Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

ADR 79/04 Standards/Australian Design Rules for Vehicles as made
This instrument prescribes the exhaust and evaporative emissions requirements for light vehicles in order to reduce air pollution.
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Cities and Regional Development
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 40
Registered 05 Oct 2011
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR11-Oct-2011
Tabled Senate11-Oct-2011
Table of contents.

Final Regulation Impact Statement

for

Review of Euro 5/6 Light Vehicle Emissions Standards

 

Prepared by the

Department of Infrastructure and Transport

 

 

November 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 


Glossary of TErms. 4

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 6

INTRODUCTION.. 11

1.      ASSESSING THE PROBLEM.. 12

1.1          The Nature of the Problem - Urban Air Pollution. 12

1.2          Current Status of Urban Air Quality in Australia. 14

1.3          Contribution of Motor Vehicles to Air Pollution. 14

1.4          Future Air Pollution Trends. 15

1.5          Current Vehicle and Fuel Standards. 16

1.5.1      Australian Vehicle Standards. 16

1.5.2      International Vehicle Standards. 17

1.5.3      Australian & European Fuel Standards. 19

1.5.4      Fuels and Technology Context. 20

1.6          Why is Government Action Required?. 22

2        objectives of government action.. 26

3        Description of OPTIONS. 27

3.1          Summary. 27

3.2          Option 1: Status Quo. 30

3.3          Option 2: Introduction of Euro 5/6 on earliest practical timeframes. 34

3.4          Option 3: As for Option 2, with delayed timeframe. 37

3.5          Option 4: As for Option 2, except apply to diesel    vehicles only. 38

3.6          Option 5: Introduction of Euro 5 only on earliest    practical timeframes. 39

3.7          Option 6: Introduction of Euro 6 only on earliest    practical timeframes. 40

4        Comparative Analysis of Options. 41

4.1          Impact on Vehicle Emissions. 41

4.2          Costs. 49

4.3          Health Benefits. 55

4.4          Net Benefit – Options 2, 3 & 4. 58

4.5          Sensitivity Analyses. 62

4.6          Summary of Net Benefit – Options 2, 3, 4 & Sensitivity Analyses. 69

5        consultation.. 70

5.1          Draft RIS Process. 70

5.2          Public Comment. 70

5.2.1      Summary. 70

5.2.2      Discussion. 72

6        conclusion and recommended option.. 75

6.1          Conclusion. 75

6.2          Recommended Option. 76

6.2.1      Euro 5. 78

6.2.2      Euro 6. 79

7        IMPLEMENTATION and review... 80

7.1          Implementation. 80

7.2          Review.. 80

Appendix A          supplementary information on urban air pollution.. 82

Appendix b          TAble of Emissions Limits for Euro 2 - Euro 6 Light Vehicles. 93

Appendix c          BITRE Benefit-cost analysis. 95

Appendix d          BITRE response to MANUFACTURER comments on vkt assumptions. 114

 

ADR

Australian Design Rule

BCA

Benefit-cost analysis

BCR

Benefit-cost ratio

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

EU

European Union

GVM

Gross vehicle mass

HC

Hydrocarbons

LCV

Commercial vehicles (utilities, vans etc) ≤3.5 tonnes GVM

Light vehicles

All 4 wheeled road vehicles ≤3.5 tonnes GVM

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

NEPM

National Environment Protection Measure

NG

Natural gas

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide)

NPV

Net present value

OBD

On-board diagnostics

PM

Particulate matter, particulates, particles

PM1, PM2.5, PM10

PM with diameter less than 1, 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively

ppm

Parts per million

PULP

“Premium” unleaded petrol (minimum 95RON)

RON

Research octane number (a parameter of petrol)

UFP

Ultra-fine particle

ULP

“Regular” unleaded petrol (minimum 91RON)

VKT

Vehicle kilometres travelled

ACRONYMS FOR ORGANISATIONS

AAA

Australian Automobile Association

AAAA

Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association

AFMA

Australasian Fleet Managers Association

AIP

Australian Institute of Petroleum

ATC

Australian Transport Council

BITRE

Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics

DIT

Department of Infrastructure and Transport

DSEWPC

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

EC

European Commission

EPHC

Environment Protection and Heritage Council

FCAI

Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries

MTAA

Motor Trades Association of Australia

NEPC

National Environment Protection Council

UN ECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

 

Description of the Problem

Emissions from road vehicles are significant contributors to key air pollutants which impact on human health.  The pattern and scale of urban development in parts of Australia, and the associated increase in vehicle use, will place increasing pressure on the challenge to maintain improvements in urban air quality, particularly ozone and particulates.  Vehicle emissions standards, and associated improvements in fuel quality, have been shown in both Australia and internationally to be the most cost-effective measures to reduce urban air pollution from the road transport sector. 

 

Objectives

In broad terms, the objective of Government action to reduce noxious vehicle emissions is to improve urban air quality and reduce the adverse impacts of urban air pollution on human healthWhen considering the introduction of more stringent vehicle emissions standards, the Government has a policy of harmonising Australia’s vehicle standards wherever possible with the international standards established by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

The specific objective of this RIS is to evaluate the costs and benefits of adopting the new “Euro 5” and “Euro 6” emissions standards for light vehicles, and their capacity to deliver significant emissions reductions.  The RIS does not evaluate voluntary standards, or other approaches based on industry self-regulation, as these are unlikely to be effective in delivering reductions achievable under a standard, as there is no clear market incentive for manufacturers to provide vehicles meeting emissions outcomes that do not have a high profile in the mind of new vehicle consumers. 

 

Options

This RIS evaluates a range of options with the key considerations being:

·         the emissions and air quality benefits expected from the emissions and fuel standards already in place;

·         the additional benefits that would derive from the adoption of more stringent standards, specifically the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emissions standards for light vehicles;

·         the costs associated with the adoption of the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emissions standards; and

·         the most appropriate timing for the introduction of any new standards.

Given the slow turnover of new vehicles in the fleet, and the long term benefits of vehicle standards, an analysis period ending in 2029 was chosen for this RIS process. 

In broad terms the options considered in this RIS are as follows:

Option 1       No change to vehicle or fuel standards

Option 2       Introduction of Euro 5/6 on earliest practical timeframes

Option 3       As for Option 2, except delayed timeframe for petrol and LPG vehicles

Option 4       As for Option 2, except apply to diesel vehicles only (no change to petrol standards)

Option 5       Introduction of Euro 5 only on earliest practical timeframes

Option 6       Introduction of Euro 6 only on earliest practical timeframes

Following initial evaluation, Options 2, 3 and 4 were subject to detailed benefit cost analysis (BCA) in Section 4.  Various sensitivity analyses were also undertaken in Section 4.5, using Option 2 as the base case.

 

BCA Outcomes

Options 2, 3 and 4 all deliver net benefits over the evaluation period ending in 2029.  As detailed in Section 4.4, the net benefit estimates from the BCA are as follows:

Option 2:     $579 million

Option 3:     $604 million

Option 4:     $807 million.

The RIS also noted that the Euro 5/6 standards delivered a range of benefits, including longer durability standards and improved on board monitoring of emission control systems, which were not quantified in the BCA.

 

Public Comment

Some 27 submissions were received on the draft RIS, from governments, industry, motoring groups and others. 

The responses to the recommendations in the draft RIS were mixed.  All the state governments that responded supported the recommendations in the RIS.  The NRMA, LPG Australia, AFMA, some companies and others also supported the recommendations in the RIS, with some suggesting the issue of fuel quality needs further consideration.  The FCAI and four vehicle manufacturers who made confidential individual submissions expressed a range of concerns, principally regarding lead times for implementing the new standards, vehicle cost estimates and petrol sulfur levels.  The AIP argued that no changes to current petrol standards were warranted to support compliance with Euro 5/6.  A brief response to the major issues is set out below (see Section 5 for more detail).

Timeframe

All timelines proposed in the RIS are at least one year later than the UN ECE timeline and manufacturers have been aware of the Government’s intention to consider the case for aligning with Euro 5/6 standards since at least the middle of 2009. 

In discussions between DIT and FCAI following the public consultation period, the FCAI has proposed a longer alternative timeline which it considers is more appropriate than that proposed in the recommended option in the draft RIS (Option 3).  These alternative timelines have been evaluated as sensitivity analyses and the impacts are reported in Section 4.5 of the RIS.

Vehicle cost estimates

The draft RIS utilises the only published data that is directly related to Euro 5/6 compliance in the BCA.  Section 4.2 of the RIS acknowledges the potential limitations of such data and Section 4.5 also includes a sensitivity analysis on costs over time in the BCA.  The RIS also specifically sought input from manufacturers on the cost estimates.  The FCAI has indicated that it was not in a position to provide cost estimates.

Fuel (petrol) quality

The 150ppm sulfur limit currently applying to regular unleaded petrol (91 RON) is higher than the limits now applying in most advanced markets, and the RIS sought input from stakeholders on whether this presents a barrier to compliance with Euro 5/6 standards. 

The FCAI and all vehicle industry submissions argued that the 150ppm level was too high, while the oil industry, represented by the AIP, argued that there is no evidence that even 150ppm sulfur is a problem.  The RIS did not identify any evidence that the 150ppm sulfur level in ULP is a barrier to supplying Euro 5 compliant petrol vehicles to the market, and the public submissions provided no evidence to the contrary.  There is less certainty over the impact of 150ppm sulfur on the durability and longevity of emission control systems in petrol vehicles (such as catalysts). 

A decision on fuel standards is outside the scope of this vehicle emissions RIS process and such matters will be referred to the relevant agency responsible for fuel quality standards. 

 

Conclusions & Recommendations

The draft RIS considered six options, comprising the status quo option, four options introducing Euro 5/6 standards on a range of timelines, and one option (Option 4) limited to diesel engined vehicles.  The benefit-cost analysis (BCA) undertaken in the preparation of this RIS has demonstrated a net benefit in adopting the Euro 5/6 emissions standards for the new light vehicle fleet under all likely scenarios, although the magnitude of the benefit is heavily influenced by some key assumptions including avoided health costs, the value of a statistical life, the length of the analysis period, the start date for the standards and the discount rate. 

The net benefit under base case assumptions for the whole light vehicle fleet ranges from $579 million (Option 2) to $604 million (Option 3), depending on the start date for the standards.  The BCA also identifies that the overall net benefit in the base case is due to the PM emissions reductions from diesel vehicles meeting the new standards.  Under base case conditions, the BCA concludes that applying the Euro 5/6 standards to diesel vehicles only (Option 4) has the highest net benefit at $807 million.  Sensitivity analyses also indicated a net benefit under all reasonable scenarios, but as noted above, changes in key assumptions led to large movements, both positive and negative, in the net benefit estimates.

