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Manual of Standards Part 139 - Aerodromes

Authoritative Version
  • - F2012C00280
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Standards/Other as amended, taking into account amendments up to Manual of Standards Part 139 Amendment Instrument 2012 (No. 3)
Manual of Standards Part 139 - Aerodromes.
Administered by: Infrastructure and Regional Development
Registered 18 May 2012
Start Date 01 Apr 2012
End Date 01 Oct 2013
Table of contents.

Manual of Standards Part 139—Aerodromes

Version 1.10: May 2012

 

Made under Part 139 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

This compilation was prepared on 7 May 2012 taking into account amendments up to Manual of Standards Part 139 Amendment 2012 (No. 3).

Prepared by the Airways and Aerodromes Branch, Airspace and Aerodrome Regulation Division, Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Canberra.

 

 

 


 

 

Manual of Standards Part 139—Aerodromes

© Copyright Australian Government 2012

This work is copyright.  Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth.  Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Document Control Officer, Infrastructure and Information Management Branch, Civil Aviation Safety Authority, GPO Box 2005, Canberra ACT 2601 or posted to document.control.unit@casa.gov.au.

You should always refer to the applicable provisions of the Civil Aviation Act, Civil Aviation Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders, rather than this manual, to ascertain the requirements of, and the obligations imposed by or under, the civil aviation legislation.

Version 1.10: May 2012


Table of Contents

 

Table of Contents.. i

Chapter 1: Introduction.. 1-1

Section 1.1: General 1-1

1.1.1         Commencement and Background. 1-1

1.1.2         Document Set 1-3

1.1.3         Differences Between ICAO Standards and those in MOS.. 1-4

1.1.4         Differences published in AIP.. 1-4

1.1.5         MOS Documentation Change Management 1-4

1.1.6         Related Documents. 1-4

Section 1.2: Definitions. 1-5

Chapter 2: Application of Standards to Aerodromes.. 2-1

Section 2.1: General 2-1

2.1.1         Legislative Background and Applicability. 2-1

2.1.2         Standard Changes and Existing Aerodrome Facilities. 2-1

2.1.3         Exemptions to Standards. 2-2

2.1.4         Conflict with Other Standards. 2-2

2.1.5         Using ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code to Specify Standards. 2-2

2.1.6         Aerodrome Reference Codes and Aeroplane Characteristics. 2-3

2.1.7         Providing for Future Larger Aeroplanes. 2-6

2.1.8         Non-instrument and Instrument Runways. 2-6

2.1.9         Non-precision Approach Runways. 2-7

2.1.9A      Aerodrome with Terminal Instrument Flight Procedures. 2-8

Chapter 3: Applying for an Aerodrome Certificate.. 3-1

Section 3.1: General 3-1

3.1.1         Introduction.. 3-1

3.1.2         Aerodrome Certificate Processing Fee. 3-1

3.1.3         Processing an Aerodrome Certificate Application.. 3-1

3.1.4         Granting of an Aerodrome Certificate. 3-2

3.1.5         Maintenance and Control of Aerodrome Manual 3-2

3.1.6         Initiating NOTAM to Promulgate a Certified Aerodrome. 3-2

3.1.7         Transitional Arrangements for Existing Aerodrome Licences. 3-3

Section 3.2: Application for an Aerodrome Certificate. 3-4

3.2.1         Sample Aerodrome Certificate Application.. 3-4

Chapter 4: Applying to Register an Aerodrome.. 4-1

Section 4.1: General 4-1

4.1.1         Introduction.. 4-1

4.1.2         Aerodrome Registration Application and Processing Fee. 4-1

4.1.3         Approving a Registration Application.. 4-2

4.1.4         Maintenance of Registration.. 4-2

4.1.5         Aerodrome Safety Inspection Report 4-3

Section 4.2: Application to Register an Aerodrome. 4-4

4.2.1         Application to Register an Aerodrome. 4-4

Chapter 5: Aerodrome Information for AIP.. 5-1

Section 5.1: General 5-1

5.1.1         Introduction.. 5-1

5.1.2         Aerodrome Information to be Provided for a Certified Aerodrome. 5-1

5.1.3         Standards for Determining Aerodrome Information.. 5-4

5.1.4         Obstacle Data. 5-16

Section 5.2: Illustration of Declared Distances. 5-17

5.2.1         Introduction.. 5-17

5.2.2         Calculation of Declared Distances. 5-17

5.2.3         Obstacle-free Take-off Gradient 5-19

5.2.4         Critical Obstacle. 5-19

5.2.5         Declared Distances for Intersection Departures. 5-20

Section 5.3: Illustration of Supplementary Take-Off Distances Available and Shielding   5-21

5.3.1         Introduction.. 5-21

Chapter 6: Physical Characteristics.. 6-1

Section 6.1: General 6-1

6.1.1         Introduction.. 6-1

Section 6.2: Runways. 6-2

6.2.1         Location of Runway Threshold. 6-2

6.2.2         Length of Runway. 6-2

6.2.3         Runway Width.. 6-2

6.2.4         Runway Turning Area. 6-3

6.2.5         Parallel Runways. 6-4

6.2.6         Runway Longitudinal Slope. 6-4

6.2.7         Runway Sight Distance. 6-7

6.2.8         Transverse Slopes on Runways. 6-7

6.2.9         Runway Surface. 6-7

6.2.10      Runway Bearing Strength.. 6-8

6.2.11      Runway Shoulders. 6-8

6.2.12      Characteristics of Runway Shoulders. 6-8

6.2.13      Transverse Slope on Runway Shoulder 6-9

6.2.14      Surface of Runway Shoulder 6-9

6.2.15      Provision of Runway Strip. 6-9

6.2.16      Composition of Runway Strip. 6-9

6.2.17      Runway Strip Length.. 6-10

6.2.18      Runway Strip Width.. 6-11

6.2.19      Longitudinal Slope on Graded Area of Runway Strip. 6-12

6.2.20      Longitudinal Slope Changes on Graded Area of Runway Strip. 6-13

6.2.21      Runway Strip Longitudinal Slope Changes at Runway Ends (Radio Altimeter Operating Area) 6-13

6.2.22      Runway Strip Transverse Slope. 6-13

6.2.23      Surface of Graded Area of Runway Strip. 6-13

6.2.24      Objects on Runway Strips. 6-14

6.2.25      Runway End Safety Area (RESA) 6-14

6.2.26      Dimensions of RESA.. 6-14

6.2.27      Slopes on RESA.. 6-15

6.2.28      Objects on RESA.. 6-15

6.2.29      Bearing Strength of RESA.. 6-15

6.2.30      Clearways. 6-16

6.2.31      Location of Clearways. 6-16

6.2.32      Dimensions of Clearways. 6-16

6.2.33      Slopes on Clearways. 6-16

6.2.34      Objects on Clearways. 6-16

6.2.35      Stopways. 6-17

6.2.36      Dimensions of Stopways. 6-17

6.2.37      Surface of Stopway. 6-17

6.2.38      Stopway Slopes and Slope Changes. 6-17

6.2.39      Bearing Strength of Stopway. 6-17

Section 6.3: Taxiways. 6-19

6.3.1         Taxiway Width.. 6-19

6.3.2         Taxiway Edge Clearance. 6-19

6.3.3         Taxiway Curves. 6-20

6.3.4         Taxiway Longitudinal Slope. 6-20

6.3.5         Taxiway Transverse Slope. 6-21

6.3.6         Taxiway Sight Distance. 6-21

6.3.7         Taxiway Bearing Strength.. 6-21

6.3.8         Taxiway Shoulders. 6-21

6.3.9         Width of Taxiway Shoulders. 6-21

6.3.10      Surface of Taxiway Shoulders. 6-22

6.3.11      Taxiway Strips. 6-22

6.3.12      Width of Taxiway Strip. 6-22

6.3.13      Width of Graded Area of Taxiway Strip. 6-22

6.3.14      Slope of Taxiway Strip. 6-23

6.3.15      Objects on Taxiway Strip. 6-23

6.3.16      Taxiways on Bridges. 6-23

6.3.17      Taxiway Minimum Separation Distances. 6-23

Section 6.4: Holding Bays, Runway-Holding Positions, Intermediate Holding Positions and Road-Holding Positions. 6-26

6.4.1         Introduction.. 6-26

6.4.2         Provision of a Holding Bay, Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position and Road-holding Position.. 6-26

6.4.3         Location of Holding Bay, Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position or Road-holding Position.. 6-26

6.4.4         Distance from Runway-holding Position, Intermediate Holding Position or Road-holding Position to Runway Centreline. 6-27

Section 6.5: Aprons. 6-28

6.5.1         Location of Apron.. 6-28

6.5.2         Separation Distances on Aprons. 6-28

6.5.3         Slopes on Aprons. 6-28

6.5.4         Apron Bearing Strength.. 6-29

6.5.5         Apron Road. 6-29

Section 6.6: Jet Blast 6-30

6.6.1         General 6-30

6.6.2         Jet Blast and Propeller Wash Hazards. 6-30

Section 6.7: Glider Facilities. 6-31

6.7.1         Location of Glider Runway Strips. 6-31

6.7.2         Dimensions of Glider Runway Strips. 6-31

6.7.3         Glider Parking Areas. 6-32

6.7.4         Glider Runway Strip Serviceability. 6-32

6.7.5         Glider Runway Strip Standards. 6-32

6.7.6         Notification of Glider Facilities and Procedures. 6-32

Chapter 7: Obstacle Restriction and Limitation.. 7-1

Section 7.1: General 7-1

7.1.1         Introduction.. 7-1

7.1.2         Obstacle Restriction.. 7-1

7.1.3         Obstacle Limitation.. 7-1

7.1.4         Procedures for Aerodrome Operators to Deal with Obstacles. 7-5

7.1.5         Objects Outside the OLS.. 7-5

7.1.6         Objects That Could Become Obstacles. 7-5

7.1.7         Monitoring of Obstacles Associated with Instrument Runways. 7-6

7.1.8         Additional Obstacle Assessment for an Existing Non-instrument Runway to be Upgraded to a Non-precision Instrument Runway. 7-7

7.1.9         Obstacle Protection for Curved Take-Off 7-8

Section 7.2: Aerodrome Obstacle Charts. 7-9

7.2.1         Type A Charts. 7-9

7.2.2         Type B Charts. 7-10

7.2.3         Type C Charts. 7-10

7.2.4         Precision Approach Terrain Charts – ICAO.. 7-10

Section 7.3: Obstacle Limitation Surfaces. 7-12

7.3.1         General 7-12

7.3.2         Description of OLS.. 7-12

Section 7.4: Principles of Shielding.. 7-21

7.4.1         General 7-21

7.4.2         Shielding Principles. 7-21

Chapter 8: Visual Aids Provided by Aerodrome Markings, Markers, Signals and Signs.. 8-1

Section 8.1: General 8-1

8.1.1         Introduction.. 8-1

8.1.2         Closed Aerodrome. 8-1

8.1.3         Colours. 8-1

8.1.4         Visibility. 8-2

Section 8.2: Markers. 8-3

8.2.1         Introduction.. 8-3

8.2.2         The Use of Markers on a Runway Strip. 8-5

8.2.3         The Use of Markers on an Unsealed Runway. 8-7

8.2.4         The Use of Markers on an Unsealed Taxiway. 8-7

8.2.5         The Use of Markers on an Unsealed Apron.. 8-7

Section 8.3: Runway Markings. 8-8

8.3.1         General 8-8

8.3.2         Pre-runway-end Markings. 8-8

8.3.3         Runway Centreline Markings. 8-9

8.3.4         Runway Designation Markings. 8-10

8.3.5         Runway End Markings. 8-12

8.3.6         Runway Side-stripe Markings. 8-13

8.3.7         Aiming Point Markings. 8-14

8.3.7A      Touchdown Zone Marking. 8-16

8.3.8         Runway Threshold Markings. 8-20

8.3.9         Temporarily Displaced Threshold Markings. 8-22

8.3.10      Runway Land and Hold Short Position Markings. 8-31

Section 8.4: Taxiway Markings. 8-32

8.4.1         Introduction.. 8-32

8.4.2         Taxi Guideline Markings. 8-32

8.4.3         Runway Holding Position Markings. 8-33

8.4.4         Intermediate Holding Position Markings. 8-34

8.4.5         Taxiway Edge Markings. 8-35

8.4.6         Holding Bay Markings. 8-35

8.4.7         Taxiway Pavement Strength Limit Markings. 8-36

Section 8.5: Apron Markings. 8-37

8.5.1         Introduction.. 8-37

8.5.2         Apron Taxi Guideline Markings. 8-37

8.5.3         Apron Edge Markings. 8-38

8.5.4         Parking Clearance Line. 8-38

8.5.5         Aircraft Type Limit Line. 8-39

8.5.6         Parking Weight Limit Line. 8-39

8.5.7         Leased Area Line. 8-40

8.5.8         Equipment Clearance Line. 8-40

8.5.9         Equipment Storage Markings. 8-41

8.5.10      Apron Service Road Markings. 8-41

8.5.11      Aircraft Parking Position Markings. 8-43

8.5.12      Lead-in Line. 8-44

8.5.13      Taxi Lead-in Line Designation.. 8-44

8.5.14      Pilot Turn Line. 8-46

8.5.15      Primary Aircraft Parking Position Markings. 8-46

8.5.16      Marshaller Stop Line. 8-46

8.5.17      Pilot Stop Line. 8-47

8.5.18      Alignment Line. 8-47

8.5.19      Secondary Aircraft Parking Position Markings. 8-48

8.5.20      Keyhole Marking. 8-48

8.5.21      Triangle Marking. 8-49

8.5.22      Lead-out Line. 8-50

8.5.23      Designation Markings. 8-50

8.5.24      Aircraft Parking Position Designation.. 8-50

8.5.25      Designation Characters for Taxi and Apron Markings. 8-51

8.5.26      Tug operator Guidance Marking. 8-57

8.5.27      Aircraft Push-back Lines. 8-57

8.5.28      Tug Parking Position Lines. 8-57

8.5.29      Towbar Disconnect Markings. 8-57

8.5.30      Push-back Limit Markings. 8-58

8.5.31      Push-back Alignment Bars. 8-58

8.5.32      Passenger Path Markings. 8-59

8.5.33      Typical Apron Markings. 8-61

Section 8.6: Movement Area Guidance Signs (MAGS) 8-62

8.6.1         Introduction.. 8-62

8.6.2         Naming of taxiways. 8-62

8.6.3         Dimensions, Location and Lettering. 8-63

8.6.4         Sign Size and Location Distances, Including Runway Exit Signs. 8-63

8.6.5         Structural 8-71

8.6.6         Illumination.. 8-71

8.6.7         MAGS with Mandatory Instructions. 8-72

8.6.8         Runway Designation Signs. 8-72

8.6.9         Category I, II or III Runway Designation Signs. 8-73

8.6.10      Runway Holding Position Sign.. 8-73

8.6.11      Aircraft NO ENTRY Sign.. 8-73

8.6.12      Vehicular STOP Signs. 8-73

8.6.13      Runway/Runway Intersection Signs. 8-73

8.6.14      MAGS with Information.. 8-74

8.6.15      Taxiway Location Signs. 8-74

8.6.16      Direction Signs. 8-75

8.6.17      Destination Signs. 8-75

8.6.18      Take-off Run Available Sign.. 8-76

8.6.19      Runway Exit Signs. 8-76

8.6.20      LAHSO Distance To Go Signs. 8-77

Section 8.7: Wind Direction Indicators. 8-78

8.7.1         Requirements. 8-78

8.7.2         Standards. 8-79

Section 8.8: Ground Signals. 8-80

8.8.1         Signal Areas. 8-80

8.8.2         Ground Signals in Signal Area. 8-80

Section 8.9: Marking of Unserviceable and Work Areas. 8-83

8.9.1         Introduction.. 8-83

8.9.2         Marking of Unserviceable Areas on Runways, Taxiways and Aprons. 8-83

8.9.3         Use of Unserviceability Markers. 8-85

8.9.4         Works Limit Markers. 8-85

Section 8.10: Obstacle Markings. 8-86

8.10.1      General 8-86

8.10.2      Marking of Obstacles. 8-86

8.10.3      Marking of Temporary and Transient Obstacles. 8-88

8.10.4      Marking of Vehicles. 8-89

Section 8.11: Helicopter Areas on Aerodromes. 8-90

8.11.1      Introduction.. 8-90

8.11.2      Helicopter Landing and Lift-off Area Markings. 8-90

8.11.3      Helicopter Apron Markings. 8-90

8.11.4      Helicopter Parking Position Markings. 8-91

8.11.5      Helicopter Taxi Guideline Designation.. 8-91

8.11.6      Helicopter Parking Position Numbers. 8-92

8.11.7      Helicopter Apron Edge Markings. 8-93

Section 8.12: Marking of Glider Runway Strips on an Aerodrome. 8-95

Chapter 9: Visual Aids Provided by Aerodrome Lighting.. 9-1

Section 9.1: General 9-1

9.1.1         Application and Definitions. 9-1

9.1.2         Standardisation of Aerodrome Lighting. 9-4

9.1.3         Lighting in the Vicinity of an Aerodrome. 9-5

9.1.4         Minimum Lighting System Requirements. 9-5

9.1.5         Primary Source of Electricity Supply. 9-6

9.1.6         Electrical Circuitry. 9-6

9.1.7         Secondary Power Supply. 9-7

9.1.8         Switch-over Time. 9-8

9.1.9         Standby Power Supply. 9-9

9.1.10      Portable Lighting. 9-9

9.1.11      Light Fixtures and Supporting Structures. 9-11

9.1.12      Elevated and Inset Lights. 9-12

9.1.13      Colour of Light Shown.. 9-12

9.1.14      Light intensity and Control 9-13

9.1.15      Commissioning of Lighting Systems. 9-17

Section 9.2: Colours for Aeronautical Ground Lights. 9-20

9.2.1         General 9-20

9.2.2         Chromaticities. 9-20

9.2.3         Discrimination Between Coloured Lights. 9-21

Section 9.3: Pilot Activated Lighting Systems. 9-23

9.3.1         General 9-23

9.3.2         VHF Carrier Activation Code. 9-24

9.3.3         VHF Carrier Detector Technical Requirements. 9-25

9.3.4         Inputs to the PAL. 9-25

9.3.5         Fail-safe Arrangements with PAL system.. 9-26

9.3.6         Access to Manual Switches. 9-26

9.3.7         Receiving Antenna. 9-27

9.3.8         PAL with Audio Acknowledgment 9-27

Section 9.4: Obstacle Lighting.. 9-28

9.4.1         General 9-28

9.4.2         Types of Obstacle Lighting and Their Use. 9-29

9.4.3         Location of Obstacle Lights. 9-29

9.4.4         Natural Obstacles. 9-35

9.4.5         Temporary Obstacles. 9-35

9.4.6         Characteristics of Low Intensity Obstacle Lights. 9-35

9.4.7         Characteristics of Medium Intensity Obstacle Lights. 9-36

9.4.8         Characteristics of High Intensity Obstacle Lights. 9-36

9.4.9         Floodlighting of Obstacles. 9-38

9.4.10      Ongoing Availability of Obstacle Lights. 9-38

Section 9.5: Aerodrome Beacons. 9-40

9.5.1         General 9-40

Section 9.6: Illuminated Wind Direction Indicator. 9-42

9.6.1         General 9-42

Section 9.7: Approach Lighting Systems. 9-44

9.7.1         Simple Approach Lighting System.. 9-44

9.7.2         Precision Approach Category I Lighting System.. 9-44

9.7.3         Precision Approach Categories II and III Lighting System.. 9-48

Section 9.8: Isocandela Diagrams of Approach Lighting.. 9-52

9.8.1         Collective Notes. 9-52

Section 9.9: Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems. 9-54

9.9.1         General 9-54

9.9.2         Obstacle Assessment Surface. 9-55

9.9.3         T-VASIS and AT-VASIS.. 9-57

9.9.4         Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) system.. 9-62

