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R19/2004 Orders/Civil Aviation as amended, taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Order 20.18 Amendment Instrument 2011 (No. 1)
Replacement of section 20.18 of the Civil Aviation Orders
Administered by: Infrastructure and Transport
Registered 20 Feb 2012
Start Date 01 Feb 2012
End Date 22 Aug 2012
Date of repeal 17 Dec 2014
Repealed by Civil Aviation Order 20.18 (Aircraft equipment — basic operational requirements) Instrument 2014
Table of contents.

Civil Aviation Order 20.18 (as amended)

made under regulations 207 and 232A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.

This compilation was prepared on 9 February 2012 taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Order 20.18 Amendment Instrument 2011 (No. 2).

Prepared by the Legislative Drafting Branch, Legal Services Division, Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Canberra.

Contents

Section 20.18 (Aircraft equipment — basic operational requirements)

Page

1....... Application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2....... Definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

3....... Instrumentation for flight under Visual Flight Rules................................................................. 2

4....... Equipment for flight under Instrument Flight Rules................................................................. 3

5....... Windshield clear vision equipment........................................................................................ 4

6....... Recording equipment........................................................................................................... 4

7....... Assigned altitude indicator and altitude alerting system.......................................................... 5

8....... Radiation indicator............................................................................................................... 6

9....... Ground proximity warning system......................................................................................... 6

9A..... Directions relating to use of navigation computer systems..................................................... 8

9B..... Directions relating to carriage and use of automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast equipment            10

9C..... Standards for Mode S transponder equipment..................................................................... 12

10..... Serviceability..................................................................................................................... 13

          Appendix I......................................................................................................................... 15

          Appendix II........................................................................................................................ 16

          Appendix III........................................................................................................................ 18

          Appendix IV....................................................................................................................... 19

          Appendix V........................................................................................................................ 20

          Appendix VI....................................................................................................................... 21

          Appendix VII...................................................................................................................... 22

          Appendix VIII..................................................................................................................... 24

          Appendix IX....................................................................................................................... 25

          Appendix X........................................................................................................................ 26

          Appendix XI....................................................................................................................... 27

          Notes to Civil Aviation Order 20.18...................................................................................... 30

 

Section 20.18

Aircraft equipment — basic operational requirements

1          Application

                 This section applies to all Australian registered aircraft.

Note   Particular attention is drawn to the fact that this section does not include requirements for oxygen equipment, radio apparatus or emergency equipment which are specified in Civil Aviation Orders sections 20.4 and 20.11 respectively.

2          Definitions

                 In this section, unless a contrary intention appears:

minimum equipment list means a list that provides for the operation of aircraft with permissible unserviceabilities, subject to compliance with such conditions, if any, as CASA directs under subregulation 37 (2) of the Regulations.

permissible unserviceability means any defect or damage that CASA has approved under subregulation 37 (1) of the Regulations as a permissible unserviceability.

TAWS-B+ system means a terrain awareness and warning system that is equipped with a visual display and complies with the requirements for Class B equipment expressed in TSO-C151, TSO-C151a or TSO-C151b.

the Regulations means the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.

3          Instrumentation for flight under Visual Flight Rules

RPT aeroplanes and large charter aeroplanes

       3.1     An aeroplane engaged in:

(a)   a regular public transport operation (RPT); or

(b)   a charter operation that has maximum take-off weight exceeding 5 700 kg — a charter operation;

                 may only be operated under the V.F.R. if it is equipped with the following:

(c)   the instruments specified in Appendix II;

(d)   any other instruments and indicators specified in the aeroplane’s flight manual.

Note   V.F.R. and flight manual are defined in subregulation 2 (1) of CAR 1988.

Helicopters

       3.2     A helicopter may only be operated under the V.F.R. if it is equipped with the following:

(a)   the instruments specified in Appendix VI;

(b)   any other instruments and indicators specified in the helicopter’s flight manual.

Hot air balloons and hot air airships

       3.3     A hot air balloon and a hot air airship may only be operated under the V.F.R. if the balloon or airship is equipped with the following:

(a)   the instruments specified in Appendix X;

(b)   any other instruments and indicators specified in the flight manual of the balloon or airship.

Other aircraft in private, aerial work or charter operations

       3.4     An aircraft:

(a)   engaged in a private, aerial work or charter operation; and

(b)   not mentioned in paragraphs 3.1 to 3.3;

                 may only be operated under the V.F.R. if it is equipped with the following:

(c)   the instruments specified in Appendix I;

(d)   any other instruments and indicators specified in the aircraft’s flight manual.

4          Equipment for flight under Instrument Flight Rules

       4.1     An aeroplane shall not be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules unless it is equipped with:

(a)   the flight and navigation instruments specified in Appendixes II, III and IV to this section as applicable; and

(b)   any other instruments or indicators specified in the aeroplane flight manual; and

(c)   the minimum lighting equipment specified in Appendix V to this section; and

(e)   in the case of single pilot regular public transport operations, earphones for the pilot with boom or throat microphone and a press to transmit control on the control column. The earphones and microphone shall be compatible with the radio installation in the aeroplane, and shall be used by the pilot during flight.

    4.1A     Subject to paragraphs 4.1B and 4.1C, an aeroplane engaged:

(a)   in regular public transport operations; or

(b)   in charter operations; or

(c)   in aerial work operations as an air ambulance or for a flying doctor service;

                 must not be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules unless it is equipped with a serviceable automatic pilot approved by CASA that has the following capabilities:

(d)   a capability of operating the flight controls to maintain flight and manoeuvre the aeroplane about the roll and pitch axis;

(e)   an automatic heading capability;

(f)    an altitude hold capability.

Note   For the purpose of meeting the requirements of subparagraph 4.1A (d), an automatic pilot is taken to have the capability of manoeuvring the aeroplane about the pitch axis if it does so solely to restore the selected altitude after a disturbance.

     4.1B     In spite of paragraph 4.1A, an aeroplane referred to in that paragraph that is not equipped with an automatic pilot in accordance with that paragraph may be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules, if the aeroplane:

(a)   is equipped with fully functioning dual controls; and

(b)   has 2 control seats, with 1 control seat occupied by the pilot in command of the aeroplane and the other by a person who holds a commercial pilot (aeroplane) licence or an air transport pilot (aeroplane) licence with:

             (i)  an endorsement for that type of aeroplane; and

            (ii)  at least a co-pilot (aeroplane) instrument rating.

     4.1C     If the automatic pilot fitted to an aeroplane engaged:

(a)   in charter operations; or

(b)   in aerial work operations as an air ambulance or for a flying doctor service;

                 loses a capability referred to in paragraph 4.1A, the aeroplane may, if the pilot is satisfied that it is safe to do so, be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules by a single pilot at any time within the period of 3 days commencing on the day on which the automatic pilot loses the capability.

    4.1D     Paragraphs 4.1A, 4.1B and 4.1C apply in addition to, and not in derogation of, paragraph 4.1.