As Option 4 delivers the largest net benefit it would normally be the recommended option.  However this RIS recommends the adoption of an option which applies the new standards to all vehicle fuel types (diesel, petrol, LPG and NG).  Including petrol and gas fuelled vehicles would ensure the delivery of the additional benefits flowing from adoption of Euro 5/6 standards for these vehicles which were not quantified in the BCA.  These include:

  • increased durability of emissions control systems;
  • enhanced on board diagnostics to manage the emissions systems;
  • removal of current concessional provisions for heavy cars; and
  • controls on PM emissions from direct injection petrol engines.

While data is not available to enable the BCA to quantify the additional benefits from these elements, the RIS concludes they would improve the net benefit over the longer term. 

In the public comment phase the vehicle industry raised further concerns about the timing of new standards.  Additional sensitivity analyses indicate that accommodating those concerns by further delaying the start of the standards by 1-2 years would reduce the net benefit by around 36% over the analysis period.  Despite this reduction, the RIS considers this scenario could be supported as it would assist industry in achieving compliance at reduced cost, by providing additional time to prepare for the new standards and a longer time to amortise investment costs for existing vehicles.  Over the longer term the net benefit is also likely to improve.

After consideration of the public comment, the outcomes of the BCA and the sensitivity analyses, and the other non-quantified benefits, this RIS recommends that for all types of new light vehicles (petrol, diesel, LPG and NG):

·         Euro 5 emissions standards be phased in from April 2013 in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 6.2.1; and

·         Euro 6 emissions standards be phased in from April 2017 in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 6.2.2.

This RIS makes no specific recommendations regarding fuel standards, but suggests that the Fuel Standards Consultative Committee consider any potential impacts for fuel quality which may arise from the adoption of Euro 5/6 standards for light vehicles.


 

Emissions from road vehicles are significant contributors to key air pollutants in Australia’s cities.  National actions to strengthen vehicle emissions standards and improve fuel quality are accepted as key measures to reduce urban air pollution from the road transport sector and deliver associated health benefits. 

In Australia, vehicle emissions standards are set via the Australian Design Rules, which are legislative instruments under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989.  Fuel standards are set under the Fuel Quality Standards Act 2000.

The Australian Government has a policy of harmonising Australia’s vehicle standards wherever possible with the international standards established by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) and the current emissions ADRs adopt the standards known as Euro 4.  New Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards have recently been agreed for light duty vehicles, and this draft Regulation Impact Statement (RIS) has been prepared to consider the merits of adopting these latest standards in Australia.

This final RIS has been prepared by the Department of Infrastructure and Transport (DIT), following the release of a draft RIS in January 2010 for 60+ day public commentThe RIS incorporates a benefit-cost analysis undertaken by Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE).  DIT also acknowledges the assistance of the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPC) and a number of State environment agencies in the preparation of the RIS.

The public comment received is discussed in Section 5 (Consultation), with public comments included at other appropriate locations in the final RIS.  All non-confidential submissions are available at http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/environment/euro.aspx

 

The following matters are outside the scope of this RIS:

·         in-service vehicle emissions measures, which are primarily the responsibility of State and Territory Governments ;

·         the parameters of existing vehicle and fuel standards, except to the extent that the impact of existing standards are evaluated to establish a base case; and

·         consideration of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions standards, which are the subject of a separate regulatory assessment process agreed by Council of Australian Governments in July 2009.


 

1.1       The Nature of the Problem - Urban Air Pollution

While urban air quality in Australia is generally good, there are still significant health concerns in relation to the concentrations of air pollutants.  The air pollutants relevant to this RIS are particulate matter (PM) - especially fine and ultrafine particles - nitrogen oxides, and ground level ozone - an indicator of photochemical smog.  Motor vehicles are a major contributor to these pollutants in urban air, and vehicle numbers and usage continue to rise.

PM from motor vehicle exhaust in particular is the subject of increasing concern amongst health researchers, with linkages between adverse health effects and PM exposure being demonstrated at increasingly lower levels of PM in the atmosphere.  These associations are observed even when air pollutant concentrations are below national standards.  New research suggests the risks of cardiovascular effects may be particularly great for exposure to fine (<2.5mm) and ultrafine (<0.1mm) exhaust particles[1].  The current consensus is that there is no safe level of exposure to PM and that any reduction in particle concentrations would improve population health outcomes[2],[3],[4],[5]

Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed from the interaction of hydrocarbons (HCs), often referred to as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NOx.  As with particulates, it is not possible to detect a distinct threshold for ozone, below which no individual would experience a given adverse health effect, especially given some members of a population are sensitive even at very low concentrations[6].

There are also strong associations between levels of oxides of nitrogen, (usually measured as NO2) and daily mortality, hospital admissions for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease. 

A more detailed discussion of the health effects of these urban air pollutants is at Appendix A.

In June 1998, the NEPC made the National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality (the AAQ NEPM), which set Australia’s first national ambient air quality standards.  The AAQ NEPM sets national standards for the six criteria pollutants specified in Table 1.  The goals for each pollutant set out in Table 1 apply in the Commonwealth and each State and Territory of Australia and must be met by the year 2008.

 

Table 1 Australia’s Ambient Air Quality NEPM Standards

Criteria Pollutant

Averaging Period

Maximum (ambient) Concentration

Air Quality Goal
(maximum allowable exceedences)

Carbon monoxide (CO)

8 hours

9.0ppm

1 day a year

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

1 hour

0.12ppm

1 day a year

1 year

0.03ppm

None

Photochemical oxidants (as ozone)

1 hour

0.10ppm

1 day a year

4 hours

0.08ppm

1 day a year

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

1 hour

0.20ppm

1 day a year

1 day

0.08ppm

1 day a year

1 year

0.02ppm

None

Lead

1 year

0.50 µg/m3

None

Particles as PM10

1 day

50 µg/m3

5 days a year

Particles as PM2.5

1 day
1 year

25 µg/m3
8 µg/m3

Goal is to gather sufficient data nationally to facilitate a review of the standard as part of the review of this Measure, which commenced in 2005.

 

 

A review of the AAQ NEPM standards is underway, with a discussion paper issued for public comment in July 2010[7].  The overall purpose of the review is to evaluate the performance of the current NEPM in achieving the desired environmental outcome, and to recommend any required changes to the NEPM.  While the review is not complete, the discussion paper notes that “there is a large body of information worldwide that identifies that there are health effects associated with exposure to air pollution at levels below the current NEPM standards.”  Consideration of this information may lead to a tightening of the NEPM standards in the future.  While such a change would not affect the consideration of new vehicle standards directly, it would be expected to increase the valuation of health benefits from reductions in air pollutants.

 

1.2       Current Status of Urban Air Quality in Australia

As noted earlier, the quality of air in Australian cities is generally good, but some pollutants remain a concern, including some of those derived from motor vehicle emissions.  The status of those AAQ NEPM criteria pollutants which are relevant to the standards being considered in this RIS (viz ozone and PM) are summarised below. 

Ozone

High solar radiation levels, high summer temperatures and location in coastal basins surrounded by hills make Australia’s largest urban areas susceptible to photochemical smog and to its recirculation over areas of the airshed.  Ozone concentrations are monitored under the AAQ NEPM as an indicator of photochemical smog.  Ozone is not directly emitted from motor vehicles, but direct emissions of HCs and NOx react in the presence of sunlight to form ozone.  Ozone levels remain a problem in Sydney and represent a potential problem in some of our other larger cities.  Under unfavourable meteorological conditions, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth can experience ozone levels above the NEPM standards. 

Particulates

Particle emissions are monitored in Australian cities, and some regional areas (as both PM10 and PM2.5).  Multiple exceedences of the PM10 standard occur every year in many cities in Australia.  In most cases vehicles are not the principal contributors to the exceedences, which are triggered by extreme weather events such as bushfires and dust storms.  Nevertheless, vehicle emissions, particularly from diesel vehicles, significantly elevate the background level of particulates in the urban atmosphere and can be a significant contributing factor to exceedences of the standards. 

 

1.3       Contribution of Motor Vehicles to Air Pollution

Motor vehicles are one of the major emitters of air pollutants in urban Australia, contributing more than 80% of the CO emissions, 60-70% of the NOx and up to 40% of the HCs.  Light petrol vehicles are the major transport contributors to CO, HC and NOx emissions.  Light diesel vehicles, while smaller in number than petrol light vehicles, tend to emit NOx at a higher rate per vehicle relative to petrol vehicles (and are permitted to do so under vehicle emissions standards). 

While vehicles are not the major source of particle emissions in most urban airsheds, fuel combustion sources such as motor vehicles are a significant contributor to the overall particle load in urban airsheds.  In Sydney for example, it is estimated that road transport contributes around 12% of annual anthropogenic PM10 emissions[8].  A recent study found motor vehicles contribute about 30% of particulate pollution in Melbourne.  PM levels tend to be highest near busy roads and levels sometimes do not meet the PM standards[9].

Significantly, particulate emissions from diesel vehicles are almost all from the ultrafine fraction, and, as noted earlier, it is these fine particles that are considered to present the most significant human health risk. 

 

1.4       Future Air Pollution Trends

Although there have been considerable improvements in emissions performance of the vehicle fleet in Australia, motor vehicles continue to be an ongoing threat to Australian urban air quality, principally due to the growth in vehicle numbers and use.  Recent Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics estimates (BITRE, unpublished) imply growth in total motor vehicle travel (VKT) of 45% between 2000 and 2020 under business as usual conditions, with passenger car VKT growth at 37% and light commercials at 73%.  This VKT growth is expected to occur even though projections of car ownership rates (number of cars per person) are predicted to essentially plateau by around 2015.  Some urban regions face more rapid growth rates, with increasing VKT putting pressure on the capacity to meet some NEPM air quality standards in certain urban airsheds.

The BITRE emissions projections undertaken for this RIS concluded that under a “business as usual” scenario, which includes the emissions standards being introduced over the 2006-2010 period, emissions of ozone precursors (HC and NOx) from the light vehicle sector will decline significantly until about 2025, after which they stabilise and then trend slightly upward.  In contrast, PM emissions from light vehicles are expected to fall significantly until about 2016, then trend steeply upward.  Refer to Section 3.2 for an explanation of these trends and to view the relevant charts for NOx and PM.

While these emissions projections demonstrate the benefits of new vehicle emissions standards, the pattern and scale of urban development in parts of Australia, and the associated increase in vehicle use, is clearly having an effect on the long term trends and will place increasing pressure on the challenge to maintain improvements in urban air quality, particularly ozone and PM.  More specific information on particular airsheds can be found in Appendix A.