Section 9.10: Runway Lighting.. 9-70

9.10.1      Types of Runway Edge Lighting Systems. 9-70

9.10.2      Runway Edge Lights. 9-70

9.10.3      Location of Runway Edge Lights. 9-71

9.10.4      Longitudinal Spacing of Runway Edge Lights. 9-71

9.10.5      Lateral Spacing of Runway Edge Lights. 9-72

9.10.6      Characteristics of Low and Medium Intensity Runway Edge Lights. 9-72

9.10.7      Characteristics of High Intensity Runway Edge Lights. 9-72

9.10.8      Use of Bidirectional or Back-to-back Light Fittings. 9-73

9.10.9      Runway Threshold Lights. 9-73

9.10.10   Location of Runway Threshold Lights. 9-73

9.10.11   Pattern of Low Intensity and Medium Intensity Runway Threshold Lights. 9-73

9.10.12   Pattern of High Intensity Runway Threshold Lights. 9-74

9.10.13   Characteristics of Low Intensity and Medium Intensity Runway Threshold Lights  9-74

9.10.14   Characteristics of High Intensity Runway Threshold Lights. 9-75

9.10.15   Additional Lighting to Enhance Threshold Location.. 9-75

9.10.16   Runway End Lights. 9-78

9.10.17   Location of Runway End Lights. 9-78

9.10.18   Pattern of Runway End Lights. 9-78

9.10.19   Characteristics of Low and Medium Intensity Runway End Lights. 9-79

9.10.20   Characteristics of High Intensity Runway End Lights. 9-79

9.10.21   Runway Turning Area Edge Lights. 9-79

9.10.22   Stopway Lights. 9-80

9.10.23   Hold Short Lights. 9-80

9.10.24   Runway Centreline Lights. 9-81

9.10.25   Runway Touchdown Zone Lights. 9-82

9.10.26   Photometric Characteristics of Runway Lights. 9-82

9.10.27   Installation and Aiming of Light Fittings. 9-83

9.10.28   Illustrations of Runway Lighting. 9-83

Section 9.11: Isocandela Diagrams of Runway Lighting.. 9-84

9.11.1      Collective Notes. 9-84

Section 9.12: Illustrations of Runway Lighting.. 9-96

Section 9.13: Taxiway Lighting.. 9-103

9.13.1      Provision of Taxiway Centreline Lights. 9-103

9.13.2      Provision of Taxiway Edge Lights. 9-103

9.13.3      Taxiway Markers. 9-103

9.13.4      Apron Taxiway Lighting. 9-104

9.13.5      Use of Different Types of Taxiway Lights. 9-104

9.13.6      Control of Lights on Taxiways. 9-104

9.13.7      Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights. 9-105

9.13.8      Spacing of Taxiway Centreline Lights. 9-105

9.13.9      Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights on Exit Taxiways. 9-106

9.13.10   Location of Taxiway Centreline Lights on Rapid Exit Taxiways. 9-106

9.13.11   Characteristics of Taxiway Centreline Lights. 9-107

9.13.12   Beam Dimensions and Light Distribution of Taxiway Centreline Lights. 9-107

9.13.13   Location of Taxiway Edge Lights. 9-108

9.13.14   Spacing of Taxiway Edge Lights. 9-109

9.13.15   Characteristics of Taxiway Edge Lights. 9-110

9.13.16   Provision of Runway Guard Lights. 9-110

9.13.17   Pattern and Location of Runway Guard Lights. 9-111

9.13.18   Characteristics of Runway Guard Lights. 9-112

9.13.19   Control of Runway Guard Lights. 9-113

9.13.20   Provision of Intermediate Holding Position Lights. 9-113

9.13.21   Pattern and Location of Intermediate Holding Position Lights. 9-113

9.13.22   Characteristics of Intermediate Holding Position Lights. 9-114

9.13.23   Stop Bars. 9-114

9.13.24   Location of Stop Bars. 9-115

9.13.25   Characteristics of Stop Bars. 9-115

9.13.26   Taxiway Edge Markers. 9-115

9.13.27   Characteristics of Taxiway Edge Markers. 9-116

9.13.28   Taxiway Centreline Markers. 9-116

9.13.29   Characteristics of Taxiway Centreline Markers. 9-116

9.13.30   Photometric Characteristics of Taxiway Lights. 9-116

9.13.31   Installation and Aiming of Light Fittings. 9-117

Section 9.14: Isocandela Diagrams for Taxiway Lights. 9-118

9.14.1      Collective Notes to Figures. 9-118

Section 9.15: Illustrations of Taxiway Lighting.. 9-125

Section 9.16: Apron Floodlighting.. 9-128

9.16.1      Introduction.. 9-128

9.16.2      Provision of Apron Floodlighting. 9-128

9.16.3      Location of Apron Floodlighting. 9-128

9.16.4      Characteristics of Apron Floodlighting. 9-129

Section 9.17: Visual Docking Guidance Systems. 9-131

9.17.1      Provision of Visual Docking Guidance Systems. 9-131

9.17.2      Characteristics of Visual Docking Guidance Systems. 9-131

9.17.3      Azimuth Guidance Unit - Location.. 9-132

9.17.4      Azimuth Guidance Unit - Characteristics. 9-132

9.17.5      Stopping Position Indicator - Location.. 9-132

9.17.6      Stopping Position Indicator - Characteristics. 9-132

9.17.7      Parking Position Identification Sign.. 9-133

9.17.8      Notification of Type of Aircraft Docking Guidance Systems. 9-133

Section 9.18: Lighting Associated with Closed and Unserviceable Areas. 9-134

9.18.1      Closed Runway or Taxiway. 9-134

9.18.2      Unserviceable Areas. 9-134

9.18.3      Characteristics of Unserviceability Lights. 9-134

Section 9.19: Other Lights on an Aerodrome. 9-135

9.19.1      Vehicle Warning Lights. 9-135

9.19.2      Works Limit Lights. 9-135

9.19.3      Road and Car Park Lighting. 9-135

9.19.4      Road-holding Position Light 9-135

Section 9.20: Monitoring, Maintenance and Serviceability of Aerodrome Lighting.. 9-137

9.20.1      General 9-137

9.20.2      Reporting of Aerodrome Lighting Outage. 9-137

Section 9.21: Lighting in the Vicinity of Aerodromes. 9-141

9.21.1      Advice to Lighting Designers. 9-141

9.21.1A   Purpose of the Section.. 9-141

9.21.2      Legislative Background. 9-141

9.21.3      General Requirement 9-142

9.21.4      Light Fittings. 9-142

9.21.5      Coloured Lights. 9-143

9.21.6      Information and Correspondence. 9-143

Section 9.22: Use of Unarmoured Cables for Aerodrome Lighting.. 9-145

9.22.1      Introduction.. 9-145

9.22.2      Significant Areas of the Dispensation.. 9-145

9.22.3      Conditions Governing the Dispensation.. 9-145

9.22.4      Aspects to Note. 9-146

9.22.5      Acceptability of an Installation to the Supply Authority. 9-146

Chapter 10: Operating Standards for Certified Aerodromes.. 10-1

Section 10.1: General 10-1

10.1.1      Introduction.. 10-1

10.1.2      Aerodrome Manual and Aerodrome Operating Procedures. 10-1

10.1.3      Training of Aerodrome Personnel Involved with Safety Functions. 10-1

10.1.4      Aerodrome Safety Management System (SMS) 10-2

Section 10.2: Inspecting and Reporting Aerodrome Serviceability. 10-3

10.2.1      General 10-3

10.2.2      Significant Objects. 10-3

10.2.3      Surface Conditions of the Movement Area, Including the Presence of Water 10-4

10.2.4      Aerodrome Markings, Lightings, Wind Direction Indicators and Ground Signals  10-4

10.2.5      Cleanliness of the Movement Area. 10-4

10.2.6      Obstacles Infringing the Take-off, Approach and Transitional Surfaces. 10-5

10.2.7      Birds or Animals on, or in the Vicinity of, the Movement Area. 10-5

10.2.8      Empirical Assessment of the Bearing Strength of Unrated Runway Pavements and Runway Strips. 10-5

10.2.9      Currency of NOTAMs. 10-6

10.2.10   Aerodrome Fencing. 10-6

10.2.11   Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit 10-6

10.2.12   Inspection Logbooks. 10-6

Section 10.3: Initiating a NOTAM.. 10-7

10.3.1      Introduction.. 10-7

10.3.2      Changes Reported to Australian NOTAM Office. 10-7

10.3.3      Time-Limited NOTAM.. 10-8

10.3.4      Permanent NOTAM.. 10-8

10.3.5      Making Changes to Aerodrome Information Published in AIP-ERSA.. 10-9

10.3.6      Bird or Animal Hazard Warning. 10-9

10.3.7      New or Upgraded Visual Aids. 10-9

10.3.8      Changes to Type A Chart Information.. 10-9

10.3.9      Follow up Actions. 10-9

10.3.10   Record Keeping. 10-9

Section 10.4: Sample Aerodrome Report Form... 10-10

Section 10.5: Examples of NOTAM and Listing of Abbreviations. 10-11

10.5.1      Examples. 10-11

10.5.2      General Word Abbreviations and Phrase Contractions to Minimise Message Length of Aerodrome NOTAMs. 10-14

Section 10.6: Appointment of Reporting Officers. 10-31

10.6.1      General 10-31

10.6.2      Reporting Officer Qualifications. 10-31

10.6.3      What to Report 10-31

10.6.4      Monitoring Activities Outside Aerodrome. 10-32

Section 10.7: Aerodrome Emergency Planning.. 10-33

10.7.1      Introduction.. 10-33

10.7.2      Records. 10-34

10.7.3      Disabled Aircraft Removal 10-34

Section 10.8: Guidelines for Aerodrome Emergency Plans. 10-35

10.8.1      General 10-35

10.8.2      Medical Subcommittee. 10-36

10.8.3      Testing Facilities and Reviewing Roles. 10-36

10.8.4      Aerodrome Emergency Exercises. 10-36

10.8.5      Emergency Operations Centre and Mobile Command Post 10-37

10.8.6      Definitions of Command, Control, and Coordination.. 10-37

10.8.7      Role of the Police. 10-38

Section 10.9: Control of Airside Access Including Vehicle Control 10-39

10.9.1      Introduction.. 10-39

10.9.2      Airside Vehicle Control 10-39

10.9.3      Airside drivers. 10-39

10.9.4      Technical Standards for Electronic Surveillance Equipment Fitted to Vehicles  10-40

Section 10.10: Aerodrome Works Safety. 10-42

10.10.1   Introduction.. 10-42

10.10.2   Method of Working Plans. 10-42

10.10.3   Time-Limited Works. 10-43

10.10.4   Restrictions on Carrying Out Time-Limited Works. 10-43

10.10.5   Restoration of Normal Safety Standards. 10-44

10.10.6   Resumption of Aerodrome Works. 10-44

10.10.7   Management and Control of Aerodrome Works. 10-44

10.10.8   Markers, Markings and Lights. 10-45

10.10.9   Communication Equipment 10-45

10.10.10 Completion.. 10-45

10.10.11 Pavement Overlay Works. 10-46

10.10.12 Works on Runway Strips. 10-46

Section 10.11: Method of Working Plans. 10-48

10.11.1   Introduction.. 10-48

10.11.2   Title Page. 10-48

10.11.3   Works Information.. 10-48

10.11.4   Restrictions to Aircraft Operations and Issue of NOTAMs. 10-49

10.11.5   Work Stages. 10-49

10.11.6   Emergencies and Adverse Weather 10-49

10.11.7   NOTAMs. 10-49

10.11.8   Restrictions to Works Organisations. 10-49

10.11.9   Personnel and Equipment 10-49

10.11.10 Access. 10-49

10.11.11 Aerodrome Markers, Markings and Lights. 10-50

10.11.12 Protection of Electrical Services. 10-50

10.11.13 Special Requirements. 10-50

10.11.14 Administration.. 10-50

10.11.15 Authority. 10-50

10.11.16 Drawings. 10-50

10.11.17 Distribution List 10-51

Section 10.12: Functions of a Works Safety Officer. 10-52

10.12.1   Works Safety Officer 10-52

Section 10.13: Aircraft Parking.. 10-54

10.13.1   Introduction.. 10-54

10.13.2   Apron Congestion.. 10-54

10.13.3   Apron Safety Management 10-54

Section 10.14: Bird and Animal Hazard Management 10-55

10.14.1   Introduction.. 10-55

Section 10.15: Pavement Maintenance. 10-56

10.15.1   Pavement Cleanliness. 10-56

10.15.2   Runway Surface Friction.. 10-56

10.15.3   Deterioration of Runway Grooves. 10-57

10.15.4   Surface Irregularities. 10-58

10.15.5   Standards for Natural and Gravel Surface Runways. 10-58

Section 10.16: Maintenance Around Navigational Aids. 10-59

10.16.1   Introduction.. 10-59

Section 10.17: Aerodrome Safety Procedures during Conditions of Reduced Visibility or Low Cloud.. 10-60

10.17.1   Introduction.. 10-60

10.17.2   Development of Low Visibility Procedures. 10-60

10.17.3   Implementation of Low Visibility Procedures. 10-61

10.17.4   Review of Low Visibility Procedures. 10-62

Section 10.18: Aerodrome Technical Inspections. 10-63

10.18.1   Introduction.. 10-63

Section 10.19: Runway Visibility Assessments by Ground Personnel 10-64

10.19.1   Application.. 10-64

10.19.2   Facilities and Procedures. 10-64

10.19.3   Appointed Persons Conducting Runway Visibility Assessments. 10-65

10.19.4   Procedures for Conducting a Runway Visibility Assessment 10-66

Chapter 11: Standards for Other Aerodrome Facilities.. 11-1

Section 11.1: General 11-1

11.1.1      Introduction.. 11-1

11.1.2      Traffic Control Towers. 11-1

11.1.3      Standards For Siting and Clearance Areas for Airways Facilities on Airports  11-1

11.1.4      General Siting Requirements. 11-2

11.1.4A   Siting of Equipment and Installations on Operational Areas. 11-3

11.1.5      Navigation Aid Facilities. 11-4

11.1.6      VOR Facilities. 11-5

11.1.7      DME Facilities. 11-5

11.1.8      Instrument Landing System.. 11-6

11.1.9      Protection of ILS Installations. 11-6

11.1.10   Critical and Sensitive Areas. 11-7

11.1.11   Obstructions around Marker Beacons. 11-8

11.1.12   Locator Beacons. 11-8

11.1.13   Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) 11-8

11.1.14   Radar Sensor Sites. 11-9

11.1.15   Communication Facilities. 11-10

11.1.16   Ground Earthing Points. 11-11

11.1.17   Testing of Ground Earthing Points. 11-12

11.1.18   Inspection of Ground Earthing Points. 11-12

11.1.19   Remedial Action.. 11-12

11.1.20   Compass Swinging Site. 11-12

11.1.21   Automatic Weather Information Stations. 11-13

11.1.22   Light Aircraft Tie-Down Facilities. 11-13

Chapter 12: Operating Standards for Registered Aerodromes.. 12-1

Section 12.1: General 12-1

12.1.1      Introduction.. 12-1

12.1.2      Aerodrome Reporting Officer 12-2

12.1.3      Aerodrome Serviceability Inspections. 12-2

12.1.4      Frequency of Serviceability Inspection.. 12-3

12.1.5      Record of Inspections and Remedial Actions. 12-3

12.1.6      Reporting Changes. 12-3

12.1.7      Aerodrome Works. 12-3

12.1.8      Safety Inspection Report 12-4

12.1.9      Reporting of Obstacles. 12-4

Section 12.2: Sample Aerodrome Report Form... 12-5

Chapter 13: Standards for Aerodromes Intended for Small Aeroplanes Conducting Air Transport Operations Under CASR 121b.. 13-1

Section 13.1: General 13-1

13.1.1      Commencement and Introduction.. 13-1

13.1.2      Aerodrome Standards. 13-1

13.1.3      Aerodrome Markings. 13-4

13.1.4      Aerodrome Lighting. 13-6

13.1.5      Wind Direction Indicators. 13-7

13.1.6      Ground Signal and Signal Area. 13-7

13.1.7      Runway and Runway Strip Conditions. 13-8

13.1.8      Aerodrome Serviceability Reporting. 13-9

Chapter 14: Radio Communication Facilities Provided by an Aerodrome Operator   14-1

Section 14.1: General 14-1

14.1.1      Introduction.. 14-1

14.1.2      Definitions and Abbreviations. 14-1

Section 14.2: Certified Air/Ground Radio Services. 14-2

14.2.1      Application to be a CA/GRO.. 14-2

14.2.2      Qualifications. 14-2

14.2.3      CA/GRS Operating Standards and Procedures. 14-2

14.2.4      Broadcasting of Aerodrome Information on AAIS.. 14-4

Section 14.3: Frequency Confirmation System... 14-5

14.3.1      Requirement for Frequency Confirmation System.. 14-5

14.3.2      Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit (AFRU) 14-5

14.3.3      Use of the AFRU.. 14-5

14.3.4      Operating Performance Requirements of AFRU.. 14-6

14.3.5      AFRU Technical Specification.. 14-6

14.3.6      AFRU with PAL Features. 14-8

14.3.7      Technical Specifications for Optional Pilot-Activated Lighting Control 14-8

14.3.8      AFRU+PAL Commissioning Flight Test 14-9

Section 14.4: Unicom Services. 14-11

14.4.1      General 14-11

REVISION HISTORY........................................................................................................... rh-1

NOTES TO MANUAL OF STANDARDS PART 139............................................. NOTES-1

 


 

Chapter 1: Introduction

Section 1.1: General

1.1.1             Commencement and Background

1.1.1.1          Aerodrome safety is a vital link in aviation safety. Aerodrome safety is achieved by providing aerodrome facilities and maintaining aerodrome environments that are safe for aircraft operations. By complying with the prescribed standards and procedures and taking a pro-active safety management approach in the operation of their aerodromes, aerodrome operators can demonstrate that they have discharged their safety obligations to the travelling public.

