AUW, nature of surface, slope, wind, recirculation.

2.1.7          Turning

(a)        centripetal force and angle of bank;

(b)        rate and radius of turn, relationship of angle of bank;

(c)        steep turn, load factor, power requirement;

(d)        forces in climbing and descending turns;

(e)        effect of attitude and bank angle on rate and radius of turn;

(f)         effect of AUW on rate/radius;

(g)        effect of wind when turning around a ground feature;

(h)        effects of slipping and skidding.

2.1.8          Autorotation

(a)        definition;

(b)        autorotative forces/drag;

(c)        effects of airflow on vertical autorotation;

(d)        effects of airflow on forward autorotation;

(e)        rate of descent requirements for autorotation:

(i)         minimum rate of descent, maximum air range;

(f)         effect of weight, altitude, temperature.

2.1.9          Rotor blades

(a)        feathering, taper, washout, lift distribution;

(b)        flapping, flapping to equality;

(c)        dragging;

(d)        changing blade CG;

(e)        limits of rotor RPM.

2.1.10       Tail rotor

(a)        principles of operation – pitch control;

(b)        primary and additional purpose;

(c)        auto rotation;

(d)        tail rotor drift;

(e)        tail rotor roll;

(f)         tail rotor flapping, shrouded rotors.

2.1.11       Ground resonance

(a)        definition;

(b)        causes of ground resonance;

(c)        recovery action.

2.1.12       Vortex ring state

(a)        how vortex rings develop;

(b)        effect of ROD-flow and tip vortex action on rotor thrust;

(c)        effects of power and airspeed on vortex ring state;

(d)        flight conditions leading to vortex ring state;

(e)        tail rotor vortex ring state;

(f)         loss of tail rotor effectiveness (LTE).

2.1.13       Retreating blade stall

(a)        conditions which could cause retreating blade stall;

(b)        effect of reverse flow, effect of airspeed on stall angle;

(c)        factors effecting the advancing blade;

(d)        symptoms and recovery from retreating blade stall;

(e)        methods to minimize retreating blade stall (swept tips);

(f)         effect of altitude on VNE.

(g)        forward speed limiting factors.

2.1.14       Blade sailing, dynamic roll-over, mast bumping

(a)        definitions;

(b)        cause of blade sailing and prevention;

(c)        forces in dynamic roll-over;

(d)        avoidance of dynamic roll-over;

(e)        factors effecting mast bumping/flapping amplitude;

(f)         avoidance of mast bumping.

3.               Airframe and systems

3.1             Flight controls

3.1.1          Review flight controls:

(a)        primary flight controls;

(i)         pitch and roll (cyclic), yaw, collective;

(ii)        trim systems;

(iii)       canted tail rotor;

(iv)       sweep back on tips;

(v)        shrouded tail rotor.

3.1.2          Aerodynamic enhancements:

(a)        canted tail rotor;

(b)        sweep back on tips;

(c)        shrouded tail rotor;

(d)        tail surfaces, fins, end plates, stabilators.

3.1.3          Powered controls:

(a)        methods of transmitting demand to control surfaces;

(b)        feedback;

(c)        natural and artificial feel;

(d)        possibility/availability of manual reversion.

3.2             Airconditioning

3.2.1          Typical air supply system:

(a)        power sources:

(i)         engine, transmission, driven compressor;

(ii)        bleed air;

(iii)       gas turbine compressor;

(iv)       turbo-charger compressor;

(b)        typical services provided;

(c)        availability of services:

(i)         possibility of limitations during take-off and landing or during engine start.

3.2.2          Airconditioning system

(a)        types of systems:

(i)         freon;

(ii)        air cycle machine;

(b)        brief outline of operation of system:

(i)         single zone; and

(ii)        multi-zone;

(c)        purpose and need for humidifier.

3.3             Ice and rain protection

3.3.1          Distinction between anti-ice and de-ice systems.

3.4             Landing gear

3.4.1          Wheel systems

(a)        main components;

(b)        brief outline of typical retract and extend operation:

(i)         normal operation;

(ii)        alternative operation;

(iii)       emergency operation.

3.4.2          Wheels and tyres

(a)        Wheel and brake energy limits.

3.4.3          Braking systems

(a)        typical systems;

(b)        typical sources of power for normal, alternate and emergency systems -hydraulic supply and backup emergency air bottles;

(c)        parking brake.

3.4.4          Steering systems

(a)        types available:

(i)         tail rotor steering (pedals);

(ii)        differential braking;

(b)        degree of steering available with each-possibility of rollover.

3.5             Actuating systems

3.5.1          Basic principles of hydromechanics

(a)        principle of transmission of force by an incompressible fluid;

(b)        brief comparison with use of a compressible fluid.

3.5.2          Thermal ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         flying surfaces;

(ii)        air intakes;

(iii)       pitot and other sensors;

(iv)       windshields;

(b)        methods:

(i)         electric;

(ii)        air;

(iii)       oil;

(c)        limitations.

3.5.3          Fluid ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         ground de-icing;

(b)        limitations.

3.5.4          Rain removal from windscreen

(a)        wipers.

3.5.5          Effects on helicopter performance

(a)        ice accumulation;

(b)        use of engine air bleed ice control systems.

4.               Power plants – turbine engine

4.1             Engine design

(a)        types of engine:

(i)         differences and advantages;

(ii)        centrifugal flow;

(iii)       axial flow;

(iv)       bypass engine;

(v)        bypass ratio;

(b)        power train:

(i)         fixed shaft – 'clutch';

(ii)        free power turbine;

(iii)       twin pack, combining gear box;

(iv)       torque sharing.

4.2             Engine construction

(a)        intake:

(i)         purpose and /function of intake;

(ii)        location relative to engine;

(iii)       vulnerability to icing;

(b)        compressor:

(i)         purpose and function of compressor;

(ii)        centrifugal, axial;

(iii)       single, twin,  and multiple:

(A)       inlet guide vanes;

(B)       vulnerability to icing;

(C)       bleed air provisions;

(D)       compressor stalling;

(iv)       causes, symptoms, avoidance;

(v)        unloading compressor during start.

(c)        combustion system:

(i)         purpose (function of combustion system);

(ii)        combustion chamber;

(iii)       individual/annular:

(A)       fuel injectors;

(B)       igniters;

(C)       air/fuel ratios.

(d)        turbine:

(i)         purpose/function of turbine;

(ii)        thermal and mechanical stress;

(iii)       effects of damage;

(iv)       monitoring turbine temperature;

(v)        need to monitor inlet temperature;

(vi)       difficulties/compromise in monitoring;

(vii)      terminology – TIT, ITT, TGT, etc.

(e)        exhaust:

(i)         purpose/function of exhaust;

(ii)        sources of noise;

(iii)       EGT, JPT;

(f)         torque measuring/torque sharing:

(i)         governor inputs.

4.3             Auxiliary power unit (APU)

(a)        purpose/function of APU;

(b)        types commonly available;

(c)        outputs available;

(d)        availability determined by AFM:

(i)         use in flight;

(ii)        start in flight;

(iii)       outputs available in flight.

4.4             Operational considerations

(a)        use of bleed air;

(i)         effect on performance;

(ii)        engine indications;

(iii)       EGT, RPM.

4.5             Engine starting

(a)        electrical starters;

(i)         source of power;

(ii)        cross tie requirements;

(b)        critical engine RPM:

(i)         initiating fuel flow/ignition;

(ii)        self-sustaining RPM;

(iii)       stable idle;

(c)        typical engine start sequences;

(d)        typical start malfunctions:

(i)         cause and remedy;

(ii)        fails to light off;

(iii)       hot start;

(iv)       hung start;

(v)        fails to stabilise at idle;

(vi)       starter fails to disengage;

(vii)      torching/tailpipe fire;

(e)        starter/generator:

(i)         principle of operation and function.

5.               Engine instruments

5.1             Torque meter

(a)        inputs and methods of functioning;

(b)        types of indicators and units of torque;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine helicopter.

5.2             RPM indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         RPM, percent;

(ii)        100% not necessarily a limit-biasing;

(b)        multiple RPM displays – N1, N2, NR:

(i)         conventional order of numbering;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine helicopter.

5.3             Temperature indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         analogue/digital;

(b)        over temperature warnings;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine helicopter.

5.4             Fuel consumption

(a)        flow meters:

(i)         analogue/digital indications;

(ii)        importance on start-up and shutdown;

(b)        fuel-used gauges:

(i)         may be separate or incorporated with flow meter;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine helicopter.

5.5             Inflight tracking

5.5.1          Principles of operation.

5.6             Monitoring systems

(a)    indicators, units;

(b)    warning systems;

(c)    mechanical and electrical remote signal transmission systems;

(d)    HUMS operation and indication.

6.               Stability augmenation and autoflight control, system (AFCS)

6.1             AFCS

(a)        purpose/function of AP:

(i)         common types (different axes)/inputs;

(ii)        pitch;

(iii)       collective;

(iv)       other;

(b)        components;

(c)        typical AP controller;

(d)        command and manual modes:

(i)         typical submodes;

(ii)        Stability Augmentation System (SAS);

(iii)       attitude retention system (ARS/ATT);

(iv)       ALT/HDG/IAS hold;

(v)        VOR/LOC/ILS/INS/GNSSGNSS tracking;

(vi)       FMS coupling;

(vii)      auto hover;

(e)        typical limitations/restrictions.