1.5       Current Vehicle and Fuel Standards

 

1.5.1  Australian Vehicle Standards

Australia regulates its vehicle emissions through Australian Design Rules (ADRs).  The ADRs set the standards that new vehicles are required to meet prior to their first supply to the Australian market.  The ADRs are enforced as national standards under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 and set standards for both safety and environmental performance.

Australia’s motor vehicle emissions standards have been highly effective in reducing air pollution for more than 30 years.  Over that period, emissions standards have been periodically tightened in response to:

·         vehicle technology advances and availability of suitable fuels;

·         increasing international concern over air pollution problems, as more scientific knowledge has highlighted detrimental effects on human health; and

·         increases in the size of vehicle fleets and vehicle usage, particularly in urban areas.

In recent years there has been a greater international alignment with the vehicle emissions standards set by the UN ECE[10].  The Australian Government has committed to adopting UN ECE standards as this approach provides the desired environmental outcome and facilitates international trade in motor vehicles.  Globalisation of the motor vehicle industry, and the small size of the vehicle market in Australia make the development of unique Australian standards undesirable from both a government and manufacturing perspective. 

The UN ECE is the only body for vehicle safety and emissions regulations that meets the definition of an international standardising body under the World Trade Organisation’s Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.  In April 2000, the Australian Government made a commitment to harmonising with UN ECE vehicle standards by acceding to the UN ECE’s international agreement on harmonised automotive safety and emissions standards (known as the 1958 Agreement).  The Agreement provides a framework for mutual recognition of automotive product (including vehicles) approved by contracting parties that have adopted the ECE Regulations.  This agreement does not require Australia to adopt particular UN ECE standards in Australia, but in considering the case for vehicle standards regulation, UN ECE regulations are the preferred approach.

Through its participation in international activities, the Australian government also promotes the UN ECE as the international technical regulations setting body for the global automotive industry and encourages other APEC economies to harmonise their national technical regulations with the ECE Regulations.  It is not proposed to revisit the arguments regarding the decision to align with UN ECE standards in this RIS, as this has previously been addressed in the 1999 RIS accompanying the package of 2002/3 standards.  

The current ADR for light vehicle emissions set limits on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM).

In 2005, the Australian Government gazetted a package of new emissions ADRs for light and heavy vehicles.  While aligned with the technical requirements of the UN ECE standards, the Australian emissions standards have delayed introduction dates. 

The commencement dates for ADRs commonly involve a 1 year phase in period, which usually requires new models to comply with the standard from the implementation date of 1 January of the first year, with existing models complying by 1 January of the following year.

 

1.5.2   International Vehicle Standards

Given Australia’s policy to harmonise with UN ECE vehicle standards, the focus of this analysis is on the costs and benefits of the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emissions standards for light vehicles which will begin to take effect in the EU from September 2009[11].  Table 2 illustrates the planned introduction dates for the Euro 5/6 standards in the EU[12].


 

Table 2  Implementation Dates for Euro 5/6 Standards in Europe

Euro 5

1/9/09 – new model passenger cars and N1* vehicles < 1305kg ref mass

1/9/10 – new model commercial vehicles (N1 >1305kg ref mass)

1/1/11 – all model passenger cars and N1 vehicles < 1305kg ref mass

1/1/12 – all model commercial vehicles (N1 >1305kg ref mass)

Euro 6

1/9/14 – new model passenger cars and N1 vehicles < 1305kg ref mass

1/9/15 – new model commercial vehicles (N1 >1305kg ref mass)

1/9/15 – all model passenger cars and N1 vehicles < 1305kg ref mass

1/9/16 – all model commercial vehicles (N1 >1305kg ref mass)

*N1 = light commercial (goods carrying) vehicles

 

Table 3 compares the emissions limits in the Euro 5/6 light vehicle standards relative to Euro 4 (the current standard).  

 

Table 3                  Comparison of Euro 4, 5 and 6 re: HC, NOx and PM Emission Limits under the Type I Test for Passenger Cars[13]

Standard

Limits on Emissions (Type I Test)

Petrol, LPG & NG Vehicles

Diesel Vehicles

HC

(g/km)

NOx

(g/km)

HC

(g/km)

NOx

(g/km)

PM (g/km)

Particles (no.)

Euro 4

0.1

0.08

0.045

0.25

0.25

NA

Euro 5

0.1

0.06

0.035

0.18

0.005

6x1011

Euro 6

0.1

0.06

0.026

0.08

0.005

6x1011

 

 

In addition to lowering the HC, NOX and PM emissions limits under the Type I test, the Euro 5/6 standards:

  • apply longer durability requirements for emissions control systems (increased to 160,000km from 100,000km in Euro 4) which are designed to more closely align with the expected life of vehicles and ensure that these systems continue to function throughout the life of the vehicle;
  • enhance the on-board diagnostics (OBD) requirements to provide greater assurance of in-service compliance;

·         extend the low temperature emissions (Type VI) test (albeit with less stringent emissions limits) to all light vehicle categories - Euro 4 only applies this test to passenger vehicles and the lighter categories of goods vehicles.  This test ensures quicker catalyst operation on vehicles which are started from a cold condition (not just at the -7oC test condition);

·         require all passenger vehicles, regardless of mass, to meet the same emissions limits under the Type I test (Euro 4 allowed vehicles over 2,500 kg to meet the more lenient standards applicable to the heaviest category of light goods vehicles);

·         introduce a particle number standard (on a delayed timeframe), which is designed to reduce the emissions of ultrafine particles which are of greatest health concern.  The introduction of this new requirement is expected to ensure that manufacturers fit high efficiency particulate traps to diesel vehicles; and

·         extend the PM mass limit to direct injection petrol engines (previously only applied to diesel vehicles). 

1.5.3  Australian & European Fuel Standards

In recognition of the importance of fuel quality in reducing the overall environmental impact of the vehicle fleet, the Australian Government enacted the Fuel Quality Standards Act 2000 (FQS Act).  The Act provides the framework for the establishment of national fuel standards for automotive use.  The main objects of the Act are to regulate the quality of fuel supplied in Australia in order to:

a)   reduce the level of pollutants and emissions arising from the use of fuel that may cause environmental and health problems;

b)   facilitate the adoption of better engine technology and emissions control technology; and

c)    allow more effective operation of engines.

The first set of standards under the FQS Act for petrol and diesel came into effect on 1 January 2002.  This RIS considers those fuel parameters that may be critical to enabling the adoption of vehicle technology required to meet new emissions standards.  In the context of this RIS, the sulfur content of petrol and LPG is considered the only relevant parameter.

Australia adopted sulfur limits that link to Euro 3 equivalent sulfur limits for petrol (150ppm) from 1 January 2005 and the Euro 4 equivalent sulfur limit for diesel (50ppm) from 1 January 2006, to support the introduction of the equivalent vehicle emissions standards.  From 1 January 2008, a 50ppm limit was applied to higher octane grades of unleaded petrol (95 RON PULP)[14] to support Euro 4 petrol vehicles.  The maximum sulfur level allowable in LPG is currently 100ppm and is currently under review.  Since 1 January 2009, the sulfur limit in diesel was further reduced to 10ppm, primarily to support the introduction of new emissions standards for heavy diesel vehicles. 

While a further sulfur reduction from the levels already legislated would be beneficial, the fuel sulfur reductions embodied in the national fuel quality standards to 2006 would have already delivered the majority of direct air quality benefits available from sulfur reduction.  The indirect impact of fuel sulfur relates to the sulfur sensitivity of certain vehicle technologies that could be employed to meet emissions standards.  It is these indirect technology-enabling effects of low sulfur fuels that may be relevant to the standards under consideration in this RIS, and this interaction is discussed in Section 1.5.4.

This RIS focuses solely on the sulfur limit standards for petrol, as diesel sulfur levels have already been reduced to 10ppm in line with international best practice and no further changes are considered necessary in the context of this review.  In relation to sulfur, the European fuel standards currently specify a sulfur limit of 10ppm for both petrol and diesel vehicles.

1.5.4  Fuels and Technology Context

While there is not a direct legislative link between the UN ECE vehicle emissions standards and European fuel standards, there is a clear recognition of the relationship between fuel quality and vehicle technology.  In this context, where necessary, changes are made to fuel standards on an appropriate timeframe to support the introduction on new vehicle emissions standards. 

In broad terms, the sulfur content of petrol in Europe was set at 150ppm to support the Euro 3 standards, and 50ppm for Euro 4.  The decision to adopt 10ppm standards was made primarily to support carbon dioxide emissions standards by assisting improvements in fuel efficiency, not to support air pollution standards such as Euro 5/6. 

The use of fuel with low sulfur levels enables the adoption of improved engine and emissions control technologies and increases the longevity of that technology.  Apart from a 25% reduction in NOx emissions, the emissions limits for petrol and LPG vehicles in Euro 5/6 do not change relative to those in the Euro 4 standards, but the durability requirements are significantly increased. 

Petrol engined vehicles rely largely on the three-way catalytic converter, in combination with the engine management system, to control emissions.  While these catalysts operate effectively at current sulfur levels (150ppm or less), it is widely recognised that in-service catalyst durability is affected by fuel sulfur.  The durability question becomes more critical in the context of Euro 5/6 as these standards would require manufacturers to demonstrate compliance with the emissions standards at 160,000km (compared to 100,000km in Euro 4). 

There is considerable variability in the sulfur tolerance of advanced emissions control technologies , and their performance at various sulfur levels.  A 2000 report prepared for the European Commission[15] concluded that that Euro 4 compliant vehicles will function properly on 50ppm sulfur petrol, noting that the advantages of even lower sulfur levels were linked to improved fuel consumption/greenhouse outcomes, not emissions compliance. 

In Australia, the sulfur content of PULP is 50ppm, while the sulfur content of ULP remains at 150ppm.  When these standards were set, there was an expectation that with the introduction of Euro 3 and Euro 4 emissions standards, there would be a significant shift to higher octane fuel (95 RON PULP) for new vehicles, and that 91 RON ULP would essentially become a “legacy” fuel for older technology vehicles. 

However, the use of PULP has grown only slowly from 11% of petrol sales in 2003 to 17% in 2008.  This reflects changes in the vehicle fleet, with older vehicles using ULP being retired, and the introduction of a larger, but still relatively low, number of new vehicles into the fleet which require operation on PULP.  There is no evidence to suggest that the proportion of new vehicles requiring PULP is likely to significantly increase under current policy settings.  To illustrate this, all but one (the VW Golf) of the top 20 selling light vehicles on the Australian market in June 2009 were supplied as suitable for operation on ULP[16].