1.1.1.2          This document, titled: ‘Manual of Standards (MOS) - Part 139 Aerodromes’, hereafter referred to as the MOS, is made in pursuant to Civil Aviation Safety Regulations CASR Part 139. CASR Part 139 sets out the regulatory regime of aerodromes used by aeroplanes conducting air transport operations under CASR Part 121A and Part 121B. The regulatory regime provides aerodromes to be certified or registered. This MOS sets out the standards and operating procedures for certified, registered aerodromes and other aerodromes used in air transport operations.

1.1.1.2A    The Standards for aerodromes used in air transport operations, as set out in this MOS (except Chapter 13), come into effect when CASR Part 121A comes into effect. However, to avoid doubt, until CASR Part 121A comes into effect, the Standards set out in this MOS (except Chapter 13) continue to be the Standards in effect for aerodromes with respect to regular public transport operations by aeroplanes with a maximum take-off weight in excess of 5700kg. The operators of aerodromes for charter aeroplanes with a maximum take-off weight in excess of 5700kg are expected to plan for, and be ready to implement, the Standards in this MOS (except Chapter 13) when CASR Part 121A comes into effect.

1.1.1.2B    The Standards for aerodromes used in air transport operations, as set out in Chapter 13 of this MOS, come into effect when CASR Part 121B comes into effect. However, to avoid doubt, until CASR Part 121B comes into effect, the Standards set out in section 82.3 of the Civil Aviation Orders continue to be the minimum Standards in effect for aerodromes with respect to regular public transport operations by aeroplanes with a maximum take-off weight not exceeding 5700kg. Aerodrome operators to whom CASR Part 121B will apply are expected to plan for, and be ready to implement, the Standards in Chapter 13 when CASR Part 121B comes into effect.

 

Note:    At this time CASR 121A and CASR 121B have not been made. In the interim, for the purpose of this MOS, air transport operations means either regular public transport operations or charter operations.

1.1.1.3          Under CASR Part 121A, aeroplanes with not more than 30 passenger seats can also conduct air transport operations from uncertified or unregistered aerodromes, provided certain specified facilities at those aerodromes are to the standard as that of a certified or registered aerodrome. Accordingly, some of the standards in this MOS are also relevant to uncertified and unregistered aerodromes.

1.1.1.4          To complement CASR Part 121B, a separate chapter has been provided to specify the standards and procedures for aerodromes intended only for aeroplanes with not more than 9 passenger seats or in the case of freight operations, not exceeding 5,700 kg, conducting air transport operations.

1.1.1.5          In addition to this MOS, specifications and procedures which do not reach the regulatory level and information of an educational or advisory nature, may be issued in the form of Advisory Circulars.

1.1.1.6          Aerodrome standards will change from time to time to meet identified safety needs, technological changes and changes in international standards and practices. It is recognised that there are difficulties and limitations in applying new standards to existing aerodrome facilities and installations. This aspect is addressed in some detail in Chapter 2.

1.1.1.7          Standards are identified by the words ‘must’ or ‘shall’. Appendices and tables form part of the main document and have the same status as the primary text. This MOS may also require standards from other documents to be followed. In this case, the referred standards become part of this MOS.

1.1.1.8          In some circumstances, the uniform application of a particular standard or procedure may not be possible or necessary. Such a standard or procedure will be phrased such as “if practicable”, “where physically practicable”, “where determined necessary” or similar words. Whilst such phrases may imply compliance is not mandatory, aerodrome operators need to provide justification for non compliance and the final authority as to the applicability of the standard to a particular aerodrome facility or procedure rests with the regulating authority.

1.1.1.9          This MOS includes standards and procedures relating to the prevention of inadvertent entry of animals and people to the movement area. Those standards and procedures are intended for aviation safety only. This MOS does not address Aviation Security, i.e. the safeguarding against acts of unlawful interference as that subject matter is under the purview of the federal Department with carriage for Transport.

1.1.1.10       Cross-referencing of standards within the MOS is not provided.  The Table of Contents provides a ready reference to all the standards.

1.1.1.11       Where there is flexibility in compliance with a specification, words like “should” or “may” are used.  This does not mean that the specification can be ignored, but it means that there is no need to seek CASA approval if an aerodrome operator chooses to adopt alternate means to achieve similar outcomes.

1.1.1.12       Where it is necessary to provide factual or background information, explanation or references, or to provide a means of achieving compliance, the information is provided in the form of a “Note”.  A Note does not constitute part of the standard.

1.1.2             Document Set

1.1.2.1          The document hierarchy consists of:

(a)      the Civil Aviation Act 1988 (the Act);
(b)      relevant Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASRs);
(c)       the Manual of Standards (MOS); and
(d)      Advisory Circulars (ACs).

1.1.2.2          The Act establishes the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) with functions relating to civil aviation, in particular the safety of civil aviation and for related purposes.

1.1.2.3          CASRs establish the regulatory framework (Regulations) within which all service providers must operate.

1.1.2.4          The MOS comprises specifications (Standards) prescribed by CASA, of uniform application, determined to be necessary for the safety of air navigation. In those parts of the MOS where it is necessary to establish the context of standards to assist in their comprehension, the sense of parent regulations has been reiterated.

1.1.2.5          Readers should understand that in the circumstance of any perceived disparity of meaning between MOS and CASRs, primacy of intent rests with the regulations.

1.1.2.6          Service providers must document internal actions (Rules) in their own operational manuals, to ensure the maintenance of and compliance with standards.

1.1.2.7          ACs are intended to provide recommendations and guidance to illustrate a means, but not necessarily the only means of complying with the Regulations.  ACs may explain certain regulatory requirements by providing interpretive and explanatory materials.  It is expected that service providers will document internal actions in their own operational manuals, to put into effect those, or similarly adequate, practices.

1.1.3             Differences Between ICAO Standards and those in MOS

1.1.3.1          Notwithstanding the above, where there is a difference between a standard prescribed in the ICAO standards and one in the MOS, the MOS standard shall prevail.

1.1.4             Differences published in AIP

1.1.4.1          Differences from ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures are published in AIP Gen 1.7.

1.1.5             MOS Documentation Change Management

1.1.5.1          Responsibility for the technical content in the MOS resides with the relevant technical area within the Aviation Safety Standards Division of CASA.

1.1.5.2          This MOS is issued and amended under the authority of the Director of Aviation Safety and Chief Executive Officer.

1.1.5.3          Suggested changes to this MOS must be directed to the Head, Standards Administration and Support Branch, Aviation Safety Standards Division.

1.1.5.4          Requests for any change to the content of the MOS may be intimated from:

(a)      technical areas within CASA;
(b)      aviation industry service providers or operators;
(c)       individuals and authorisation holders.

1.1.5.5          The need to change standards in the MOS may be generated by a number of causes.  These may be to:

(a)      ensure safety;
(b)      ensure standardisation;
(c)       respond to changed CASA standards;
(d)      respond to ICAO prescription;
(e)      accommodate new initiatives or technologies.

1.1.6             Related Documents

1.1.6.1          These standards should be read in conjunction with:

(a)      ICAO Annex 4: Aeronautical Charts
(b)      ICAO Annex 14: Aerodromes (Vol 1)
(c)       ICAO Doc 9157/AN901: Aerodrome Design Manuals (all parts)
(d)      Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular 150/5300-13

 

Section 1.2: Definitions

 

Definition

Meaning

Aerodrome

A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

Aerodrome beacon

Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.

Aerodrome elevation

The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

Aerodrome reference point

The designated geographical location of an aerodrome.

Aerodrome reference temperature

The monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature for the hottest month of the year (the hottest month being that which has the highest monthly mean temperature.)

Aerodrome traffic density

See Paragraph 9.1.1.2(b).

Aerodrome works

Construction or maintenance works carried out at an aerodrome, on or adjacent to the movement area, that may create obstacles or restrict the normal take-off and landing of aircraft.

Aeronautical beacon

An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth.

Aeronautical ground light

Any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft.

Aeronautical study

An investigation of a problem concerned with some phase of flight, and aimed at identifying possible solutions and selecting the one most acceptable from the point of view of flight safety.

Aeroplane reference field length

The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air and zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. Field length means balanced field length for aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases.

Aircraft classification number (ACN)

A number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a specified standard subgrade category.

Aircraft parking position

A designated area on an apron intended to be used for parking an aircraft.  Also known as an aircraft stand.

Air side

The movement area of an aerodrome, adjacent terrain and buildings or portions thereof, access of which is controlled.

Apron

A defined area on a land aerodrome intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking, or maintenance.

Apron management service

A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on the apron.

Balanced field length

A field length where the distance to accelerate and stop is equal to the take-off distance of an aeroplane experiencing an engine failure at the critical engine failure recognition speed (V1).

Barrette

Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a transverse line so that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light.

Capacity discharge light

A lamp in which high-intensity flashes of extremely short duration are produced by the discharge of electricity at high voltage through a gas enclosed in a tube.

Clearway

A defined area at the end of the take-off run available on the ground or water under the control of the aerodrome operator, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.

Critical aeroplane

The aeroplane or aeroplanes identified from among the aeroplanes the aerodrome is intended to serve as having the most demanding operational requirements with respect to the determination of movement area dimensions, pavement bearing strength and other physical characteristics in the design of aerodromes.

Critical obstacle

The obstacle within the take-off climb area and/or the approach area, which subtends the greatest vertical angle when measured from the inner edge of the take-off climb surface and/or the approach surface.

Cross-wind component

The surface wind component at right angles to the runway centre line.

Declared distances

1.  Take-off run available (TORA). The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off.

2.  Take-off distances available (TODA).The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided.

3.  Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA).The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the stopway, if provided.

4.  Landing distance available (LDA).The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.

Dependent parallel approaches

Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are prescribed.

Displaced threshold

A threshold not located at the extremity of a runway.

Effective intensity

The effective intensity of a flashing light is equal to the intensity of a fixed light of the same colour, which will produce the same visual range under identical conditions of observation.

Elevation

The vertical distance of a point or a level, on or affixed to the surface of the earth, measured from the mean sea level.

Fixed light

A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point.

Frangible object

An object of low mass designed to break, distort or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft.

Hazard beacon

An aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation.

Holding bay

A defined area where aircraft can be held, or bypassed, to facilitate efficient surface movement of aircraft.

Independent parallel approaches

Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are not prescribed.

Independent parallel departures

Simultaneous departures from parallel or near-parallel instrument runways.

Instrument approach procedures

The procedures to be followed by aircraft in letting down from cruising level and landing at an aerodrome. (A series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments for the orderly transfer of an aircraft from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing, or to a point from which a landing may be made.)

Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC)

Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minimum specified for visual meteorological conditions.

Instrument runway

One of the following types of runway intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures:

(a)    Non-precision approach runway. An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach.

(b)    Precision approach runway, Category (CAT) I. An instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height (DH) not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m, or an RVR not less than 550 m.

(c)     Precision approach runway, CAT II. An instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and an RVR not less than 300 m.

(d)    Precision approach runway, CAT III. An instrument runway served by ILS to and along the surface of the runway and:

(i)      for CAT IIIA — intended for operations with a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft), or no decision height, and an RVR not less than 175 m;

(ii)     for CAT IIIB — intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft), or no decision height, and an RVR less than 175 m but not less than 50 m;

(iii)    for CAT IIIC — intended for operations with no decision height and no RVR limitations.

 

Intermediate holding position

A designated holding position intended for traffic control at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold until further clearance to proceed, when so instructed by the aerodrome control tower.

Joint user aerodromes

An aerodrome under the control of a part of the Defence Force in respect of which an arrangement under Section 20 of the Act is in force.

Landing area

That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft.

Light failure

A light shall be deemed to be unserviceable when the main beam average intensity is less than 50% of the value specified in the appropriate figure showing the isocandella diagram.  For light units where the designed main beam average intensity is above the value shown in the isocandella diagram, the 50% value shall be related to that design value.  (When assessing the main beam, specified angles of beam elevation, toe-in and beam spread shall be taken into consideration).

Lighting system reliability

The probability that the complete installation operates within the specified tolerances and that the system is operationally usable.

Low visibility procedures

Procedures applied at an aerodrome for protecting aircraft operations during conditions of reduced visibility or low cloud.

Manoeuvring area

That part of the aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.

Marker

An object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary.

Marking

A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area in order to convey aeronautical information.

Mass

The terms mass and weight used in this MOS have the same meaning.

MAUM

Maximum all up mass.

MTOW

Maximum take-off weight.

Movement

Either a take-off or a landing by an aircraft.

Movement area

That part of the aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s).

Near parallel runways

Non-intersecting runways whose extended centre lines have an angle of convergence/divergence of 15 degrees or less.

Non-instrument runway

A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures.

Non-precision approach runway

See Instrument runway.

Notices to airmen (NOTAMs)

A notice issued by the NOTAM office containing information or instruction concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to persons concerned with flight operations.

Obstacles

All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects, or parts thereof, that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight.

Obstacle free zone (OFZ)

The airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, balked landing surfaces, and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangibly mounted one required for air navigation purposes.

Obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS)

A series of planes associated with each runway at an aerodrome that defines the desirable limits to which objects may project into the airspace around the aerodrome so that aircraft operations at the aerodrome may be conducted safely.

Pavement classification number (PCN)

A number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operations by aircraft with ACN value less than or equal to the PCN.

Precision approach runway

See Instrument runway.

Primary runway(s)

Runway(s) used in preference to others whenever conditions permit.

Radio aids

Also known as non-visual aids.  These aids may consist of NDB, VOR, VOR/DME or GPS.

Runway

A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

Runway end safety area (RESA)

An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway.

Runway holding position

A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower.

Runway guard light

A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an active runway.

Runway strip

A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended:

1.  to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway; and

2.  to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations.

Runway visibility (RV)

The distance along a runway over which a person can see and recognise a visibility marker or runway lights.

Runway visual range (RVR)

The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of a runway can see the runway surface markings, or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline.

Note:    Within Australia, the term runway visual range (RVR) is used exclusively in relation to RVR measured by an instrumented system.

 

Segregated parallel operations

Simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument runways in which one runway is used exclusively for approaches and the other runway is used exclusively for departures.

Shoulders

An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface.

Signal circle

An area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

Stopway

A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of the take-off run available prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off.

Switch-over time (light)

The time required for the actual intensity of a light measured in a given direction to fall from 50% and recover to 50% during a power supply changeover, when the light is being operated at intensities of 25% or above.

Take-off runway

A runway intended for take-off only.

Taxi-holding position

See definition of runway holding position and intermediate holding position.

Taxiway

A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome from another, including:

1.  Aircraft parking position taxilane. A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft parking positions only.

2.  Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron.

3.  Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy times.

Taxiway intersection

A junction of two or more taxiways.

Taxiway strip

An area including a taxiway intended to protect an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the taxiway.

Threshold

The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

Time limited works

Aerodrome works that may be carried out if normal aircraft operations are not disrupted and the movement area can be restored to normal safety standards in not more than 30 minutes.

Touchdown zone

The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended landing aeroplanes first contact the runway.

Usability factor

The percentage of time during which the use of a runway or system of runways is not restricted because of cross-wind component.

Visibility (V)

Visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater of:

a.  the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognised when observed against a bright background;

b.  the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1 000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background.

Notes:

1.  The 2 distances have different values in air of a given extinction coefficient, and the distance mentioned in paragraph (b) varies with the background illumination.  The distance mentioned in paragraph (a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR).

2.  For international recognition and consistency, the definition of Visibility is taken from Chapter 1, Part 1, Annex 3, Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, in the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

Visibility marker

A dark object of suitable dimensions for use as a reference in evaluating runway visibility.

Visual aids

May consist of T-VASIS, PAPI, runway markings and runway lights.

Visual meteorological conditions (VMC)

Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal or better than specified minima.

