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Standard 1.3.3 Food Standards as amended, taking into account amendments up to Food Standards (Proposal P1021 - Code Maintenance X) Variation
This Standard regulates the use of processing aids in food manufacture, prohibiting their use in food unless there is a specific permission within this Standard.
Administered by: Health
Registered 25 Oct 2012
Start Date 11 Oct 2012
End Date 28 Nov 2012
Date of repeal 01 Mar 2016
Repealed by Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - Standard 5.1.1 - Revocation and Transitional Provisions - 2014 revision

Standard 1.3.3

 

Processing Aids

 

 

Purpose

 

This Standard regulates the use of processing aids in food manufacture, prohibiting their use in food unless there is a specific permission within this Standard.

 

Standard 1.3.1 regulates the use of food additives.

 

Table of Provisions

 

1             Interpretation

2             General prohibition on the use of processing aids

3             Generally permitted processing aids

4             Permitted antifoam agents

5             Permitted catalysts

6             Permitted decolourants, clarifying, filtration and adsorbent agents

7             Permitted desiccating preparations

8             Permitted ion exchange resins

9             Permitted lubricants, release and anti-stick agents

10           Permitted carriers, solvents and diluents

11           Permitted processing aids used in packaged water and in water used as an ingredient in other foods

12           Permitted bleaching agents, washing and peeling agents

13           Permitted extraction solvents

14           Permitted processing aids with miscellaneous functions

15           Permitted enzymes of animal origin

16           Permitted enzymes of plant origin

17           Permitted enzymes of microbial origin

18           Permitted microbial nutrients and microbial nutrient adjuncts

19           Dimethyl dicarbonate as a microbial control agent

 

Clauses

 

1             Interpretation

 

(1)           In this Standard –

 

approved food for use of phage means food that –

 

(a)           is ordinarily consumed in the same state as that in which it is sold; and

(b)          is solid; and

(c)           is one of the following –

 

(i)            meat;

(ii)           meat product;

(iii)          fish;

(iv)          fish product;

(v)           fruit;

(vi)          fruit product;

(vii)         vegetable;

(viii)        vegetable product;

(ix)          cheese; and

 

(d)          is not one of the following –


 

(i)            nuts in the shell and whole;

(ii)           raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for hulling, peeling or washing by the consumer.

 

dairy ingredient means an ingredient that is derived from a dairy source.

 

EC number (Enzyme Commission number) means the number which the Enzyme Commission uses to classify the principal enzyme activity.

 

maximum permitted level means the maximum amount of the processing aid which may be present in the food as specified in the Tables to clauses 3 to 18.

 

processing aid means a substance listed in clauses 3 to 19, where –

 

(a)           the substance is used in the processing of raw materials, foods or ingredients, to fulfil a technological purpose relating to treatment or processing, but does not perform a technological function in the final food; and

(b)          the proportion of the processing aid is no more than the maximum level necessary to achieve one or more technological functions under conditions of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

 

silica or silicates includes sodium calcium polyphosphate silicate, sodium hexafluorosilicate, sodium metasilicate, sodium silicate, silica and modified silica that complies with a monograph specification in clause 2 or clause 3 of Standard 1.3.4.

 

(2)           In this Standard, the letters ‘ATCC’ followed by a number is a reference to the number which the American Type Culture Collection uses to identify a prokaryote.

 

2             General prohibition on the use of processing aids

 

Unless expressly permitted in this Standard, processing aids must not be added to food.

 

3             Generally permitted processing aids

 

The following processing aids may be used in the course of manufacture of any food at a level necessary to achieve a function in the processing of that food –

 

(a)          foods, including water; and

(b)          food additives listed in Schedule 2 of Standard 1.3.1; and

(c)          a processing aid specified in the Table to this clause.