In broad terms, lagging in key fuel quality parameters can negatively impact on the development of the vehicle industry.  As the Productivity Commission’s 2002 Review of Automotive Assistance noted “… lower [laxer] fuel standards might well be a further constraint on the industry’s uptake and development of engine technologies necessary to remain competitive in global markets”[17].

Based on the European approach, it would appear that a 50ppm sulfur level would be adequate to support Euro 5/6 petrol and LPG vehicle technologies.  This conclusion is supported by a number of public submissions, including a major international manufacturer of engine/fuel system components (Bosch).  However, the impact on the emissions performance of Euro 5/6 vehicles operating on petrol with sulfur levels greater than 50ppm is less clear. 

While it is well understood that sulfur in fuels can accelerate degradation of catalytic converters, the review was not able to access any definitive information to assess the impact of this particular level of sulfur on technologies likely to be used for Euro 5 standards.

A number of submissions in response to the draft RIS including the FCAI, Bosch, individual vehicle and component manufacturers and the NRMA argue that the current 150ppm sulfur level is too high and should be reviewed, with some suggesting a maximum sulfur level of 50ppm as appropriate, and others favouring a reduction to 10ppm.  The FCAI submission also claims that some manufacturers of Euro 5 vehicles are “desensitising” their OBD systems because the sulfur levels are above 10ppm.  However, no supporting information was provided to substantiate these statements.

Other submissions (AAA, AFMA, NSW DECCW) also argue that a review of petrol sulfur levels is appropriate, without specifying a particular limit.

In contrast, the AIP submission, quoting a number of published reports, argues that there is no strong evidence to warrant a change in current sulfur levels in either 91 RON or 95 RON petrol, stating that “most prospective vehicle technologies can operate satisfactorily on...150ppm sulfur” and that “150ppm ULP...is not an impediment to the introduction of Euro 5/6”.  The AIP submission also notes that 95 RON fuel (50ppm limit) is available in the marketplace for those vehicles which manufacturers consider unsuitable for operation on 150ppm sulfur.

For the purposes of the analysis in this RIS it is assumed that the sulfur levels in petrol remain unchanged.

 

1.6       Why is Government Action Required?

Urban communities have an expectation that the level of air pollution in Australia’s major cities does not endanger their immediate and long term health, and are concerned about the impact of vehicles on the environment[18].  Vehicles are significant contributors to key urban air pollutants which at sufficiently levels of exposure can adversely affect acute and chronic health conditions.  While Australia’s urban air quality is generally good, concerns remain regarding the contribution of vehicle emissions to photochemical smog (particularly in Sydney) and the health impacts of PM and NO2 emissions, particularly in an environment of increasing population growth in our major urban centres and resultant increases in vehicle numbers. 

In economic analysis terms, noxious vehicle emissions are an externality which can lead to significant health impacts on people, particularly in urban areas, and which are not effectively addressed by the operation of market forces.  Government actions to strengthen vehicle emissions standards and improve fuel quality are internationally recognized[19] as very effective measures to reduce urban air pollution – and such standards have managed to deliver improvements in urban air quality despite growth in vehicle use.  As stated in a 2004 World Bank report[20] on reducing urban air pollution, “…the imposition and enforcement of (vehicle emissions) standards have proven a very effective environmental policy in many countries.”  In its submission on the draft RIS, the NSW Government noted that while it had introduced a range of initiatives to improve urban air quality, “further necessary emission gains depend on the Commonwealth introducing tighter standards for new vehicles”. 

The technology and manufacturing steps required to comply with the Euro 5/6 emissions standards are well known.  Nevertheless, there are costs associated with making those changes necessary for compliance which tend to inhibit their voluntary adoption by manufacturers (particularly the higher cost technologies required for diesel vehicles).  As discussed in Section 4.2 of this RIS, estimating actual costs can be difficult.  However taking the European Commission estimates from Table 6 (see Section 4.2) as an guide, the average cost increase of $980 for a diesel vehicle to comply with Euro 6 standards relative to the current standards (Euro 4), if fully passed on to the consumer, would represent a price increase of around 4.5% for a $22,000 vehicle and 2.5% for a $40,000 vehicle[21]

If a case is made for further reductions in emissions from the vehicle fleet, voluntary standards, or other approaches based on industry self-regulation, are unlikely to be effective in delivering those reductions, as there is no clear market incentive for manufacturers to provide vehicles meeting emissions outcomes that do not have a high profile in the mind of new vehicle consumers (unlike vehicle safety, for example).  As noted by the EC in its consideration of the case for Euro 5/6 emissions standards, “self-regulation would imply a significant departure from an approach that is well established all over the world and has proven its effectiveness and proportionality in the past”[22].  The EC also noted that to measure compliance under a voluntary approach, governments and manufacturers would need to establish processes which would essentially duplicate those which already operate under the type approval system for mandatory standards, thus increasing cost and complexity.  These issues are discussed in more detail in Section 3 (Option 1). 

In the Australian context, the effectiveness of a strategy based on mandatory standards can be illustrated by the data in Figure 3, which is an extract from the 2nd National In-service Emissions Study (NISE 2)[23].  The study tested a large sample of in-service vehicles in the Australian fleet, and the results illustrate the dramatic improvements in emissions performance of petrol light vehicles in Australia, using a “real world” test cycle based on Australian urban driving patterns.  The age groupings utilised in Figure 1 reflect the timeline for changes in mandatory emissions standards for new vehicles.

Figure 1 shows the dramatic improvement in the average NOx emissions for in-service light vehicles from 1994 to 2007, in line with changes in mandatory standards over this period.  
Average NOx emissions for small passenger vehicles have fallen from approximately 0.8g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.05g/km in 2006-2007.  Average NOx emissions for midsized passenger vehicles have fallen from approximately 1.1g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.1g/km in 2006-2007.  Average NOx emissions for large passenger vehicles have fallen from approximately 1.2g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.15g/km in 2006-2007.  Average NOx emissions for compact sports utility vehicles have fallen from approximately 0.6g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.05g/km in 2006-2007.  Average NOx emissions from large sports utility vehicles have fallen from approximately 1.7g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.15g/km in 2006-2007, and average NOx emissions for light commercials have fallen from approximately 2.2g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.2g/km in 2006-2007.

Note: PV-S, PV-M, PV-L = small, medium and large passenger vehicles;, SUV-C, SUV-L = compact and large sports utility vehicles; LCV = light commercial vehicles

Source: DSEWPC (NISE 2)

Figure 1      NOx Emissions of In-service Light Petrol Vehicles (1994-2007)

 

In considering this data, it is important to recognise that the overwhelming contributor to this improvement is the adoption of vehicle emissions control technologies implemented to meet mandatory emissions standards – there have been no changes to state based in-service emissions requirements over this period. 

As noted above, emissions control technologies – particularly those introduced in recent years – also require suitable quality fuel in order to deliver the reductions in emissions expected from the standards.  More stringent fuel standards can also deliver benefits across the fleet as a whole, not just from new vehicles.  However, with the significant improvements in fuel quality that have already been delivered since 2002, the principal reasons for considering the case for further tightening of fuel standards are linked to emissions performance of new technology vehicles, including the operation and durability of emissions control equipment.

The sulfur content of petrol is the only fuel parameter considered relevant to this RIS, which is examining the case for adopting Euro 5/6 standards.  Diesel standards are already largely in line with latest international standards, particularly on the key parameter of sulfur, which is set at a maximum of 10ppm.


 

The objective of Government action is to improve urban air quality and reduce the adverse impacts of urban air pollution on human health by reducing the level of air pollutant emissions from light vehicles.  

The Australian Government has, over time, delivered such emissions reductions from road vehicles, both light and heavy, though the introduction of progressively more stringent vehicle emissions standards.  In doing so, the Government has a policy of harmonising Australia’s vehicle standards wherever possible with the international standards established by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).


 

3.1       Summary

Vehicle Standards

When considering a possible approach for Australia to reduce noxious emissions levels from new light vehicles, the options are effectively to maintain the current ADRs (the status quo or “do nothing” option) or adopt the Euro 5 and/or Euro 6 standards (under a range of potential timelines).  As noted in Section 1.6, consideration of voluntary standards are not appropriate in the context of this review.

In broad terms, the aim of emissions standards is to reduce emissions from vehicles to as low a level as practical to assist Australia’s major urban airsheds to achieve compliance with the Air NEPM Standards identified in Table 1 (Section 1.1).  It is not possible to identify a specific optimal emissions level for the contribution from motor vehicles alone, as compliance with the NEPM standards is also affected by other, non-vehicle, sources of emissions.  In addition, as noted in Section 1 (and Appendix A), continuing research into the impacts of key pollutants such as PM, has yet to conclude a safe threshold level for these pollutants, and some NEPM standards are likely to become more stringent over time.

As indicated in Section 1.5.2, the Euro 5 light vehicle emissions standards begin to take effect in Europe from late 2009, and the Euro 6 standards from 2014.  If the case is made for adopting these standards in Australia, a balance needs to be found between the earliest possible introduction, which would maximise emissions benefits, and a delayed introduction, which allows vehicle manufacturers sufficient time to amortise their investment in achieving compliance with one standard before being required to upgrade to meet the next. 

In relation to light vehicles, Australia has already adopted the Euro 4 standards for both petrol and diesel vehicles, with the Euro 4 standards fully implemented for diesels by the end of 2006, and for petrol vehicles by mid 2010.  As noted earlier, the “basic” Euro 5 standards commence implementation from September 2009 in Europe, with some later start dates for elements relating to the new particle number measurement and certain OBD requirements.  At the time the draft RIS was prepared, these base timings were also reflected in the revised ECE Regulation 83/06 which is the standard any new ADR(s) would reference to adopt the Euro 5/6 emissions standards.  In the final text of ECE Reg 83/06 subsequently agreed by the UN ECE in March 2010, the progressive introduction timetable for the Euro 5 standards was removed and the standard now adopts the “full” Euro 5 standards (including particle number measurement and all OBD requirements).  Under the ECE Regulation, implementation dates are left to the discretion of member states (other than the EU members who are subject to the dates in the equivalent EC Regulation).

In considering the international situation, and the lead time question, it would appear that 2012 would be the earliest feasible date for mandating compliance with the Euro 5 light duty vehicle standards.  Given the later implementation of Euro 4 for petrol vehicles in Australia, some consideration could be given to a later timeframe for petrol vehicles.  This timing question is explored in the options set out in this Section 3.

This Options section of the RIS considers:

·         the emissions and air quality benefits expected from the emissions and fuel standards already in place;

·         the additional benefits that would derive from the adoption of more stringent standards, specifically the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emissions standards for light vehicles;

·         the costs associated with the adoption of the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emissions standards; and

·         the most appropriate timing for the introduction of any new standards.