Weight

The terms weight and mass used in this MOS have the same meaning.

 


Chapter 2: Application of Standards to Aerodromes

Section 2.1: General

2.1.1             Legislative Background and Applicability

2.1.1.1          Civil Aviation Safety Regulations CASR Part 121A and Part 121B require aeroplanes conducting air transport operations to operate from aerodromes meeting the requirements of CASR Part 139.

2.1.1.2          CASR Part 139 empowers the Authority to specify standards and procedures relating to aerodromes used in air transport operations. The standards and procedures are set out in this document titled ‘Manual of Standards Part 139—Aerodromes’ are applicable equally to operators of land aerodromes which are either certified or registered. Operating procedures for certified and registered aerodromes differ and are set out in separate Chapters.

2.1.1.3          Under CASR Part 121A and Part 121B, operators of aeroplanes with not more than 30 passenger seats may also conduct air transport operations to aerodromes that are not certified or registered, provided specified aerodrome facilities and reporting arrangements meet appropriate standards. As aerodrome safety standards and procedures are specified in this MOS, the appropriate sections will accordingly also be applicable to those uncertified or unregistered aerodromes used in air transport operations.

2.1.2             Standard Changes and Existing Aerodrome Facilities

2.1.2.1          Standards are subject to change from time to time. In general, unless specifically directed by CASA, subject to Paragraph 2.1.2.3, existing aerodrome facilities do not need to be immediately modified in accordance with the new standards until the facility is replaced or upgraded to accommodate a more demanding aircraft.

2.1.2.2          Unless otherwise directed by CASA, an existing facility that does not meet the standard specified in this Manual must continue to comply with the standard that was applicable to it.

2.1.2.3          At a certified aerodrome, an existing aerodrome facility that does not comply with this MOS must be identified and recorded in the Aerodrome Manual.  Information must include the date or period when that facility was first introduced or last upgraded and an indication from the aerodrome operator of a plan or timescale to bring the facility into compliance with the MOS.  As part of the CASA audit, evidence to demonstrate efforts to implement the plan or timescale may be required.

2.1.2.4          This MOS applies to a new facility that is brought into operation, and to an existing facility that is being replaced or improved. Subject to agreement by the relevant CASA office, changes to an existing facility of a minor or partial nature may be exempted.

2.1.3             Exemptions to Standards

2.1.3.1          An exemption granted to an existing facility continues to apply until its expiry date.

2.1.3.2          Application for new exemptions must be supported, in writing, by cogent reasons including, where appropriate, an indication of when compliance with the current standards can be expected.

2.1.3.3          Those standards which include phrases such as “if practicable”, “where physically practicable”, etc., still require an exemption to standards when aerodrome operators wish to take advantage of the non-practicability of full compliance.

2.1.3.4          Exemptions to standards, granted to an aerodrome, must be recorded in the Aerodrome Manual.  The Manual must contain details of the exemption, reason for the granting, any resultant limitations imposed, and similar relevant information.

2.1.4             Conflict with Other Standards

2.1.4.1          Compliance with the standards and procedures specified in this MOS does not absolve aerodrome operators from obligations in respect of standards prescribed by other government or statutory authorities. Where another statutory standard conflicts with this MOS, the matter must be referred to CASA for resolution.

2.1.5             Using ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code to Specify Standards

2.1.5.1          Australia has adopted the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) methodology of using a code system, known as the Aerodrome Reference Code, to specify the standards for individual aerodrome facilities which are suitable for use by aeroplanes within a range of performances and sizes. The Code is composed of two elements: element 1 is a number related to the aeroplane reference field length; and element 2 is a letter related to the aeroplane wingspan and outer main gear wheel span. A particular specification is related to the more appropriate of the two elements of the Code or to an appropriate combination of the two Code elements. The Code letter or number within an element selected for design purposes is related to the critical aeroplane characteristics for which the facility is provided. There could be more than one critical aeroplane, as the critical aeroplane for a particular facility, such as a runway, may not be the critical aeroplane for another facility, such as the taxiway.

2.1.5.2          The Code number for element 1 shall be determined from column 1 of the table below. The Code number corresponding to the highest value of the aeroplane reference field lengths for which the runway is intended is to be selected.

 

Note:  The determination of the aeroplane reference field length is solely for the selection of a Code number and must not be confused with runway length requirements, which are influenced by other factors.

2.1.5.3          The Code letter for element 2 shall be determined from column 3 of the table below. The Code letter, which corresponds to the greatest wingspan, or the greatest outer main gear wheel span, whichever gives the more demanding Code letter of the aeroplanes for which the facility is intended is to be selected.

2.1.5.4          Information of the Aerodrome Reference Code number for each runway at the aerodrome shall be provided for publication in Runway Distances Supplement section of the En-route Supplement Australia. For certified aerodromes, information of the Aerodrome Reference Code letter for each runway and taxiway shall be set out in the Aerodrome Manual.

2.1.5.5          Unless otherwise agreed by CASA, aerodrome operators must maintain the runways and taxiways in accordance with the applicable standards set out in this MOS for the notified aerodrome reference code for that runway or taxiway.

 

Table 2.1‑1: Aerodrome Reference Code

Aerodrome Reference Code

Code element 1

Code element 2

Code number

Aeroplane reference field length

Code letter

Wing span

Outer main gear wheel span

1

Less than 800 m

A

Up to but not including 15 m

Up to but not including 4.5 m

2

800 m up to but not including 1200 m

B

15 m up to but not including 24 m

4.5 m up to but not including 6 m

3

1200 m up to but not including 1800 m

C

24 m up to but not including 36 m

6 m up to but not including 9 m

4

1800 m and over

D

36 m up to but not including 52 m

9 m up to but not including 14 m

 

 

E

52 m up to but not including 65 m

9 m up to but not including 14 m

 

 

F

65 m up to but not including 80 m

14 m up to but not including 16 m

 

2.1.6             Aerodrome Reference Codes and Aeroplane Characteristics

2.1.6.1          A list of representative aeroplanes operating in Australia and others, chosen to provide an example of each possible aerodrome reference code number and letter combination, is shown in Table 2.1‑2.

2.1.6.2          For a particular aeroplane the table also provides data on the aeroplane reference field length (ARFL), wingspan and outer main gear wheel span used in determining the aerodrome reference code.  The aeroplane data provided for planning purposes is indicative only.  Exact values of a particular aeroplane’s performance characteristics should be obtained from information published by the aeroplane manufacturer.

Table 2.1‑2: Aerodrome reference codes and aeroplane characteristics

AEROPLANE
TYPE

REF
CODE

AEROPLANE CHARACTERISTICS

 

 

ARFL

(m)

Wing-span
(m)

OMGWS

(m)

Length

(m)

MTOW

(kg)

TP

(kPa)

DHC2 Beaver

1A

381

14.6

3.3

10.3

2490

240

Beechcraft:

    58 (Baron)

    100

 

1A

1A

 

401

628

 

11.5

14.0

 

3.1

4.0

 

9.1

12.2

 

2449

5352

 

392

-

Britten Norman Islander

1A

353

14.9

4.0

10.9

2850

228

Cessna:

    172

    206

    310

    404

 

1A

1A

1A

1A

 

272

274

518

721

 

10.9

10.9

11.3

14.1

 

2.7

2.6

3.7

4.3

 

8.2

8.6

9.7

12.1

 

1066

1639

2359

3810

 

-

-

414

490

Partenavia P68

1A

230

12.0

2.6

9.4

1960

-

Piper:

    PA 31 (Navajo)

    PA 34

 

1A

1A

 

639

378

 

12.4

11.8

 

4.3

3.4

 

9.9

8.7

 

2950

1814

 

414

-

Beechcraft 200

1B

592

16.6

5.6

13.3

5670

735

Cessna:

    208A (Caravan)

    402C

    441

 

1B

1B

1B

 

296

669

544

 

15.9

13.45

15.1

 

3.7

5.6

4.6

 

11.5

11.1

11.9

 

3310

3107

4468

 

-

490

665

DHC 6 Twin Otter

1B

695

19.8

4.1

15.8

5670

220

Dornier 228-200

1B

525

17.0

3.6

16.6

5700

-

DHC-7

1C

689

28.4

7.8

24.6

19505

620

DHC-5E

1D

290

29.3

10.2

24.1

22316

-

Lear Jet 28/29

2A

912

13.4

2.5

14.5

6804

793

Beechcraft 1900

2B

1098

16.6

5.8

17.6

7530

-

CASA C-212

2B

866

20.3

3.5

16.2

7700

392

Embraer EMB110

2B

1199

15.3

4.9

15.1

5670

586

Metro II

2B

800

14.1

5.4

18.1

5670

740

Metro III

2B

991

17.37

5.4

18.1

6577

740

ATR 42-200

2C

1010

24.6

4.9

22.7

16150

728

Cessna 550

2C

912

15.8

6.0

14.4

6033

700

DHC-8:

    100

    300

 

2C

2C

 

948

1122

 

25.9

27.4

 

8.5

8.5

 

22.3

25.7

 

15650

18642

 

805

805

Lear Jet 55

3A

1292

13.4

2.5

16.8

9298

-

IAI Westwind 2

3A

1495

13.7

3.7

15.9

10660

1000

BAe 125-400

3B

1713

15.7

3.3

15.5

12480

1007

Canadair:

    CL600

    CRJ-200

 

3B

3B

 

1737

1527

 

18.9

21.21

 

4.0

4.0

 

20.9

26.77

 

18642

21523

 

1140

1117

Cessna 650

3B

1581

16.3

3.6

16.9

9979

1036

Dassault-Breguet:

    Falcon 900

3B

1515

19.3

5.3

20.2

20640

1300

Embraer EMB 145

3B

1500

20

4.8

29.9

19200

-

Fokker F28-2000

3B

1646

23.6

5.8

29.6

29480

689

Metro 23

3B

1341

17.4

5.4

18.1

7484

742

Shorts SD3-60

3B

1320

22.8

4.6

21.6

11793

758

Bae:

    Jetstream 31

    Jetstream 41

    146-200

    146-300

 

3C

3C

3C

3C

 

1440

1500

1615

1615

 

15.9

18.3

26.3

26.3

 

6.2

-

5.5

5.5

 

14.4

19.3

26.2

31.0

 

6950

10433

42185

44225

 

448

-

1138

945

Bombadier Global Express

3C

1774

28.7

4.9

30.3

42410

-

Embraer:

    EMB 120

    EMB 170

 

3C

3C

 

1420

1600

 

19.8

26.0

 

7.3

5.8

 

20.0

29.90

 

11500

37200

 

828

940

Fokker:

    F27-500

    F28-4000

    F50

    F100

 

3C

3C

3C

3C

 

1670

1640

1760

1695

 

29.0

25.1

29.0

28.1

 

7.9

5.8

8.0

5.0

 

25.1

29.6

25.2

35.5

 

20412

32205

20820

44450

 

540

779

552

920

SAAB SF-340

3C

1220

21.4

7.5

19.7

12371

655

Airbus A300 B2

3D

1676

44.8

10.9

53.6

142000

1241

Bombardier Dash 8 –     Q400

 

3D

 

1354

 

28.4

 

9.6

 

32.8

 

29000

 

1020

Airbus A320-200

4C

2058

33.9

8.7

37.6

72000

1360

Boeing:

    B717-200

    B737-200

    B737-300

    B737-400

    B737-800

Embraer EMB 190

 

4C

4C

4C

4C

4C

4C

 

2130

2295

2749

2499

2256

2110

 

28.4

28.4

28.9

28.9

35.8

28.72

 

6.0

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.6

 

37.8

30.6

30.5

36.5

39.5

36.24

 

51710

52390

61230

63083

70535

51800

 

-

1145

1344

1400

-

1080

McDonnell Douglas:

    DC9-30

    DC9-80/MD80

 

4C

4C

 

2134

2553

 

28.5

32.9

 

6.0

6.2

 

37.8

45.1

 

48988

72575

 

-

1390

Airbus:

    A300-600

    A310-200

 

4D

4D

 

2332

1845

 

44.8

43.9

 

10.9

10.9

 

54.1

46.7

 

165000

132000

 

1260

1080

Boeing:

    B707-300

    B757-200

    B767-200ER

    B767-300ER

 

4D

4D

4D

4D

 

3088

2057

2499

2743

 

44.4

38.0

47.6

47.6

 

7.9

8.7

10.8

10.8

 

46.6

47.3

48.5

54.9

 

151315

108860

156500

172365

 

1240

1172

1310

1310

McDonnell Douglas:

    DC8-63

    DC10-30

 

4D

4D

 

3179

3170

 

45.2

50.4

 

7.6

12.6

 

57.1

55.4

 

158757

251744

 

1365

1276

Lockheed:

    L1011-100/200

 

4D

 

2469

 

47.3

 

12.8

 

54.2

 

211378

 

1207

McDonnell Douglas     MD11

 

4D

 

2207

 

51.7

 

12.0

 

61.2

 

273289

 

1400

Airbus:

    A330-200

    A330-300

    A340-300

    A340-500

    A340-600

 

4E

4E

4E

4E

4E

 

2713

2560

2200

3275

3185

 

60.3

60.3

60.3

63.70

63.70

 

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

12.0

 

59.0

63.6

63.7

67.80

75.30

 

230000

230000

253500

368000

365000

 

1400

1400

1400

1400

1400

Boeing:

    B747-SP

    B747-300

    B747-400

    B777-200

    B777-300

 

4E

4E

4E

4E

4E

 

2710

3292

3383

2500

3140

 

59.6

59.6

64.9

60.9

60.93

 

12.4

12.4

12.4

12.8

12.6

 

56.3

70.4

70.4

63.73

73.86

 

318420

377800

394625

287800

299370

 

1413

1323

1410

1400

1400

Airbus A380-800

4F

3350

79.8

14.3

72.7

560000

1400

 

2.1.7             Providing for Future Larger Aeroplanes

2.1.7.1          Nothing in this MOS is intended to inhibit the planning or provision of aerodrome facilities for larger aeroplanes that may be accommodated by the aerodrome at a later date. However, where movement area facilities are built for future larger aeroplanes, the aerodrome operator must liaise with the relevant CASA office to determine interim notification of Reference Code and maintenance arrangements.

2.1.7.2          It is the prerogative of aerodrome operators to select the appropriate aeroplane and aeroplane characteristics for master planning of their aerodromes. This MOS has included ICAO Code F specifications for aerodrome facilities intended for aeroplanes larger than B 747 wide body jets.

2.1.8             Non-instrument and Instrument Runways

2.1.8.1          Runways are classified as non-instrument (also known as visual or circling approach) and instrument runways. Instrument runways are further categorised as: non-precision, precision Category I, Category II, and Category IIIA, IIIB and IIIC.

2.1.8.2          Aerodrome operators must liaise with the relevant CASA office before initiating any changes to the runway classification or instrument category as such a change will involve changes to the standards of a number of aerodrome facilities.

2.1.8.3          This MOS contains specifications for precision approach runways category II and III, for aerodrome facilities intended for aeroplanes with Reference Code numbers 3 and 4 only. No specification is prescribed for code 1 or 2 precision approach runways, as it is unlikely that such facilities will be required in Australian weather conditions.  Aerodrome operators are asked to liaise with the relevant CASA office should there be a need to provide aerodrome facilities for Reference Code 1 or 2 aeroplanes.

2.1.9             Non-precision Approach Runways

2.1.9.1          A non-precision approach runway is defined in Chapter 1. Non-precision approach procedures are currently designed by CASA delegates (Airservices Australia and IAC GPS P/L) and are published by Airservices Australia in the AIP section titled ‘Departure and Approach Procedures’, commonly known as DAP charts.

2.1.9.2          To make recognition easier, new straight-in or runway aligned procedures will be further identified by the runway number in the title of the approach chart (e.g. RWY 18 GPS or RWY 08 VOR/DME).  Non-runway aligned approach procedures will not have the runway number in the title (e.g. GPS-S, GPS-N or NDB).

 

Note:  There is a program to bring all existing charts to this convention.  This will be introduced to existing charts as the opportunity arises.

2.1.9.3          The result of accident enquiries have demonstrated that straight-in approaches are much safer than circling approaches, especially at night. With the advent of GPS, NPA runways can now be provided without any ground based navigation aid.  Aerodrome operators of non-instrument runways are strongly urged to liaise with aerodrome users and upgrade their runways to NPA runways wherever it is practicable to do so.  However, the benefit of having an NPA runway can only be realised if the runway meets the applicable NPA standards. These include:

(a)      increased runway strip width (can be compensated by increase in MDA);
(b)      increased inner horizontal, conical and approach obstacle limitation surfaces to be surveyed for obstacles;
(c)       spacing of runway edge lights; and
(d)      the availability of the wind direction indicator, near the threshold, if possible, or an alternate method for obtaining wind information such as an automatic weather information service.

See the relevant Chapters for the applicable standards.  It should be noted that some of the ICAO standards have been relaxed for Australian GPS NPA operations.

2.1.9.4          Before an NPA procedure is published the procedure designer has to arrange for the design to be flight validated. Besides checking the operational aspect of the design, the flight validation also checks the adequacy of the runway, visibility of the wind direction indicator and clearances from all existing obstacles. An NPA procedure is only approved for publication when all requirements are met. Otherwise direction on the use of the procedure may be annotated on the chart, including in the worst case a direction that straight-in landing is not permitted.

2.1.9A     Aerodrome with Terminal Instrument Flight Procedures

2.1.9A.1    Where an aerodrome with a terminal instrument flight procedure (TIFP) ceases (for whatever reason) to be:

(a)      a certified aerodrome (and does not immediately become registered); or
(b)      a registered aerodrome (and does not immediately become certified);

CASA will take every reasonable step necessary to notify the certified or authorised designer of the TIFP of the cessation.