 

Table to clause 3

 

Activated carbon

Ammonia

Ammonium hydroxide

Argon

Bone phosphate

Carbon monoxide

Diatomaceous earth

Ethoxylated fatty alcohols

Ethyl alcohol

Fatty acid polyalkylene glycol ester

Furcellaran

Hydrogenated glucose syrups

Isopropyl alcohol

Magnesium hydroxide


Table to clause 3 (continued)

 

Oleic acid

Oleyl oleate

Oxygen

Perlite

Phospholipids

Phosphoric acid

Polyethylene glycols

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid

Polyoxyethylene 40 stearate

Potassium hydroxide

Propylene glycol alginate

Silica or silicates

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium lauryl sulphate

Sulphuric acid

Tannic acid

 

4             Permitted antifoam agents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as an antifoam agent in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 4

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Butanol

10

Oxystearin

GMP

Polydimethylsiloxane

10

Polyethylene glycol dioleate

GMP

Polyethylene/ polypropylene glycol copolymers

GMP

Soap

GMP

Sorbitan monolaurate

1

Sorbitan monooleate

1

 

5             Permitted catalysts

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as a catalyst in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 5

 

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Chromium (excluding chromium VI)

0.1

Copper

0.1

Molybdenum

0.1

Nickel

1.0

Peracetic acid

0.7

Potassium ethoxide

1.0

Potassium (metal)

GMP

Sodium (metal)

GMP

Sodium ethoxide

1.0

Sodium methoxide

1.0

 


 

6             Permitted decolourants, clarifying, filtration and adsorbent agents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as decolourants, clarifying, filtration and adsorbent agents in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 6

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Acid clays of montmorillonite

GMP

Chloromethylated aminated styrene‑divinylbenzene resin

GMP

Co-extruded polystyrene and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone

GMP

Copper sulphate

GMP

Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer

150

Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride

GMP

Divinylbenzene copolymer

GMP

High density polyethylene co‑extruded with kaolin

GMP

Iron oxide

GMP

Fish collagen, including Isinglass

GMP

Magnesium oxide

GMP

Modified polyacrylamide resins

GMP

Nylon

GMP

Phytates (including phytic acid, magnesium phytate & calcium phytate)

GMP

Polyester resins, cross-linked

GMP

Polyethylene

GMP

Polypropylene

GMP

Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone

GMP

Potassium ferrocyanide

0.1

 

7             Permitted desiccating preparations

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as desiccating preparations in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 7

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Aluminium sulphate

GMP

Ethyl esters of fatty acids

GMP

Short chain triglycerides

GMP

 

8             Permitted ion exchange resins

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as an ion exchange resin in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 8

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Completely hydrolysed copolymers of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene

GMP

Completely hydrolysed terpolymers of methyl acrylate, divinylbenzene and acrylonitrile

GMP

Cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde activated with one or both of the following: triethylene tetramine and tetraethylenepentamine

GMP


Table to clause 8 (continued)

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Cross-linked polystyrene, chloromethylated, then aminated with trimethylamine, dimethylamine, diethylenetriamine, or dimethylethanolamine

GMP

Diethylenetriamine, triethylene-tetramine, or tetraethylenepentamin cross-linked with epichlorohydrin

GMP

Divinylbenzene copolymer

GMP

Epichlorohydrin cross-linked with ammonia

GMP

Epichlorohydrin cross-linked with ammonia and then quaternised with methyl chloride to contain not more than 18% strong base capacity by weight of total exchange capacity

GMP

Hydrolysed copolymer of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene

GMP

Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer

GMP

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer containing not less than 2% by weight of divinylbenzene, aminolysed with dimethylaminopropylamine

GMP

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer containing not less than 3.5% by weight of divinylbenzene, aminolysed with dimethylaminopropylamine

GMP

 

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene-diethylene glycol divinyl ether terpolymer containing not less than 3.5% by weight divinylbenzene and not more than 0.6% by weight of diethylene glycol divinyl ether, aminolysed with dimethaminopropylamine

GMP

 

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene-diethylene glycol divinyl ether terpolymer containing not less than 7% by weight divinylbenzene and not more than 2.3% by weight of diethylene glycol divinyl ether, aminolysed with dimethaminopropylamine and quaternised with methyl chloride

GMP

 

Reaction resin of formaldehyde, acetone, and tetraethylenepentamine

GMP

 

Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then derivatised with carboxymethyl groups whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide is no more than 70% of the starting quantity of cellulose