In broad terms the options can be described as follows:

Option 1       No change to vehicle or fuel standards

Option 2       Introduction of Euro 5/6 on earliest practical timeframes

Option 3       As for Option 2, except delayed timeframe for petrol and LPG vehicles

Option 4       As for Option 2, except apply to diesel vehicles only (no change to petrol standards)

Option 5       Introduction of Euro 5 only on earliest practical timeframes

Option 6       Introduction of Euro 6 only on earliest practical timeframes

Table 4 outlines the key elements of each of the six options, which are considered in detail in Sections 3.2 – 3.7.  These options also form the basis of the cost benefit analysis discussed in Section 4 of this RIS.  All references to years in the options below assume a 1 January start date.


 

Table 4          Summary of Options

Option No.

Vehicle Standards

 

 

Euro Level

Vehicle Group

Date of Effect

(1 January....)

 

 

 

New Models

All Models

1

No Change (Euro 4)

All light vehicles

NA

NA

2

Euro 5

All light vehicles

2012

2013

Euro 6

All light vehicles

2016

2017

3

Euro 5

Petrol & LPG vehicles

2013

2014

Diesel vehicles

2012

2013

Euro 6

All light vehicles

2016

2017

4

Euro 5

Diesel Vehicles

2012

2013

Euro 6

Diesel vehicles

2016

2017

5

Euro 5

All light vehicles

2012

2013

Euro 6

N/A

N/A

N/A

6

Euro 5

N/A

N/A

N/A

Euro 6

All light vehicles

2016

2017

 

Note:        The 2 year date combinations for the vehicle standards refer to the dates applicable to new model vehicles and all model vehicles, respectively.  For example, in the case of 2012 - 2013, this means that from 1 January 2012 any new model (type) first produced with a date of manufacture after 1 January 2012 must comply with the new standard, and from 1 January 2013 all new vehicles (regardless of the first production date for that particular model) must comply.

 

 

Fuel Standards

As noted in Section 2.3, there is a risk that current sulfur levels in both petrol and LPG may impact on the durability of the emissions control systems utilised for Euro 5/6 vehicles.  This RIS has not attempted to undertake a benefit-cost analysis of fuel sulfur reductions, as the determination of fuel quality standards is subject to a separate regulatory assessment process under the Fuel Quality Standards Act 2000.  Consequently, the options considered in this review do not specifically address the fuel sulfur issue. 


3.2       Option 1:  Status Quo

A status quo or “do nothing” approach would simply rely on the existing emissions and fuel standards to deliver lower fleet emissions and improvements in air quality.  The standards introduced over the 2002-2010 period will deliver reductions in those emissions which contribute to air pollution, with the most significant being the:

·       reduction in NOx and PM emissions from the introduction of Euro 2 and Euro 4 standards for light diesel vehicles

·       reduction in NOx and PM emissions from the introduction of Euro 3, 4 and 5 standards for heavy diesel vehicles; and

·       reduction in NOx and HC emissions from the introduction of the Euro 3 and Euro 4 standards for light petrol engined vehicles.

The BITRE emissions projections undertaken for this RIS out to 2040[24], indicate that in the light vehicle sector:

  • NOx emissions reductions will fall significantly until about 2025 after which they will slowly trend upwards (Figure 2); and
  • PM emissions will fall significantly until about 2016, after which they are predicted to rise steeply (Figure 3).

 

Figure 2 shows the BITRE projections for NOx emissions under a "no change" scenario, which predict that existing standards will lead to significant falls in NOx emissions until about 2025, after which time they are predicted to slowly trend upwards.

Source:    BITRE Estimates (2009)

Figure 2           Projected Impact on NOx Emissions of the Light Vehicle Fleet from Existing Standards

 

Figure 3 shows BITRE projections which suggest that under a "no change" scenario, existing standards will lead to significant falls in PM emissions until about 2016, after which they are predicted to rise steeply.

Source:    BITRE Estimates (2009)

Figure 3           Projected Impact on PM Emissions of the Light Vehicle Fleet from Existing Standards

 

So this existing package of standards will provide air quality benefits, but the projections indicate it may be insufficient in the longer term in delivering reductions in levels of photochemical smog (NOx emissions are a precursor to smog formation) and most particularly PM emissions.  This is largely attributable to significant increases in vehicle numbers, increased vehicle kilometres travelled (particularly in light commercial vehicles) and the expected increase in diesel vehicle penetration (substituting for petrol vehicles) in the fleet (in both passenger cars and light commercials).  Diesel vehicles have much higher PM emission rates (even at the Euro 4 level) than petrol vehicles and thus under the status quo option these combination of factors are expected to lead to significant PM emissions from the fleet overall. 

In the absence of any new vehicle standards, a proportion of imported vehicles will comply with one of the more stringent overseas standards in place at the time of their manufacture, even though those standards have not been adopted in Australia.  Thus Australia will benefit, to some extent, from the more stringent overseas standards, even without adopting them in Australia.  The magnitude of this “free rider” benefit is difficult to measure accurately, as it depends on decisions by individual manufacturers on the economics of “de-specifying” and re-certifying a model for the Australian market.  However, previous experience indicates that many models are not upgraded to meet more stringent standards until the latest practical timeframe. 

It is also reasonable to conclude that where it is cost effective to provide older technology vehicles for markets with less stringent standards, some manufacturers will also choose to provide those models to the Australian market in the absence of more stringent mandatory standards.  This practice has been clearly illustrated from the test data collected in the recent 2nd National In-service Emissions Study (NISE 2) where light commercial and large 4WD models were subject to a significantly less stringent standard (ADR36/00) than other light vehicles, and many models continued the use of older engine technology and minimal emissions controls until the introduction of tighter mandatory standards in 2002/3, even though such technology had not been in common use in other light vehicles for many years.  Figure 4 from NISE 2 illustrates this circumstance for HC emissions whereby large SUVs and light commercial vehicles did not provide comparable emissions performance as other light vehicles until they were brought in under the same standards umbrella as other light vehicles from 2004 (similar patterns are also observed for CO and NOx emissions). 

 

Figure 4 shows a significant reduction in the average total hydrocarbon emissions for in-service light vehicles from 1994 to 2007, in line with changes in mandatory standards over this period.  Average THC emissions for small and midsized passenger vehicles have fallen from approximately 0.3g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.05g/km in 2006-2007.  Average THC emissions for large passenger vehicles have fallen from approximately 0.4g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.1g/km in 2006-2007.  Average THC emissions for compact sports utility vehicles have fallen from approximately 0.2g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.05g/km in 2006-2007.  Average THC emissions from large sports utility vehicles have fallen from approximately 1.5g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.15g/km in 2006-2007, and average THC emissions for light commercials have fallen from approximately 1.1g/km in 1994-1998 to approximately 0.1g/km in 2006-2007.

Note: PV-S, PV-M, PV-L = small, medium and large passenger vehicles;, SUV-C, SUV-L = compact and large sports utility vehicles; LCV = light commercial vehicles; THC = total hydrocarbons

Source: NISE 2

Figure 4      HC Emissions of In-service Light Petrol Vehicles (1994-2007)

 

This practice is particularly likely with respect to standards controlling urban air pollution, as such emissions do not have a high profile in the mind of new vehicle consumers (unlike vehicle safety for example), and thus consumers are less likely to drive demand for vehicles meeting more stringent emissions standards.

In broad terms, the ‘do nothing’ approach is also inconsistent with the Government’s policy to harmonise with international standards (where justified) and could have negative ramifications for the international competitiveness of the Australian vehicle manufacturing industry. 


3.3       Option 2:  Introduction of Euro 5/6 on earliest practical timeframes

 

Action:                  Mandate Euro 5/6 standards for light vehicles

Timeframe[25]:        2012-13 (Euro 5)
2015-17 (Euro 6)

 

In terms of air quality, the adoption of the Euro 5/6 light vehicle standards would build on the NOx emissions benefits of the status quo scenario outlined in Option 1, and reverse the projected growth in PM emissions (see comparative analysis in Section 4.1 for more detail).

At a vehicle level, the adoption of the Euro 5/6 standards would deliver the following key benefits in the new light vehicle fleet (relative to the current Euro 4 standards embodied in Option 1):

  • For all vehicles:

o   an increase in the durability requirement for vehicle emissions control systems from 100,000km to 160,00km;

o   the removal of concessional limits for heavy passenger vehicles; and

o   enhanced on board diagnostics (OBD) requirements to detect emissions related faults in-service.

  • For petrol vehicles:

o   a 25% reduction in NOx emissions;

o   the extension of low temperature test to all light petrol vehicles; and

o   the application of PM emissions limits to direct injection petrol engines (in recognition of the significantly higher rate of PM emissions from these engines relative to conventional petrol engines).


 

  • For diesel vehicles:

o   a 25% reduction in HC emissions at the Euro 5 level, and 40-50% by Euro 6;

o   a 30% reduction in NOx emissions at the Euro 5 level, and 70% by Euro 6;

o   a 80-90% reduction in PM mass limits from Euro 5 (no change for Euro 6) with all light vehicle categories meeting the same limit; and

o   a particle number standard as a second stage element for Euro 5 and continuing for Euro 6.

As the formal determination of any new ADR to adopt Euro 5 would not occur until early 2010, a new model start date of 1 January 2012 is considered the earliest practical date for manufacturers to achieve without unduly disrupting business planning.

It is logical to consider Euro 5 and Euro 6 as a package of progressive linked standards.  The petrol and LPG emissions limits do not change from Euro 5 to Euro 6, except for the introduction of PM number limits at a second stage of Euro 5 and progressive changes to on board diagnostics (OBD) elements.  In the case of diesel vehicles, Euro 6 also tightens the HC and NOx limits relative to Euro 5.  If the case is made for introducing the standards, establishing a timeframe for both Euro 5 and Euro 6 now, will assist vehicle manufacturers in planning for compliance.

For manufacturers, the steps required to achieve compliance with the Euro 5/6 standards will vary between petrol and diesel vehicles, and are more significant for diesel vehicles. 

For petrol vehicles, there are no major technological/manufacturing process changes required and compliance is likely to be achieved by upgrading existing catalyst performance through the use of increased precious metal loadings and/or refinements of engine/fuel management systems.  

For diesel vehicles also, there are no major changes to manufacturing processes, but the new standards will effectively require the fitment of high efficiency particulate filters, which are, in most cases, not necessary to achieve compliance with current Euro 4 standards.  Diesel vehicles are also likely to require adjustments to engine/fuel management systems, and in some cases, improved oxidation catalyst performance. 