       4.2     A helicopter shall not be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules unless it is equipped with:

(a)   the flight and navigation instruments specified in Appendixes VII, VIII, or IX to this section as applicable; and

(b)   any other instruments, indicators or equipment specified in the helicopter flight manual; and

(c)   the minimum lighting equipment specified in Appendix V to this section; and

(d)   an approved automatic pilot, or automatic stabilisation system, for other than night VFR flights except that in the case of such flight which will involve more than 30 minutes flight over water or over land areas where the helicopter’s altitude cannot be maintained by reference to ground lighting, an approved autostabilisation system or a 2 pilot crew shall be carried.

Note   Because of considerable variation in the individual stability characteristics of different helicopter types and in the associated automatic pilot and automatic stabilisation systems approved by the certification authority in the country of certification, it is not possible to detail precise specifications for this equipment. This consideration also applies to the flight crew complement. Accordingly each application for approval to conduct I.F.R category operations will be individually assessed on the basis of the specific helicopter type and its associated automatic pilot or autostabilisation equipment and the proposed operating environment.

5          Windshield clear vision equipment

       5.1     An aircraft with a flight compartment windshield may only be operated under the V.F.R. or the I.F.R. if it has a means of clearing heavy outside precipitation from the windshield at a rate which ensures an unobstructed view for each pilot.

Note   I.F.R. is defined in subregulation 2 (1) of CAR 1988.

       5.2     Paragraph 5.1 does not apply for:

(a)   an aeroplane with a MTOW less than 5 700 kg; or

(b)   a helicopter with a MTOW less than 2 750 kg maximum;

                 if the windshield design satisfies CASA that moderate rain will not impair the pilot’s view for take-off, landing or normal flight.

6          Recording equipment

       6.1     An aircraft of maximum take-off weight:

(a)   In excess of 5 700 kg and which is:

             (i)  turbine powered; or

            (ii)  of a type first certificated in its country of manufacture on or after 1 July 1965;

        shall not be flown (except in agricultural operations) unless it is equipped with an approved flight data recorder and an approved cockpit voice recorder system;

(b)   Less than or equal to 5 700 kg and which is:

             (i)  pressurised; and

            (ii)  turbine powered by more than 1 engine; and

           (iii)  of a type certificated in its country of manufacture for operation with more than eleven places; and

           (iv)  issued with its initial Australian Certificate of airworthiness after 1 January 1988;

        shall not be flown unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder system.

    6.1A     Paragraph 6.1 does not apply to an aircraft for which there is in force an airworthiness certificate in the agricultural category or the restricted category.

       6.2     The flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder systems installed in an aircraft under this section:

(a)   must comply with the requirements of section 103.19 and 103.20 respectively; and

(b)   will be considered for approval when CASA has equipment available allowing replay of the recordings.

       6.3     Where an aircraft is required to be so equipped by this section, the flight data recorder system shall be operated continuously from the moment when the aircraft commences to taxi under its own power for the purpose of flight until the conclusion of taxiing after landing.

       6.4     Where an aircraft is required to be so equipped by this section, the cockpit voice recorder system shall be operated continuously from the start of the use of the check list before starting engines for the purpose of flight until completion of the final check list at the termination of the flight.

       6.5     Where an aircraft is required to be so equipped by this section the operator shall ensure that:

(a)   the flight data recorder retains its last 25 hours of recording; and

(b)   the cockpit voice recorder retains its last 30 minutes of recording; and

(c)   data from the last 2 occasions on which the flight data recorder system was calibrated from which the accuracy of the system can be determined are preserved.

       6.6     The operator of an aircraft which is required by this section to be equipped with recorders shall take action to ensure that during ground maintenance periods the recorders are not activated unless the maintenance is associated with the flight data recording equipment or with the aircraft engines.

       6.7     An aircraft required to be fitted with a flight data recorder system and/or a cockpit voice recorder system may operate with an unserviceable recorder system for a period of 21 days commencing on the day on which the system was determined to be unserviceable providing that:

(a)   the aircraft does not depart from an aerodrome where staff and equipment are available to replace the unserviceable units; and

(b)   where the aircraft is required to be fitted with both a flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder system, 1 system is serviceable; and

(c)   the aircraft is not operating training or test flights.

7          Assigned altitude indicator and altitude alerting system

       7.1     Piston engined aircraft and unpressurised turbine engine aircraft operating above 15 000 feet in controlled airspace under Instrument Flight Rules (except night V.M.C.) shall be equipped with an altitude alerting system.

       7.2     Pressurised turbine engined aircraft operating in controlled airspace under Instrument Flight Rules (except night V.M.C.) shall be equipped with an altitude alerting system.

       7.3     Unless equipped with an altitude alerting system, an aircraft operating in controlled airspace under Instrument Flight Rules (except night V.M.C.) shall be equipped with an assigned altitude indicator.

       7.4     An altitude alerting system or an assigned altitude indicator shall be so designed and located that:

(a)   it can be readily adjusted for setting from each pilot seat; and

(b)   the assigned altitude/flight level display is clearly discernible by day and night to all operating flight crew members whose duties involve altitude/flight level assignment monitoring; and

(c)   altitude/flight levels may be pre-selected unambiguously in increments commensurate with levels at which the aircraft may be operated.

       7.5     The assigned altitude indicator shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of CASA.

       7.6     The altitude alerting system shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of CASA and be capable of:

(a)   alerting the pilot upon approaching or departing from a pre-selected level in both climb and descent by aural and/or visual signals in sufficient time to establish level flight at the pre-selected level, except that altitude alerting systems in aircraft first registered in Australia before 1 January 1983 need not alert the pilot when departing from a pre-selected altitude; and

(b)   providing the required signals from sea level to the highest operating altitude approved for the aircraft in which it is installed; and

(c)   being tested without separate equipment to determine proper operation of the alerting signals; and

(d)   accepting necessary barometric pressure settings in millibars if the system or device operates on barometric pressure.

8          Radiation indicator

                        All aeroplanes intended to be operated above 49 000 feet shall carry equipment to measure and indicate continuously the dose rate of total cosmic radiation being received (i.e. the total of ionizing and neutron radiation of galactic and solar origin) and the cumulative dose on each flight. The display unit shall be readily visible to a flight crew member.

9          Ground proximity warning system

       9.1     Subject to paragraphs 9.1A and 9.1C, a turbine engined aeroplane that:

(a)   has a maximum take-off weight of more than 15 000 kg or is carrying 10 or more passengers; and

(b)   is engaged in regular public transport, or charter, operations;

                 must not be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules unless it is fitted with a ground proximity warning system that meets the requirements of section 108.36.

    9.1A     Paragraph 9.1 does not apply to an aeroplane if:

(a)   at any time before the aeroplane is operated under the Instrument Flight Rules in regular public transport, or charter, operations, the person who was, at that time, the holder of the AOC authorising the operation of the aeroplane has given to CASA an undertaking in an approved form that the aeroplane will, on or before 1 January 2001, be fitted with an approved ground proximity warning system that has a predictive terrain hazard warning function; and

(b)   the operations manual provided by the holder of the AOC authorising the operation of the aeroplane sets out the details of a course of training in awareness of controlled flight into terrain; and

(c)   the pilot in command of the aeroplane, and (if applicable) any other pilot occupying a control seat in the aeroplane, have completed the course of training.