GMP

 

Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then derivatised with tertiary amine groups whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide is no more than 70% of the starting quantity of cellulose

GMP

 

Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then derivatised with quaternary amine groups whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide is no more than 250% of the starting quantity of cellulose

GMP

 

Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then sulphonated, whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide employed is no more than 250% of the starting quantity of cellulose

GMP

 

Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer, chloromethylated then aminated with dimethylamine and oxidised with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not more than 15% of vinyl N,N-dimethylbenzylamine-N-oxide and not more than 6.5% of nitrogen

GMP

 

Sulphite-modified cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde, with modification resulting in sulphonic acid groups on side chains

GMP

 

Sulphonated anthracite coal

GMP

 

Sulphonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene

GMP

 

Sulphonated terpolymers of styrene, divinylbenzene, and acrylonitrile or methyl acrylate

GMP

 

Sulphonated tetrapolymer of styrene, divinylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and methyl acrylate derived from a mixture of monomers containing not more than a total of 2% by weight of acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate

GMP

 

9             Permitted lubricants, release and anti-stick agents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as lubricants, release and anti-stick agents in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.


 

Table to clause 9

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Acetylated mono- and diglycerides

100

Mineral oil based greases

GMP

Thermally oxidised soya-bean oil

320

White mineral oil

GMP

 

Editorial note:

 

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is currently reviewing mineral oils, including white mineral oil.  To ensure consistency with the outcomes of this review, FSANZ will review the permission and nomenclature for white mineral oil once the JECFA review is completed.

 

10           Permitted carriers, solvents and diluents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as carriers, solvents and diluents in the course of manufacture of any food provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 10

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Benzyl alcohol

500

Croscarmellose sodium

GMP

Ethyl acetate

GMP

Glycerol diacetate

GMP

Glyceryl monoacetate

GMP

Glycine

GMP

Isopropyl alcohol

1000

L-Leucine

GMP

Triethyl citrate

GMP

 

11           Permitted processing aids used in packaged water and in water used as an ingredient in other foods

 

Subject to any qualifications in the Table to this clause, the processing aids listed in the Table may be used in the course of manufacture of packaged water and in water used as an ingredient in other foods provided the water contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 11

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Aluminium sulphate

GMP

Ammonium sulphate

GMP

Calcium hypochlorite

5 (available chlorine)

Calcium sodium polyphosphate

GMP

Chlorine

5 (available chlorine)

Chlorine dioxide

1

Cobalt sulphate

2

Copper sulphate

2

Cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde activated with one or both of triethylenetetramine or tetraethylenepentamine

GMP


Table to clause 11 (continued)

 

Substance

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Cross-linked polystyrene, first chloromethylated then aminated with trimethylamine, dimethylamine, diethylenetriamine or dimethylethanolamine

GMP

Diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine or tetraethylenepentamine cross-linked with epichlorohydrin

GMP

Ferric chloride

GMP

Ferric sulphate

GMP

Ferrous sulphate

GMP

Hydrofluorosilicic acid (fluorosilicic acid) (only in water used as an ingredient in other foods)

1.5 (as fluoride)

Hydrolyzed copolymers of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene

GMP

Hydrolyzed terpolymers of methyl acrylate, divinylbenzene and acrylonitrile

GMP

Hydrogen peroxide

5

1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid

GMP

Lignosulphonic acid

GMP

Magnetite

GMP

Maleic acid polymers

GMP

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer containing not less than 2% divinylbenzene aminolysed with dimethylaminopropylamine

GMP

Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer

GMP

Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene-diethylene glycol divinyl ether terpolymer containing not less than 3.5% divinylbenzene and not more than 0.6% diethylene glycol divinyl ether, aminolysed with dimethylaminopropylamine

GMP

Modified polyacrylamide resins

GMP

Monobutyl ethers of polyethylene-polypropylene glycol

GMP

Ozone

GMP

Phosphorous acid

GMP

Polyacrylamide (polyelectrolytes)

0.0002 (as acrylamide monomer)