All of the technology required to achieve compliance is fully commercialized and the engineering processes to achieve these emissions reductions are well understood.

These differential impacts on manufacturers are reflected in the estimated costs.  From a cost perspective relative to Euro 4, in 2005/6 the EC[26] estimated the incremental cost of a petrol vehicle complying with the Euro 5/6 standards was around $85, with significantly higher costs for diesel vehicles around $630 for Euro 5 and an additional $355 for Euro 6.  The costs and benefits of this option are discussed in detail in the comparative analysis in Section 4.2 of this RIS.

 


3.4       Option 3:  As for Option 2, with delayed timeframe

 

Action:                  Mandate Euro 5/6 standards for light vehicles

Timeframe[27]:        2012-13 (Euro 5 - diesel vehicles)
2013-14 (Euro 5 - petrol & LPG vehicles)
2015-17 (Euro 6 – all vehicles)

 

Option 3 is identical to Option 2, except that a 1 year delay is applied to petrol and LPG vehicles for compliance with Euro 5. 

For petrol and LPG vehicles, this relaxed timeframe would provide a larger gap (3.5-4.5 years) between implementation of the current standards (Euro 4) and the Euro 5 standards.  The Euro 4 standards for diesel vehicles were fully implemented in Australia by the end of 2007, so the 2012 date already provides a 5-6 year gap between the change in standards. 

This delay would provide manufacturers supplying petrol and LPG models that achieved compliance with the Euro 4 standards relatively late in the allowable timeframe, more time to amortise development costs for those vehicles, ahead of the introduction a Euro 5 compliant model.  The delay would not have a noticeable impact on the long term emissions outcomes.  The costs and benefits of this option are discussed in detail in the comparative analysis in Section 4.2 of this RIS.

 

 


3.5   Option 4:  As for Option 2, except apply to diesel
                vehicles only

 

Action:                  Mandate Euro 5/6 standards for diesel vehicles only

Timeframe[28]:        2012-13 (Euro 5 - diesel vehicles)
2015-17 (Euro 6 – diesel vehicles)

 

Option 4 is identical to Option 2, except that the new standards only apply to diesel vehicles.  Under this option, petrol emissions standards would remain at Euro 4.

It is clear that the substantial reduction in PM emissions from diesel vehicles from the introduction of the Euro 5/6 standards dominate the overall health benefits.  And as noted in Option 2, the diesel standards also deliver HC and NOx benefits, as well as other improvements in durability and in-service compliance.  Thus in overall terms, this option will deliver health benefits almost as large as Option 2, despite the removal of any benefits attributable to the application of Euro 5/6 emissions standards to petrol vehicles (which provide a 25% reduction in NOx emissions relative to Euro 4.

This is a consequence of the relatively low avoided health cost values assigned to NOx emissions which in the BCA are not sufficient to offset the vehicle costs in the first 20 years (even though those costs are also relatively low). 

Nevertheless, petrol vehicles remain the dominant source of NOx emissions from the light vehicle fleet (even though on a per vehicle basis, diesel vehicles emit higher levels of NOx).  In addition, as noted in Option 2, the adoption of Euro 5 for petrol vehicles will remove some concessions available under Euro 4, and like diesel vehicles, will deliver improvements in durability and in-service compliance.  Exclusion of petrol vehicles from the application of the Euro 5 standards would also mean that direct injection petrol engines, which are known to produce much higher levels of PM emissions than conventional petrol engines, would not be subject to any limits on PM emissions (as these emissions are currently not regulated under the Euro 4 standards for petrol vehicles).

From a vehicle cost perspective, the major per vehicle costs are significantly higher for diesel vehicles than petrol vehicles.  The costs and benefits of this option are discussed in detail in the comparative analysis in Section 4.2 of this RIS.

 


3.6   Option 5:  Introduction of Euro 5 only on earliest
                practical timeframes

 

Action:                  Mandate Euro 5 standards only for light vehicles

Timeframe[29]:        2012-13 (all vehicles)

 

Option 5 is identical to Option 2, except that only the Euro 5 standards are adopted for both petrol and diesel vehicles.

This most significant impact of this approach, relative to Option 2, is that the HC and NOx emissions reductions from diesel vehicles under Euro 6 would not be delivered. 

As noted in the discussion of Option 2, it is logical to consider Euro 5 and Euro 6 as a package of progressive linked standards.  The primary (but not sole) objective of the Euro 5/6 standard is to address the emissions from light diesel vehicles.  It was recognised by the European Commission that the availability of high efficiency PM traps enabled the PM issue to be largely tackled in a single step (Euro 5) – although more time was need to address the PM number aspects.  However, it was also acknowledged that the industry needed more time to develop and implement the technology required to lower NOx emissions from diesel vehicles, and thus it was decided to effectively set a two stage target for NOx (30% reduction by Euro 5, 70% by Euro 6). 

From a vehicle cost perspective, the incremental cost of complying with Euro 6 is estimated to be significantly less than the step from Euro 5 to Euro 6.  If the case is made for introducing the standards, establishing a timeframe for both Euro 5 and Euro 6 now (rather than revisiting the Euro 6 issue in a few years time), will assist vehicle manufacturers in planning for compliance.  The long lead time for compliance with Euro 6 (at least 5 years), would also assist in ameliorating the costs of compliance for manufacturers.

In conclusion, there would appear to be significant merit in considering Euro 5 and Euro 6 as linked standards, and for a decision on their joint implementation to be made in the context of this RIS (and not deferred). 

This RIS does not propose to evaluate this option further.

 


3.7   Option 6:  Introduction of Euro 6 only on earliest
                practical timeframes

 

Action:                  Mandate Euro 6 standards only for light vehicles

Timeframe[30]:        2015-17 (all vehicles)

 

Under Option 6, the Euro 5 standards would not be adopted, and Australia would move to adopt the Euro 6 standards at the earliest possible timeframe (2015-2017, depending on vehicle type).

By “skipping” Euro 5, this approach would delay the health benefits which would have otherwise been delivered by the Euro 5 standards (under Option 2) for 3-5 years.  It would defer compliance costs for some manufacturers where it was cost-effective to continue to manufacture Euro 4 compliant models until the introduction of the Euro 6 standards. 

In the case of light diesel vehicles, Australia’s current standards (Euro 4) are closely aligned with the UN ECE standards timeframe – consistent with Australia’s policy to harmonise with international standards where possible.  The delay inherent in this Option would mean that Australia’s light diesel emissions standards will have remain unchanged for almost 10 years (Euro 4 for diesels was fully implemented on 1 January 2007), and place Australia’s diesel emissions standards well behind UN ECE standards (where Euro 5 began to take effect from September 2009).

On balance, provided industry is provided with adequate lead time to comply with Euro 5, there does not appear to be a strong case for skipping the Euro 5 standard and simply implementing Euro 6 in 5-7 years time.  Such an approach would delay significant health benefits and be inconsistent with the Australian Government’s broad vehicle standards harmonisation policy.

This RIS does not propose to evaluate this option further.

 

 


 

To assist the assessment of the implications for strengthening vehicle emissions and fuel quality standards post-2010, the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) undertook a range of analyses to underpin a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) for the options described in Section 3 of this RIS.  The full details of the BCA are at Appendix C.

Under this benefit–cost analysis, the base and price year is set to 2009 with the evaluation period extending to 2029[31].  Consistent with the recommendations in the Best Practice Regulation Handbook published by the Office of Best Practice Regulation[32], the discount rate used to estimate the net present value is 7%.  The key indicators for economic viability are net benefit expressed as Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit–Cost Ratio (BCR).  The BCA also includes a number of sensitivity analyses.

Following the consideration of the public comment from the vehicle industry - whose primary concern was that the implementation timeframes for the proposals assessed in the BCA were too early – additional (later) timing scenarios have been included as additional sensitivity analyses in Section 4.5 of this RIS. 

4.1    Impact on Vehicle Emissions

The main pollutants of concern for air quality are HC, NOx and PM (particulates). 

As summarised in Table 5, if adopted, the Euro 5/6 light vehicle standards would lead to significant reductions in NOx emissions from petrol vehicles, and HC and NOx emissions from diesel vehicles, and dramatic reductions in PM emissions from diesel vehicles.  The introduction of the new particle number limit standard and the other measures listed in Section 1.5.1 will further enhance the emissions impact of the Euro 5/6 standards. 

 


Table 5                  Emissions Reduction from Adoption of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Light Vehicle Standards

Vehicle Fuel Type

Emissions Reduction (%)*

Euro 4 ð Euro 5

Euro 5 ð Euro 6

HC

NOx

PM

HC

NOx

PM

Petrol/LPG

-

25

NA

-

-

-

Diesel (and DI petrol)

25

30

80-90

26-40

55

-

 

* To nearest 5%; a range indicates that the percentage reduction varies with vehicle category; “-“ indicates no change

 

 

The European Commission has concluded[33] that the introduction of the Euro 5/6 standards would have a negligible impact on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

For this RIS, emissions of these pollutants from the Australian light vehicle fleet were modelled using a suite of BITRE fleet and projection models.  These models are described in a variety of BITRE publications (refer to Appendix B for more information).  These BITRE models allow for the effects of increasing traffic congestion levels within our urban areas, which leads not only to higher rates of fuel consumption than would otherwise have occurred, but also to higher rates of urban air pollutants being emitted from the affected vehicles. 

The BITRE estimated the impacts of Options 2, 3 and 4 on total light vehicle fleet emissions, relative to the Option 1.  All options incorporate the following “base case” assumptions:

·         oil prices remain at current levels ($60-70 US per barrel);

·         population grows according to the mid-range ‘Series B’ scenario values of the latest ABS population projections;

·         income grows in line with the Treasury’s latest Budget statements for short term and the Inter-generational report for longer term;

·         average fleet travel behaviour remains roughly the same as now (e.g. cars average about 15000 km per annum), but with overall per capita travel approaching saturation levels with respect to average income levels;

  • new vehicle sales growth (see Table 6) is driven by overall (i.e. economy-wide) travel demand and annual vehicle scrappage rates[34];

·         no change to current fuel standards;

·         diesel vehicles continue to increase their market share in line with current growth trends, so that they will dominate LCV sales by 2040. They are a major component of SUV sales, but still account for only a small proportion of sedan sales.  By 2040, diesel vehicles are forecast to achieve an overall market share of about 36% of annual light vehicle sales;

·         hybrids significantly increase market share eventually accounting for 60% of all passenger car sales by 2040;

·         minor growth in the market share of direct injection petrol engines[35], electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; and

  • emissions control technologies experience mid-range deterioration rates, such that most vehicles are still within the standards after about 10 years.  A small proportion of the fleet, growing with vehicle age, will be high emitters, accounting for vehicles with poor service records or malfunctioning emissions control systems.