6.2             Flight director (FD)

(a)        purpose/function of FD;

(b)        common types of presentation:

(i)         V-bars;

(ii)        cross-bars;

(c)        typical components;

(d)        typical FD controller;

(e)        typical modes of operation:

(i)         mode indicator.

6.3             Autoflight

(a)        relationship between FD and AP;

(b)        relationship between FMS and FD/AP;

(c)        redundancy requirements.

7.               Warning and recording equipment

7.1             Auto Voice Activated Decision System (AVADS)

(a)        AVADS:

(i)         principles of operation;

(ii)        warnings;

(iii)       limitations.

7.2             Rotor overspeed and underspeed warning system components

(a)        inputs;

(b)        outputs.

7.3             Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS)

(a)        actuation;

(b)        down loading.

Unit 1.4.4                   AAGP:      ATPL aircraft general knowledge – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.4.5                   FAGC:      FE aircraft general knowledge – all categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Advanced aerodynamics

2.1             Terminology

2.1.1          Definitions

(a)        Mach No;

(b)        reference speeds, including MCRIT, VMO, MMO, Vs.

2.2             Aerodynamic forces

(a)        forces acting in flight;

(b)        VMCA and VMCG.

2.3             Shock waves

(a)        reasons for their formation at subsonic speeds;

(b)        their effect on the handling and operation of the aircraft;

(c)        high-speed buffet and its possible similarity to low-speed buffet and speedbrake buffet.

2.4             Performance and speed

2.4.1          performance degradation, the effect of Mach drag on thrust required and fuel flow.

3.               Airframe and systems

3.1             Flight Controls

3.1.1          Review flight controls:

(a)        primary flight controls:

                                (i)      ailerons, elevators, rudder;

(b)        secondary flight controls:

                                (i)      spoilers/airbrakes;

                               (ii)      trim systems:

flying tail, stabiliser trim.

3.1.2          Leading edge flaps:

(a)        review trailing edge flaps;

(b)        leading edge flaps/devices:

                                (i)      purpose/function of LE flaps;

                               (ii)      types in common use;

                               (iii)     typical interconnection with TE flaps;

(c)        common methods of operation:

                                (i)      hydraulic, electric, pneumatic (outline only; actuating systems are at later section).

3.1.3          Powered controls:

(a)        methods of transmitting demand to control surfaces;

(b)        feedback;

(c)        feel, natural/artificial;

(d)        possibility/availability of manual reversion.

3.2             Landing gear

3.2.1          Wheel systems;

(a)        arrangements:

(i)         multi-wheel;

(ii)        bogie wheel;

(iii)       effects on PCN/CAN;

(b)        main components;

(c)        brief outline of typical retract/extend operation:

(i)         normal, alternate, emergency operation;

(ii)        LG doors may be disabled under some conditions;

3.2.2          Wheels and tyres

(a)        wheels and brake energy limits, thermal plugs;

(b)        cooling charts, minimum turn-around times.

3.2.3          Braking systems

(a)        typical multi-wheel systems:

(i)         typical sources of power for normal, alternate, emergency use:

(A)       hydraulic supply and back-up;

emergency air bottles.

(b)        parking brake;

(c)        principles of operations/limitations of:

(i)         anti skid system;

(ii)        auto brake system.

3.2.4          Steering systems

(a)        types available:

(i)         rudder pedal steering;

(ii)        hand/wheel/tiller steering;

(iii)       body-gear steering on some aircraft;

(b)        degree of steering commonly available with each:

(i)         understand that some steering systems are incompatible with asymmetric brake and/or power, while others are improved by them.

3.3             Actuating systems

3.3.1          Pneumatic systems

(a)        basic system knowledge as for hydraulics;

(b)        compare system differences with hydraulic system;

(c)        compare operating differences with hydraulic system:

(i)         speed of response;

(ii)        force available;

(iii)       supply of operating fluid;

(iv)       weight of system.

(d)        airconditioning and pressurisation.

3.3.2          Typical air supply system

(a)        power sources:

(i)         engine driven compressors;

(ii)        bleed air:

(A)       gas turbine compressor;

turbo charger compressor;

(b)        typical services provided;

(c)        availability of services:

(d)        possibility of limitations under take-off or asymmetric power conditions, or during engine start.

3.3.3          Airconditioning system

(a)        types of systems:

                                (i)      freon;

                               (ii)      air cycle machine;

(b)        brief outline of operation of system;

                                (i)      single zone cabin;

                               (ii)      multiple zones;

(c)        purpose of/necessity for humidifiers.

3.3.4          Pressurisation system

(a)        terminology:

                                (i)      cabin altitude, differential pressure;

(b)        brief outline of operation of typical system:

                                (i)      supply;

                               (ii)      outflow valves;

                               (iii)     overpressure and negative pressure relief;

                               (iv)     control of cabin altitude and rate (no detail of internal mechanism of controller required);

(c)        normal pressurised zones in the aircraft;

(d)        rapid decompression, cabin altitude warning.

3.4             Ice and rain protection

3.4.1          Distinction between anti-ice and de-ice system.

3.4.2          Pneumatic systems (brief coverage only)

(a)        where used:

(i)         leading edges;

(b)        limitations.

3.4.3          Thermal ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         propellers;

(ii)        flying surfaces;

(iii)       air intakes;

(iv)       pitot and other sensors;

(v)        windshields;

(b)        methods:

(i)         electrical;

(ii)        air;

(iii)       oil;

(c)        limitations.

3.4.4          Fluid ice protection

(a)        where used:

(i)         inflight leading edge of flying surfaces, propellers, windshield;

(ii)        ground de-icing;

(b)        limitations.

3.4.5          Rain removal from windscreen

(a)        methods:

(i)         wipers;

(ii)        fluid dispersant;

(iii)       air jets.

3.4.6          Effects on aeroplane performance (discussion only)

(a)        ice accumulations;

(b)        use of ice control systems.

3.5             Fuel system

3.5.1          Carriage of fuel on aircraft

(a)        structural consequences:

(i)         wing bending;

(ii)        zero-fuel weight;

(iii)       CG movement;

(b)        understand suction feed and gravity feed/transfer as backup for pressure feed/transfer.

3.5.2          Operational considerations

(a)        minimum fuel levels:

(i)         pick-up for delivery to engine;

(ii)        maintain oil/hydraulic cooling;

(iii)       effect of aircraft attitude (for example, missed approach);

(b)        fuel jettison:

(i)         legislation;

(ii)        precautions to be observed;

(iii)       minimum fuel after jettison (stand-pipes).

4.               Power plants – turbine engine

4.1             Principle of operation

(a)        types of engine:

(i)         differences and advantages;

(ii)        bypass ratio;

(b)        turboprop:

(i)         advantages; and

(ii)        limitations; and

(iii)       problems.

4.2             Engine constructions

(a)        intake (subsonic only):

(i)         location on airframe relative to free-stream airflow;

(ii)        location relative to engine (for example, B727 centre engine);

(iii)       vulnerability to icing;

(b)        compressor:

(i)         purpose/function of compressor;

(ii)        centrifugal:

(A)       single/multiple;

(iii)       axial:

(A)       single/twin;

(iv)       inlet guide vanes;

(v)        vulnerability to icing;

(vi)       bleed air provisions;

(vii)      compressor stalling:

(A)       causes, symptoms, avoidance;

(B)       unloading compressor during start;

(c)        fan:

(i)         purpose/function of fan;

(ii)        relationship to compressor;

(iii)       inlet guide vanes;

(iv)       reverse thrust;

(d)        combustion system:

(i)         purpose/function of combustion system;

(ii)        combustion chamber:

(A)       individual/annular;

(iii)       fuel injectors;

(iv)       igniters;

(v)        air/fuel ratios;

(e)        turbine:

(i)         purpose/function of turbine;

(ii)        single/twin/triple turbines:

(A)       for example, driving two-stage compressor with fan;

(iii)       thermal and mechanical stress;

(iv)       effects of damage;

(v)        monitoring turbine temperature:

(A)       desired to monitor inlet temperature;

(B)       difficulties/compromise in monitoring;

(C)       terminology – EGT, TGT, TIT;

(vi)       reverse thrust mechanisms:

(A)       cascade, buckets;

(B)       safety interlocks;

(f)         exhaust:

(i)         purpose/function of exhaust;

(ii)        sources of noise;

(iii)       hushkits.

4.3             Turbo-prop

(a)        drive train from engine:

(i)         flight range; and

(ii)        ground range;

(b)        control of propeller:

(i)         variable speed engine;

(ii)        constant speed engine;

(c)        reverse thrust:

(i)         concept of zero thrust;

(d)        feathering;

(e)        propeller brake.

4.4             Auxiliary power unit (APU)

(a)        purpose/function of APU;

(b)        types commonly available;

(c)        outputs available;

(d)        availability determined by AFM:

(i)         use in flight;

(ii)        start in flight;

(iii)       outputs available in flight.

4.5             Operational considerations

(a)        use of reverse thrust:

(i)         effectiveness with decreasing speed;

(ii)        instability of airflow in reverse at low-ground speeds;

(iii)       monitoring and precautions;

(iv)       deliberate or inadvertent use in flight (where not permitted by AFM);

(b)        use of bleed air:

(i)         effect on thrust and performance;

(ii)        engine indications:

(A)       EGT;

(B)       RPM;

(C)       EPR.