Polyaluminium chloride

GMP

Polydimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride

GMP

Polyoxypropylene glycol

GMP

Potassium permanganate

GMP

Reaction resin of formaldehyde, acetone and tetraethylenepentamine

GMP

Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then sulphonated whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide employed is no more than 250% of the starting quantity of cellulose

GMP

Silver ions

0.01

Sodium aluminate

GMP

Sodium fluoride (only in water used as an ingredient in other foods)

1.5 (as fluoride)

Sodium fluorosilicate (Sodium silicofluoride) (only in water used as an ingredient in other foods)

1.5 (as fluoride)

Sodium glucoheptonate

0.08 (measured as cyanide)

Sodium gluconate

GMP

Sodium humate

GMP

Sodium hypochlorite

5 (available chlorine)

Sodium lignosulphonate

GMP

Sodium metabisulphite

GMP

Sodium nitrate

50 (as nitrate)

Sodium polymethacrylate

2.5

Sodium sulphite (neutral or alkaline)

GMP

Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer

0.03 (as styrene)

Sulphonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene

GMP

Sulphonated terpolymers of styrene, divinylbenzene acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate

GMP

Sulphite modified cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde

GMP

Tannin powder extract

GMP

Tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate

GMP

Zinc sulphate

GMP

Editorial note:

 

This clause contains the permissions for fluoride to be used in water that is used as an ingredient in other foods, but not in water presented in packaged form.  Standard 2.6.2 contains a voluntary permission to add fluoride to water presented in packaged form.

 

12           Permitted bleaching agents, washing and peeling agents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as bleaching agents, washing and peeling agents in the course of manufacture of the corresponding foods specified in the Table provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 12

 

Substance

Food

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Benzoyl peroxide

All foods

40 (measured as benzoic acid)

Bromo-chloro-dimethylhydantoin

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

1.0 (inorganic bromide)

2.0 (dimethylhydantoin)

Calcium hypochlorite

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

Chlorine

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

Chlorine dioxide

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

Diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate

All foods

GMP

Dibromo-dimethylhydantoin

All foods

2.0 (inorganic bromide)

2.0 (dimethylhydantoin)

2-Ethylhexyl sodium sulphate

All foods

0.7

Hydrogen peroxide

All foods

5

Iodine

Fruits, vegetables and eggs

GMP

Oxides of nitrogen

All foods

GMP

Ozone

All foods

GMP

Peracetic acid

All foods

GMP

Sodium chlorite

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

Sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate

All foods

0.7

Sodium hypochlorite

All foods

1.0 (available chlorine)

Sodium laurate

All foods

GMP

Sodium metabisulphite

Root and tuber vegetables

25

Sodium peroxide

All foods

5

Sodium persulphate

All foods

GMP

Triethanolamine

Dried vine fruit

GMP

 

Editorial note:

 

FSANZ will review the extent of the use of Iodine as a processing aid three years from the date of the inclusion of Iodine as a processing aid in the Table to clause 12.

 

13           Permitted extraction solvents

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as extraction solvents in the course of manufacture of the corresponding foods specified in the Table provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 


 

Table to clause 13

 

Substance

Food

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Acetone

Flavourings

2

 

Other foods

0.1

Benzyl alcohol

All foods

GMP

Butane

Flavourings

1

 

Other foods

0.1

Butanol

All foods

10

Cyclohexane

All foods

1

Dibutyl ether

All foods

2

Diethyl ether

All foods

2

Dimethyl ether

All foods

2

Ethyl acetate

All foods

10

Glyceryl triacetate

All foods

GMP

Hexanes

All foods

20

Isobutane

Flavourings

1

 

Other foods

0.1

Methanol

All foods

5

Methylene chloride

Decaffeinated coffee

2

 

Decaffeinated tea

2

 

Flavourings

2

Methylethyl ketone

All foods

2

Propane

All foods

1

Toluene

All foods

1

 

14           Permitted processing aids with miscellaneous functions

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used for the corresponding function specified in the Table, provided the final food contains no more than the corresponding maximum permitted level specified in the Table.

 

Editorial note:

 

Where meat has been treated using lactoperoxidase from bovine milk, the mandatory labelling requirements in clause 4 of Standard 1.2.3 apply.