     9.1B     Paragraphs 9.1 and 9.1A cease to have effect at the end of 31 December 2000.

     9.1C     A turbine engined aeroplane that:

(a)   has a maximum take-off weight of more than 15 000 kg or is carrying 10 or more passengers; and

(b)   is engaged in regular public transport, or charter, operations;

                 must not be operated under the Instrument Flight Rules unless it is fitted with:

(c)   an approved ground proximity warning system (GPWS) that has a predictive terrain hazard warning function; or

(d)   if paragraph 9.1CA applies — a GPWS that meets the requirements of section 108.36 (a section 108.36 GPWS); or

(e)   if the aeroplane has a maximum take-off weight of 5 700 kg or less, but is carrying 10 or more passengers — a TAWS-B+ system.

   9.1CA     Up to the end of June 2005, an aeroplane may be fitted with a section 108.36 GPWS:

(a)   if, immediately before 1 January 2001, paragraph 9.1 applied to the aeroplane; or

(b)   if the aeroplane first becomes an Australian aeroplane on or after 1 January 2001 (unless it is an aircraft in respect of which an undertaking has been given under paragraph 5.3 of section 82.1 or paragraph 10.3 of section 82.3 or 82.5, as in force immediately before 1 January 2001); or

(c)   if:

             (i)  immediately before 1 January 2001, paragraph 9.1 did not apply to the aeroplane because of paragraph 9.1A; and

            (ii)  the holder of the AOC authorising the operation of the aeroplane (the AOC holder) provides satisfactory evidence to CASA, in accordance with paragraph 9.1CB, that it is not possible to fit the aeroplane with an approved GPWS that has a predictive terrain hazard warning function.

   9.1CB     For the purposes of sub-subparagraph 9.1CA (c) (ii), evidence is taken to be satisfactory only if it is:

(a)   a statement in writing to the AOC holder from the manufacturer of an approved GPWS that has a predictive terrain hazard warning function; or

(b)   a statutory declaration by the AOC holder;

                 to the effect that the FAA’s list of supplemental type certificates does not include any reference to a supplemental type certificate relating to the fitting of an aeroplane of the same type with an approved GPWS that has that function.

    9.1D     For the purposes of this subsection:

(a)   a GPWS has a predictive terrain hazard warning function if it employs an aircraft navigation system and a terrain data base to compute a display of terrain along, and in the vicinity of, the flight path of an airborne aeroplane in order to provide the flight crew of the aeroplane with a warning of any terrain that may endanger the aeroplane if its flight path were to remain unchanged; and

(b)   the GPWS is taken to be approved only if it meets:

             (i)  the requirements set out in FAA notice N 8110.64 as in force on 15 August 1999; or

            (ii)  the standard for the Class A Terrain Awareness Warning System specified in TSO C-151, TSO C-151a or TSO C-151b.

       9.2     A ground proximity warning system shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of CASA to be capable of providing automatically a timely and distinctive warning to the flight crew when the aeroplane is in potentially hazardous proximity to the earth’s surface.

       9.3     Except as provided in paragraph 9.4 an aeroplane required to be fitted with a ground proximity warning system shall not commence a flight with that equipment unserviceable.

       9.4     An aeroplane required to be fitted with a ground proximity warning system shall not depart with that equipment unserviceable from an aerodrome where facilities are available to repair or replace the ground proximity warning system and in no case shall an aeroplane be operated with its ground proximity warning system unserviceable for a period exceeding 24 hours from the time the equipment was determined to be unserviceable.

9A       Directions relating to use of navigation computer systems

    9A.1     This subsection applies in relation to navigation computers in an aircraft for use with an RNAV system or GNSS and sets out CASA’s directions for the purposes of regulation 232A of the Regulations.

    9A.2     In this subsection:

AIRAC cycle means the Aeronautical Information Regulation And Control cycle, in accordance with Annex 15, Aeronautical Information Services (AIS), of the Chicago Convention, which documents and defines a series of common dates, and an associated standard aeronautical information publication procedure, for each Convention State.

current, for a navigation database at a particular time, means updated in compliance with the requirements of the AIRAC cycle applying at the particular time.

GNSS means the Global Navigation Satellite System installed in an aircraft to continually compute the position of the aircraft by use of the GPS.

GPS means the Global Positioning System.

IRU or inertial reference unit is a type of inertial sensor which uses gyroscopes and accelerometers to determine a moving aircraft’s rotational attitude and translational position over a period of time.

MEL means an aircraft’s minimum equipment list, as approved by the State of registration of the aircraft.

navigation computer means a computer installed in, or carried on, an aircraft for the principal purpose of navigating, or assisting in the navigation of, the aircraft.

RNAV means a method of navigation which permits an aircraft to operate on any desired flight path within one or both of the following:

(a)   the coverage of ground-based or space-based navigation aids;

(b)   the limits of the capability of a self-contained navigation system with which the aircraft is equipped.

RNAV system means a navigation system using positioning inputs from GNSS or an inertial reference unit.

State means a nation state that is a signatory to the Chicago Convention.

    9A.3     If particulars of way points and navigation aids that are published in maps and charts required to be carried in the aircraft under paragraph 233 (1) (h) of the Regulations are included in a navigation computer’s data base, then those particulars must be in a form that cannot be modified by the aircraft operator or flight crew members.

    9A.4     Subject to paragraph 9A.5, a navigation computer’s data base referred to in paragraph 9A.3 must be current and provided by a person who is an approved supplier for the purposes of paragraph 233 (1) (h) of the Regulations.

    9A.5     The reference in paragraph 9A.4 to currency does not apply to an aircraft (an exempted aircraft):

(a)   during flight — if the navigation database expires because it has not been updated for the requirements of a new AIRAC cycle which commenced during the flight; or

(b)   for a period of not more than 72 hours from the time the navigation computer database expires — but only if currency is not required under the MEL for the aircraft.

    9A.6     If an aircraft’s navigation computer database is to be used for the navigation purposes of an exempted aircraft under paragraph 9A.5, then:

(a)   before each flight, the computer’s database navigation fixes, and the coordinates, frequencies, status (as applicable), and suitability of navigation facilities, required for the intended route must be verified by approved sources of navigation information other than the navigation computer database itself; and

(b)   radio navigation aids that are used for departure, arrival and approach procedures must be tuned in to and identified; and

(c)   despite paragraph 9A.5, an RNAV departure, arrival or approach procedure must not be used if it is one that has been changed in the latest AIRAC cycle and the aircraft’s navigation computer database is not current for the change; and

(d)   if an aircraft is to commence, or continue, a flight with a navigation computer database that is not current for the AIRAC cycle, the operator or the pilot in command must advise air traffic control before the flight commences, or on first contact during continued flight.

    9A.7     For an aircraft:

(a)   that is engaged in en route or terminal navigation; and

(b)   whose navigation computer database complies with paragraphs 9A.3 and 9A.4; and

(c)   that is not an exempted aircraft under paragraph 9A.5;

                 each navigation computer database selected track and distance between way points is to be cross-checked for accuracy and reasonableness by reference to:

(d)   current en route and area charts; or

(e)   the flight plan; or

(f)    the navigation log.