4.6             Engine starting

(a)        air-driven starters:

(i)         characteristics;

(ii)        sources of air;

(iii)       failure to disconnect;

(b)        critical engine RPM:

(i)         initiating fuel flow/ignition;

(ii)        self-sustaining RPM;

(iii)       stable idle;

(c)        typical engine start sequence;

(d)        typical start malfunctions:

(i)         cause and remedy for each of the following:

(A)       fails to light off;

(B)       hot start;

(C)       hung start;

(D)       fails to stabilise at idle;

(E)       starter fails to disengage;

(F)        torching/tailpipe fire.

5.               Engine instruments

5.1             EPR gauge

(a)        inputs;

(b)        displays:

(i)         analogue/digital readout;

(ii)        setting target EPR:

(A)       manual/auto settings;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.2             Torque meter

(a)        inputs and methods of functioning;

(b)        types of indicators and units of torque;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.3             RPM indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         RPM or percentage;

(ii)        100% not necessarily a limit and markings;

(b)        multiple RPM displays – N1, N2, N3:

(i)         conventional order of numbering;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.4             Turbine temperature indicator

(a)        types of display:

(i)         analogue;

(ii)        digital;

(b)        overtemp warnings;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

5.5             Fuel consumption

(a)        flowmeters:

(i)         analogue and digital indications;

(ii)        importance on start-up and shutdown;

(b)        fuel-used gauges:

(i)         may be separate or incorporated with flowmeter;

(c)        typical appearance of a set of gauges in a modern multi-engine aircraft.

6.               Automatic flight control system (AFCS)

6.1             Autopilot (AP)

(a)        purpose/function of AP;

(b)        common types (different axes);

(c)        components;

(d)        typical heavy aircraft AP controller;

(e)        command and manual modes, including typical submodes:

(i)         ALT/HDG/IAS/MACH/VS hold;

(ii)        VORLOC/ILS/INS tracking;

(iii)       FMS coupling;

(iv)       autoland and auto-go-around;

(f)         typical limitations/restrictions.

6.2             Flight Director (FD)

(a)        purpose/function of FD;

(b)        common types of presentation:

(i)         V-bars;

(ii)        cross-bars;

(c)        typical components;

(d)        typical heavy aircraft FD controller;

(e)        typical modes of operation:

(i)         mode indicator.

6.3             Auto-throttle (AT)

(a)        purpose/function of AT;

(b)        typical modes of operation:

(i)         thrust hold;

(ii)        speed hold;

(iii)       VNAV coupling;

(c)        auto-derate of take-off power;

(d)        typical engage/disengage/go-around controls;

(e)        typical limitations/restrictions.

6.4             Autoflight

(a)        relationship between AT, FD and AP;

(b)        relationship between FMS and AT/FD/AP;

(c)        redundancy requirements for autoland.

6.5             Flight envelope protection in autoflight

(a)        types for protection available:

(i)         high speed, low speed;

(ii)        alpha floor;

(iii)       flap/gear speed protection;

(b)        functioning of typical system:

(i)         inputs and outputs;

(c)        modified functioning during flare and touchdown.

(d)        alternate law, reversionary modes.

6.6             Associated autosystems

(a)        yaw damper:

(i)         purpose/function of yaw damper:

(A)       typical low/high speed behaviour requiring installation of yaw damper;

(ii)        method of functioning:

(A)       input and output;

(iii)       series and parallel types:

(A)       advantages/disadvantages of each type;

(iv)       typical yaw damper controls.

7.               Automatic pitch trim

(a)        purpose/function of auto-trim;

(b)        input and output;

(c)        typical auto-trim controls.

8.               thrust computation

(a)        purpose/function of thrust computation system;

(b)        input and output;

(c)        relationship to FMS.

9.               Warning and recording equipment

9.1             Overspeed warning system

(a)        components:

(i)         inputs; and

(ii)        outputs;

(b)        may be selectable according to weight/CG/fuel distribution;

(c)        typical selectors and warning indicators:

(i)         aural warnings; and

(ii)        visual warnings.

9.2             Stall warning

(a)        purpose/function of system;

(b)        components of a typical heavy aircraft system:

(i)         ADC inputs, including AOA;

(ii)        stick shaker and pusher;

(iii)       visual and aural warnings.

9.3             Take-off warning system (TWS)

(a)        purpose/function of TWS;

(b)        typical items monitored;

(c)        aural/visual warnings.

Section 1.5           Flight rules and air law (FR)

Unit 1.5.1                   RFRC:      RPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Explain the reason for recording flight time in a logbook and state what other information that must be recorded.

2.1.2          State the different documents that contain aviation legislation, aeronautical information and general operating rules.

2.1.3          Explain the purpose of the aircraft maintenance release and how it is used.

2.2             Licence privileges and limitations (RPL)

2.2.1          State the limitations of the RPL.

2.2.2          Describe the requirements for maintaining the privileges of the RPL.

2.2.3          State the medical standards and limitations for the holder of an RPL.

2.2.4          State the privileges of a licence holder with respect to the following:

(a)        conducting daily inspections;

(b)        signing a maintenance release;

(c)        reporting defects.

2.3             Conditions of flight

2.3.1          Recall/apply the following rules/requirements:

(a)        rules of the air;

(b)        the requirements relating to the operation of aircraft on, and in the vicinity of, an aerodrome and the conditions relating to turns after take-off;

(c)        separation minima between a/c for take-off and landing at a non-controlled aerodrome;

(d)        rules relating to restrictions on smoking in aircraft during take-off, landing and refuelling;

(e)        VFR and visual meteorology conditions (aeroplanes) for operations below 10,000 ft;

(f)         altimetry procedures for flight below 10,000 ft.

2.3.2          State the rules relating to the following:

(a)        the use of drugs and alcohol, and recall the minimum period between alcohol consumption and flight departure;

(b)        temporary medical unfitness.

2.3.3          Recall the meaning of the following light signals directed at an aircraft:

(a)        steady ‘green’ and steady ‘red’;

(b)        ‘green’, ‘red’ and ‘white’ flashes.

2.3.4          Recall regulations relating to the minimum heights for flights over the following:

(a)        populated areas;

(b)        other areas.

2.3.5          State the limitations imposed on the following:

(a)        acrobatic flight;

(b)        flight over public gatherings.

2.3.6          Recall the requirements for landing prior to the end of daylight.

2.4             Air service operations

2.4.1          Extract from legislation references, the restrictions pertaining to the carriage of passengers on certain flights.

2.4.2          Apply the following regulations/rules/orders relating to the responsibilities of a pilot in command:

(a)        before flight, requirements regarding the following:

(i)         fuels and oils;

(ii)        fuelling of aircraft;

(iii)       starting and ground operation of engines;

(iv)       appropriate passenger briefing;

(b)        during flight, requirements and regulations regarding:

(i)         the operation and safety of the aircraft and the authority of the pilot in command;

(ii)        dropping of articles from an aircraft in flight.

2.4.3          Recall the legislation requirements that apply during the following phases of a flight:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         removal of locking devices;

(ii)        security of doors, hatches;

(iii)       tank caps;

(iv)       testing of flight controls;

(v)        removal of frost and ice;

(vi)       instrument checks;

(vii)      security of safety harness prior to solo flight in a dual control aircraft;

(viii)     when and how a fuel system inspection is performed;

(ix)       carriage of passengers in a control seat;

(x)        carriage of infants and children;

(b)        during flight:

(i)         occupation of seats;

(ii)        wearing of seat belts;

(iii)       adjustment of seats;

(iv)       manipulation of aircraft controls by pilots, and by unauthorised persons.

2.5             Aerodromes

2.5.1          With reference to a diagram of the aerodrome(s) used for training:

(a)        identify movement areas; and

(b)        explain the significance of the following markings:

(i)         taxiway;

(ii)        runway;

(iii)       helipad.

2.5.2          With reference to a diagram, identify the following positions in a circuit:

(a)        downwind leg;

(b)        base leg;

(c)        cross-wind leg;

(d)        upwind leg;

(e)        dead side of the circuit.

2.5.3          Explain the significance of a white cross on the movement area.

2.5.4          Identify and explain the purpose of the following aerodrome markings:

(a)        runway markings;

(b)        runway threshold markings;

(c)        runway end markings;

(d)        cone and gable markers;

(e)        taxiway markings;

(f)         holding points/bays;

(g)        a double white cross adjacent to a primary wind indicator.

2.6             Airspace

2.6.1          Describe the difference between controlled airspace and non-controlled airspace.

2.6.2          State which documents are used to identify controlled airspace and explain if a prescribed airspace is active or inactive.

2.7             Emergencies and SAR

2.7.1          Describe what the intermittent use of navigation and landing lights by an aircraft are used to indicate.

2.7.2          State the difference between an incident and an accident.

2.7.3          Determine the reporting requirements following an incident or accident.

2.7.4          Explain the term SARTIME and how it might be used.

2.7.5          State the document that contains emergency procedures.

Unit 1.5.2                   PFRC:      PPL Flight rules and air law – All aircraft categories – Reserved

Unit 1.5.3                   PFRA:      PPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Describe the method of obtaining publications and know why it is important to update these documents.

2.1.2          Given an item of operational significance:

(a)        select the appropriate reference document – CAR, CAO, AIP (Book), CAAP; and

(b)        extract relevant and current information from these documents.

2.1.3          Decode information contained in ERSA, NOTAM and AIP supplements.

2.1.4          Understand the terms and abbreviations in AIP GEN that are relevant to flight in accordance with VFR.

2.2             Pilot licences, privileges and limitations (PPL)

2.2.1          For the PPL with aeroplane category rating, describe the following:

(a)        privileges and limitations of the licence;

(b)        recent experience requirements;

(c)        classification of operations.