 

Table to clause 14

 

Substance

Function

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Agarose ion exchange resin being agarose cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then derivatised with tertiary amine groups whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide does not exceed 250% by weight of the starting quantity of agarose

Removal of specific proteins and polyphenols from beer

GMP

Ammonium persulphate

Yeast washing agent

GMP

Ammonium sulphate

Decalcification agent for edible casings

GMP

Butanol

Suspension agent for sugar crystals

10

Carbonic acid

Bleached tripe washing agent

GMP

Cetyl alcohol

Coating agent on meat carcasses and primal cuts to prevent desiccation

1.0


Table to clause 14 (continued)

 

Substance

Function

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Colours permitted in Schedules 2, 3 and 4 of Standard 1.3.1

Applied to the outer surface of meat as a brand for the purposes of inspection or identification

GMP


Cupric citrate

Removal of sulphide compounds from wine

GMP

β-Cyclodextrin

Used to extract cholesterol from eggs

GMP

L-Cysteine (or HCl salt)

Dough conditioner

75

Ethyl acetate

Cell disruption of yeast

GMP

Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

Metal sequestrant for edible fats and oils and related products

GMP

Gibberellic acid

Barley germination

GMP

Gluteral

Manufacture of edible collagen casings

GMP


Hydrogen peroxide

Inhibiting agent for dried vine fruits, fruit and vegetable juices, sugar, vinegar and yeast autolysate

5

 

 

Removal of glucose from egg products

5

 

Removal of sulphur dioxide

5


1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid

Metal sequestrant for use with anti-microbial agents for meat, fruit and vegetables

GMP

Ice Structuring Protein type III HPLC 12

Manufacture of ice cream and edible ices

100

Indole acetic acid

Barley germination

GMP

Lactoperoxidase from bovine milk

EC 1.11.1.7

Reduce the bacterial population or inhibit bacterial growth on meat surfaces

GMP

Listeria phage P100

Listericidal treatment for use on approved food for use of phage

GMP

 

Morpholine

Solubilising agent for coating mixtures on fruits

GMP

Oak

For use in the manufacture of wine

GMP

Octanoic acid

Anti-microbial agent for meat, fruit and vegetables

GMP

Paraffin

Coatings for cheese and cheese products

GMP

Polyvinyl acetate

Preparation of waxes for use in cheese and cheese products

GMP

Potassium bromate

Germination control in malting

Limit of determination of bromate

Sodium bromate

Germination control in malting

Limit of determination of bromate

Sodium chlorite

Anti-microbial agent for meat, fish, fruit and vegetables

Limit of determination of chlorite, chlorate, chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide

Sodium gluconate

Denuding, bleaching & neutralising tripe

 

GMP

Sodium glycerophosphate

Cryoprotectant for starter culture

GMP


Sodium metabisulphite

Dough conditioner

60

 

Removal of excess chlorine

60

 

Softening of corn kernels for starch manufacture

60 (in the starch)

 

Treatment of hides for use in gelatine and collagen manufacture

GMP


Table to clause 14 (continued)

 

Substance

Function

Maximum permitted level (mg/kg)

Sodium sulphide

Treatment of hides for use in gelatine and collagen manufacture

GMP

Sodium sulphite

Dough conditioner

60

Sodium thiocyanate

Reduce and/or inhibit bacterial population on meat surfaces

GMP

Stearyl alcohol

Coating agent on meat carcasses and primal cuts to prevent desiccation

 

GMP

Sulphur dioxide

Control of nitrosodimethylamine in malting

750

 

Treatment of hides for use in gelatine and collagen manufacture

750

Sulphurous acid

Softening of corn kernels

GMP

 

Treatment of hides for use in gelatine and collagen manufacture

GMP

Triethanolamine

Solubilising agent for coating mixtures for fruits

 

GMP

Urea

Manufacture of concentrated gelatine solutions

1.5 times the mass of the gelatine present

 

Microbial nutrient and microbial nutrient adjunct for the manufacture of all foods, except alcoholic beverages

GMP

Woodflour from untreated Pinus radiata

Gripping agent used in the treatment of hides

 

GMP

 

Editorial note:

 

The limit of determination is the lowest concentration of a chemical that can be qualitatively detected using a laboratory method and/or item of laboratory equipment (that is, its presence can be detected but not quantified).