 

Note:    This procedure is to complement the obligations on the certified or authorised designer of a TIFP under Chapter 6 of the Manual of Standards (MOS) Part 173 — Standards Applicable to the Provision of Instrument Flight Procedure Design. However, a failure to comply with subsection 2.1.9A does not affect any obligation under Chapter 6 of MOS Part 173


Chapter 3: Applying for an Aerodrome Certificate

Section 3.1: General

3.1.1             Introduction

3.1.1.1          Pursuant to CASR Part 139, aerodromes intended to accommodate aeroplanes with more than 30 passenger seats conducting air transport operations must be certified. Operators of other aerodromes may also apply for an aerodrome certificate.

3.1.1.2          The applicant shall be the owner of the aerodrome site, or have obtained permission from the owner to use the site as an aerodrome.

3.1.1.3          CASA’s aerodrome certification process only addresses the aviation safety aspect of the aerodrome. It is the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that use of the site as an aerodrome is in compliance with other federal, state and local statutory requirements. The aerodrome certificate does not absolve the applicant from observing such requirements.

3.1.1.4          Before submitting an application, the applicant must prepare an Aerodrome Manual, in accordance with the requirements set out in CASR Part 139. The standards to meet the requirements are set out in various chapters in this Manual of Standards (MOS). The initial application must be made on CASA Form 1186 (specimen at Section 3.2). The completed form shall be returned to the nearest CASA office, together with a copy of the Aerodrome Manual.

3.1.2             Aerodrome Certificate Processing Fee

3.1.2.1          Upon receipt of the application, the relevant CASA Aerodrome Inspector will assess the likely effort involved in processing the application and provide the applicant with a quotation for the aerodrome certification processing fee.

3.1.2.2          The certificate application will only be processed upon payment of the certification processing fee.

3.1.3             Processing an Aerodrome Certificate Application

3.1.3.1          Applications shall be submitted in sufficient time to allow for detailed consideration and inspection of the aerodrome before the desired date of issue of the certificate.

3.1.3.2          Engineering and survey reports of the physical characteristics of the movement area, pavement strength and surface, obstacle limitation surfaces, etc., shall be provided by the applicant as required by CASA.

3.1.3.3          As part of the certification process, CASA Aerodrome Inspector may carry out inspection or testing of any aspect of the aerodrome or require substantiation of any information provided by the applicant. However, it should be clearly understood that the CASA sample checking process does not absolve the applicant from the responsibility to provide accurate information.

3.1.3.4          Special assessments may be necessary if there are aerodrome facilities that are not in full compliance with the applicable standards. This may involve more time and resources and may result in restrictions being imposed on aircraft operations.

3.1.4             Granting of an Aerodrome Certificate

3.1.4.1          Before an aerodrome certificate is granted, CASA needs to be satisfied that:

(a)      the aerodrome physical characteristics and facilities are in compliance with relevant standards or are adequate for aeroplane safety;
(b)      the aerodrome operating procedures proposed by the applicant and set out in the Aerodrome Manual are appropriate and adequate for the expected level of aircraft activities at the aerodrome;
(c)       there are sufficient experienced trained or qualified personnel to conduct the safety functions of the aerodrome;
(d)      the aerodrome operator is aware of the aerodrome safety functions and can be expected to properly operate the aerodrome.

3.1.4.2          Aerodrome certificates are granted on the condition that the aerodrome will, at all times, be in compliance with applicable regulations and standards. CASR Part 139 also empowers CASA to attach additional conditions to a licence to take account of particular circumstances of the aerodrome.

3.1.4.3          Once granted, except for a temporary certificate which has a finite term, an aerodrome certificate will remain in force until it is suspended or cancelled.

3.1.5             Maintenance and Control of Aerodrome Manual

3.1.5.1          CASA will retain one copy of the Aerodrome Manual. The aerodrome operator must keep his or her copy of the Aerodrome Manual at the aerodrome or at the operator’s principal place of business and make it available for CASA audit purposes.

3.1.5.2          Additional copies of the Aerodrome Manual may be made available so that aerodrome staff and other organisations at the aerodrome may have access to a copy of the Manual.

3.1.5.3          When additional copies or sections of the Manual are required, the aerodrome manual controller is responsible for updates and distribution to those persons.

3.1.6             Initiating NOTAM to Promulgate a Certified Aerodrome

3.1.6.1          The CASA Aerodrome Inspector responsible for the certification process will prepare and forward to the NOTAM Office a permanent NOTAM setting out all the aerodrome information which will be included in AIP ERSA and the Runway Distances Supplement, including the effective date when the aerodrome is certified.

3.1.7             Transitional Arrangements for Existing Aerodrome Licences

3.1.7.1          Under the CASR Part 139 transitional provisions, an existing aerodrome licence issued under CAR 89C will still be valid until it is replaced by a certificate issued under CASR Part 139 or for three years from the date of CASR Part 139, whichever is earlier.

3.1.7.2          Existing licence holders do not need to apply for the aerodrome certificate but they need to liaise with the relevant CASA office for the issue of a replacement aerodrome certificate. Relevant CASA Aerodrome Inspector will issue the replacement certificate when satisfied that the Aerodrome Manual has been brought into line with the CASR Part 139.

 

Note:    To facilitate orderly issue of replacement aerodrome certificates, aerodrome operators are advised to have their Aerodrome Manuals brought up to date as early as possible and not wait towards the end of the three-year period.


 

Section 3.2: Application for an Aerodrome Certificate

3.2.1             Sample Aerodrome Certificate Application

 

 


Chapter 4: Applying to Register an Aerodrome

Section 4.1: General

4.1.1             Introduction

4.1.1.1          Pursuant to CASR Part 139, operators of uncertified aerodromes may apply to have their aerodromes registered by CASA. A registered aerodrome will have aerodrome information published in ERSA, and changes to aerodrome information or conditions affecting aircraft operations can be notified through the NOTAM system.

 

Note:    CASA will only approve instrument runways used for air transport operations at an aerodrome that is either certified or registered.

4.1.1.2          The applicant for registration must be the owner of the aerodrome site, or have obtained permission from the owner to use the site as an aerodrome.

4.1.1.3          CASA’s aerodrome registration process only addresses the aviation safety aspect of the aerodrome. It is the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that use of the site as an aerodrome is in compliance with other federal, state and local authority requirements. The aerodrome registration does not absolve the applicant from observing such requirements.

4.1.2             Aerodrome Registration Application and Processing Fee

4.1.2.1          Application for registration must be made on CASA Form 1187 (specimen shown in 4.2.1), obtainable from the nearest CASA office. The completed form, together with aerodrome information for publication in ERSA and confirmation from an approved person as prescribed in CASR Part 139, that the aerodrome meets applicable safety standards, shall be returned to the nearest CASA office.

 

Note:    List of approved persons for registered aerodromes can be accessed through CASA web site or provided on request from the nearest CASA office.

4.1.2.2          Upon receipt of the application, the CASA Aerodrome Inspector will assess the likely effort involved in processing the registration application and provide the applicant with a quotation for the aerodrome registration processing fee.

4.1.2.3          The registration processing fee may include the CASA Aerodrome Inspector making an inspection of the aerodrome. The inspection is normally only required if the information supplied is, in the opinion of the Aerodrome Inspector, inadequate or requires further clarification.

4.1.2.4          The application will only be processed upon payment of the registration processing fee.

4.1.2.5          Applications shall be submitted in sufficient time to allow for detailed consideration and inspection of the aerodrome, before the desired registration date.

4.1.3             Approving a Registration Application

4.1.3.1          Registration is approved on the condition that:

(a)      the aerodrome meets appropriate standards;
(b)      the aerodrome operator has the capacity to properly maintain the aerodrome; and
(c)       the reporting officer has been trained to the standards detailed in Chapter 10.

4.1.3.2          When the application is approved, the responsible CASA Aerodrome Inspector will prepare and forward to the NOTAM Office a permanent NOTAM setting out all the aerodrome information which will be included in ERSA and the Runway Distances Supplement. The CASA Aerodrome Inspector will also confirm, to the applicant, in writing, that the aerodrome is or will be registered, together with a copy of the NOTAM message.

4.1.4             Maintenance of Registration

4.1.4.1          Registered aerodromes will be included in the CASA aerodrome surveillance program. A scheduled visit by a CASA Aerodrome Inspector can be expected periodically. Appropriate notice of the scheduled visit will be given. Unscheduled visits may occur at any time, such as when prompted by reported safety concerns.

4.1.4.2          Registration will remain in force until it is suspended or cancelled.

4.1.4.3          Registration may be suspended if CASA is not satisfied with:

(a)      the accuracy of aerodrome information provided;
(b)      the on-going maintenance of the aerodrome; or
(c)       the ability of the reporting officer to conduct on-going aerodrome serviceability inspection and reporting functions.

 

Notes: 1.       Keeping records of aerodrome serviceability inspections, aerodrome works and NOTAMS issued will assist in demonstrating that the aerodrome has been operated properly.

              2.       Standards for ongoing operations and maintenance of a registered aerodrome are specified in Chapter 12.

4.1.4.4          Registration may be cancelled:

(a)      on request of the aerodrome operator; or
(b)      by CASA after the aerodrome registration was suspended and the identified safety concerns are not corrected to the satisfaction of CASA, within an acceptable period.

4.1.5             Aerodrome Safety Inspection Report

4.1.5.1          Operators of registered aerodromes are required to submit to CASA an Aerodrome Safety Inspection Report prepared by an approved person as specified in the regulations. This must be done either annually, or at a longer interval as agreed by the relevant CASA Aerodrome Inspector.

 


 

Section 4.2: Application to Register an Aerodrome

4.2.1             Application to Register an Aerodrome

 

 




Chapter 5: Aerodrome Information for AIP

Section 5.1: General

5.1.1             Introduction

5.1.1.1          CASR Part 139 requires the applicant of an aerodrome certificate to provide information relating to the aerodrome for publication in Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This information must be included in the applicant’s proposed Aerodrome Manual. Aerodrome information may be published in AIP - Enroute Supplement Australia (ERSA), AIP - Runway Distances Supplement (RDS) and AIP - Departure and Approach Procedures charts (DAP).

5.1.1.2          This Chapter sets out the aerodrome information which needs to be provided and the standards to which such aerodrome information must be gathered and presented.

5.1.1.3          The standards in this Chapter on gathering and presentation of aerodrome information are also applicable to aerodrome information provided to CASA for aerodrome registration.

5.1.1.4          The importance of providing accurate aerodrome information for the safety of aircraft operations cannot be overemphasised. Accordingly, care and diligence must be exercised in obtaining the aerodrome information to be published. This will involve the use of appropriately qualified persons to measure, determine or calculate aerodrome operational information.

5.1.1.5          After the information is published, maintaining its accuracy is also of fundamental importance. Standards for maintaining accuracy of published aerodrome information in AIP, including NOTAMS, are set out in Chapter 10.

5.1.2             Aerodrome Information to be Provided for a Certified Aerodrome

5.1.2.1          Aerodrome diagram. An aerodrome diagram must be provided to illustrate:

(a)      layout of runways, taxiways and apron(s);
(b)      nature of the runway surfaces;
(c)       designations and length of runways;
(d)      designations of the taxiways, where applicable;
(e)      location of illuminated and non-illuminated wind direction indicators;
(f)        location of the aerodrome reference point;
(g)      the direction and distance to the nearest town;
(h)      location of terminal buildings; and
(i)        location of helipads.

5.1.2.2          Aerodrome administration. This must include:

(a)      name, address, telephone and facsimile numbers of the aerodrome operator; including after hours contacts;
(b)      aerodrome usage, public or private;
(c)       aerodrome charges, where notification is desired.

5.1.2.3          Aerodrome location. This information must include;

(a)      name of aerodrome;
(b)      State or Territory of Australia;
(c)       World Aeronautical Chart number, if known;
(d)      latitude and longitude, based on the aerodrome reference point;
(e)      magnetic variation;
(f)        time conversion-universal time coordinated (UTC) plus local time difference;
(g)      AVFAX and ‘Y’ location code indicator, if known;
(h)      aerodrome elevation;
(i)        currency of Type A charts, if provided.

5.1.2.4          Movement area. Must include for each runway designation;

(a)      aerodrome reference code number;
(b)      runway bearings-in degrees magnetic;
(c)       runway length and surface type;
(d)      runway pavement strength rating;
(e)      runway and runway strip width;
(f)        runway slope;
(g)      runway declared distances, and STODA.
(h)      elevation of the mid point of runway threshold, for instrument runways.

5.1.2.5          Approach and Runway Lighting. For each runway, the following details of approach and runway lighting systems must be provided:

(a)      type, length and intensity of approach lighting system;
(b)      runway threshold lights, colour and wing bars;
(c)       type of visual approach slope indicator system;
(d)      length of runway touchdown zone lights;
(e)      length, spacing, colour and intensity of runway centreline lights;
(f)        length, spacing, colour and intensity of runway edge lights;
(g)      colour of runway end lights and wing bars;
(h)      length and colour of stopway lights.

5.1.2.5A    Other Lighting and Secondary Power Supply. The following details of aerodrome lighting and secondary power supply systems must be provided:

(a)      location, characteristics and hours of operation of aerodrome beacon (if any);
(b)      lighting systems for taxiways;
(c)       any other lighting systems;
(d)      secondary power supply including switch-over time.

5.1.2.6          Navigation aids. Details of any navigation aid, which is provided by Airservices Australia or the aerodrome operator.

5.1.2.7          Rescue and fire-fighting services. The category of aerodrome-based rescue and fire-fighting services provided by Airservices Australia or the aerodrome operator.

5.1.2.8          Ground services. This information must include:

(a)      fuel suppliers and their contact details, including after hours;
(b)      automatic weather information broadcast if provided by aerodrome operator;
(c)       ground to air communication systems such as Unicom, aerodrome frequency response unit (AFRU) or approved air ground operator service provided by the aerodrome operator, and
(d)      any other services available to pilots.

5.1.2.9          Special procedures. Include any special procedures unique to the aerodrome, which pilots need to be advised; in cases where the flying procedure is generated by the aerodrome operator.

5.1.2.10       Notices. Include important cautionary or administrative information relating to the use of the aerodrome.

5.1.2.11       Low Visibility Procedures. If low visibility procedures are established at a controlled aerodrome, the information to be provided must include the following:

(a)      the runways and associated equipment that are used under low visibility procedures;
(b)      minimum take off and landing visibility for which the aerodrome facilities are capable of providing appropriate support;
(c)       defined meteorological conditions under which low visibility procedures are initiated, used and terminated;
(d)      a description of ground marking and lighting for use under low visibility procedures.

5.1.3             Standards for Determining Aerodrome Information

5.1.3.1          Nature of runway surface. The runway surface type must be notified as either:

(a)      bitumen seal;
(b)      asphalt;
(c)       concrete;
(d)      gravel;
(e)      grass; or
(f)        natural surface.

Where only the central portion of runway is sealed, this must be advised accordingly.

5.1.3.2          Runway bearing and designation. The bearing of runways must be determined in degrees magnetic. Runways are normally numbered in relation to their magnetic direction, rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees.

5.1.3.3          Runway length. The aerodrome operator must provide the physical length of runways in whole numbers of metres and feet , with feet bracketed.

5.1.3.4          Taxiway designation. A single letter must be used without numbers to designate each main taxiway. Alpha-numeric designators may be used for short feeder taxiways. See also Chapter 8.

5.1.3.5          Aerodrome reference point (ARP). The geographic coordinates of the aerodrome reference point must be notified in degrees, minutes and tenths of a minute; based on the World Geodetic System-1984 (WGS-84). The ARP should be located at or near the centroid of the aerodrome.

5.1.3.6          Aerodrome elevation. Must be at the highest point of the landing area, above mean sea level. Aerodrome elevation must be reported in feet, based on the Australian Height Datum, to an accuracy of one foot.

5.1.3.7          Runway reference code number. For each runway provide the reference code number as defined in Chapter 2.

5.1.3.8          Pavement strength.

(a)      Aircraft less than 5,700 kg maximum take-off mass.

The bearing strength of a pavement intended for aircraft of 5700 kg mass or less, must be made available by reporting the following information:

(i)        maximum allowable aircraft mass; and
(ii)       maximum allowable tyre pressure.
(b)      Aircraft greater than 5,700 kg maximum take-off mass.

Report the bearing strength of pavements intended for aircraft greater than 5,700 kg mass, in accordance with the Aircraft Classification Number/Pavement Classification Number (ACN/PCN) system; reporting all of the following information:

(i)        the pavement classification number (PCN);
(ii)       pavement type for ACN-PCN determination;
(iii)      subgrade strength category;
(iv)      maximum allowable tyre pressure category; and
(v)       evaluation method.

 

Note:    The PCN reported will indicate that an aircraft with an aircraft classification number (ACN) equal to or less than the reported PCN can operate on the pavement subject to any limitation on the tyre pressure, or aircraft all-up weight for specified aircraft type(s).

(c)       Information on pavement type for ACN-PCN determination, subgrade strength category, maximum tyre pressure category and evaluation method must be reported using the following codes:
(i)         

Pavement type for ACN-PCN determination:

Code

Rigid pavement

R

Flexible pavement

F

(ii)        

Subgrade strength category:

Code

High strength: characterised by a K value of 150 MN/m3 and representing all K values above 120MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and by CBR 15 and representing all CBR values above 13 for flexible pavements.

A

Medium strength: characterised by a K value of 80 MN/m3 and representing a range in K of 60 to 120 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and by CBR 10 and representing a range in CBR of 8 to 13 for flexible pavements.

B

Low strength: characterised by a K value of 40 MN/m3 and representing a range in K of 25 to 60 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and by CBR 6 and representing a range in CBR of 4 to 8 for flexible pavements.

C

Ultra low strength: characterised by a K value of 20 MN/m3 and representing all K values below 25 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and by CBR 3 and representing all CBR values below 4 for flexible pavements.

D

(iii)       

Maximum allowable tyre pressure category:

Code

High: no pressure limit

W

Medium: pressure limited to 1.50 MPa

X

Low: pressure limited to 1.00 MPa

Y1

Low: pressure limited to 0.80 MPa

Y2

Very low: pressure limited to 0.50 MPa

Z

(iv)       

Evaluation method:

Code

Technical evaluation: representing a specific study of the pavement characteristics and application of pavement behaviour technology.