Table 6          New Vehicle Sales Growth Estimates

Year

New Vehicle Sales (‘000)

 

Diesel

Petrol & LPG

Total

2009

210

683

893

2010

222

693

915

2011

238

720

958

2012

257

763

1020

2013

267

762

1029

2014

278

761

1039

2015

289

761

1050

2016

300

760

1060

2017

312

759

1071

2018

323

758

1082

2019

335

758

1092

2020

346

757

1103

2021

355

759

1114

2022

364

761

1126

2023

374

763

1137

2024

384

765

1148

2025

393

767

1160

2026

402

767

1168

2027

409

768

1177

2028

416

770

1186

2029

422

773

1195

2030

426

778

1204

2031

430

783

1213

2032

434

788

1222

2033

438

793

1231

2034

442

797

1239

2035

445

801

1246

2036

449

805

1253

2037

452

809

1261

2038

456

812

1268

2039

459

816

1276

2040

463

820

1283

 

Source:    BITRE Estimates (2009)

 

The FCAI, and one vehicle manufacturer, questioned some of the base case assumptions arguing that “significant numbers of alternatively fuelled vehicles [are] expected to enter the Australian new car market in the time period considered in the cost benefit analysis”.  The FCAI also states that “...companies have targets for worldwide production of electric vehicles or hybrids in the order of 20% production by 2020.  The draft RIS does not test for scenarios where electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles are sold in these quantities”.

In response to these comments, the BITRE notes that (as set out above), the base case for the RIS was a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario – incorporating stable real oil prices and continuing economic growth – which provides little incentive to move to (relatively costly) alternative fuels or propulsion technologies.  In relation to the comment on electric vehicles and hybrids, the BITRE acknowledges that the base case  scenario does not have any significant penetration of plug-ins or electric vehicles (since only marginal sales of such expensive technology would be expected under stable fuel prices).  However, it does assume reasonably strong increases in hybrid penetration rates – with current sales volumes growing well over twenty-fold by 2020; and with penetration rates continuing to grow strongly thereafter, eventually accounting for 60% of all car sales by the end of the projection period.  It also needs to be recognised that from the noxious emissions perspective, hybrids do not necessarily deliver a lower emissions outcome than conventional petrol vehicles.

One vehicle manufacturer also question the vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) assumptions used in the BITRE analysis, arguing that the estimate is too high and that they do not reflect publicly available data and should be made available for scrutiny.  A detailed response to the comments is at Appendix D to this RIS. 

However in broad terms, the BITRE advises that its VKT projections are relatively conservative, especially when considered alongside expected strong population growth over the medium-term (e.g. as displayed in recent ABS projections), and are comparable to recent historical trends (where growth rates in light vehicle fleet VKT have averaged about 1.8% per annum over the last couple of decades, even with high fuel prices and low economic growth serving to weaken VKT growth over the last few years).  In addition, BITRE vehicle fleet dynamics models are fully consistent with the distributions contained within the ABS Survey of Motor Vehicle Use (SMVU) datasets – since the SMVU is one of the main data sources against which the BITRE projection models are calibrated.   Though the ABS SMVU is practically indispensible for many transport analysis tasks – and remains the best source for detailed VKT patterns or sectoral distributions – the best ‘publicly available data’ on aggregate Australian VKT values are actually the consistent (or ‘standardised’) time-series estimates from BITRE.  Descriptions and methodological details of BITRE vehicle fleet models are all publicly available (see references in Appendix D).

The only difference between Option 3 and Option 2, is a one year delay in the introduction of petrol and LPG vehicle standards, so not unexpectedly, the BITRE analysis indicates that Option 3 delivers almost identical emissions outcomes to Option 2 over the analysis period.  Consequently, the values for Option 2 displayed in the charts below can be considered to mirror the expected outcomes from Option 3. 

As indicated in Figure 5, the BITRE analysis indicates that introduction of Euro 5/6 emissions standards for light vehicles would begin to deliver net emissions reductions in total NOx emissions in the light vehicle fleet from about 2015 and in the longer term result in a significant reduction in total annual emissions - 53% lower in 2040 relative to Option 1 (no change). 

 


 

Figure 5 shows the BITRE projections which indicate that the introduction of Euro 5 and 6 emissions standards for light vehicles within the timeframes proposed in Option 2 would begin to deliver net reductions in NOx emissions from about 2015 and in the longer term, resulting in a significant reduction in total annual emissions – around 53% lower in 2040 relative to Option 1 (no change).

Source:    BITRE Estimates (2009)

Figure 5           Projected Impact on NOx Emissions of the Light Vehicle Fleet from the Introduction of Euro 5/6 Emissions Standards

 

 

Figure 6 also indicates net reductions in PM emissions from the introduction of the standards from around the same time frame, but over the longer term the magnitude of the reductions is much more significant - 78% lower in 2040 relative to Option 1 (no change).  In addition, the PM reductions from the introduction of the standards would be delivered against an otherwise steeply rising trend predicted in the absence of any new standards. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6 shows the BITRE's estimates for net reductions in PM emissions within the timeframes proposed under Option 2 (introduction of Euro 5/6 standards within the earliest practical timeframe).  Over the longer term, the magnitude of the reductions is very significant – around 78% lower in 2040 relative to Option 1 (no change), under which PM emissions are expected to rise sharply.

Source:    BITRE Estimates (2009)

Figure 6           Projected Impact on PM Emissions of the Light Vehicle Fleet from the Introduction of Euro 5/6 Emissions Standards

 

In its response to the draft RIS, the NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water advised that it had modelled the expected impacts of the new standards under the six options considered in the draft RIS using its motor vehicle emissions inventory.  The Department concluded that the NSW specific results corroborate the findings in the RIS regarding expected emissions reductions.  In relation to the key NOx and PM emissions, the NSW modelling for Options 2 and 3 estimated emissions reductions from the light vehicle fleet of 29% and 69%, respectively, in 2031 (compared to a business as usual approach).


 

4.2    Costs

Starting Costs

The starting point cost estimates for compliance with the Euro 5/6 emissions standards (Table 7) were sourced from the impact statements prepared by the European Commission (EC) to support the introduction of these specific standards[36]. These EC estimates were converted to Australian-dollar estimates using the average exchange rate over the past few years.

 

Table 7             Incremental Vehicle Costs (€ and A$ / vehicle)

A$

 

Euro 4 to Euro 5

Euro 5 to Euro 6

Euro 4 to Euro 5

Euro 5 to Euro 6

Euro 4 to Euro 6

Petrol vehicle

51

0

85

0

85

Diesel vehicle

377

213

628

355

983

Note:      A$1=€0.60.

 

The applicability of the cost estimates in Table 7 to the Australian context is difficult to judge, however they are based on the most detailed technology assessment conducted to determine the costs of compliance with the Euro 5/6 standards, and represent the best available international figures.  For the purposes of this RIS, it is reasonable to use these estimates as the starting point, particularly given that approximately 85% of light vehicles supplied to the Australian market (and 100% of diesels) are fully imported. 

In response to the draft RIS, the FCAI and a number of non-European vehicle manufacturers questioned the use of the EC cost estimates, and technology assumptions.  The submissions argued that these estimates cannot be readily transferred to the Australian context, particularly as less than 15% of vehicles on the Australian market are manufactured in Europe.  However, none of the submissions provided alternative cost estimates which could be utilised in the BCA undertaken for the final RIS.

The EC estimates reflect the estimated costs to manufacturers assuming vehicles are in full production.  These costs directly relate to the technology improvements required to meet the tighter emissions limits under the Euro 5/6 standards (see discussion under Option 2).  The EC concluded that the increased durability requirements and OBD provisions would not incur any significant additional costs. 

In general terms, obtaining reliable cost estimates for emissions technology and resultant vehicle on-costs to consumers is very difficult as both component and vehicle manufacturers consider such information commercially sensitive – this problem was noted by the consultant engaged by the EC to develop cost estimates for the Euro 5 standards[37]

The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) was critical of the EC analysis, and commissioned a report[38] into the basis for the cost assumptions.  The report concluded that there was a lack of adequate cost data available to enable a reliable assessment of the Commission’s conclusions. 

In contrast, the industry association representing emissions control technology manufacturers (Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst) concluded that for both petrol and diesel vehicles the limits were “readily achievable by currently available technology” and in relation to petrol vehicles, could be achieved at “very limited on-cost”[39].  Bosch, in its submission on the draft RIS, stated that “our experience shows that the introduction of Euro 5 capable systems/engines in other markets did not lead to a substantial increase of vehicle prices”.

A US report[40] examining the cost of emissions standards compliance noted that “...vehicles are designed as integrated systems and a single vehicle part may serve multiple functions.  Thus, accurately apportioning the costs of emissions systems to only actual emissions control can be difficult.”  The report also noted that “increases in capital costs resulting from regulation were partially offset by corresponding increases in quality related to developments in emissions technology.”

In relation to the Euro 6 standards, the FCAI submission also questioned the statement in the draft RIS (see Section 1.6) that the technology and manufacturing steps required to comply with the standards are well known.  The FCAI argued that the “full suite of technology to meet Euro 6 are still under development”.  The submission from Bosch (one of the world’s major suppliers of engine and fuel management components) advised that for Euro 5, the fuel injection and engine management systems required for full implementation of Euro 5 are “already commercially available”.  In relation to Euro 6 (which effectively imposes technical changes on diesel vehicles only), Bosch advised that development and application of systems designed to meet the standard have commenced.

 

Cost Adjustments Over Time

For the purposes of this RIS, the EC estimates have been adopted as the starting point in the BCA.  However, international experience[41] suggests early cost estimates tend to overstate actual costs, due to the rapid decline in unit costs as technology matures and production volumes increase.  This is often known as the “experience curve”. 

The presence of this phenomenon appears to be supported by previous experience in Australia.  In recent years, Green Vehicle Guide[42] data illustrate that significant numbers of vehicle models meeting more stringent standards than the minimum specified, have been supplied to the Australian market ahead of the implementation dates for later, more stringent standards.  Many of these models are price competitive with models meeting the mandatory minimum standard only.  Some of these were high volume models, indicating that the additional cost of complying with Euro 4 (for example) did not have a significant impact on vehicle prices when Euro 3 was the minimum standard.  There have also been upgrades of models from one emissions standard to the next without increases in the vehicle price. 