    9A.8     Operating instructions for a navigation computer, supplied by the supplier of the computer, must be carried in the aircraft, in a place easily accessible to the computer’s user.

    9A.9     If the aircraft is engaged in commercial operations, the operating instructions must be incorporated in the aircraft’s operations manual.

  9A.10     Manually entered data in a navigation computer must be cross-checked by not less than 2 flight crew members for accuracy.

9A.11  In the case of a single pilot operation, manually entered data in a navigation computer must be checked against other aeronautical information, such as current maps and charts carried in the aircraft in accordance with paragraph 233 (1) (h) of the Regulations.

9B       Directions relating to carriage and use of automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast equipment

     9B.1     This subsection applies to aircraft engaged in private, aerial work, charter or regular public transport operations in Australian territory.

     9B.2     In subsections 9B and 9C, and Appendix XI:

ADS-B means automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast.

ADS-B test flight means a flight to prove ADS-B transmitting equipment that is newly installed on the aircraft undertaking the flight.

aircraft address means a unique code of 24 binary bits assigned to an aircraft by:

(a)   CASA when the aircraft is registered on the Australian Civil Aircraft Register; or

(b)   the relevant RAAO for the aircraft when the aircraft is placed on its aircraft register.

approved equipment configuration means an equipment configuration that:

(a)   meets the conditions for approval set out in Appendix XI; or

(b)   is approved in writing by CASA.

Note   Equipment configurations approved by CASA are published in Appendix D of Advisory Circular 21-45.

ATC means air traffic control.

ATSO means Australian Technical Standard Order of CASA.

EASA means the European Aviation Safety Agency.

EASA AMC 20-24 means EASA document AMC 20-24 titled Certification Considerations for Enhanced ATS in Non-Radar Areas using ADS-B Surveillance (ADS-B-NRA) via 1090 MHZ Extended Squitter, dated 2 May 2008.

EHS DAPs means enhanced surveillance downlink of aircraft parameters.

ETSO means European Technical Standard Order of the EASA.

FAA means the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States.

FDE means Fault Detection and Exclusion, a feature of a GNSS receiver that excludes faulty satellites from position computation.

FL 290 means flight level 290.

Note   Flight level 290 is defined in subregulation 2 (1) of CAR 1988.

GNSS means the Global Navigation Satellite System installed in an aircraft to continually compute the position of the aircraft by use of the GPS.

GPS means the Global Positioning System.

HPL means the Horizontal Protection Level of the GNSS position of an aircraft as an output of the GNSS receiver or system.

Mode A is a transponder function that transmits a 4-digit octal identification code for an aircraft when interrogated by an SSR, the code having been assigned to the aircraft by ATC for the relevant flight sector.

Mode A code is the 4-digit octal identification code transmitted by a Mode A transponder function.

Mode C is a transponder function that transmits a 4-digit octal code for an aircraft’s pressure altitude when interrogated by an SSR.

Mode C code is the 4-digit octal identification code transmitted by a Mode C transponder function.

Mode S is a monopulse radar interrogation technique that improves the accuracy of the azimuth and range information of an aircraft, and uses a unique aircraft address to selectively call individual aircraft.

NAA has the same meaning as in regulation 1.4 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

Note   “NAA, for a country other than Australia, means:

(a)     the national airworthiness authority of the country; or

(b)     EASA, in relation to any function or task that EASA carries out on behalf of the country.”

NIC means Navigation Integrity Category as specified in paragraph 2.2.3.2.7.2.6 of RTCA/DO-260A.

NUCp means Navigation Uncertainty Category – Position as specified in paragraph 2.2.8.1.5 of RTCA/DO‑260.

RAAO means a recreational aviation administration organisation that is recognised by CASA.

RTCA/DO-229D means document RTCA/DO-229D titled Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Global Positioning System/Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne Equipment, dated 13 December 2006, of the RTCA Inc. of Washington D.C. USA (RTCA Inc.).

RTCA/DO-260 means RTCA Inc. document RTCA/DO-260 titled Minimum Operational Performance Standards for 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast, dated 13 September 2000.

RTCA/DO-260A means RTCA Inc. document RTCA/DO-260A titled Minimum Operational Performance Standards for 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services – Broadcast (TIS‑B), dated 10 April 2003.

SA means Selective Availability, and is a function of the GPS that has the effect of degrading the accuracy of the computed GPS position of a GNSS-equipped aircraft.

SSR means a secondary surveillance radar system that is used by ATC to detect an aircraft equipped with a radar transponder.

TSO means Technical Standard Order of the FAA.

     9B.3     If an aircraft carries ADS-B transmitting equipment for operational use in Australian territory, the equipment must comply with an approved equipment configuration.

     9B.4     If an aircraft carries serviceable ADS-B transmitting equipment for operational use in Australian territory, the equipment must transmit:

(a)   a flight identification that corresponds exactly to the aircraft identification mentioned on the flight notification filed with air traffic control (ATC) for the flight; or

(b)   if no flight notification is filed for the flight — a flight identification that is:

             (i)  for an aircraft registered on the Australian Civil Aircraft Register and operating wholly within Australian territory — the aircraft’s registration mark; or

            (ii)  for an Australian aircraft registered by a RAAO — in accordance with the organisation’s operations manual; or

(c)       another flight identification directed or approved by ATC.

     9B.5     If an aircraft carries serviceable ADS-B transmitting equipment that complies with an approved equipment configuration, the equipment must be operated continuously during the flight in all airspace at all altitudes unless the pilot is directed or approved otherwise by ATC.

     9B.6     If an aircraft carries ADS-B transmitting equipment which does not comply with an approved equipment configuration, the aircraft must not fly in Australian territory unless the equipment is:

(a)   deactivated; or

(b)   set to transmit only a value of zero for the NUCp or NIC.

Note   It is considered equivalent to deactivation if NUCp or NIC is set to continually transmit only a value of zero.

     9B.7     However, the equipment need not be deactivated as mentioned in paragraph 9B.6 if the aircraft is undertaking an ADS-B test flight in VMC in airspace below FL 290.

     9B.8     Subject to paragraph 9B.9, on and after 12 December 2013, if an aircraft operates at or above FL 290, it must carry serviceable ADS‑B transmitting equipment that complies with an approved equipment configuration.

     9B.9     Paragraph 9B.8 does not apply to an aircraft             if:

(a)   the aircraft owner, operator or pilot has written authorisation from CASA for the operation of the aircraft without the ADS-B transmitting equipment; or

(b)   the equipment is unserviceable for a flight, and each of the following applies:

             (i)  the flight takes place within 3 days of the discovery of the unserviceability;

            (ii)  subparagraph 10.1 (a), (b) or (c) applies for the flight;

           (iii)  ATC clears the flight before it commences despite the unserviceability.

9C       Standards for Mode S transponder equipment

     9C.1     This subsection applies to an aircraft engaged in private, aerial work, charter or regular public transport operations.