 

For Ice Structuring Protein type III HPLC 12 in the Table to clause 14, the manufacturer and patent holder, Unilever, has undertaken to voluntarily label products where the processing aid has been used in the manufacturing process.  This labelling will appear on the product as ‘ice structuring protein’.  Unilever will also have information about ice structuring protein available to consumers.

 

Editorial note:

 

If Listeria phage P100 has an ongoing technological function it ceases to be a processing aid as defined in subclause 1(1), and operates instead as a food additive.  For example, Listeria phage P100 may have an ongoing technological function when introduced to liquids. Standard 1.3.1 does not permit the use of Listeria phage P100 as a food additive.

 

15           Permitted enzymes of animal origin

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as enzymes in the course of manufacture of any food provided the enzyme is derived from the corresponding source specified in the Table.


 

Table to clause 15

 

Enzyme

Source

Lipase, triacylglycerol

EC 3.1.1.3

Bovine stomach; salivary glands or forestomach of calf, kid or lamb; porcine or bovine pancreas

Pepsin

EC 3.4.23.1

Bovine or porcine stomach

Phospholipase A2

EC 3.1.1.4

Porcine pancreas

Thrombin

EC 3.4.21.5

Bovine or porcine blood

Trypsin

EC 3.4.21.4

Porcine or bovine pancreas

 

16           Permitted enzymes of plant origin

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as enzymes in the course of manufacture of any food provided the enzyme is derived from the corresponding source specified in the Table.

 

Table to clause 16

 

Enzyme

Source

α–Amylase

EC 3.2.1.1

Malted cereals

β-Amylase

EC 3.2.1.2

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)

Malted cereals

Actinidin

EC 3.4.22.14

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)

Ficin

EC 3.4.22.3

Ficus spp.

Fruit bromelain

EC 3.4.22.33

Pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus)

Papain

EC 3.4.22.2

Carica papaya

Stem bromelain

EC 3.4.22.32

Pineapple stem (Ananas comosus)

 

17           Permitted enzymes of microbial origin

 

(1)           The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as enzymes in the course of manufacture of any food provided the enzyme is derived from the corresponding source or sources specified in the Table.

 

(2)           The sources listed in the Table to this clause may contain additional copies of genes from the same organism.

 

Editorial note:

 

See Division 2 of Standard 1.5.2 – Food produced using Gene Technology for labelling requirements that apply to processing aids produced using gene technology.

 


 

Table to clause 17

 

Enzyme

Source

α–Acetolactate decarboxylase

EC 4.1.1.5

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, containing the gene for α–Acetolactate decarboxylase isolated from Bacillus brevis

Aminopeptidase

EC 3.4.11.1

Aspergillus oryzae

Lactococcus lactis

α–Amylase

EC 3.2.1.1

 

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacillus licheniformis, containing the gene for α-Amylase isolated from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, containing the gene for α-Amylase isolated

from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Geobacillus stearothermophilus

β-Amylase

EC 3.2.1.2

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus subtilis

Amylomaltase

EC 2.4.1.25

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, containing the gene for amylomaltase derived from Thermus thermophilus

α–Arabinofuranosidase

EC 3.2.1.55

Aspergillus niger

Asparaginase

EC 3.5.1.1

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Carboxyl proteinase

EC 3.4.23.6

Aspergillus melleus

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Rhizomucor miehei

Carboxylesterase

EC 3.1.1.1

Rhizomucor miehei

 