T

Using aircraft experience: representing knowledge of the specific type and mass of aircraft satisfactorily being supported under regular use.

U

(v)       Examples of pavement strength reporting

Example 1: If the bearing strength of a rigid pavement, built on a medium strength subgrade, has been assessed by technical evaluation to be PCN 80 and there is no tyre pressure limitation, then the reported information would be:

          PCN 80/R/B/W/T

Example 2: If the bearing strength of a flexible pavement, built on a high strength subgrade, has been assessed by using aircraft experience to be PCN 50 and the maximum tyre pressure allowable is 1.00 MPa, then the reported information would be:

          PCN 50/F/A/Y/U

Example 3: If the bearing strength of a flexible pavement, built on a medium strength subgrade, has been assessed by technical evaluation to be PCN 40 and the tyre pressure is to be limited to 0.80 MPa, then the reported information would be:

          PCN 40/F/B/0.80 MPa/T

Example 4: If a pavement is subject to B747-400 all up mass limitation of 390,000 kg, then the reported information would include the following note:

 

Note:    The reported PCN is subject to a B747-400 all up mass limitation of 390,000 kg.

5.1.3.9          The Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) values for various aircraft types operating on flexible and rigid pavements are provided in Table 5.1-1.  The aircraft weight limits are defined by maximum take-off weight (MTOW) (kg) and operating weight empty (OWE) (kg).  The operating tyre pressure is defined by TP (kPa).  The main wheel under-carriage configurations are: single (S), dual (D), dual tandem (DT) and triple-tandem (TT).

 

Note:    Specific ACN values for a particular aircraft should be obtained from the aircraft operator or the aircraft manufacturer.

Table 5.1-1:  ACN values for various aircraft types operating on flexible and rigid pavements

 

 

ACN

Aircraft Type /Main wheel configuration

MTOW
OWE
TP

Flexible Pavement
Subgrade
CBR%

Rigid Pavement
Subgrade
k in MN/m3

 

 

A
15

B
10

C
6

D
3

A
k150

B
k80

C
k40

D
k20

A300-B4
DT

165900
88505
1240

47
21

52
22

63
26

82
34

42
19

50
21

60
25

69
29

A320-200
D

72000
40800
1360

36
19

37
19

41
20

46
23

40
21

42
22

44
23

46
24

A310-200
DT

132900
76890
1080

36
18

39
19

48
22

63
29

31
16

38
18

46
21

53
25

A330-300
DT

212000
121870
580

55
29

60
30

69
33

94
41

47
28

54
27

64
31

75
36

A340-300
DT

271000
129300
1380

59
24

64
25

74
28

100
34

50
25

58
24

69
26

80
30

Argosy
D

42276
22150
620

17
8

20
9

23
10

28
13

19
9

21
10

23
11

25
12

ATR 42
-200
D

15770
9609
744

7.1
3.9

8
4.4

9.3
4.8

10
5.9

8.6
4.7

9.1
5.1

9.6
5.4

10
5.7

BAC 1-11
-500
D

47400
24900
1103

27
12

29
13

31
14

33
16

30
14

32
15

33
15.5

34
16


BAe 146
-200
D

40030
22000
972

19.5
9.8

20.5
10

23
11

27
13

21
10.5

23
11

24
12

25
13

Jetstream
31

 

6950
4900
450

3.4
2.4

4.4
3

5.3
3.7

5.7
4

4.3
3.1

4.5
3.2

4.7
3.3

4.8
3.4

B707-320C
DT

152407

67495

1240

44

16

50

17

60

19

76

25

41

25

49

16

58

19

66

22

B717

D

54885

32110

1048

31

16

33

17

37

19

40

22

35

18

37

19

38

20

40

21

B727-200
D

95300
45735
1035

52
22

55
22.4

62
25

67
29

56
23

59
25

63
27

65
28

B737-200
D

53410
27290
1145

27
12.6

28
12.7

32
13.8

36
16

30
14

32
15

34
15.5

35
16

B737-300
D

61460
32900
1164

32
15.6

33
15.7

37
17

42
20

35
17

38
18

40
19

41
20

B737-400
D

68260
33640
1327

37
16

39
17

44
18

48
21

43
18

45
20

47
21

49
22

B737-700

D

60330

38147

1300

31

19

32

19

36

21

41

24

35

21

37

22

39

23

41

24

B737-800

D

70535

41145

1413

38

20

40

21

44

23

49

26

44

23

46

24

48

26

50

27

B747-SP
DT

302727
140000
1139

38
15

42
15.5

51
17

69
22

32
13.5

38
14

46
16

53
19

B747-200B
DT

364200
173320
1400

51
20

57
22

69
24

91
31

47
19

56
21

66
24

76
28

B747-300
DT

379100
174820
1296

53
20

60
22

74
24

95
31

48
18

57
20

68
24

79
28

B747-400
DT

386800
176860
1400

56
21

62
22

77
25

99
32

51
19

61
22

73
25

83
29

B747-SP
DT

302727
140000
1139

38
15

42
15.5

51
17

69
22

32
13.5

38
14

46
16

53
19

B747-200B
DT

 

364200
173320
1400

51
20

57
22

69
24

91
31

47
19

56
21

66
24

76
28

B747-300
DT

379100
174820
1296

53
20

60
22

74
24

95
31

48
18

57
20

68
24

79
28

B747-400
DT

386800
176860
1400

56
21

62
22

77
25

99
32

51
19

61
22

73
25

83
29

B757-200
DT

100200
56900
1116

27
13.5

30
14

36
16

49
22

25
12

30
14

36
16

41
19

B767-200
DT

141520
80890
1172

37
18.7

40
19

48
22

66
28

32
16

38
18

45
21

53
25

B767-200ER
DT

157400
80890
1260

42
19

46
20

55
22

75
28

37
17

44
19

53
22

61
25

B767-300ER
DT

172820
88000
1260

48
21

53
22

65
25

86
32

41
18

50
20

60
24

70
28

B777-200
TT

286897

142430

1255

62

24

71

27

90

31

121

43

47

22

61

22

80

27

99

34

Canadair
CL-600
D

19590
10000
1316

10.6
4.8

11.4
4.9

12.5
5.4

13
6.3

12.8
5.8

13.3
6.1

13.7
6.3

14.1
6.6

Cessna
550 S2
S

6940
4146
830

5.3
3.2

5.8
3.4

5.8
3.5

6.1
3.6

5.5
3.3

5.6
3.3

5.6
3.4

5.7
3.4

Cessna
Citation 3
D

9525
5670
1013

5.5
2.8

5.9
3.0

6.3
3.4

6.6
3.8

6.5
3.5

6.7
3.6

6.9
3.8

7
3.9

Dash 7
D

19867
11793
750

10
5

11
6

12
6

14
8

11
6

12
6

13
7

13
7

Dash 8-100
D

15785
9790
805

7.4
4

8
4.5

9
5

10.6
6

8.5
5

9.1
5

9.7
5.5

10.2
6

DC-8-63F
DT

162389
64107
1350

52
16

59
17

71
19

87
24

49
15

60
17

70
20

78
23

DC-9-32
D

49442
25597
1048

26
12

28
12.4

31
14

34
16

30
13

31
14

33
15

34
16

DC-9-82
D

68000
35000
1173

39
18

41
18

46
20

49
24

43
20

46
21

48
22

49
23

DC-10-10
DT

207746
108940
1345

55
26

60
27

72
30

98
38

48
23

56
25

67
29

78
33

DC-10-30
DT

260818
120742
1170

55
22

61
23

73
25

101
32

46
20

55
21

66
24

78
27

Brasilia
EMB 120
D

11600
7150
830

5.4
3.1

5.9
3.5

6.7
3.8

7.8
4.6

7.2
4.1

7.5
4.5

7.8
4.7

8.1
4.9

F/A-18
S

23542
10523
1723

22.5
10

21.6
9.7

21.5
9.6

21
9.5

23.4
10.4

23.2
10.3

23
10.2

22.8
10.2

Falcon-20
D

14000
8500
1020

8.1
4.3

8.6
4.5

9.3
5.2

9.8
5.7

9.4
5.2

9.7
5.4

10
5.6

10.2
5.8

Falcon-50
D

17600
9600
1400

9.3
4.6

9.9
4.8

11
5.1

12
6

11.4
5.6

11.8
5.8

12.2
6.1

12.5
6.3

Falcon-900
D

20635
10614
1330

12
5

13
6

14
6

15
7

14
7

15
7

15
7

16
7

F27-500
D

20412
11789
552

8.2
4.2

10
5.1

12
6

14
7.3

10.3
5.3

11
5.8

12
6.3

13
6.8

F28-1000
D

29484
15660
580

12
5.5

14
6.5

17
7.4

19
9.1

14
6.5

15
7.2

17
8

18
8.5

F28-4000
D

33110
16068
696

15
6.1

17
7

19
7.7

22
9.2

17
7

19
7.7

20
8.3

21
8.9

Fokker-50
D

20820
12383
552

8
4.3

10
5.2

11
6

14
7.4

10
5.3

11
5.8

12
6.4

13
6.9

Fokker-100D

41730
23200
920

23
11

24
12

27
13

30
15

24
12

25
12.5

26
13.3

27
14

GG II
D

28100
16000
930

15.4
7.7

16.6
8

18.3
9.3

19
10.5

17.6
9.0

18.4
9.5

19
10

19.7
10.4

GG III
D

31162
17372
1200

18
8.6

19
9

21
10.3

22
11.5

20
10

21
10.6

22
11

23
11.5

HS-748
D

20183
11786
550

7.7
4

9.5
4.8

11.1
5.6

13
7

9.6
5

10.5
5.5

11.3
6

12
6.4

Lear 35A
D

7824
4132
1080

3.9
1.9

4
1.9

4.6
2.1

5.1
2.4

4.7
2.2

4.9
2.3

5.1
2.5

5.3
2.6

Lockheed
L1011
DT

225889
108925
1269

60
25

66
26

79
29

105
36

50
23

59
24

72
27

84
31

Lockheed
C141
DT

145150
60100
1192

42
12.6

48
13

59
15

73
20

43
14

52
16

61
18

69
21

Lockheed
C130-H
D

70300
35000
550

23
10

28
13

32
15

37
16

26
13

29
14

32
15

35
16

Lockheed
C130-H
D

70300
35000
725

27
12

30
14

33
15

38
17

30
14

33
15

35
16

38
17

Orion
P3A
D

61235
27000
1310

35
13

38
14

42
15

44
17

41
15

43
16

44
17

46
18

SF-340
D

11794
7194
655

4.9
2.7

5.7
3.2

6.5
3.5

7.7
4.3

6.1
3.4

6.5
3.6

6.9
3.9

7.3
4.1

Shorts-330
S

10250
6690
540

5.8
3.8

7
4.6

8.1
5.3

8.5
5.6

6.8
4.5

7.1
4.7

7.3
4.8

7.5
4.9

Shorts-360
S

11818
7480
760

8.5
5.4

9.5
6

9.8
6.2

10
6.5

9
5.7

9.2
5.8

9.3
5.9

9.4
6

Westwind I
S

10660
6066
1050

9
5.1

9.3
5.3

9.2
5.3

9.4
5.4

9.1
5.2

9.1
5.2

9.2
5.2

9.2
5.3

5.1.3.10       Runway strip width. For non instrument runways, provide the full width of graded strip. For an instrument runway, provide the full width of runway strip which must include the graded portion and the flyover portion; in whole numbers of metres.

5.1.3.11       Runway slope. Determine the slope of runways, by taking the difference between the maximum and minimum elevation along the centreline and dividing the result by the runway length. Slope must be expressed as a percentage, to the nearest one tenth of a percent, indicating the direction of descent.  Where there are significant multiple slope changes along the runway, slopes over individual segments must be provided over the length of the runway.

5.1.3.12       Declared distances.

(a)      Declared distances are the available operational distances notified to a pilot for take-off, landing or safely aborting a take-off. These distances are used to determine whether the runway is adequate for the proposed landing or take-off or to determine the maximum payload permissible for a landing or take-off.
(b)      The following distances in metres with feet equivalent shown in brackets, must be determined for each runway direction.
(i)        take off run available (TORA);
(ii)       take off distance available (TODA);
(iii)      accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA);
(iv)      landing distance available (LDA);
(c)       Calculation of declared distances. The declared distances must be calculated in accordance with the following:
(i)        Take-off run available (TORA) is defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off. This is normally the full length of the runway; neither the SWY nor CWY are involved.

TORA = Length of RW

(ii)       Take-off distance available (TODA) is defined as the distance available to an aeroplane for completion of its ground run, lift-off and initial climb to 35 ft. This will normally be the full length of the runway plus the length of any CWY. Where there is no designated CWY, the part of the runway strip between the end of the runway and the runway strip end is included as part of the TODA. Each TODA must be accompanied by an obstacle clear take-off gradient expressed as a percentage.

TODA =TORA + CWY

(iii)      Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA) is defined as the length of the take-off run available plus the length of any SWY. Any CWY is not involved.

ASDA = TORA + SWY

(iv)      Landing distance available (LDA) is defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of a landing aeroplane. The LDA commences at the runway threshold. Neither SWY nor CWY are involved.

LDA = Length of RW (if threshold is not displaced.)

 

Note:    See Section 5.2 for illustrations of declared distances.

5.1.3.13       Determine and notify the gradient from the end of TODA to the top of the critical obstacle within the take-off climb area, expressed as a percent. Where there is no obstacle, a value of 1.2% must be notified.

5.1.3.14       Fences or levee banks. If a fence or levee bank is located so close to a runway strip end such that a take-off gradient is so large as to be meaningless; the take-off gradient can be based on the next obstacle within the take-off area. In this case, a note must be provided advising that the fence or levee bank has not been taken into account in the calculation of TODA and STODA gradients. The note must also advise the location and height of the fence or levee bank.

5.1.3.15       Survey of take-off area.

(a)      The selection of the critical obstacle must be based on the survey of the full take-off area in accordance with the applicable take-off OLS standards specified in Chapter 7. If the survey is not in full compliance, or the runway may, on occasions, be used by a larger aircraft, for example a Code 2 runway being used by a Code 3 aircraft, then an appropriate note must be provided. For example, “TKOF area surveyed to 8500 m instead of 15000 m” or “TKOF area surveyed to Code 2 standards instead of Code 3”.
(b)      Where the location of the critical obstacle is some distance from the take-off inner edge, and results in a take-off gradient that requires a curved departure, an additional lower take-off gradient may be declared based on a shorter length of TKOF area surveyed. Where this situation applies, aerodrome operators must consult with the appropriate CASA office.

5.1.3.16       Supplementary take-off distances available (STODA). For TODA having an obstacle clear gradient of more than 1.6%, STODA must be provided, except if the STODA is less than 800 m. STODA must be provided for obstacle clear take-off gradients of 1.6%, 1.9%, 2.2%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%, up to the gradient associated with TODA. In calculating STODA, care must be taken to ensure that a shielded object does not become critical for the lesser take-off distances, and that the slope of the runway is taken into account.  Examples showing how to calculate this will be provided in a subsequent Advisory Circular on the subject matter.

 

Note:    Section 5.3 contains an illustration of STODA and an example of a shielded object.

5.1.3.17       Intersection departure take-off distances available.  At an aerodrome where air traffic procedures include regular taxiway intersection departures, the take-off distances available from each relevant taxiway intersection must be determined and declared.  The method of determining the take-of distances available at an intersection is similar to that used at a runway end.  This is to ensure that the same performance parameters (for example, line-up allowance) may be consistently applied for the line-up manoeuvre, whether entering the runway at the runway end or from some other intersection.  Declared distances for an intersection must be measured from a perpendicular line commencing at the taxiway edge that is farther from the direction of take-off.  Where take-offs may be conducted in either direction, the starting point of the declared distances for each direction will be the perpendicular line commencing from the respective edges of the taxiway farther from the direction of take-off.  This is illustrated in Section 5.2.  The format for notifying intersection departure information is as follows:

  —   RWY 16 – TKOF from TWY E; RWY remaining 2345 (7694) reduce all DIST by 1312 (4305).

5.1.3.18       Threshold elevation. For instrument runways, provide the elevation of the mid point of each runway threshold. The threshold elevation must be measured in feet, to an accuracy of one foot, based on the Australian Height Datum.

5.1.3.19       Aerodrome Obstruction Charts - Type A. Where a Type A Chart is prepared, currency information of the Chart in the form of date of preparation or edition/issue number must be provided.

5.1.3.20       One direction runways. Where a runway direction cannot be used for take-off or landing, or both, the appropriate declared distance(s) must be shown as ‘nil’, along with an appropriate note, for example; ‘TKOF 14 and LAND 32 not AVBL due surrounding terrain.’

5.1.3.21       Lighting systems. Provide information of aerodrome lighting systems by using the following abbreviations:

 

Note:    Runway lights include runway edge, threshold and runway end lights, and, where stopways are provided, stopway lights.

 

Abbreviation

Meaning

SDBY PWR AVBL

Standby power available.

PTBL

Portable or temporary lights (flares or battery).

LIRL

Low intensity runway lights (omnidirectional, single stage of intensity).

MIRL

Medium intensity runway lights (omnidirectional, three stages of intensity).

HIRL

High intensity runway lights (unidirectional, five or six stages of intensity; lower intensity stages may be omnidirectional).

RTIL

Runway threshold identification lights (flashing white).

RCLL

Runway centre line lights.

RTZL

Runway touchdown zone lights.

AL

Approach lights (other than high intensity).

HIAL-CAT 1

High intensity approach lights-CAT I.

HIAL-CAT 11 or 111

High intensity approach lights-CAT II or III.

SFL

Sequenced flashing lights.

T-VASIS

T-pattern visual approach slope indicator system.