     9C.2     If the aircraft carries Mode S transponder equipment (the equipment), the equipment must meet the standards set out in this subsection.

     9C.3     The equipment must be of a type that is authorised by:

(a)   the FAA, in accordance with TSO-C112 as in force on 5 February 1986, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(b)   EASA, in accordance with ETSO-C112a as in force on 24 October 2003, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(c)   CASA, in accordance with an instrument of approval of the type.

Note 1   CASA Advisory Circular 21-46 provides guidelines on Mode S transponder equipment.

Note 2   If Mode S transponder equipment incorporates ADS-B functionality, the standards set out in subsection 9B for ADS-B transmitting equipment will also apply to the Mode S transponder equipment.

     9C.4     The aircraft address entered into the equipment must exactly correspond to the aircraft address assigned to the aircraft by CASA or the relevant RAAO.

     9C.5     The equipment must transmit each of the following when interrogated on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome or in flight:

(a)   the aircraft address;

(b)   the Mode A code;

(c)   the Mode C code;

(d)   subject to paragraph 9C.7, the aircraft flight identification in accordance with paragraph 9C.6.

     9C.6     The aircraft flight identification must:

(a)   if a flight notification is filed with ATC for the flight — correspond exactly with the aircraft identification mentioned on the flight notification; or

(b)   if no flight notification is filed with ATC for the flight:

             (i)  for an aircraft registered on the Australian Civil Aircraft Register — be the aircraft registration mark; or

            (ii)  for an Australian aircraft registered by a RAAO — be in accordance with the RAAO’s operations manual; or

(c)       be another flight identification directed or approved for use by ATC.

     9C.7     Mode S transponder transmission of the aircraft flight identification is optional for any aircraft that was first registered in Australia before 9 February 2012 (an older aircraft). However, if an older aircraft is equipped to transmit, and transmits, an aircraft flight identification then that aircraft flight identification must be in accordance with paragraph 9C.6.

     9C.8     If the equipment transmits any Mode S EHS DAPs, the transmitted DAPs must comply with the standards set out in paragraph 3.1.2.10.5.2.3 and Table 3-10 of Volume IV, Surveillance and Collision Avoidance Systems, of Annex 10 of the Chicago Convention.

Note 1   Paragraph 3.1.2.10.5.2.3 includes 3.1.2.10.5.2.3.1, 3.1.2.10.5.2.3.2 and 3.1.2.10.5.2.3.3.

Note 2   Australian Mode S SSR are EHS DAPs-capable, and operational use of EHS DAPs is to be introduced in Australia. Implementation of Mode S EHS DAPs transmissions that are not in accordance with the ICAO standards may be misleading to ATC. Operators need to ensure that correct parameters are being transmitted.

     9C.9     If the equipment is carried in an aircraft first registered in Australia on or after 9 February 2012:

(a)   having a certificated maximum take-off weight above 5 700 kg; or

(b)   that is capable of normal operation at a maximum cruising true air speed above 250 knots;

                 the equipment’s receiving and transmitting antennae must:

(c)   be located in the upper and lower fuselage; and

(d)   operate in diversity, as specified in paragraphs 3.1.2.10.4 to 3.1.2.10.4.5 (inclusive) of Volume IV, Surveillance and Collision Avoidance Systems, of Annex 10 of the Chicago Convention.

Note   Paragraph 3.1.2.10.4.2.1 is recommendatory only.

10        Serviceability

     10.1     In the case of a charter or regular public transport aircraft, all instruments and equipment fitted to the aircraft must be serviceable before take-off, unless:

(a)   flight with unserviceable instruments or equipment has been approved by CASA, subject to such conditions as CASA specifies; or

(b)   the unserviceability is a permissible unserviceability set out in the minimum equipment list for the aircraft and any applicable conditions under subregulation 37 (2) of the Regulations have been complied with; or

(c)   CASA has approved the flight with the unserviceable instrument or equipment and any applicable conditions that CASA has specified in writing have been complied with; or

(d)   the unserviceable instrument or equipment is a passenger convenience item only and does not affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.

10.1A  A private or aerial work aircraft must not be operated:

(a)   under the V.F.R., unless:

             (i)  all instruments and equipment required to be fitted to the aircraft under subsection 3 are serviceable before take-off; or

            (ii)  CASA has approved the flight with the unserviceable instrument or equipment and any applicable conditions that CASA has specified in writing have been complied with; or

(b)   under the I.F.R., unless:

             (i)  all instruments and equipment required to be fitted to the aircraft under subsection 4 are serviceable before take-off; or

            (ii)  CASA has approved the flight with the unserviceable instrument or equipment and any applicable conditions that CASA has specified in writing have been complied with.

     10.2     Where flight is conducted with unserviceable instruments or equipment under the provisions of paragraph 10.1 or 10.1A, the unserviceable instruments or equipment shall be prominently placarded ‘UNSERVICEABLE’ or removed from the aircraft.

Note   Where an instrument or piece of equipment performs more than 1 function, it is permissible to placard as unserviceable only the function(s) which are unserviceable.

     10.3     The holder of an Air Operator’s Certificate authorising a regular public transport operation must:

(a)   have a minimum equipment list or lists for the aircraft used to conduct those operations; and

(b)   include each list in the operations manual for the aircraft to which that list applies.

     10.4     The holder of an Air Operator’s Certificate authorising charter operations:

(a)   may have a minimum equipment list or lists for the aircraft used to conduct those operations; and

(b)   must include each list in the operations manual for the aircraft to which that list applies.

Appendix I

Instruments required for flight under Visual Flight Rules

(Limited to aircraft specified in subsection 3 paragraph 3.1)

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required for flights under the Visual Flight Rules are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system; and

(b)   an altimeter, with a readily adjustable pressure datum setting scale graduated in millibars; and

   (c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds. This may be carried on the person of the pilot or navigator.

        2     In addition to the instruments required under paragraph 1, aircraft, other than helicopters, engaged in charter or aerial work operations and operating under the Visual Flight Rules, shall be equipped with:

(a)   a turn and slip indicator (agricultural aeroplanes may be equipped with a slip indicator only); and

(b)   an outside air temperature indicator when operating from an aerodrome at which ambient air temperature is not available from ground-based instruments.

Appendix II

Instruments required for:

     (i)  aeroplanes engaged in regular public transport operations; and

    (ii)  aeroplanes engaged in charter operations which have a maximum take-off weight greater than 5 700 kg

        1     The flight and navigation instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system with means of preventing malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing; and

(b)   2 sensitive pressure altimeters; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds; and

(e)   a rate of climb and descent indicator (vertical speed indicator); and

(f)    an outside air temperature indicator; and

(g)   2 attitude indicators (artificial horizons); and

(h)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope or equivalent approved by CASA); and

(i)    a turn and slip indicator except that only a slip indicator is required when a third attitude indicator usable through flight attitudes of 360 degrees of pitch and roll is installed in accordance with subparagraph (k) of this Appendix; and

(j)    a means of indicating whether the power supply to those instruments requiring power is working satisfactorily; and

(k)   in turbo-jet aeroplanes having a maximum take-off weight greater than 5 700 kg and in turbo-prop aeroplanes having a maximum take‑off weight greater than 18 000 kg a third attitude indicator which:

             (i)  is powered from a source independent of the electrical generating system; and

            (ii)  continues to provide reliable indications for a minimum of 30 minutes after total failure of the electrical generating system; and

           (iii)  is operative without selection after total failure of the electrical generating system; and

           (iv)  is located on the instrument panel in a position which will make it plainly visible to and usable by any pilot at his station; and

            (v)  is appropriately lighted during all phases of operation; and

(l)    in turbo-jet aeroplanes with operating limitations expressed in terms of Mach number, a Mach number indicator (Machmeter).