Catalase

EC 1.11.1.6

Aspergillus niger

Micrococcus luteus

Cellulase 

EC 3.2.1.4

Aspergillus niger

Penicillium funiculosum

Trichoderma reesei

Trichoderma viride

Chymosin

EC 3.4.23.4

Aspergillus niger

Escherichia coli K-12 strain GE81

Kluyveromyces lactis

Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase

EC 2.4.1.19

Paenibacillus macerans

Dextranase

EC 3.2.1.11

Chaetomium gracile

Penicillium lilacinum

Endo-arabinase

EC 3.2.1.99                    

Aspergillus niger

Endo-protease

EC 3.4.21.26

Aspergillus niger

α-Galactosidase

EC 3.2.1.22

Aspergillus niger

β-Galactosidase

EC 3.2.1.23

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382

Kluyveromyces marxianus

Kluyveromyces lactis

Glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase

EC 3.2.1.58

Trichoderma harzianum


Table to clause 17 (continued)

 

Enzyme

Source

β-Glucanase

EC 3.2.1.6

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus subtilis

Disporotrichum dimorphosporum

Humicola insolens

Talaromyces emersonii

Trichoderma reesei

Glucoamylase

EC 3.2.1.3

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Rhizopus delemar

Rhizopus oryzae

Rhizopus niveus

Glucose oxidase

EC 1.1.3.4

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for glucose oxidase isolated from Aspergillus niger

α-Glucosidase

EC 3.2.1.20

Aspergillus oryzae

Aspergillus niger

β-Glucosidase

EC 3.2.1.21

Aspergillus niger

 

Glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase, protein engineered variant

EC 2.3.1.43

Bacillus licheniformis, containing the gene for glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase isolated from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

Hemicellulase endo-1,3-β-xylanase

EC 3.2.1.32

Humicola insolens

Hemicellulase endo-1,4-β-xylanase

EC 3.2.1.8

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Endo-1,4-β-xylanase isolated from Aspergillus aculeatus

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Endo-1,4-β-xylanase isolated from Thermomyces lanuginosus

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus subtilis

Humicola insolens

Trichoderma reesei

Hemicellulase multicomponent enzyme

EC 3.2.1.78

Aspergillus niger

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus subtilis

Trichoderma reesei

Hexose oxidase

EC 1.1.3.5

Hansenula polymorpha, containing the gene for Hexose oxidase isolated from Chondrus crispus

Inulinase

EC 3.2.1.7

Aspergillus niger

Invertase

EC 3.2.1.26

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Lipase, monoacylglycerol

EC 3.1.1.23

Penicillium camembertii


Table to clause 17 (continued)

 

Enzyme

Source

Lipase, triacylglycerol

EC 3.1.1.3

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated from Fusarium oxysporum

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated from Humicola lanuginosa

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated from Rhizomucor miehei

Candida rugosa

Hansenula polymorpha, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated from Fusarium heterosporum

Mucor javanicus

Penicillium roquefortii

Rhizopus arrhizus

Rhizomucor miehei

Rhizopus niveus

Rhizopus oryzae

Lipase, triacylglycerol, protein engineered variant

EC 3.1.1.3

Aspergillus niger, containing the gene for lipase, triacylglycerol isolated from Fusarium culmorum

Lysophospholipase

EC 3.1.1.5

Aspergillus niger

Maltogenic α-amylase

EC 3.2.1.133

Bacillus subtilis containing the gene for maltogenic α-amylase isolated from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

Maltotetraohydrolase, protein engineered variant

EC 3.2.1.60

Bacillus licheniformis, containing the gene for maltotetraohydrolase isolated from Pseudomonas stutzeri

Metalloproteinase

Aspergillus oryzae

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus coagulans

Bacillus subtilis

Mucorpepsin

EC 3.4.23.23

Aspergillus oryzae

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Aspartic proteinase isolated from Rhizomucor meihei

Rhizomucor meihei

Cryphonectria parasitica

Pectin lyase

EC 4.2.2.10

Aspergillus niger

Pectinesterase

EC 3.1.1.11

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for pectinesterase isolated from Aspergillus aculeatus

Phospholipase A1

EC 3.1.1.32

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for phospholipase A1 isolated from Fusarium venenatum

Phospholipase A2

EC 3.1.1.4

Aspergillus niger, containing the gene isolated from porcine pancreas

Streptomyces violaceoruber

3-Phytase

EC 3.1.3.8

Aspergillus niger

4-Phytase

EC 3.1.3.26

Aspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for 4-phytase isolated from Peniophora lycii