2.2.2          Apply the rules pertaining to flight and duty time limitations for PPL licence holders.

2.3             Flight rules and conditions of flight

2.3.1          Describe which documents must be carried on board an aircraft during flight in Australian airspace.

2.3.2          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(b)        aerodromes where operations are not restricted to runways;

(c)        the conditions relating to flight in PRD areas.

2.3.3          Give examples of situations which would require a ‘security’ prefix prior to a radio call.

2.4             Air service operations

2.4.1          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        a pilot’s responsibilities before flight;

(b)        aerodrome meteorological minima;

(c)        carriage of:

(i)         cargo;

(ii)        sick and handicapped persons;

(iii)       parachutists;

(iv)       flotation and survival equipment;

(v)        animals and dangerous goods.

2.4.2          State the requirements to test radio equipment prior to taxi and maintain a listening watch.

2.5             Aerodromes

(a)        identify and explain the purpose of the following aerodrome, LA and HLS markings:

(i)         runway markings;

(ii)        runway threshold markings;

(iii)       runway end markings;

(iv)       cone and gable markers;

(v)        taxiway markings;

(vi)       holding points/bays;

(vii)      a double white cross adjacent to a primary wind indicator;

(viii)     a horizontal white dumbbell;

(ix)       movement areas;

(x)        HLS markings.

2.5.2          Identify the following positions in a circuit:

(a)        downwind leg;

(b)        base leg;

(c)        cross-wind leg;

(d)        upwind leg;

(e)        dead side of the circuit.

2.5.3          Explain the significance of a white cross on the movement area.

2.6             Airspace

2.6.1          Differentiate between the various classifications of airspace.

2.6.2          With respect to the following terms listed in (a) to (g), explain each term and, if applicable, identify airspace boundaries on appropriate charts, and extract vertical limits of designated airspace from charts or ERSA:

(a)        flight information service FIR, FIA, OCTA;

(b)        ATC service CTA, CTR;

(c)        radio ‘reports’ and ‘broadcasts’;

(d)        VFR route and lanes of entry;

(e)        PRD areas;

(f)         CTAF areas;

(g)        controlled aerodromes.

2.6.3          Apply permitted tracking tolerances for VFR aircraft to avoid controlled airspace.

2.6.4          Know the requirements and procedures to be adopted when operating:

(a)        in any class of airspace;

(b)        from or into:

(i)         any licensed aerodrome;

(ii)        a CTAF(R).

2.6.5          Altimetry:

(a)        recall the datum from which an altimeter indicates height when the following are set on the subscale:

(i)         area QNH;

(ii)        local QNH;

(iii)       QFE;

(iv)       standard pressure setting;

(b)        recall the procedures that are carried out with the altimeter at the transition altitude and the transition layer on climb and descent;

(c)        derive from AIP the transition layer for any given area QNH;

(d)        recall the method of using an altimeter to derive Local QNH;

(e)        calculate height error caused by setting the altimeter subscale incorrectly;

(f)         recall the meaning of the following:

(i)         height;

(ii)        altitude;

(iii)       flight level;

(g)        recall the following parameters from the ICAO standard atmosphere:

(i)         MSL temperature;

(ii)        pressure lapse rate.

2.7             Emergencies, accidents, incidents

2.7.1          Extract emergency procedures from the ERSA.

2.7.2          State the conditions under which a pilot may declare a mercy flight and select occasions when a mercy flight must not be undertaken.

2.7.3          Extract from AIP the responsibilities of a pilot regarding the notification of accidents and incidents.

2.7.4          Reserved

2.7.5          Describe examples of ‘hazards to navigation’ that must be reported by pilots.

2.8             Security

2.8.1          Explain the term ADIZ and extract:

(a)        the general requirements for operations in this zone; and

(b)        the action by the pilot of the intercepted aircraft.

2.8.2          State the powers vested in a pilot in command.

2.9             Emergencies and SAR

2.9.1          Describe what the intermittent use of navigation and landing lights by an aircraft are used to indicate.

2.9.2          State the difference between an incident and an accident.

2.9.3          Determine the reporting requirements following an incident or accident.

2.9.4          Explain the term SARTIME and how it might be used.

2.9.5          State the document that contains emergency procedures.

Unit 1.5.4                   PFRH:      PPL Flight rules and air law – Helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Explain the reason for recording flight time in a logbook and state what other information that must be recorded.

2.1.2          Given an item of operational significance:

(a)        select the appropriate reference document – CAR, CAO, AIP (Book), CAAP; and

(b)        extract relevant and current information from these documents.

2.1.3          Decode information contained in ERSA, NOTAM and AIP supplements.

2.1.4          Understand the terms and abbreviations in AIP GEN that are relevant to flight in accordance with VFR.

2.2             Pilot licences, privileges and limitations (PPL)

2.2.1          For the PPL with helicopter category rating, describe the following:

(a)        privileges and limitations of the licence;

(b)        recent experience requirements.

2.2.2          Apply the rules pertaining to flight and duty time limitations for PPL licence holders.

2.3             Flight rules and conditions of flight

2.3.1          Describe which documents must be carried on board an aircraft during flight in Australian airspace.

2.3.2          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(b)        aerodromes where operations are not restricted to runways;

(c)        the conditions relating to flight in PRD areas.

2.3.3          Reserved

2.3.4          Describe the following:

(a)        rules of the air that apply to helicopter operations;

(b)        the requirements relating to the operation of aircraft on, and in the vicinity of, an aerodrome and the conditions relating to turns after take-off and their application to helicopters;

(c)        separation minima between aircraft for take-off and landing at a controlled aerodromes;

(d)        visual meteorology conditions for operations below 10,000 ft and below 700 ft in relation to helicopter operations;

(e)        restrictions on smoking in aircraft during take-off, landing and refuelling;

(f)         altimetry procedures for flight below 10,000 ft.

2.3.5          Apply the rules relating to the following:

(a)        the use of drugs and alcohol and recall the minimum period between alcohol consumption and flight departure;

(b)        temporary medical unfitness.

2.3.6          Recall the requirements relating to the minimum heights for flights over the following:

(a)        populated areas;

(b)        other areas.

2.3.7          Recall the meaning of the following light signals directed at an aircraft:

(a)        steady ‘green’ and steady ‘red’;

(b)        ‘green’, ‘red’, and ‘white’ flashes.

2.3.8          Apply the limitations imposed on the following:

(a)        acrobatic flight;

(b)        flights over public gatherings.

2.3.9          Recall the requirement to plan to and prior to the end of daylight.

2.4             Air service operations

2.4.1          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        a pilot’s responsibilities before flight;

(b)        aerodrome meteorological minima;

(c)        flights over water;

(d)        carriage of:

(i)         cargo;

(ii)        sick and handicapped persons;

(iii)       parachutists;

(iv)       dangerous goods;

(v)        animals;

(vi)       flotation and survival equipment.

2.4.2          State the requirements to test radio equipment prior to taxi and maintain a listening watch.

2.4.3          Extract the restrictions pertaining to the carriage of passengers on certain flights.

2.4.4          Apply the following rules relating to the responsibility of a pilot in command:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         requirements of the following:

(A)       fuel and oil;

(B)       fuelling aircraft;

(C)       starting and ground operations of engines;

(ii)        appropriate passenger briefing;

(b)        during flight, requirements regarding the operation and safety of the aircraft and the authority of the pilot in command.

2.4.5          Recall the following requirements:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         the conditions regarding the following:

(A)       removal of locking devices;

(B)       security doors, hatches, tank caps;

(C)       testing of flight controls;

(D)       removal of frost and ice;

(E)       instrument checks;

(ii)        fuel system inspections, including when inspections are required and how they are performed;

(iii)       carriage of passengers in a control seat;

(iv)       carriage of infants and children;

(b)        during flight:

(i)         seat occupation and seat belt requirements:

(A)       occupation of seats;

(B)       wearing of seat belts;

(C)       adjustment of seat belts;

(ii)        manipulation of aircraft controls:

(A)       by pilots;

(B)       not permitted by unauthorised persons.

2.4.6          Recall the precautions pertaining to the security of safety harnesses and other equipment prior to solo flight in dual control aircraft.

2.5             Aerodromes

2.5.1          State a pilot’s responsibilities with regard to the use of aerodromes.

2.6             Airspace

2.6.1          Differentiate between the various classifications of airspace.

2.6.2          With respect to the following terms listed in (a) to (g), explain each term and, if applicable, identify airspace boundaries on appropriate charts, and extract vertical limits of designated airspace from charts or ERSA:

(a)        flight information service FIR, FIA, OCTA;

(b)        ATC service CTA, CTR,;

(c)        radio ‘reports’ and ‘broadcasts’;

(d)        VFR route and lanes of entry;

(e)        PRD areas;

(f)         CTAF areas;

(g)        controlled aerodromes.

2.6.3          Apply permitted tracking tolerances for VFR aircraft to avoid controlled airspace.

2.6.4          Reserved

2.6.5          Altimetry:

(a)        recall the datum from which an altimeter indicates height when the following are set on the subscale:

(i)         area QNH;

(ii)        local QNH;

(iii)       QFE;

(iv)       standard pressure setting;

(b)        recall the procedures that are carried out with the altimeter at the transition altitude and the transition layer on climb and descent;

(c)        derive from AIP the transition layer for any given area QNH;

(d)        recall the method of using an altimeter to derive Local QNH;

(e)        calculate height error caused by setting the altimeter subscale incorrectly;

(f)         recall the meaning of the following:

(i)         height;

(ii)        altitude;

(iii)       flight level;

(g)        recall the following parameters from the ICAO standard atmosphere:

(i)         MSL temperature;

(ii)        pressure lapse rate.