2    (a)    For aeroplanes above 5 700 kg maximum take-off weight, the instruments used by the pilot in command and which are specified in subparagraphs 1 (a), (b), (e) and (l) of this Appendix shall be capable of being connected either to a normal or an alternate static source but not both sources simultaneously. Alternatively the aeroplane may be fitted with 2 independent static sources each consisting of a balanced pair of flush static ports of which 1 is used for the instruments specified above. Instruments and equipment other than flight instruments provided for use by the pilot in command, shall not be connected to the normal static system that operates the instruments of the pilot in command;

(b)   for aeroplanes not above 5 700 kg maximum take-off weight, the instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (a), (b), (e) and (l) of this Appendix shall be capable of being connected to either a normal or alternate static source but not both sources simultaneously. Alternatively the aeroplane may be fitted with a balanced pair of flush static ports.

        3     The instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (g), (h) and (i) of this Appendix shall have duplicated sources of power supply.

        4     CASA may, having regard to the type of aeroplane, approve an attitude indicator incorporated in an automatic pilot system being 1 of the 2 attitude indicators required by subparagraph 1 (g) of this Appendix.

        5     A gyro-magnetic type of remote indicating compass installed to meet the requirements of subparagraph 1 (c) (ii) of this Appendix may also be considered to meet the requirement for a heading indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (h) of this Appendix, provided that it has a duplicated power supply.

        6     For Visual Flight Rules flight, the following instruments may be unserviceable:

(a)   the attitude indicator required by paragraph 1 (k);

(b)   1 of the attitude indicators required by paragraph 1 (g) provided that the attitude indicator required by paragraph 1 (k) is serviceable or an attitude indicator has been provided to meet the requirements of paragraph 1 (i) and is serviceable;

(c)   the turn and slip indicator or slip indicator and attitude indicator required by paragraph 1 (i).

Appendix III

Instruments required for aeroplanes with a maximum take‑off weight not greater than 5 700 kg engaged in charter operations under the Instrument Flight Rules (except night V.M.C.) excluding freight only charter operations

        1     The flight and navigation instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system with means of preventing malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing; and

(b)   2 sensitive pressure altimeters; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds; and

(e)   a rate of climb and descent indicator (vertical speed indicator); and

(f)    an outside air temperature indicator; and

(g)   2 attitude indicators (artificial horizons); and

(h)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope or equivalent approved by CASA); and

(i)    a turn and slip indicator except that only a slip indicator is required when a third attitude indicator usable through flight attitude of 360 degrees pitch and roll is installed; and

(j)    a means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instruments is working satisfactorily; and

(k)   in turbo-jet aeroplanes with operating limitations expressed in terms of Mach number, a Mach number indicator (Machmeter).

        2     The instruments specified in 1 (a), (b), (e) and (k) of this Appendix shall be capable of being connected to either a normal or alternate static source but not both sources simultaneously. Alternatively, they may be connected to a balanced pair of flush static ports.

        3     The instruments specified in 1 (g), (h) and (i) of this Appendix shall have duplicated sources of power supply.

        4     CASA may, having regard to the type of aeroplane, approve an attitude indicator incorporated in an automatic pilot system as being 1 of the 2 attitude indicators required by subparagraph 1 (g) of this Appendix.

        5     A gyro-magnetic type of remote indicating compass installed to meet the requirements of subparagraph 1 (c) (ii) of this Appendix may also be considered to meet the requirement for a heading indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (h) of this Appendix, provided it has a duplicated power supply.

Appendix IV

Instruments required for aeroplanes engaged in:

     (i)  aerial work and private operations under the Instrument Flight Rules (including night V.M.C.); and

    (ii)  charter operations under night V.M.C; and

   (iii)  Instrument Flight Rules freight only charter operations in aeroplanes with maximum take‑off weight not greater than 5 700 kg.

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system; and

(b)   a sensitive pressure altimeter; and

(c)      (i)  direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds, except that this may be omitted if it is carried on the person of the pilot or navigator; and

(e)   a rate of climb and descent indicator (vertical speed indicator) for other than night V.M.C. flights; and

(f)    an outside air temperature indicator; and

(g)   an attitude indicator (artificial horizon); and

(h)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope); and

(i)    a turn and slip indicator except that only a slip indicator is required when a second attitude indicator usable through flight attitudes of 360 degrees of pitch and roll is installed; and

(j)    means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instruments is working satisfactorily; and

(k)   except for aeroplanes engaged in night V.M.C. flights, means of preventing malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing of at least 1 airspeed indicating system.

        2     The instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (a), (b), (e) and (k) of this Appendix shall be capable of being connected to either a normal or an alternate static source but not both sources simultaneously. Alternatively, they may be connected to a balanced pair of flush static ports.

        3     Except for aeroplanes engaged in night V.M.C. private and aerial work operations the instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (g), (h) and (i) of this Appendix shall have duplicated sources of power supply unless the turn and slip indicator or the second attitude indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (i) has a source of power independent of the power operating other gyroscopic instruments.

        4     A gyro-magnetic type of remote indicating compass installed to meet the requirements of subparagraph 1 (c) (ii) of this Appendix may be considered also to meet the requirement for a heading indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (h) of this Appendix, provided that such installation complies with the power supply requirements of paragraph 3 of this Appendix.

Appendix V

Electric lighting equipment flight under the Instrument Flight Rules at night (including night V.M.C.)

The electric lighting equipment is:

        1     Instrument illumination

              illumination for all instruments and equipment, used by the flight crew, that are essential for the safe operation of the aircraft. The illumination shall be such that:

(a)   all illuminated items are easily readable or discernible, as applicable; and

(b)   its direct or reflected rays are shielded from the pilot’s eyes; and

(c)   its power supply is so arranged that in the event of the failure of the normal source of power, an alternative source is immediately available; and

(d)   it emanates from fixed installations.

        2     Intensity control

              means of controlling the intensity of the illumination of instrument lights, unless it can be demonstrated that non-dimmed instrument lights are satisfactory under all conditions of flight likely to be encountered.

        3     Landing lights

              2 landing lights except that, in accordance with the provisions of regulation 308 of the Regulations, aircraft engaged in private and aerial work operations and charter operations not carrying passengers for hire and reward are exempted from this requirement provided that 1 landing light is fitted.

Note   A single lamp having 2 separately energised filaments may be approved as meeting the requirement for 2 landing lights.

        4     Passenger compartment lights

              lights in all passenger compartments.