Polygalacturonase or Pectinase multicomponent enzyme

EC 3.2.1.15

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus oryzae

Trichoderma reesei

Pullulanase

EC 3.2.1.41

Bacillus acidopullulyticus

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis, containing the gene for pullulanase isolated from Bacillus acidopullulyticus

Klebsiella pneumoniae


Table to clause 17 (continued)

 

Enzyme

Source

Serine proteinase

EC 3.4.21.14

Aspergillus oryzae

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

Bacillus halodurans

Bacillus licheniformis

Bacillus subtilis

Transglucosidase

EC 2.4.1.24

Aspergillus niger

Transglutaminase

EC 2.3.2.13

Streptomyces mobaraensis

Urease

EC 3.5.1.5

Lactobacillus fermentum

Xylose isomerase

EC 5.3.1.5

Actinoplanes missouriensis

Bacillus coagulans

Microbacterium arborescens

Streptomyces olivaceus

Streptomyces olivochromogenes

Streptomyces murinus

Streptomyces rubiginosus

 

Editorial note:

 

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a separate species from Bacillus subtilis.

Aspergillus niger group covers strains known under the names Aspergillus aculeatus, A. awamori, A. ficuum, A. foetidus, A. japonicus, A. phoenicis, A. saitor and A. usamii.

Trichoderma reesei also known as Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

Kluyveromyces marxianus former names Saccharomyces fragilis and Kluyveromyces fragilis.

Kluyveromyces lactis – former name Saccharomyces lactis.

Rhizomucor miehei – former name Mucor miehei.

Micrococcus luteus – former name Micrococcus lysodeikticus.

Paenibacillus macerans former name Bacillus macerans.

Talaromyces emersonii former name Penicillium emersonii.

Klebsiella pneumoniae – former name Klebsiella aerogenes.

Streptomyces mobaraensis – former name Streptoverticillium mobaraensis.

Humicola lanuginosa also known as Thermomyces lanuginosus.

Mucor javanicus also known as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides.

Penicillium roquefortii also known as Penicillium roqueforti.

Hansenula polymorpha also known as Pichia angusta.

Geobacillus stearothermophilus – former name Bacillus stearothermophilus.

4-Phytase also known as 6-phytase.

 

18           Permitted microbial nutrients and microbial nutrient adjuncts

 

The processing aids listed in the Table to this clause may be used as microbial nutrients or microbial nutrient adjuncts in the course of manufacture of any food.

 

Table to clause 18

 

Adenine

Adonitol

Ammonium sulphate

Ammonium sulphite

Arginine

Asparagine

Aspartic acid

Benzoic acid

Biotin

Calcium pantothenate

Calcium propionate


Table to clause 18 (continued)

 

Copper sulphate

Cystine

Cysteine monohydrochloride

Dextran

Ferrous sulphate

Glutamic acid

Glycine

Guanine

Histidine

Hydroxyethyl starch

Inosine

Inositol

Manganese chloride

Manganese sulphate

Niacin

Nitric acid

Pantothenic acid

Peptone

Phytates

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

Pyridoxine hydrochloride

Riboflavin

Sodium formate

Sodium molybdate

Sodium tetraborate

Thiamin

Threonine

Uracil

Xanthine

Zinc chloride

Zinc sulphate

 

19           Dimethyl dicarbonate as a microbial control agent

 

(1)           Dimethyl dicarbonate may be added in the manufacture of a food listed in Column 1 in the Table at a concentration no more than the maximum permitted addition level in Column 2 in the Table.

 

(2)           Dimethyl dicarbonate must not be present in the food as sold.

 

Table to clause 19

 

Column 1

Column 2

Food

Maximum permitted addition level (amount of dimethyl dicarbonate/ amount of food)

Fruit and vegetable juices and fruit and vegetable juice product

250 mg/kg

Water-based flavoured drinks

250 mg/kg

Formulated beverages

250 mg/kg

Wine, sparkling wine and fortified wine; and fruit wine, vegetable wine and mead (including cider and perry)

200 mg/kg

 

 


 

 

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