2.7             Emergencies, accidents, incidents

2.7.1          State the conditions under which a pilot may declare a mercy flight and select occasions when a mercy flight must not be undertaken.

2.7.2          Extract from AIP the responsibilities of a pilot regarding the notification of accidents and incidents.

2.7.3          Reserved

2.7.4          Describe examples of ‘hazards to navigation’ that must be reported by pilots.

2.8             Security

2.8.1          Explain the term ADIZ and extract:

(a)        the general requirements for operations in this zone; and

(b)        the action by the pilot of the intercepted aircraft.

2.8.2          State the powers vested in a pilot in command.

2.9             Emergencies and SAR

2.9.1          Describe what the intermittent use of navigation and landing lights by an aircraft are used to indicate.

2.9.2          State the difference between an incident and an accident.

2.9.3          Determine the reporting requirements following an incident or accident.

2.9.4          Explain the term SARTIME and how it might be used.

Unit 1.5.5                   PFRG:      PPL flight rules and air law – gyroplaneReserved

Unit 1.5.6                   PFRP:       PPL flight rules and air law – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.5.7                   PFRS:       PPL flight rules and air law – airshipReserved

Unit 1.5.8                   CFRC:      CPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Explain the reason for recording flight time in a logbook and state what other information that must be recorded.

2.1.2          Describe the method of obtaining publications and know why it is important to update these documents.

2.1.3          Given an item of operational significance:

(a)        select the appropriate reference document – CASR, CAR, CAO, AIP (Book), CAAP; and

(b)        extract relevant and current information from these documents.

2.1.4          Decode information contained in ERSA, NOTAM and AIP supplements.

2.1.5          Understand the terms and abbreviations in AIP GEN that are relevant to flight in accordance with VFR.

2.2             Pilot licences, privileges and limitations (CPL)

2.2.1          For the CPL, describe the following:

(a)        privileges and limitations of the licence;

(b)        recent experience requirements.

2.2.2          Apply the rules pertaining to flight and duty time limitations for CPL licence holders.

2.3             Flight rules and conditions of flight

2.3.1          Describe which documents must be carried on board an aircraft during flight in Australian airspace.

2.3.2          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(b)        aerodromes where operations are not restricted to runways;

(c)        the conditions relating to flight in PRD areas.

2.3.3          Describe the following:

(a)        rules of the air;

(b)        the requirements relating to the operation of aircraft on, and in the vicinity of, an aerodrome and the conditions relating to turns after take-off;

(c)        separation minima between aircraft for take-off and landing at a controlled aerodromes;

(d)        visual meteorology conditions for operations below 10,000 ft and below 700 ft;

(e)        restrictions on smoking in aircraft during take-off, landing and refuelling;

(f)         altimetry procedures for flight below 10,000 ft.

2.3.4          Apply the rules relating to the following:

(a)        the use of drugs and alcohol and recall the minimum period between alcohol consumption and flight departure;

(b)        temporary medical unfitness.

2.3.5          Recall the requirements relating to the minimum heights for flights over the following:

(a)        populated areas;

(b)        other areas.

2.3.6          Recall the meaning of the following light signals directed at an aircraft:

(a)        steady ‘green’ and steady ‘red’;

(b)        ‘green’, ‘red’, and ‘white’ flashes.

2.3.7          Apply the limitations imposed on the following:

(a)        aerobaitc flight;

(b)        flights over public gatherings.

2.3.8          Recall the requirement to plan to and prior to the end of daylight.

2.4             Air service operations

2.4.1          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        a pilot’s responsibilities before flight;

(b)        aerodrome meteorological minima;

(c)        flights over water;

(d)        carriage of:

(i)         cargo;

(ii)        sick and handicapped persons;

(iii)       parachutists;

(iv)       dangerous goods;

(v)        animals;

(vi)       flotation and survival equipment.

2.4.2          State the requirements to test radio equipment prior to taxi and maintain a listening watch.

2.4.3          Extract the restrictions pertaining to the carriage of passengers on certain flights.

2.4.4          Apply the following rules relating to the responsibility of a pilot in command:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         requirements of the following:

(A)       fuel and oil;

(B)       fuelling aircraft;

(C)       starting and ground operations of engines;

(ii)        appropriate passenger briefing;

(b)        during flight, requirements regarding the operation and safety of the aircraft and the authority of the pilot in command.

2.4.5          Recall the following requirements:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         the conditions regarding the following:

(A)       removal of locking devices;

(B)       security doors, hatches, tank caps;

(C)       testing of flight controls;

(D)       removal of frost and ice;

(E)       instrument checks;

(ii)        fuel system inspections, including when inspections are required and how they are performed;

(iii)       carriage of passengers in a control seat;

(iv)       carriage of infants and children;

(b)        during flight:

(i)         seat occupation and seat belt requirements:

(A)       occupation of seats;

(B)       wearing of seat belts;

(C)       adjustment of seat belts;

(ii)        manipulation of aircraft controls:

(A)       by pilots;

(B)       not permitted by unauthorised persons.

2.4.6          Recall the precautions pertaining to the security of safety harnesses and other equipment prior to solo flight in dual control aircraft.

2.5             Aerodromes

2.5.1          State a pilot’s responsibilities with regard to the use of aerodromes.

2.6             Airspace

2.6.1          Differentiate between the various classifications of airspace.

2.6.2          With respect to the following terms listed in (a) to (g), explain each term and, if applicable, identify airspace boundaries on appropriate charts, and extract vertical limits of designated airspace from charts or ERSA:

(a)        flight information service FIR, FIA, OCTA;

(b)        ATC service CTA, CTR, controlled airspace;

(c)        radio ‘reports’ and ‘broadcasts’;

(d)        VFR route and lanes of entry;

(e)        PRD areas;

(f)         CTAF areas;

(g)        controlled aerodromes.

2.6.3          Apply permitted tracking tolerances for VFR aircraft to avoid controlled airspace.

2.6.4          Describe the requirements for obtaining clearances, making reports and broadcasts, and describe the procedures for requesting clearances, making reports and broadcasts, and the pilot actions to be taken on receiving an instruction from ATC to be adopted when operating in the following:

(a)        in any class of airspace;

(b)        from or into:

(i)         a certified or registered aerodrome;

(ii)        an uncertified aerodrome.

2.7             Altimetry

2.7.1          Recall the datum from which an altimeter indicates height when the following are set on the subscale:

(a)        area QNH;

(b)        local QNH;

(c)        QFE;

(d)        standard pressure setting.

2.7.2          Recall the procedures that are carried out with the altimeter at the transition altitude and the transition layer on climb and descent.

2.7.3          Derive from AIP the transition layer for any given area QNH.

2.7.4          Recall the method of using an altimeter to derive Local QNH.

2.7.5          Calculate height error caused by setting the altimeter subscale incorrectly.

2.7.6          Recall the meaning of the following:

(a)        height;

(b)        altitude;

(c)        flight level.

2.7.7          Recall the following parameters from the ICAO standard atmosphere:

(a)        MSL temperature;

(b)        pressure lapse rate.

2.8             Emergencies, accidents, incidents

2.8.1          State the conditions under which a pilot may declare a mercy flight and select occasions when a mercy flight must not be undertaken.

2.8.2          Extract from AIP the responsibilities of a pilot regarding the notification of accidents and incidents.

2.8.3          Describe examples of ‘hazards to navigation’ that must be reported by pilots.

2.9             Security

2.9.1          Explain the term ADIZ and extract:

(a)        the general requirements for operations in this zone; and

(b)        the action by the pilot of the intercepted aircraft.

2.9.2          State the powers vested in a pilot in command.

2.10           Airworthiness and equipment

2.10.1       State the purpose of certificates of airworthiness and registration.

2.10.2       Given a typical scenario, extract from regulations, orders and instructions the communication and normal and emergency equipment required to be on board an aircraft.

2.10.3       State the responsibilities of a pilot in command with regard to:

(a)        daily inspections; and

(b)        recording and reporting aircraft defects.

2.10.4       Describe the types of maintenance that may be carried out by the holder of a CPL.

2.10.5       Given a copy of a maintenance release:

(a)        determine its validity; and

(b)        describe the types of operations authorised in the aircraft; and

(c)        list outstanding defects/endorsements and decide whether these affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.

Unit 1.5.9                   CFRA:      CPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Flight crew licensing

2.1.1          Describe the requirements for holding flight crew licences, ratings and endorsements that apply to aeroplane operations.

2.1.2          Describe the obligations aeroplane pilots must comply with in relation to general competency, flight reviews and proficiency checks.

2.2             Air operations

2.2.1          Describe circuit procedures for aeroplane operations.

2.2.2          Describe the requirements for operating in Class C and D airspace and special VFR clearance provisions.

2.2.3          State the minimum flight instruments required to operate an aeroplane under VFR.

2.2.4          State the rules for placarding unserviceable instruments.

Unit 1.5.10                CFRH:      CPL flight rules and air law – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Elements

2.1             Flight crew licensing

2.1.1          Describe the requirements for holding flight crew licences, ratings and endorsements that apply to helicopter operations.