AT-VASIS

Abbreviated (single side) T-pattern visual slope approach slope indicator system.

PAPI

PAPI visual approach slope indicator system.

PAPI#

PAPI commissioned by ground survey (not available to RPT jets).

HSL

Hold short lights (used in conjunction with land and hold short operations).

PAL (frequency)

Pilot activated aerodrome lighting (with dedicated frequency).

AFRU+PAL(frequency)

Aerodrome Frequency response Unit plus PAL.

ABN

Aerodrome beacon with colour and flashing rate.

HIOL

High intensity obstacle lights (flashing white).

MIOL

Medium intensity obstacle lights (flashing red).

LIOL

Low intensity obstacle lights (steady red).

Taxiways

Centreline lights are green and edge lights are blue.

5.1.3.22       Navigation aids. Where the aerodrome operator provides a navigation aid, the location coordinates and operating frequency must be provided.  The location co-ordinates must be notified in degrees, minutes and tenths of a minute, based on the World Geodetic System – 1984 (WGS-84).

5.1.3.23       Aerodrome obstacles.  Local data may include obstacles in the circuit area.

5.1.3.24       Additional Information. Significant local data may include the following:

(a)      animal or bird hazard;
(b)      aircraft parking restriction;
(c)       aircraft to avoid overflying certain areas such as mine blasting areas;
(d)      other aviation activities such as ultralight or glider operations in the vicinity.

5.1.4             Obstacle Data

5.1.4.1          Standards for obstacle identification, restriction and limitation are detailed in Chapter 7. Chapter 7 also provides details of and responsibilities for Aerodrome Obstacle Charts applicable to the aerodrome.

 

 

 

Section 5.2: Illustration of Declared Distances

5.2.1             Introduction

5.2.1.1          Declared distances are the available operational distances notified to a pilot for take-off, landing or safely aborting a take-off.  These distances are used to determine whether the runway is adequate for the proposed landing or take-off or to determine the maximum payload permissible for a landing or take-off.

5.2.1.2          Declared distances are a combination of the runway (i.e. full strength pavement), any stopway (SW) and clearway (CW) provided.

5.2.2             Calculation of Declared Distances

5.2.2.1          The declared distances to be calculated for each runway direction are:

(a)      Take-off run available (TORA) defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off.  It will normally be the full length of the runway.  Neither stopway nor clearway are involved.
(b)      Take-off distance available (TODA) defined as the distance available to an aeroplane for completion of its ground run, lift-off and initial climb to 35 ft.  It will normally be the full length of the runway plus the length of any clearway.  Where there is no designated clearway, the part of the runway strip between the end of the runway and the runway strip end is included as part of the TODA.  This Australian practice has been registered with ICAO.  Any stopway is not involved.
(c)       Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA) defined as the length of the take-off run available plus the length of any stopway.  Any clearway is not involved.
(d)      Landing distance available (LDA) defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of a landing aeroplane.  The LDA commences at the runway threshold.  Neither stopway nor clearway are involved.

5.2.2.2          The above definitions of the declared distances are illustrated in the diagrams below:

 

5.2.3             Obstacle-free Take-off Gradient

5.2.3.1          TODA is only usable where the minimum obstacle-free gradient from the end of the clearway is equal to or less than the climb performance of the aeroplane.

5.2.3.2          When calculating TODA it is necessary to also calculate the minimum obstacle-free take-off gradient.  This is the gradient associated with the critical obstacle.

5.2.4             Critical Obstacle

5.2.4.1          The critical obstacle is the obstacle within the take-off climb area which subtends the greatest vertical angle with the horizontal, at the highest point on the clearway, when measured from the inner edge of the take-off climb surface.

5.2.4.2          In assessing the critical obstacle, close in objects such as fences, transient objects on roads and railways, and navigational installations should also be considered.  Standards relating to obstacle restrictions and limitations are included in Chapter 7.


5.2.5             Declared Distances for Intersection Departures

5.2.5.1          The following diagrams illustrate the method of calculating the take-off distance available or take-off run available where departures are allowed from taxiway intersections.

 

Section 5.3: Illustration of Supplementary Take-Off Distances Available and Shielding

5.3.1             Introduction

5.3.1.1          For TODA having an obstacle-free gradient of more than 1.6%, supplementary take-off distances available (STODA) are to be provided for the following gradients, where applicable: 1.6%, 1.9%, 2.2%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%.  STODA of less than 800 m are not shown.

5.3.1.2          The specifications for take-off climb surfaces are given in Chapter 6.  Aerodrome operators should note in particular the standard for the elevation of the inner edge of the take-off climb surface.

5.3.1.3          In calculating supplementary take-off distances care should be taken to ensure that a shielded object does not become critical for the lesser take-off distances.  This is most likely with a close-in critical obstacle.

One way to overcome an object protruding through the approach surface is to displace the threshold and this reduces the LDA.  Instances where the threshold needs to be displaced more than 300 m from the end of the runway should be referred to the CASA area office for consideration.


Chapter 6: Physical Characteristics

Section 6.1: General

6.1.1             Introduction

6.1.1.1          The standards for the physical characteristics are the statutory requirements which apply to the planning, design and construction for the movement area facilities at certified and registered aerodromes, and at non-certified and non-registered aerodromes used by aircraft conducting air transport operations.

6.1.1.2          The standards set out in this Chapter govern characteristics such as the dimensions and shape of runways, taxiways, aprons and related facilities provided for the safe movement of aircraft.

6.1.1.3          Aerodrome siting, including runway useability and number and orientation of runways, aerodrome master planning and matters relating to economics, efficiency and the environment at an aerodrome are not within the scope of these standards.

6.1.1.4          The aerodrome standards for glider facilities set out in Section 6.7 are applicable to glider facilities provided at a certified aerodrome or registered aerodrome.

6.1.1.5          The standards for aerodromes used by aircraft operating under CASR Part 121 B are set out in Chapter 13.

6.1.1.6          The standards in this Chapter are intended for the planning and construction of new aerodrome facilities.  Where an existing facility does not meet these standards, CASA may approve the use of such facilities by an aircraft larger than that which the facilities are designed for, with, or without, operational restrictions on the aircraft operator.

 

 

Section 6.2: Runways

6.2.1             Location of Runway Threshold

6.2.1.1          The threshold of a runway must be located:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 1 — not less than 30 metres after; or
(b)      in any other case — not less than 60 metres after;

the point at which the approach surface for aircraft using the runway meets the extended runway centre line.

 

Note:    If obstacles infringe the approach surface, operational assessment may require the threshold to be displaced. The obstacle free approach surface to the threshold is not to be steeper than 3.3% where the runway code number is 4 or steeper than 5% where the code number is 3.

6.2.2             Length of Runway

6.2.2.1          The length of a runway must be adequate to meet the operational requirements of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended.

6.2.3             Runway Width

6.2.3.1          Subject to Paragraph 6.2.3.2, the width of a runway must not be less than that determined using Table 6.2‑1.

Table 6.2‑1: Minimum runway width

Code number

Code letter

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

1a

18 m

18 m

23 m

2

23 m

23 m

30 m

3

30 m

30 m

30 m

45 m

4

45 m

45 m

45 m

60 m

Note:   1.    a Runway width may be reduced to 15 m or 10 m depending on the restrictions placed on small aeroplane operations. See Chapter 13.

6.2.3.1A    If a minimum runway width:

(a)      is mentioned in instructions issued under subregulation 235A (1) of CAR 1988 as applicable to a particular type of aeroplane; and
(b)      differs from the requirement in Table 6.2‑1 that would otherwise apply to operations by that type;

the width mentioned in the instructions:

(c)       if it is less than the requirement in the Table — may be used in determining the required runway width for operations by that particular type; and
(d)      if it is more than the requirement in the Table — must be used in determining the required runway width for operations by that particular type.

 

Note:    Subregulation 235A (1) allows CASA to issue instructions specifying the minimum runway width applicable to an aeroplane or a type of aeroplane. Use of that runway width is subject to compliance with the conditions contained in the instructions.

6.2.3.1B    Subject to meeting the additional requirements for runway shoulders mentioned in paragraph 6.2.14.3, code letter E runways may be used for A380 operations.

6.2.3.1C    Paragraph 6.2.3.1B does not allow code letter E runways to be used for A380 operations:

(a)      if their construction begins after the commencement of paragraph 6.2.3.1B; or
(b)      if they are subjected to a major redevelopment, such as a runway extension, that begins after the commencement of that paragraph.

6.2.3.2          If a precision approach runway’s code number is 1 or 2, the runway’s width must not be less than 30 m.

6.2.4             Runway Turning Area

6.2.4.1          If a turning area for aircraft is provided at any point on a runway, the width of the turning area must be such that the clearance between the outer main gear wheels of the aircraft using the runway and the edge of the turning area, at that point, is not less than the distance determined using Table 6.2‑2.

Table 6.2‑2: Minimum clearance between outer main gear wheels and edge of turning area on runway

Code letter

Minimum clearance

A

1.5 m

B

2.25 m

C

4.5* m

D, E or F

4.5 m

*    If the turning area or curve is only intended to serve aircraft with a wheelbase of less than 18 m, the minimum clearance is 3.0 m.

Note: The turning node should normally be located on the left hand side of the runway except where a runway is used by aircraft operating in right hand circuits.

6.2.5             Parallel Runways

6.2.5.1          Where parallel runways are to be provided, the aerodrome operator should consult with CASA and Airservices Australia on airspace and air traffic control procedures associated with the operation of the multiple runways. Where parallel, non-instrument runways are provided for simultaneous use, the minimum separation distance between the runway centrelines must not be less than:

(a)      where General Aviation Aerodrome Procedures (GAAP) are in place — 213m.  If this distance is not provided, dependent parallel procedures may need to be introduced;
(b)      where the higher code number of the two runways is 3 or 4 — 210 m;
(c)       where the higher code number of the two runways is 2 — 150 m;
(d)      where the code number of the two runways is 1 — 120 m.

6.2.5.2          Where parallel instrument runways are intended for simultaneous use, the minimum distance between the runway centrelines must not be less than:

(a)      for independent parallel approaches — 1,035 m;
(b)      for dependent parallel approaches — 915 m;
(c)       for independent parallel departures — 760 m; and
(d)      for segregated parallel operations — 760 m.

6.2.6             Runway Longitudinal Slope

6.2.6.1          The overall runway slope, defined by dividing the difference between the maximum and minimum elevation along the runway centreline by the runway length, must not be more than:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 3 or 4 — 1%; or
(b)      if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 2%.

6.2.6.2          Subject to Paragraphs 6.2.6.3 and 6.2.6.4, the longitudinal slope along any part of a runway must not be more than:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 4 — 1.25%; or
(b)      if the runway’s code number is 3 — 1.5%; or
(c)       if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 2%.

 

Note:    A uniform slope for at least 300 m should be provided at each end of the runway, and at airports where large jet aeroplanes operate this distance should be increased to at least 600 m.

6.2.6.3          If the runway’s code number is 4, the longitudinal slope along the first and last quarters of the runway must not be more than 0.8%.

6.2.6.4          If the runway’s code number is 3 and it is a precision approach category II or category III runway, the longitudinal slope along the first and last quarters of the runway must not be more than 0.8%.

6.2.6.5          If slope changes cannot be avoided, the change in longitudinal slope between any two adjoining parts of a runway must not be more than:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 3 or 4 — 1.5%; or
(b)      if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 2%.

6.2.6.6          The transition from one longitudinal slope to another must be accomplished by a vertical curve, with a rate of change not more than:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 4 — 0.1% for every 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 30,000 m); or
(b)      if the runway’s code number is 3 — 0.2% for every 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 15,000 m); or
(c)       if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 0.4% for every 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 7,500 m).

 

Note:    The rate of change of longitudinal slope may be relaxed outside the central one-third of the runway at intersections, either to facilitate drainage or to accommodate any conflicting slope requirements.

6.2.6.7          The distance between the points of intersection of two successive longitudinal slope changes must not be less than the greater of the following:

(a)      45 m; or
(b)      the distance in metres worked out using the formula:

D = k (|S1 - S2| + |S2 - S3|)/100,

where ‘k’ is:

(i)        if the runway’s code number is 4 — 30,000 m; or
(ii)       if the runway’s code number is 3 — 15,000 m; or
(iii)      if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 5,000 m; and

‘S1’, ‘S2’ and ‘S3’ are the three successive slopes expressed as percentage values.

 

Figure 6.2‑1

Example: In Figure 6.2‑1 above, if the runway’s code number is 3, and the slopes are S1 (+1%), S2 (-1.5%) and S3 (+1.5%), then the distance in metres between the two points of intersection must not be less than 15,000 x (2.5 + 3)/100, that is to say 825 m.

6.2.7             Runway Sight Distance

6.2.7.1          The unobstructed line of sight along the surface of a runway, from a point above the runway, must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.2‑3.

Table 6.2‑3: Runway line of sight

Code letter

Minimum unobstructed line of sight

A

From a point 1.5 m above the runway to any other point 1.5 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

B

From a point 2 m above the runway to any other point 2 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

C, D, E or F

From a point 3 m above the runway to any other point 3 m above the runway for half the length of the runway.

6.2.7.2          If runway lighting is provided, the unobstructed line of sight from 3 m above any point on the runway surface to any other point on the runway surface must not be less than 600 m.

6.2.8             Transverse Slopes on Runways

6.2.8.1          The transverse slope on any part of a runway must be adequate to prevent the accumulation of water and must be in accordance with Table 6.2‑4.

Table 6.2‑4: Runway transverse slope

 

Code letter

A or B

C, D, E or F

Maximum slope

2.5%

2.0%

Preferred slope

2.0%

1.5%

Minimum slope

1.5%

1.0%

Note: The standard may not apply at intersections where design may dictate a variation to the standards.

6.2.9             Runway Surface

6.2.9.1          The surface of a bitumen seal, asphalt or concrete runway must not have irregularities that would result in the loss of frictional characteristics or otherwise adversely affect the take-off or landing of an aircraft.

 

Note:    The finish of the surface of a runway should be such that, when tested with a 3m straight-edge placed anywhere on the surface, there is no deviation greater than 3mm between the bottom of the straight-edge and the surface of the runway pavement anywhere along the straight‑edge.

6.2.9.1A   The surface of a bitumen seal, asphalt or concrete runway must have an average surface texture depth of not less than 1mm over the full runway width and runway length.

 

Note:    A runway surface meeting the ICAO minimum design objective for new surfaces specified in Annex 14, Volume 1, derived using a continuous friction-measuring device, is acceptable.

6.2.9.2          If a runway surface cannot meet the standards of Paragraph 6.2.9.1, a surface treatment must be provided. Acceptable surface treatments include; grooving, porous friction course and bituminous seals.

6.2.9.3          The runway surface standards for grass or natural runways and gravel runways are the same as those for runways intended for small aeroplanes set out in Chapter 13.

6.2.10          Runway Bearing Strength

6.2.10.1       The pavement strength rating for a runway must be determined using the ACN - PCN pavement rating system described in Chapter 5.

6.2.10.2       CASA does not specify a standard for runway bearing strength, however, the bearing strength must be such that it will not cause any safety problems to aircraft.  The published PCN value should be suitable for the aircraft that regularly use the runway.

6.2.11          Runway Shoulders

6.2.11.1       If a runway’s code letter is F, shoulders must be provided and the total width of the runway and shoulders must not be less than 75 m.

6.2.11.2       If a runway’s code letter is D or E, shoulders must be provided and the total width of the runway and shoulders must not be less than 60 m.

6.2.11.3       If a runway is 30 m wide and is used by aeroplanes seating 100 passengers or more shoulders must be provided and the total width of the runway and its shoulders must not be less than 36 m.

6.2.12          Characteristics of Runway Shoulders

6.2.12.1       Runway shoulders must:

(a)      be of equal width on both sides;
(b)      slope downwards and away from the runway surface;
(c)       be resistant to aeroplane engine blast erosion;
(d)      be constructed so as to be capable of supporting an aeroplane, running off the runway, without causing structural damage to the aeroplane; and
(e)      be flush with the runway surface except during runway overlay works where a step down not exceeding 25 mm is permitted.

6.2.13          Transverse Slope on Runway Shoulder

6.2.13.1       The transverse slope of a runway shoulder must not be more than 2.5%.

6.2.14          Surface of Runway Shoulder

6.2.14.1       The shoulders of a runway intended to serve jet-propelled aeroplanes with engines which may overhang the edge of the runway must be surfaced with a bituminous seal, asphalt or concrete.

6.2.14.2       At a runway intended to serve a wide body jet aeroplane such as a Boeing 747 or any other aeroplane with engines, which may overhang the shoulders, a further width of 7 m outside each shoulder must be prepared to resist engine blast erosion.

6.2.14.3       Code letter E runways used for A380 operations must be provided with shoulders that consist of:

(a)      inner shoulders 7.5 metres in width on either side that are able to support unintended aircraft runoff; and
(b)      outer shoulders 7.5 metres in width on either side that are resistant to engine blast erosion, prevent engine ingestion and are able to support emergency and service vehicles.

6.2.15          Provision of Runway Strip

6.2.15.1       A runway and any associated stopways must be centrally located within a runway strip.

6.2.16          Composition of Runway Strip

6.2.16.1       A runway strip, in addition to the runway and stopway, must include:

(a)      if the runway is a non-instrument runway — a graded area around the runway and stopway; or
(b)      if the runway is an instrument runway — a graded area around the runway and stopway and an area, known as the fly-over area, outside the graded area.

Figure 6.2‑2: Composition of Runway Strip

6.2.17          Runway Strip Length

6.2.17.1       The graded area of a runway strip must extend beyond the end of the runway or any associated stopway for at least:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 1 and it is a non-instrument runway — 30 m; or
(b)      in any other case — 60 m.