        5     Pilots’ compartment lights

               means of lighting the pilots’ compartment to provide illumination adequate for the study of maps and the reading of flight documents.

        6     Position and anti-collision lights

               equipment for displaying the lights prescribed in regulation 196 of the Regulations.

Note   In accordance of the provision of subregulation 195 (1) of the Regulations, position and anti-collision lights shall be displayed at night and in conditions of poor visibility.

        7     Emergency lighting

               emergency lighting as specified in (Civil Aviation Regulations 1998) Part 39-105 AD/General/4B Amdt 3 and a shock-proof electric torch for each crew member at the crew member station.

Appendix VI

Instruments required for Visual Flight Rules operations — helicopters

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system; and

(b)   a pressure altimeter with a readily adjustable pressure datum setting scale graduated in millibars; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating magnetic compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating hours, minutes and seconds. This may be carried on the person of the pilot or navigator.

        2     In addition to the instruments required under paragraph 1, helicopters engaged in regular public transport, charter or aerial work operations and operating under the Visual Flight Rules, shall be equipped with:

(a)   a slip indicator; and

(b)   an outside air temperature indicator when operating from or to a location at which ambient air temperature is not available from ground-based instruments.

 

Appendix VII

Instruments required for Instrument Flight Rules operations in helicopters (except night V.M.C.)

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required in a helicopter which is required to be operated by 2 pilots are:

(a)   2 airspeed indicators together with 1 airspeed indicating system with means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing; and

(b)   2 sensitive pressure altimeters; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds; and

(e)   2 instantaneous vertical speed indicators; and

(f)    an outside air temperature indicator; and

(g)   2 attitude indicators (artificial horizons) having a 5 inch dial presentation and a standby attitude indicator positioned so as to be usable by the pilot in command and plainly visible by both pilots by day and by night; and

(h)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope); and

(i)    2 slip indicators; and

(j)    provision to indicate whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instruments is working satisfactorily.

        2     The minimum flight and navigation instruments required in a helicopter which is operated by a single pilot are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system with means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing; and

(b)   2 sensitive pressure altimeters; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds; and

(e)   instantaneous vertical speed indicator; and

(f)    an outside air temperature indicator; and

(g)   an attitude indicator having a 5 inch dial presentation and a standby attitude indicator positioned so as to be usable by the pilot; and

(h)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope); and

(i)    a slip indicator; and

(j)    provision to indicate whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instruments is working satisfactorily.

        3     The instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (a), (b) and (e) and 2 (a), (b) and (e) of this Appendix shall be capable of being connected to more than 1 static source or shall be connected to a balanced pair of flush static ports. Instruments and equipment other than mandatory flight instruments shall not be connected to the static system that operates the instruments used by the pilot in command.

        4     The instruments specified in subparagraphs 1 (h) and 2 (h) shall have a duplicated source of power supply.

        5     The 5 inch dial attitude indicators specified in subparagraphs 1 (g) and 2 (g) shall have duplicate sources of power supply. The standby attitude indicator shall have a power source independent of the electrical generating system and shall operate independent of any other attitude indicating system installed.

        6     The standby attitude indicator installation specified in subparagraphs 1 (g) and 2 (g) shall be one in which:

(a)   the indicator complies with US Technical Standard Order C4c or equivalent specification acceptable to CASA; and

(b)   the indicator and its lighting will continue to operate for 30 minutes following the failure of the electrical power generating system without any action by the flight crew; and

(c)   the position size and lighting of the instrument display allows its use from the pilot in command’s operating station by day and by night; and

(d)   the operation is independent of other attitude indicator installations.

        7     CASA may, having regard to the type of helicopter, approve an attitude indicator incorporated in an automatic pilot system as being 1 of the 2 attitude indicators required by subparagraph 1 (g) of this Appendix.

        8     A gyro-magnetic type of remote indicating compass installed to meet the requirements of subparagraph 1 (c) (ii) and 2 (c) (ii) of this Appendix may be considered also to meet the requirement for a heading indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (h) or 2 (h) of this Appendix, provided that such installation complies with the power supply requirements of paragraph 4 of this Appendix.

        9     CASA may, having regard to the type of helicopter, and the flight presentation, response and acuity standard of the instrument concerned, approve the use of attitude indicators which have a dial presentation of less than 5 inches, in lieu of the indicators specified at paragraphs 1 (g), 2 (g) and 5 of this Appendix.

Appendix VIII

Instruments required for night V.M.C. flight in helicopters except while engaged in agricultural operations

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system; and

(b)   a sensitive pressure altimeter; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds. This may be carried on the person of the pilot or navigator; and

(e)   an outside air temperature indicator; and

(f)    an attitude indicator (artificial horizon); and

             (i)  standby attitude indicator; or

            (ii)  turn indicator; and

(g)   a heading indicator (directional gyroscope); and

(h)   a slip indicator; and

(i)    a vertical speed indicator; and

(j)    means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instruments is working satisfactorily.

        2     For operations onto vessels or platforms at sea by night an instantaneous vertical speed indicator is required in place of the vertical speed indicator specified at paragraph 1 (i) of this Appendix.

        3     The attitude indicator and standby attitude indicator or turn indicator as specified in paragraph 1 (f) of this Appendix, shall have separate and independent power sources.

        4     A gyro-magnetic type of remote indicating compass installed to meet the requirements of subparagraph 1 (c) (ii) of this Appendix may be considered also to meet the requirement for a heading indicator specified in subparagraph 1 (g) of this Appendix, provided that such installation complies with the power supply requirements of paragraph 3 of this Appendix.

Appendix IX

Instruments required for helicopters engaged in night V.M.C. agricultural operations

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required are:

(a)   an airspeed indicating system; and

(b)   a sensitive pressure altimeter; and

(c)      (i)  a direct reading magnetic compass; or

            (ii)  a remote indicating compass and a standby direct reading magnetic compass; and

(d)   an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds. This may be carried on the person of the pilot or navigator; and

(e)   an outside air temperature indicator; and

(f)    an attitude indicator (artificial horizon); and

(g)   a vertical speed indicator; and

(h)   a slip indicator; and

(i)    a means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instrument is working satisfactorily.

Appendix X

Instruments required for manned free balloons and hot air airships for flight by day under the Visual Flight Rules

        1     The flight and navigational instruments required for flight under the visual flight rules by day are:

(a)   an altimeter, with a readily adjustable pressure datum setting scale graduated in hectopascals; and

(b)   a timepiece, which may be carried on the person of the pilot, that is accurate to and readable to the nearest minute for the duration of the flight; and

(c)   a vertical speed indicator; and

(d)   in the case of a hot air airship that has a maximum permissible forward airspeed less than that attainable with the engine(s) operating at full power, an instrument capable of indicating when the maximum speed is reached; and

(e)   in the case of a hot manned free balloon or hot air airship, an envelope temperature indicator; and

(f)    in the case of a hot air manned free balloon or a hot air airship, a free air temperature indicator or an air temperature indicator that provides readings convertible to free air temperature; and

(g)   in the case of a pressurised hot air airship, an internal pressure indicator.