2.1.2          Describe the obligations helicopter pilots must comply with in relation to general competency, flight reviews and proficiency checks.

2.2             Air operations

2.2.1          Describe circuit procedures for helicopter operations.

2.2.2          Describe the requirements for operating in Class C and D airspace and special VFR clearance provisions.

2.2.3          State the minimum flight instruments required to operate a helicopter under VFR.

2.2.4          Describe the minimum VMC requirements for operating in Class G airspace.

2.2.5          State the conditions under which hot refuelling may be conducted.

2.2.6          State the floatation system requirements for helicopters.

2.2.7          State the rules for placarding unserviceable instruments.

2.3             Helicopter landing sites (HLS)

2.3.1          Describe the requirements for operating to and from HLS.

 

Unit 1.5.11                CFRG:      CPL flight rules and air law – gyroplaneReserved

Unit 1.5.12                CFRP:      CPL flight rules and air law – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.5.13                CFRS:      CPL flight rules and air law – airshipReserved

Unit 1.5.14                AFRC:        ATPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Flight rules

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Airworthiness and equipment.

2.1.2          State the purpose of certificates of airworthiness and registration.

2.1.3          Given a typical scenario, extract from CASA regulations/orders/instructions the communication and normal and emergency equipment required to be on board an aircraft. State the responsibilities of a pilot in command with regard to:

(a)        daily inspections; and

(b)        recording/reporting aircraft defects.

2.1.4          As applicable, determine the types of maintenance that may be carried out by licence holder.

2.1.5          Given a copy of a maintenance release:

(a)        determine its validity; and

(b)        list the class(es) of operation applicable to the aircraft; and

(c)        list outstanding defects/endorsements and decide whether these affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.

2.2             Aircraft nationality and registration

2.2.1          ICAO provisions (Annex).

2.2.2          General applicability – brief reference only.

2.2.3          Australian national legislation:

(a)        requirement to register aircraft;

(b)        registration of aircraft in Australia;

(c)        transfer of interest and cancellation of registration.

2.3             Airworthiness of aircraft

2.3.1          ICAO Provisions (Annex 8):

(a)        general applicability – brief reference only.

2.3.2          Australian national legislation:

(a)        requirements for Certificates of Airworthiness;

(b)        conditions relating to Certificates of Airworthiness;

(c)        suspension or cancellation of Certificates of Airworthiness;

(d)        permissible unserviceability:

(i)         use of PUS;

(ii)        MEL as an alternative to PUS;

(iii)       use of an MEL;

(e)        requirements for maintenance;

(f)         pilot's responsibilities with respect to maintenance within Australia;

(g)        pilot's responsibilities with respect to maintenance outside Australia;

(h)        maintenance release requirements;

(i)         suspension, cancellation of a maintenance release;

(j)         cessation or recommencement of a maintenance release;

(k)        pilot's responsibilities with respect to defects or damage;

(l)         compliance and certification of Airworthiness Directives;

(m)       classes of controlled airspace.

2.4             Personnel licensing

2.4.1          ICAO Provisions (Annex 1):

(a)        general applicability.

2.4.2          Australian national legislation:

(a)        general provisions:

(i)         licences;

(ii)        ratings;

(b)        ATPL:

(i)         privileges;

(ii)        limitations;

(iii)       recency requirements;

(c)        classification of operations;

(d)        multi-crew aircraft:

(i)         composition of crew;

(ii)        flight and duty time limitations.

2.5             Rules of the air

2.5.1          ICAO Annex 2:

(a)        general applicability.

2.5.2          Australian national legislation.

2.5.3          Rules of the Air Review (CAR Part XII).

2.5.4          Conditions of flight (CAR PART XI):

(a)        flight manuals;

(b)        documents required for flight;

(c)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(d)        drunkenness and violence on board an aircraft;

(e)        dropping of articles;

(f)         flight over public gatherings;

(g)        low flying.

2.6             Procedures for air navigation

2.6.1          ICAO Doc 8168 – OPS/611:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.6.2          Australian national legislation Review AIP (DAP):

(a)        general requirements;

(b)        alternate planning requirements.

2.7             Air traffic services

2.7.1          ICAO Annex II and Doc 4444:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.7.2          Australian national legislation.

2.7.3          General provisions:

(a)        objectives of ATS;

(b)        division of ATS;

(c)        designation of the portions of the airspace and controlled aerodromes where ATS will be provided;

(d)        establishment and designation of the units providing ATS;

(e)        specifications:

(i)         flight information regions;

(ii)        control areas;

(iii)       control zones;

(f)         minimum flight attitudes;

(g)        priority for aircraft in emergency;

(h)        inflight contingencies in ATS.

2.7.4          ATC service:

(a)        function and purpose of ATC;

(b)        provision of ATC service;

(c)        operation of ATC service;

(d)        separation minima;

(e)        contents of clearances;

(f)         coordination of clearances;

(g)        control of persons and vehicles at aerodromes.

2.7.5          Flight information service:

(a)        application and scope of flight information service:

                                (i)      VFR traffic;

(b)        operational flight information service broadcasts.

2.7.6          Alerting service:

(a)        function/purpose;

(b)        phases of alert: INCERFA, ALERFA, DISTRESFA;

(c)        notification of rescue coordination centre;

(d)        information to aircraft in a state of emergency.

2.7.7          Principles governing the identification of ATS routes other than standard departure and arrival routes.

2.8             Rules of the air and air traffic services

2.8.1          ICAO Doc 444 and RAC501/11:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.8.2          Australian national legislation.

2.8.3          General provisions:

(a)        general air traffic services operating practices:

(i)         submission of a flight plan;

(ii)        flight clearances and information;

(iii)       control of air traffic flow;

(iv)       altimeter setting procedures;

(v)        position reporting requirements;

(vi)       requirements and format for AIREP.

2.8.4          Area control service:

(a)        vertical separation:

(i)         requirements;

(ii)        vertical separation minima;

(iii)       minimum cruising level;

(iv)       assignment of cruising level;

(v)        vertical separation during climb or descent;

(b)        horizontal separation (subsonic aircraft only):

(i)         requirements;

(ii)        geographical separation;

(iii)       track separation for aircraft using the same navaid;

(iv)       longitudinal separation;

(c)        reduction in separation minima;

(d)        ATC clearances:

(i)         requirement for clearance;

(ii)        function of clearance;

(iii)       contents of clearance;

(iv)       maintaining own separation while in VMC;

(v)        essential traffic information while in VMC;

(vi)       essential traffic information;

(vii)      clearance of a requested change in flight plan;

(e)        emergency:

(i)         general, priority, emergency descent only (action by pilot in command only);

(f)         communication failure:

(i)         air-ground communication failure (actions by pilot in command only);

(g)        interception of civil aircraft.

2.8.5          Approach control service

(a)        departing aircraft:

(i)         general procedures for departing aircraft;

(ii)        information for departing aircraft;

(iii)       clearances to climb maintaining own separation while in VMC;

(iv)       wake turbulence separation;

(b)        arriving aircraft:

(i)         general procedures for arriving aircraft;

(ii)        clearance to descend maintaining own separation while in VMC;

(iii)       visual approach;

(iv)       instrument approach;

(v)        holding;

(vi)       approach sequence;

(vii)      expected approach;

(viii)     time information for arriving aircraft.

2.8.6          Aerodrome control service:

(a)        functions of aerodrome control towers:

(i)         general functions;

(ii)        alerting service;

(iii)       suspension of VFR operations;

(b)        control of traffic:

(i)         traffic circuit(s);

(ii)        start-up;

(iii)       taxiing traffic;

(iv)       vehicular traffic;

(v)        coordination of take-off and landings;

(vi)       order of priority for arriving and departing aircraft;

(vii)      control of departing and arriving aircraft;

(c)        information provided to aircraft:

(i)         operation of the aircraft;

(ii)        aerodrome conditions.

2.8.7          Flight Information service and alerting service

(a)        air traffic advisory service;

(b)        alerting service.

2.8.8          Use of radar in air traffic services:

(a)        limitations in the use of radar;

(b)        functions of radar service:

(i)         identification procedure (establishment of radar identity only);

(ii)        position information;

(iii)       radar vectoring;

(iv)       speed control;

(c)        use of radar in the ATC service;

(d)        descent below MSA under radar control.

2.9             Aeronautical information service

2.9.1          ICAO Annex 15:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.9.2          Australian documentation:

(a)        availability and procurement of AIP, NOTAM, AIC.

2.10           Aerodromes

2.10.1       ICAO Annex 14:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.10.2       Australian national legislation:

(a)        AIP AD requirements:

(i)         aerodrome markers and markings;

(ii)        aerodrome lighting;

(iii)       visual aids;

(iv)       domestic aerodrome directory (ERSA);

(v)        pavement strength limitations.

2.11           Facilitation

2.11.1       ICAO Annex 9:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.11.2       Australian national legislation.

2.11.3       AIP GEN requirements:

(a)        responsibility of DIT;

(b)        differences to international standards and practices: 9 Annex 9;

(c)        entry and departure of international aircraft:

(i)         documents required;

(ii)        description, purpose and use;

(d)        entry and departure of persons and baggage:

(i)         normal requirements;

(ii)        procedures for flight crew and similar personnel;

(e)        identification of designated international airports.