6.2.18          Runway Strip Width

6.2.18.1       The width of the graded area of a runway strip must be not less than that given in Table 6.2‑5.

Table 6.2‑5: Graded runway strip width

Aerodrome reference code

Runway strip width

1 a b

60 m

2 c

80 m

3          (where the runway width is 30 m)

90 m

3, 4      (where the runway width is 45 m or more)

150 m

a   Runway strip width may be reduced to 30 m depending on the restrictions placed on small aeroplane operations. See Chapter 13.

b   Runways used at night are required to have a minimum 80 m runway strip width.

c    Aeroplanes not exceeding 5,700 kg by day, the runway strip width may be 60 m.

6.2.18.2       In the case of a non-precision approach runway, the width of the runway strip, including the fly-over area, must not be less than that given in Table 6.2‑6.

Table 6.2‑6: Runway strip width for non-precision approach runways

Aerodrome reference code

Overall runway strip width

1 or 2

90 m

3          (where the runway width is 30 m)

150 ma

3 or 4 (where the runway width is 45 m or more)

300 mb

a      Where it is not practicable to provide the full 150 m width of runway strip, a minimum 90 m wide graded only strip may be provided where the runway is used by up to and including code 3C aeroplanes, subject to landing minima adjustment.

b      Where it is not practicable to provide the full runway strip width, a minimum 150 m wide graded only strip may be provided, subject to landing minima adjustments.

6.2.18.3       In the case of a precision approach runway, the width of the runway strip, including the fly-over area, must not be less than that given in Table 6.2‑7.

Table 6.2‑7: Runway strip width for precision approach runways

Aerodrome reference code

Overall runway strip width

1 or 2

150 m

3 or 4

300 m

Notes:  1.   Where it is not practicable to provide the full runway strip width, a lesser strip width may be provided subject to landing minima adjustments.  However, the standard width of the graded area must be provided.

              2.   For precision approach runways code 3 and 4, it is recommended that an additional width of graded runway strip be provided.  In this case, the graded width extends to a distance of 105 m from the runway centreline, except that the width is gradually reduced (over a distance of 150 m) to 75 m from the runway centreline at both ends of the strip, for a length of 150 m from the runway ends as shown in Figure 6.2‑3.

 

Figure 6.2‑3: Runway Strip for Precision Approach Runways

6.2.18.4       If an aerodrome operator wishes to provide a lesser runway strip width to that specified in the standards, the aerodrome operator must provide CASA with a safety case justifying why it is impracticable to meet the standard.  The safety case must include documentary evidence that all relevant stakeholders have been consulted.

6.2.19          Longitudinal Slope on Graded Area of Runway Strip

6.2.19.1       As far as practicable the longitudinal slope along the graded area of the runway strip must not be more than:

(a)  if the runway code number is 4 —1.5%;

(b)  if the runway code number is 3 — 1.75%;

(c)  if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 2.0%.

6.2.20          Longitudinal Slope Changes on Graded Area of Runway Strip

6.2.20.1       Slope changes must be as gradual as practicable and abrupt changes or sudden reversal of slopes avoided, and must not exceed 2%.

6.2.21          Runway Strip Longitudinal Slope Changes at Runway Ends (Radio Altimeter Operating Area)

6.2.21.1       For precision approach Category II and III runways, slope changes within an area 60 m wide and 300 m long, symmetrical about the centre line, before the threshold, must be avoided.

 

Note:    This is because aeroplanes making Cat II and III approaches are equipped with radio altimeters for final height guidance in accordance with the terrain immediately prior to the threshold and excessive slope changes can cause errors in data.

6.2.21.2       If a slope change cannot be avoided on a radio altimeter operating area, the rate of change between two consecutive slopes must not be more than 2% per 30 metres (minimum radius of curvature of 1,500 metres).

6.2.22          Runway Strip Transverse Slope

6.2.22.1       The transverse slope of the graded area of the runway strip must not be more than:

(a)      if the runway’s code number is 3 or 4 — 2.5%; and
(b)      if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 3%.

6.2.22.2       The transverse slope of the graded runway strip adjacent to the runway shoulder, for the first 3 m outwards, must be negative and may be as great as 5%.

6.2.22.3       No part of a fly-over area, or any object on it, must project through a plane:

(a)      that starts along each outer side of the graded area; and
(b)      has an upward slope away from the graded area of more than 5%.

6.2.23          Surface of Graded Area of Runway Strip

6.2.23.1       Any step down to the abutting surface of a runway strip from a runway, runway shoulder or stopway must not be more than 25 mm.

6.2.23.2       Effective drainage in the graded area must be provided to avoid water ponding and thus attracting birds. Open drains must not be constructed in the graded portion of a runway strip.

6.2.23.3       The portion of a strip at the end of a runway must be prepared to resist blast erosion, in order to protect a landing aeroplane from the danger of an exposed edge.

6.2.23.4       The standards for the surface of runway strips are the same as those for runway strips intended for small aeroplanes set out in Chapter 13.

6.2.24          Objects on Runway Strips

6.2.24.1       A runway strip must be free of fixed objects, other than visual aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles:

(a)      within 77.5 m of the centre line of a precision approach category I, II or III runway, whose code number is 4 and the code letter is F; or
(b)      within 60 m of the centre line of a precision approach category I, II or III runway, whose code number is 3 or 4; or
(c)       within 45 m of the centre line of a precision approach category I runway, whose code number is 1 or 2.

6.2.24.2       All fixed objects permitted on the runway strip must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

6.2.24.3       When a runway is in use for an aircraft to land or take off, no mobile object may be on a part of the strip mentioned in paragraph 6.2.24.1.

 

Note:    See subsection 11.1.4A for information regarding siting of equipment and installations on runway strips.

6.2.25          Runway End Safety Area (RESA)

6.2.25.1       A RESA must be provided at the end of a runway strip, to protect the aeroplane in the event of undershooting or overrunning the runway, unless the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 and it is not an instrument runway.

 

Notes: 1.       Previous Australian standard allows RESA to be measured from the end of the runway.

              2.       The RESA standards in this Section are in compliance with the current ICAO standards, including measuring RESA from the end of the runway strip.

6.2.25.2       The new RESA standard shall apply to all new runways and existing runways when it is lengthened. Operators of existing code 4 runways used by air transport jet aeroplanes conducting international operations must make provision to comply with the new RESA standards within five years of the promulgation of CASR Part 139.

 

Note:    Where it is not practicable to provide the full length of RESA, the provision may include an engineering solution to achieve the objective of RESA, which is to enhance aeroplane deceleration. In the latter case, aerodrome operators will need to liase with the relevant CASA office.

6.2.26          Dimensions of RESA

6.2.26.1       The minimum length of the RESA must be 90 m where the associated runway is suitable for aircraft with a code number 3 or 4 and is used by air transport jet aeroplanes. In other cases, the minimum RESA length must be 60 m.

 

Note:    Additional length of RESA should be provided especially at international aerodromes, in accordance with the following ICAO recommendations:

              1.       if the runway’s code number is 3 or 4 — 240 m; or

              2.       if the runway’s code number is 1 or 2 — 120 m.

6.2.26.2       The width of a RESA must not be less than twice the width of the associated runway.

6.2.27          Slopes on RESA

6.2.27.1       The downward longitudinal slope of a RESA must not be more than 5%.

6.2.27.2       The transverse slope of a RESA must not be more than 5% upwards or downwards.

6.2.27.3       Transition between different slopes is to be as gradual as practicable.

6.2.27.4       No part of the RESA must project above the runway’s approach or take-off climb surfaces.

6.2.28          Objects on RESA

6.2.28.1       A RESA must be free of fixed objects, other than visual or navigational aids for the guidance of aircraft or vehicles.

 

Note:    See subsection 11.1.4A for information regarding siting of equipment and installations on a RESA.

6.2.28.2       All fixed objects permitted on a RESA must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

6.2.28.3       A RESA must be free of mobile objects that may endanger aircraft when the runway is being used for landing or taking off.

6.2.29          Bearing Strength of RESA

6.2.29.1       As far as practicable, a RESA must be prepared or constructed so as to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane, enhance aeroplane deceleration and facilitate the movement of rescue and fire fighting vehicles.

 

Note:    To reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting the runway and to prevent jet blast erosion from jet aircraft turning and taking off at the end of the runway, it is recommended that areas abutting the runway should be provided with a compacted gravel pavement with a depth at the runway end equal to half the depth of the runway pavement, tapering to natural surface, the length of the taper being adjusted according to the bearing capacity of the natural surface.  For areas beyond the gravel surface and outside the runway strip, graded but non-compacted natural surface with a grass cover is preferred.  Hard pans should be broken up.

6.2.30          Clearways

6.2.30.1       A clearway, consisting of an obstruction-free rectangular plane, must be provided at the end of a runway so that an aeroplane taking off may make a portion of its initial climb to 35 ft (10.7 m) above the ground at the end of the clearway.

 

Note:    In Australia the portion between the end of the runway and runway strip is treated as a clearway.

6.2.31          Location of Clearways

6.2.31.1       A clearway must start at the end of the take-off run available on the runway.

6.2.32          Dimensions of Clearways

6.2.32.1       The length of a clearway must not be more than half the length of the take-off run available on the runway.

6.2.32.2       The width of a clearway must not be less than:

(a)      If the runway’s code number is 3 or 4 ¾ 150 m;
(b)      If the runway’s code number is 2 ¾ 80 m; and
(c)       If the runway’s code number is 1 ¾ 60 m.

 

Note:    For code 3 or 4 runways used by aeroplanes having a maximum take-off mass less than 22,700 kg and operating in VMC by day, the width of the clearway may be reduced to 90 m.

6.2.33          Slopes on Clearways

6.2.33.1       The surface below a clearway must not project above a plane with an upward slope of 1.25%, the lower limit of which is a horizontal line that:

(a)      is perpendicular to the vertical plane containing the runway centreline; and
(b)      passes through a point located on the runway centreline at the end of the take-off run available.

6.2.34          Objects on Clearways

6.2.34.1       A clearway must be free of fixed or mobile objects other than visual or navigational aids for the guidance of aeroplanes or vehicles.

 

Note:    See subsection 11.1.4A for information regarding siting of equipment and installations on a clearway.

6.2.34.2       All fixed objects permitted on the clearway must be of low mass and frangibly mounted.

6.2.35          Stopways

6.2.35.1       A stopway may be provided at the end of a runway on which an aeroplane may be stopped in the case of an aborted take-off.

6.2.36          Dimensions of Stopways

6.2.36.1       If provided the length of stopway is an economic decision for the aerodrome operator but must be such that it finishes at least 60 m before the end of the runway strip.

6.2.36.2       The width of a stopway must be as wide as the associated runway.

6.2.37          Surface of Stopway

6.2.37.1       A stopway with a bituminous seal or asphalt surface must have frictional characteristics at least as good as those of the associated runway.

6.2.38          Stopway Slopes and Slope Changes

6.2.38.1       Where practicable, slope and slope changes on a stopway must be the same as those for the associated runway, except that:

(a)      the limitation of a 0.8% slope for the first and last quarter of the length of a runway need not be applied to the stopway; and
(b)      at the junction of the stopway and runway and along the stopway the maximum rate of slope change may be increased to 0.3% per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 10,000 m).

6.2.39          Bearing Strength of Stopway

6.2.39.1       The bearing strength of a stopway must be able to support at least one single pass of the critical aircraft, without causing structural damage to the aircraft.

 

Note:    A stopway should be constructed to the full runway pavement depth where it abuts the runway, tapering to one half of the runway pavement depth over the first 15 m and continued at half the runway pavement depth thereafter, in order to affect a gradual transition in all weather conditions.

6.2.39.2       If the stopway does not meet the strength criteria defined in Paragraph 6.2.39.1, then:

(a)      for aircraft having a maximum take-off mass in excess of 68,000 kg, any unsealed stopway must not be included in the calculation of the accelerate stop distance available;
(b)      for aircraft having a maximum take-off mass between 36,300 kg and 68,000 kg, a maximum length of 60 m must be included in the calculation of the accelerate stop distance available; and
(c)       for aircraft having a maximum take-off mass not exceeding 36,300 kg, a length of stopway not exceeding 13% of the runway length may be included in the calculation of the accelerate stop distance available.

 

Section 6.3: Taxiways

6.3.1             Taxiway Width

6.3.1.1          Subject to this subsection, the width of a straight section of a taxiway must not be less than the width determined using Table 6.3‑1.

Table 6.3‑1: Minimum width for straight section of taxiway

Code letter

Minimum taxiway width (straight sections)

A

7.5 m

B

10.5 m

C

18 m

D

23 m

E

23 m

F

25 m

Note:  Minimum widths are subject to exceptions, see paragraph 6.3.1.1A

6.3.1.1A    The minimum taxiway widths in Table 6.3-1 are subject to the following exceptions:

(a)      in the case of a code letter C taxiway that is only intended to serve aircraft with a wheelbase of less than 18 metres, the width may be reduced to 15 metres;
(b)      in the case of a code letter D taxiway that is only intended to serve aircraft with an outer main gear span of less than 9 metres, the width may be reduced to 18 metres;
(c)       subject to meeting the additional requirements for taxiway shoulders mentioned in paragraph 6.3.1.1A, code letter E taxiways may be used for A380 operations.

6.3.1.1B    Subparagraph 6.3.1.1A (c) does not allow code letter E taxiways to be used for A380 operations:

(a)      if their construction begins after the commencement of paragraph 6.3.1.1A; or
(b)      if they are subjected to a major redevelopment, such as a taxiway extension, that begins after the commencement of that paragraph.

6.3.2             Taxiway Edge Clearance

6.3.2.1          Subject to paragraph 6.3.2.1A, the width of any section of a taxiway must be such that, with the nose wheel of the aircraft remaining on the taxiway, the clearance between the outer main gear wheels and the edge of the taxiway, at any point, must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.3‑2.

Table 6.3‑2: Minimum clearance between outer main gear wheels of aircraft and edge of taxiway

Code letter

Minimum clearance

A

1.5 m

B

2.25 m

C

4.5 m*

D, E or F

4.5 m

*      If the turning area or curve is only intended to serve aircraft with a wheelbase of less than 18 m, the minimum clearance is 3.0 m.

6.3.2.1A    For A380 aircraft using a code letter E taxiway, the minimum clearance between the outer main gear wheels and the edge of the taxiway at any point must not be less than 4.3 metres.

6.3.3             Taxiway Curves

6.3.3.1          Any change in the direction of a taxiway must be accomplished by a curve whose minimum radius, determined by the taxiway design speed, must not be less than that determined using Table 6.3‑3.

Table 6.3‑3: Radii for taxiway curves

Taxiway Design Speed

Radius of Curve

20 km/h

24 m

30 km/h

54 m

40 km/h

96 m

50 km/h

150 m

60 km/h

216 m

70 km/h

294 m

80 km/h

384 m

90 km/h

486 m

100 km/h

600 m

Note:  The provision of rapid exit taxiways is a financial decision for the aerodrome operator. The aerodrome operator should seek specialist advice on the geometric design of rapid exit taxiways.

6.3.4             Taxiway Longitudinal Slope

6.3.4.1          The longitudinal slope along any part of a taxiway must not be more than:

(a)       if the taxiway’s code letter is C, D, E or F — 1.5%; and
(b)       if the taxiway’s code letter is A or B — 3.0%.

6.3.4.2          If slope changes cannot be avoided, the transition from one longitudinal slope to another must be accomplished by a vertical curve, with a rate of change not more than:

(a)      if the taxiway’s code letter is C, D, E or F — 1.0% per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of 3,000 m); and
(b)      if the taxiway’s code letter is A or B — 1.0% per 25 m (minimum radius of curvature of 2,500 m).

6.3.5             Taxiway Transverse Slope

6.3.5.1          The transverse slope on any part of a taxiway must be adequate to prevent the accumulation of water and must not be less than 1.0% and not more than:

(a)       if the taxiway’s code letter is C, D, E or F — 1.5%; and
(b)       if the taxiway’s code letter is A or B — 2.0%.

6.3.6             Taxiway Sight Distance

6.3.6.1          The unobstructed line of sight along the surface of a taxiway, from a point above the taxiway, must not be less than the distance determined using Table 6.3‑4.

Table 6.3‑4: Standard for taxiway line of sight

Code letter

Minimum line of sight

A

150 m from 1.5 m above taxiway

B

200 m from 2 m above taxiway

C, D, E or F

300 m from 3 m above taxiway

6.3.7             Taxiway Bearing Strength

6.3.7.1          CASA does not specify a standard for taxiway bearing strength, however the bearing strength must be such that it does not cause any safety problems to the operating aircraft.

6.3.8             Taxiway Shoulders

6.3.8.1          If the taxiway’s code letter is C, D, E or F and is used by jet propelled aeroplanes it must be provided with shoulders.

6.3.9             Width of Taxiway Shoulders

6.3.9.1          The width of shoulders on each side of the taxiway must not be less than:

(a)      if the taxiway’s code letter is F — 17.5 m; or
(b)      if the taxiway’s code letter is E — 10.5 m; or
(c)       if the taxiway’s code letter is D — 7.5 m; or
(d)      if the taxiway’s code letter is C — 3.5 m.

6.3.9.1A    The width of the shoulders on each side of a code letter E taxiway used for A380 operations must not be less than 18.5 metres.

6.3.9.2          On curved sections of taxiway, and at junctions or intersections with runways or other taxiways, where the width of the surface of the taxiway is increased, the width of the shoulders must not be reduced from their width along the adjacent straight sections of the taxiway.

6.3.10          Surface of Taxiway Shoulders

6.3.10.1       The taxiway shoulders must be:

(a)      if the taxiway is used by jet-propelled aircraft — resistant to engine blast erosion and prevent engine ingestion; and
(b)      if the taxiway is intended to serve a wide body jet, such as a Boeing 747 aeroplane or Airbus 380 aircraft, being an aircraft whose engines overhang the shoulders — sealed to a width of at least 3 metres on both sides of the taxiway.

6.3.11          Taxiway Strips

6.3.11.1       A taxiway must be located in a taxiway strip, the inner part of which is a graded area.

6.3.12     &nb