Appendix XI

Part A

            Approved equipment configuration

     1     An equipment configuration is approved if it complies with the standards specified in Part B or Part C of this Appendix.

Part B

            ADS-B transmitting equipment — standard for approval

     2     ADS-B transmitting equipment must be of a type that:

(a)   is authorised by:

             (i)  the FAA in accordance with TSO-C166 as in force on 20 September 2004, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

            (ii)  CASA, in writing, in accordance with:

(A)  ATSO-C1004a as in force on 16 December 2009, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(B)   ATSO-C1005a as in force on 16 December 2009, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(b)   meets the following requirements:

             (i)  the type must be accepted by CASA as meeting the specifications in RTCA/DO-260 dated 13 September 2000, or a later version as in force from time to time; and

            (ii)  the type must utilise HPL at all times HPL is available; or

(c)   is otherwise authorised, in writing, by CASA for the purposes of subsection 9B of this Civil Aviation Order as being equivalent to one of the foregoing types.

            GNSS position source equipment — standard for aircraft manufactured on or after 8 December 2016

     3     For an aircraft manufactured on or after 8 December 2016, the geographical position transmitted by the ADS-B transmitting equipment must be determined by:

(a)   a GNSS receiver of a type that is authorised by the FAA in accordance with TSO‑C145a or TSO‑C146a as in force on 19 September 2002, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(b)   a GNSS receiver of a type that is authorised by the FAA in accordance with TSO-C196 as in force on 9 September 2009, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(c)   a GNSS receiver or system which meets the following requirements:

             (i)  is certified by an NAA for use in flight under the I.F.R.;

            (ii)  has included in its specification and operation the following:

(A)  FDE, computed in accordance with the definition at paragraph 1.7.3 of RTCA/DO-229D;

(B)   the output function HPL, computed in accordance with the definition at paragraph 1.7.2 of RTCA/DO-229D;

(C)   functionality that, for the purpose of HPL computation, accounts for the absence of the SA of the GPS in accordance with paragraph 1.8.1.1 of RTCA/DO-229D; or

(d)   another equivalent system authorised in writing by CASA.

Note   The following GNSS receivers meet the requirements of clause 3, namely, those certified to TSO‑C145a or TSO‑C146a, or later versions, or those manufactured to comply with TSO-C196.

            GNSS position source equipment — standard for aircraft manufactured before 8 December 2016

     4     For an aircraft manufactured before 8 December 2016, the geographical position transmitted by the ADS-B transmitting equipment must be determined by:

(a)   a GNSS receiver or system that complies with the requirements of clause 3, other than sub‑subparagraph 3 (c) (ii) (C) which is optional; or

(b)   an equivalent GNSS receiver or system that has been approved in writing by CASA.

Note   The following GNSS receivers meet the requirements of clause 4, namely, those certified to TSO‑C145a or TSO‑C146a, or later versions, or those manufactured to comply with TSO-C196. Some later versions of GNSS receivers certified to TSO-C129 may also meet the requirements, i.e. those having FDE and HPL features incorporated.

            Altitude source equipment — standard

     5     The pressure altitude transmitted by the ADS-B transmitting equipment must be determined by:

(a)   a barometric encoder of a type that is authorised by:

             (i)  the FAA in accordance with TSO-C88a as in force on 18 August 1983, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

            (ii)  EASA in accordance with ETSO-C88a as in force on 24 October 2003, or a later version as in force from time to time; or

(b)   another equivalent system authorised in writing by CASA.

            Aircraft address — standard

        6     Unless otherwise approved in writing by CASA, the ADS-B transmitting equipment must:

(a)   transmit the current aircraft address; and

(b)   allow the pilot to activate and deactivate transmission during flight.

Note   The requirement in paragraph 6 (b) is met if the ADS-B transmitting equipment has a cockpit control that enables the pilot to turn the ADS-B transmissions on and off.

Part C

            Alternative approved equipment configuration — standard for aircraft manufactured on or after 8 December 2016

          7     For an aircraft manufactured on or after 8 December 2016, an equipment configuration is approved if:

(a)   it has been certified by EASA as meeting the standards of EASA AMC 20‑24; and

(b)   the aircraft flight manual attests to the certification; and

(c)   the GNSS receiver or system complies with the requirements of clause 3 in Part B.

            Alternative approved equipment configuration — standard for aircraft manufactured before 8 December 2016

          8     For an aircraft manufactured before 8 December 2016, an equipment configuration is approved if:

(a)   it has been certified by EASA as meeting the standards of EASA AMC 20‑24; and

(b)   the aircraft flight manual attests to the certification; and

(c)   the GNSS receiver or system complies with the requirements of clause 4 in Part B.

Notes to Civil Aviation Order 20.18

Note 1

The Civil Aviation Order (in force under the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988) as shown in this compilation comprises Civil Aviation Order 20.18 amended as indicated in the Tables below.

Table of Orders

Year and
number

Date of notification
in Gazette/
registration on FRLI

Date of
commencement

Application, saving or
transitional provisions

2004 No. R19

8 December 2004

8 December 2004 (see s. 2)

 

2005 No. 1

(F2005L00126)

FRLI 27 January 2005

28 January 2005 (see s. 1)

 

2005 No. 3 (F2005L00705)

FRLI 18 March 2005

19 March 2005) (see s. 1)

 

CAO 20.18 2007 No. 1

(F2007L01688)

FRLI 18 June 2007

19 June 2007 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.18 2009 No. 1 (F2009L00213)

FRLI 5 March 2009

6 March 2009 (see s. 2).

 

CAO 20.18 2009 No. 2 (F2009L02176)

FRLI 19 June 2009

20 June 2009 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.18 2009 No. 3 (F2009L04202)

FRLI 22 December 2009

23 December 2009 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.18 2010 No. 1 (F2010L01305)

FRLI 18 May 2010

19 May 2010 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.18 2011 No. 1 (F2012L00002)

FRLI 4 January 2012

1 February 2012 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.18 2011 No. 2 (F2012L00041)

FRLI 13 January 2012

14 January 2012 (see s. 2)

 

 


Table of Amendments

ad. = added or inserted     am. = amended     rep. = repealed     rs. = repealed and substituted

Provision affected

How affected

s. 20.18

rs. 2004 No. R19

subs. 2 (definitions)

ad. 2005 No. 1

subs. 3

rs. CAO 20.18 2010 No. 1

subs. 4

am. CAO 20.18 2010 No. 1

subs. 5

rs. CAO 20.18 2010 No. 1

subs. 9

am. 2005 No. 1; am. 2005 No 3

subs. 9A

am. CAO 20.18 2011 No. 1

subs. 9B

ad. CAO 20.18 2007 No. 1

rs. CAO 20.18 2009 No. 1

am. CAO 20.18 2009 No. 2, CAO 20.18 2009 No. 3, CAO 20.18 2011 No. 2

subs. 9C

ad. CAO 20.18 2011 No. 2

Appendix XI

ad. CAO 20.18 2007 No. 1

rs. CAO 20.18 2009 No. 1

rs. CAO 20.18 2009 No. 3

am. CAO 20.18 2011 No. 2