2.12           Search and Rescue

2.12.1       ICAO Annex 12:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.12.2       Australian national legislation

(a)        SAR organisation:

(i)         establishment of SAR regions;

(ii)        establishment and designation of SAR services units;

(b)        operating procedures:

(i)         SAR phases;

(ii)        distress and urgency signals;

(iii)       use of SSR transponder;

(iv)       procedures for pilots in command at the scene of an accident;

(v)        procedures for pilots in command intercepting;

(vi)       distress transmissions;

(vii)      participation in searches.

2.13           Security

2.13.1       ICAO Annex 17:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.13.2       Air Defence identification zones (ADIZ):

(a)        Pilot's responsibilities for flight within the zone;

(b)        exemptions;

(c)        non-compliance;

(d)        action in the event of interception;

(e)        interpretation of visual signals;

(f)         powers of pilot in command.

2.14           Aircraft accidents and incidents

2.14.1       Terminology:

(a)        definition of accident;

(b)        definition of incident.

2.14.2       Responsibilities of pilot in command regarding notification.

2.15           Air service operations

(a)        route qualifications;

(b)        admission to crew compartment;

(c)        carriage of approved persons:

(i)         in crew compartment;

(ii)        in cabin;

(d)        operational procedures in relation to computers;

(e)        fuel quantity measurement: (requirements for aircraft above 5,700 kg);

(f)         hand signals;

(g)        oxygen and protective breathing equipment;

(h)        engine failure in multi-engine aircraft;

(i)         carriage and use of radio;

(j)         precautions in refuelling, engine and radar ground operations;

(k)        emergency equipment;

(l)         loading general;

(m)       carriage of cargo;

(n)        carriage of persons;

(o)        aircraft equipment:

(i)         basic operational requirements;

(p)        dangerous goods handling.

Unit 1.5.15                AFRA:      ATPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane

1.               Reserved

2.               Flight rules

2.1             Air traffic services

2.1.1          Flight information service:

(a)        application and scope of flight information service:

(i)         IFR traffic.

3.               Procedures for air navigation

3.1             Australian national legislation

3.1.1          Review AIP (DAP):

(a)        approach procedures:

(i)         altimeter checks;

(b)        entry and holding procedures;

(c)        instrument landing system:

(i)         failures;

(d)        meteorological minima:

(i)         take-off;

(ii)        landing;

(iii)       alternate;

(e)        category 1 and 2 minima;

(f)         SIDs, STARs and NAPs;

(g)        DME and GNSSGNSS arrival procedures;

(h)        GNSSGNSS as a route navigation and approach aid;

(i)         RNP and PBN:

(i)         aircraft requirements;

(ii)        application.

4.               Rules of the air and air traffic services

4.1             Australian national legislation

4.1.1          General provisions:

(a)        general air traffic services operating practices:

                                (i)      change from IFR to VFR.

5.               Air service operations

(a)        fuel jettison:

(i)         legislation;

(b)        ferry flights with 1 engine inoperative.

Unit 1.5.16                AFRH:      ATPL flight rules and air law – helicopter

1.               Reserved

2.               Flight rules

2.1             AERODROMES

2.1.1          ICAO Annex 14:

(a)        helicopter landing sites and off shore HLS.

Unit 1.5.17                AFRP:      ATPL Flight rules and air law – powered-liftReserved

Unit 1.5.18                FFRC:       FE flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Flight rules

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Airworthiness and equipment.

2.1.2          State the purpose of certificates of airworthiness and registration.

2.1.3          Given a typical scenario, extract from CASA regulations/orders/instructions the communication and normal and emergency equipment required to be on board an aircraft. State the responsibilities of a pilot in command with regard to:

(a)        daily inspections; and

(b)        recording/reporting aircraft defects.

2.1.4          As applicable, determine the types of maintenance that may be carried out by licence holder.

2.1.5          Given a copy of a maintenance release:

(a)        determine its validity; and

(b)        list the class(es) of operation applicable to the aircraft; and

(c)        list outstanding defects/endorsements and decide whether these affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.

2.2             Aircraft nationality and registration

2.2.1          ICAO provisions (Annex).

2.2.2          General applicability – brief reference only.

2.2.3          Australian national legislation:

(a)        requirement to register aircraft;

(b)        registration of aircraft in Australia;

(c)        transfer of interest and cancellation of registration.

2.3             Airworthiness of aircraft

2.3.1          ICAO Provisions (Annex 8):

(a)        General applicability – brief reference only.

2.3.2          Australian national legislation:

(a)        requirements for Certificates of Airworthiness;

(b)        conditions relating to Certificates of Airworthiness;

(c)        suspension or cancellation of Certificates of Airworthiness;

(d)        permissible unserviceability:

(i)         use of PUS;

(ii)        MEL as an alternative to PUS;

(iii)       use of an MEL;

(e)        requirements for maintenance;

(f)         flight engineer’s responsibilities with respect to maintenance within Australia;

(g)        flight engineer’s responsibilities with respect to maintenance outside Australia;

(h)        maintenance release requirements;

(i)         suspension, cancellation of a maintenance release;

(j)         cessation or re-commencement of a maintenance release;

(k)        flight engineer’s responsibilities with respect to defects or damage;

(l)         compliance and certification of Airworthiness Directives;

2.4             Personnel licensing

2.4.1          ICAO provisions (Annex 1):

(a)        general applicability.

2.4.2          Australian national legislation:

(a)        general provisions:

(i)         licences;

(ii)        ratings;

(b)        flight engineer licence:

(i)         privileges;

(ii)        limitations;

(iii)       recency requirements;

(c)        multi-crew aircraft:

(i)         composition of crew;

(ii)        flight and duty time limitations.

2.5             Rules of the air

2.5.1          ICAO Annex 2:

(a)        general applicability.

2.5.2          Australian national legislation.

2.5.3          Rules of the air review (CAR Part XI).

2.5.4          Conditions of flight (CAR PART X):

(a)        flight manuals;

(b)        documents required for flight;

(c)        drunkenness and violence on board an aircraft;

2.6             Procedures for air navigation

2.6.1          ICAO Doc 8168 – OPS/611:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.7             Air traffic services

2.7.1          ICAO Annex I I and Doc 4444:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.7.2          Australian national legislation.

2.7.3          General provisions

(a)        objectives of ATS;

(b)        specifications:

(i)         flight information regions;

(ii)        control areas;

(iii)       control zones;

(c)        priority for aircraft in emergency;

(d)        inflight contingencies in ATS.

2.7.4          ATC service:

(a)        function and purpose of ATC.

2.7.5          Flight information service:

(a)        application and scope of flight information service:

(i)         VFR traffic;

(b)        operational flight information service broadcasts.

2.7.6          Alerting service:

(a)        function/purpose;

(b)        phases of alert: INCERFA, ALERFA, DISTRESFA;

(c)        notification of rescue coordination centre;

(d)        information to aircraft in a state of emergency.

2.7.7          Flight information service and alerting service

(a)        air traffic advisory service;

(b)        alerting service.

2.7.8          Use of radar in air traffic services

(a)        limitations in the use of radar;

(b)        functions of radar service:

(i)         identification procedure (establishment of radar identity only);

(ii)        position information;

(iii)       radar vectoring;

(iv)       speed control;

(c)        use of radar in the ATC service;

(d)        descent below MSA under radar control.

2.8             Aeronautical information service

2.8.1          ICAO Annex 15:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.8.2          Australian documentation:

(a)        availability and procurement of AIP, NOTAM, AIC.

2.9             Aerodromes

2.9.1          ICAO Annex 14:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.9.2          Australian national legislation:

(a)        AIP AD requirements:

(i)         aerodrome markers and markings;

(ii)        aerodrome lighting;

(iii)       visual aids;

(iv)       domestic aerodrome directory (ERSA);

(v)        pavement strength limitations.

2.10           Facilitation

2.10.1       ICAO Annex 9:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.10.2       Australian national legislation.

2.10.3       AIP GEN requirements:

(a)        responsibility of DIT;

(b)        differences to international standards and practices: 9 Annex 9;

(c)        entry and departure of international aircraft:

(i)         documents required;

(ii)        description, purpose and use;

(d)        entry and departure of persons and baggage:

(i)         normal requirements;

(ii)        procedures for flight crew and similar personnel;

(e)        identification of designated international airports.

2.11           Search and rescue

2.11.1       ICAO Annex 12:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.11.2       Australian national legislation:

(a)        SAR organisation;

(b)        operating procedures:

(i)         SAR phases;

(ii)        distress and urgency signals;

(iii)       use of SSR transponder;

(iv)       distress transmissions;

(v)        participation in searches.

2.12           Security

2.12.1       ICAO Annex 17:

(a)        general provisions – brief reference only.

2.12.2       Air Defence identification zones (ADIZ)

(a)        action in the event of interception;

(b)        interpretation of visual signals.

2.13           Aircraft accidents and incidents

2.13.1       Terminology:

(a)        definition of accident;

(b)        definition of incident.

2.14           Air service operations

(a)        admission to crew compartment;

(b)        carriage of approved persons:

(i)         in crew compartment;

(ii)        in cabin;

(c)        operational procedures in relation to computers;

(d)        fuel quantity measurement (requirements for aircraft above 5,700 kg);

(e)        hand signals;

(f)         oxygen and protective breathing equipment;

(g)        engine failure in multi-engine aircraft;

(h)        carriage and use of radio;

(i)         precautions in refuelling, engine and radar ground operations;

(j)         emergency equipment;

(k)        aircraft equipment:

(i)         basic operational requirements.

Section 1.6           Human factors principes (HF)

Unit 1.6.1                   PHFC:      PPL human factors – all categories

1.               Reserved

2.               Fitness for flight

2.1             Basic health

2.1.1          Relate the effect on pilot performance of the following factors:

(a)        diet, exercise;

(b)        coronary risk factors – smoking, cholesterol, obesity, hereditary factors;

(c)        upper respiratory tract infection, for example, colds, hay fever, congestion of air passages and sinuses;

(d)        food poisoning and other digestive problems;

(e)        headaches and migraines;

(f)         pregnancy:

(i)         when to stop flying;

(ii)        impact on cockpit ergonomics;

(g)        injuries;

(h)        ageing;

(i)         alcohol and smoking;

(j)         blood donations;

(k)        dehydration;

(l)         emotional:

(i)         anxiety;

(ii)        depression;

(iii)       fears.

2.1.2          Recall pilot obligations for a medical clearance from a DME when on any medication.

2.1.3          Enumerate the responsibilities of pilots with regard to being medically fit for flight.

2.2             Health and fitness

2.2.1          Medical standards

(a)        state the reasons for and frequency of physical examinations and how to locate DAMEs;

(b)        describe the process of obtaining a medical examination;

(c)        state the role of the CASA with regard to medical fitness and that only those conditions which present a flight safety hazard are disqualifying.

2.2.2          Alcohol:

(a)        recall how alcohol is absorbed and excreted;

(b)        outline what a ‘hangover’ is;

(c)        explain the effect a ‘hangover’ may have on flying performance;

(d)        explain the relationship between a ‘hangover’ and level of blood alcohol in a person;

(e)        recall the relationship between the level of blood alcohol and the recovery period from a ‘hangover’;

(f)         state the factors that affect the elimination of alcohol from the body and describe the effects of illicit drugs and alcohol on judgment, comprehension, attention to detail the senses, coordination and reaction times;

(g)        describe the symptoms of dehydration;

(h)        list fluids suitable for rehydration, and explain why.

2.2.3          Drugs:

(a)        describe why drug abuse is a behavioural problem and is independent of:

(i)         dependence (addiction);

(ii)        frequent use;

(b)        define illicit or non-illicit psychoactive substances;

(c)        state the adverse effects of illicit or non-illicit psychoactive substances;

(d)        recall the effects and duration of such effects on human performance related to perception, speed of processing information, and reaction time of such drugs as:

(i)         cannabis-based substances, for example, marijuana, ganja;

(ii)        amphetamine-based substances, for example, ecstasy;

(iii)       opium-based substances, for example, codeine, heroin;

(e)        state the undesirable effects of over-the-counter and prescription drugs. In particular, the side effects of:

(i)         aspirin, antihistamines, nasal decongestants;

(ii)        amphetamines, tranquillisers, sedatives, antibiotics.

2.2.4          Blood donations:

(a)        state the effect on flying after giving a blood donation;

(b)        state the recommended period between giving blood and the next flight and how this period can vary between individuals.

2.3             Hyperventilation

2.3.1          Recognise and state how to combat hyperventilation.

2.3.2          Define hyperventilation and recall its causes.

2.4             Atmospheric pressure changes

2.4.1          Trapped gases:

(a)        recall the effect of changes in pressure on gases trapped in the body cavities;

(b)        state the effect on normal bodily function;

(c)        list measures for prevention and treatment.

2.4.2          Recall the effects of flying after a period of underwater diving and state the precautions to be taken if intending to fly after underwater diving.

2.5             Basic knowledge of the anatomy of the ear

2.5.1          Outline the basic operation.

2.5.2          Explain the purpose of the eustachian tube and effects of atmospheric/cabin pressure changes.

2.5.3          State the effects of noise exposure on:

(a)        hearing loss: long- and short-term;

(b)        speech intelligibility;

(c)        fatigue.

2.6             State recommended methods of hearing protection

2.7             Vision, spatial disorientation, illusions

2.7.1          Outline the anatomy of the eye and its functioning during the day and at night.

2.7.2          State the factors that affect night vision and identify methods of ‘dark adaptation’.

2.7.3          Recall the limitations of the eye in discerning objects at night and the ‘off-centre’ method of identifying objects at night.

2.7.4          Recall the limitations of the eye with respect to:

(a)        the ability to discern objects during flight, for example, other aircraft, transmission lines etc.;

(b)        empty field myopia;

(c)        glare;

(d)        colour vision in aviation;

(e)        common visual problems, viz:

                                (i)      myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia;

(f)         flicker vertigo.

2.7.5          Outline the importance of:

(a)        updating spectacle prescriptions;

(b)        selecting suitable sunglasses.

2.7.6          Recall the factors which are conducive to mid-air collisions and describe techniques for visual ‘scanning’.

2.7.7          Define the term ‘disorientation’.

2.7.8          Recall the sensory systems involved in maintaining body equilibrium i.e. equilibrium is normally maintained by use of the eyes, inner ear and proprioceptive system (‘seat of pants’).

2.7.9          Recall that these mechanisms do not provide reliable information under all conditions of flight.

2.7.10       Describe illusion(s) that may be associated with the factors listed below:

(a)        ‘leans’;

(b)        linear and angular accelerations;

(c)        unperceived changes in the pitch; roll; yaw;

(d)        autokinetic illusions;

(e)        ‘graveyard spin’ illusion.

(f)         somatogravic illusion.

2.7.11       Explain:

(a)        the conditions under which illusions may occur;

(b)        the conflict in perception of an artificial reference system and a pilot's senses when illusions are experienced;

(c)        the factors that may make a person more susceptible to disorientation;

(d)        how to overcome sensory illusions.

2.7.12       Recall the illusions that may result from the following:

(a)        false horizontal clues, for example, sloping cloud formations and sloping terrain;

(b)        depth perception, for example, flying over water, snow, desert and other featureless terrain effect of fog; haze; dust;

(c)        optical characteristics of windscreens;

(d)        landing illusions:

(i)         approach angles – steep; shallow;

(ii)        width and slope of runway;

(iii)       slope of (approach);

(iv)       terrain approaches over water;

(e)        relative motion between objects.

2.8             Motion sickness

2.8.1          State the basic cause of motion sickness.

2.8.2          List factors that may aggravate motion sickness.

2.8.3          List methods of combating motion sickness in flight.

2.9             Acceleration ‘g’ effects

2.9.1          Describe the effects of positive and negative accelerations on:

(a)        the cardiovascular systems; and

(b)        vision; and

(c)        consciousness.

2.10           Toxic hazards

2.10.1       State the sources, symptoms, effects and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

2.10.2       Recall the effect of breathing air contaminated by fuel and other noxious or toxic aviation products.

2.11           The atmosphere and associated problems

2.11.1       State the chemical composition of the atmosphere and recall the variation of temperature and pressure with altitude.

2.11.2       Outline how the circulatory and respiratory systems distribute oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide.

2.11.3       State what is meant by the partial pressure of oxygen.

2.12           Hypoxia

2.12.1       List the causes of hypoxia and describe:

(a)        its effect on night vision;

(b)        the dangers of behavioural changes, for example, lack of self-criticism, over-confidence and a false sense of security;

(c)        state the symptoms and their development as altitude is increased;

(d)        list factors which may increase a person's susceptibility to hypoxia;

(e)        list methods of combating various forms of hypoxia.

2.13           Human factors considerations

2.13.1       List the basic concepts of information processing and decision making, including:

(a)        how sensory information is used to form mental images;

(b)        the influence of the following factors on the decision-making process:

(i)         personality traits, for example, introvert/extrovert;

(ii)        pride, peer pressure;

(iii)       the desire to get the flight flown;

(iv)       anxiety, overconfidence, boredom, complacency;

(v)        types of memory – long- and short-term;

(vi)       memory limitations;

(vii)      aides memoire, rules of thumb;

(viii)     work load/overload;

(ix)       skill, experience, currency.

2.13.2       Recall the general concepts behind decision-making and list the methods of enhancing decision-making skills.

2.13.3       Concepts of stress:

(a)        recall the interaction between stress and arousal and the effects of short- and long-term stress on pilot performance and health;

(b)        recall the symptoms, causes and effects of environmental stress:

                                (i)      working in an excessively hot, cold, vibrating or noisy environment;

(c)        state the effects of stress on performance;

(d)        describe the effect of stress on human performance;

(e)        apply the basic principles of stress management.

2.13.4       Concepts of fatigue:

(a)        identify causes of fatigue and describe its effects on pilot performance;

(b)        relate coping strategies, for example:

(i)         sleep management;

(ii)        relaxation;

(iii)       fitness and diet;

(c)        describe the differences between acute and chronic fatigue.

2.14           Principles of first aid and survival

2.14.1       Recall first aid and survival information contained in ERSA.

2.15           Threat and error management

2.15.1       Describe the basic principles of TEM.

2.15.2       Explain the principles of TEM and detail a process to identify and manage threats and errors during single-pilot operations.

2.15.3       Define ‘threat’ and give examples of threats.

2.15.4       Give an example of a committed error and how action could be taken to ensure safe flight.

2.15.5       Explain how the use of checklists and standard operating procedures can prevent errors.

2.15.6       Give examples of how an undesired aircraft state can develop from an unmanaged threat or error.

2.15.7       Explain what resources a pilot could identify and use to avoid or manage an undesired aircraft, state such as being lost or entering adverse weather.

2.15.8       Explain the importance of ensuring that tasks are prioritised to manage an undesired aircraft state.

2.15.9