Thus, in estimating the additional unit vehicle cost over time, the BCA assumes that the incremental vehicle technology costs (reported in Table 6) decline as the market expands for the new technology.  The EC estimates include a 33% cost reduction in its analysis, but this is only projected to 2020.  As noted earlier, a report[43] commissioned by the European vehicle manufacturers questioned the reasoning behind this cost reduction estimate, but the report nevertheless notes that “there is plenty of evidence to suggest that mass production has the effect of reducing unit costs”.

Other reports suggest that the actual cost reduction over time could be significantly higher than the EC estimate.  For example, a 2006 Dutch report[44] which reviewed actual (ex-post) costs for a range of emissions standards concluded that cost estimates made at the time of standards development were in general double the observed costs following full implementation (within 10 years).  A US report[45] notes that the US EPA assumed that costs would fall by 80% for Tier 2 emissions standards after two years in production.

Taking the above factors into account, the assumed cost adjustment process for this analysis follows the path shown in Figure 7, that is, the additional unit vehicle costs to comply with the standards are kept constant to 2020, then drop by around 40% by 2029.  The adjusted additional per vehicle cost for petrol (P1) and diesel (D1) vehicles is shown in Figure 8.

 

 

Figure 7 indicates the additional unit vehicle costs to comply with the proposed Euro 5 and 6 standards are assumed to remain constant until 2020 and then fall in a linear manner to approximately 40% below 2020 levels by 2029.

 

Figure 7           Assumed cost adjustment path

 

 

Delayed Benefits

As illustrated in the emissions analysis in Section 4.1, emissions-reducing technology on vehicles purchased during the latter part of the evaluation period will continue to generate benefits beyond the end of the evaluation period in 2029.  In benefit–cost analyses, where assets generate benefits beyond the evaluation period, the usual approach is to estimate the benefits from those assets over their entire lives and to include, as a ‘residual value’, the present value of benefits that accrue after the end of the evaluation period.  For the present application, such an approach would entail a heavy calculation burden.  Since the benefits from emissions-reducing technology are fairly constant over the lives of the vehicles, a good approximation is obtained by prorating the cost of the technology over the lives of the vehicles, then only counting costs attributed to the years before 2029.

The average vehicle life was assumed to be 17 years.  For vehicles purchased during the last 16 years of the evaluation period, the cost of the emissions-reducing technology was annuitised over 17 years at the discount rate.  The annual costs for the years before 2030 were discounted to the present as implementation costs.  Annual costs for years 2030 onward were omitted, consistent with the benefits for years 2030 onward being absent.

The ‘pro-rata’ curves in Figure 8 (P2 and D2) show the effects on costs per vehicle of excluding annualised costs after 2029 of emissions-reducing technology for vehicles purchased over the last 16 years of the evaluation period.  The pro-rata curves approach zero by the end of the period, with vehicles purchased in 2029 having only one year of cost included.

 

Figure 8 shows the additional per vehicle cost estimates for vehicles complying with the proposed standard over the 2012 to 2029 period.  For petrol vehicles, the adjusted additional cost per vehicle is expected to start at $100 and remain constant, then decrease slightly from 2019 to 2029.  For diesel vehicles the additional cost per vehicle is expected to start at $600, then increase to approximately $1000 over the period 2015-16, remain static until 2019, after which it progressively declines to the pre 2015-16 level, returning to approximately $600 in 2029.  Excluding annualised costs after 2029 of emissions-reducing technology for vehicles purchased over the last 16 years of the evaluation period for diesels and applying these cost exclusions pro rata to the 2012-2029 period leads to per vehicle costs of approximately $600 in 2014 rising to $850 in 2016, then decreasing at a constant rate to less than $100 in 2029.  For petrol vehicles remain constant at around $100 until 2015, then progressively reducing to zero by 2029.

 

Figure 8           Additional Vehicle Cost Estimates (A$/vehicle)

 

 

Compliance Levels

In estimating the total implementation costs, two further assumptions were made regarding the proportion of vehicles complying with the new standard.

First, it was assumed that around half of the vehicles sold in the introduction year of each standard would already comply with the new standard, so only 50 % of the new sales would attract an additional cost.  

Second, it was assumed for all other years that some proportion of new vehicles would have met the lower emissions level even without the new standards implementation.  For petrol vehicles, the proportion was set to 30% throughout the evaluation period.  For diesel vehicles, the proportion was set to 30% when moving from Euro 4 to Euro 5 standards and to 5% from Euro 5 to Euro 6 standards (Figure 9).  The benefits from the lower emissions of these vehicles were not included in the benefits of introducing the new standards because these benefits accrue regardless.

 

Figure 9 shows the estimated proportion of new vehicles that would be expected to comply with the new standards even if these standards were not mandated.  It is anticipated that approximately 30% of new petrol vehicles will be compliant with the new standards for the whole period.  It is estimated that approximately 30% of new diesel vehicles will be compliant with Euro 5 standards at the expected time of commencement under Option 2 and 5% of new diesel vehicles will be compliant with Euro 6 standards at its expected date of commencement (2016-17).

 

 

Figure 9           Proportion of New Vehicles Already Complying with
the New Standards (%)

 

As noted in the discussion under Section 4.1 of this RIS, the FCAI questioned the assumptions regarding uptake of alternative technologies such as electric vehicles and hybrids.  In considering the costs impacts of different technology assumptions, the BITRE concludes that making the changes suggested by the FCAI (i.e. including much higher penetration of technologies such as plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles in the base case modelling) would have little effect on the benefit-cost ratios calculated in the RIS.  The base case already assumes a significant proportion of future sales  to be technologically advanced enough to meet the new standards proposed in this RIS, and would therefore not incur any further costs if the stricter emission limits under Euro 5/6 were introduced.  Raising the eventual penetration of such advanced technologies in the modelling would somewhat reduce the calculated benefits of the measure.  However, it would also reduce the costs incurred (since the proportion of future vehicle sales assumed to already meet the new standards would be increased).  These effects would be roughly counterbalancing (in terms of the benefit-cost ratio calculation), and would also tend to be significant only towards the tail-end of the projection period.  Since the discounting used to calculate the Net Present Values in the overall benefit-cost ratio significantly reduces the value of the cost estimates in the later years, the aggregate contribution to the BCA ratio values of such tail-end effects will tend to be minor.  On this basis, a reworking of the base case modelling is not considered necessary.


 

4.3    Health Benefits

In the vehicle emissions context, an accepted method to measure the health benefits from lower emissions is to use an “avoided health cost” approach.  In such an approach, monetary values (measured as $/tonne) are assigned to individual pollutants (in this case HC, NOx and PM).  These dollar values are derived from an assessment of human morbidity and mortality impacts from exposure to these pollutants, and the monetary costs associated with addressing those impacts. 

The methodology employed to estimate the health benefits is described by the following formula:

Avoided Health Cost ($) = Emissions Saved (tonnes) x Unit Health Cost ($)

The first step is to quantify the emissions of pollutants for the scenarios under investigation and estimate tonnes of emissions saved for each vehicle standards option (relative to the base case).  The second step is to establish a value for an average health cost ($ per tonne of emissions) from existing studies.  The final step is to calculate the total health benefit (or health cost avoided) by multiplying tonnes of emissions saved by unit value(s) for health costs.

The emissions estimates for the first step are provided by the analysis outlined in Section 4.1 of this RIS.

In determining unit health costs, the ideal methodology is to use a “bottom-up approach” to analyse the health impact of the proposed new emissions standards.  Such an approach would follow the methodology recommended by Jalaludin, et al[46] and would comprise a series of steps to quantify and value air pollution in each major city, taking into account the effects of technology.  However, the simplified approach outlined below is considered adequate for this analysis.

The approach adopted for this study is to utilise the existing studies to derive plausible estimates of $/tonne health costs from air pollution.  Table 8 presents estimates of $/tonne health costs obtained from a number of transport-related health impact studies for Australia.  Two general observations can be made with respect to Table 8 - first, unit cost estimates exhibit a considerable range of variation; second, more recent estimates tend to be much higher than those prior to the year 2000.


 

Table 8             Average Capital City Health Cost (A$/tonne of emissions)

Source

Health Cost by Emissions Type (A$/tonne)

CO

HC

NOx

PM10

*Coffey Geosciences (2003)

13

2,200

59

232,000

Watkiss (2002)a

2

875

1,750

217,415

Beer (2002) – Ozone included

Upper bound

9

72,500

900

221,100

Best estimate

3

19,331

870

147,429

Lower bond

2

11,700

280

108,300

Beer (2002) – Ozone excluded

3

18,719

11

147,429

BTRE (2005)

na

na

na

167,626 b

Environment Australia (2000)

12

1,440

1,385

17,600

NSW EPA (1998)

na

na

68

310

NSW EPA (1997)

25

960

1,490

1,810

Notes:      a  Simple average for inner and outer areas of major capital cities (see Table 3 of Appendix B for detailed Watkiss (2002) results).

                        b  Estimate for the year 2000, derived from results reported in BTRE (2005).

Source:    Coffey Geosciences (2003), Watkiss (2002) and BTRE (2005) [refer to reference list in Appendix C for details]

 

Unit health costs vary from location to location and according to population and meteorological factors.  To analyse the impact of the proposed new vehicle standards on emissions (in terms of tonnes of pollutants emitted), the best disaggregation of the location – given the available data – is to split the total emissions into those for capital cities and the rest of Australia.  To calculate the total health benefit, estimates of unit health costs are required for each of the two areas concerned.


The procedure employed to estimate unit health cost values included the following steps:

·       Only the three most recent studies listed in Table 8 (excluding BTRE (2005)) were selected as input for estimation - Coffey Geosciences (2003), Watkiss (2002) and Beer (2002);

·       Unit values for capital cities were calculated by taking the simple average of the estimates from the three studies;

·       Unit values for the rest of Australia were based on the simple average of the estimates for Band 3 and Band 4 contained in Watkiss (2002);

·       Given the uncertainties surrounding the unit value estimates, an upper bound and a lower bound were established (an average ±50%) on the basis of observations made by Coffey Geosciences (2003); and

·       Unit values presented in Table 8 were assumed to be in 2003 prices, and were updated to 2009 prices using the CPI.

Table 9 presents the recommended unit values for calculating the health benefit and undertaking sensitivity analyses for this BCA.

 

Table 9             Updated Average Health Cost ($/tonne of emissions)
by Area (in 2009 prices)

Area & Sensitivity

Health Cost by Emissions Type ($/tonne)

HC

NOx

PM10

Central

Capital cities

8,832

1,056

235,261

Rest of Australia

103

154

55,827

Upper bound + 50%

Capital cities

13,248

1,584

352,891

Rest of Australia

155

231

83,740

Lower bound -50 %

Capital cities

4,416

528

117,630

Rest of Australia

52

77

27,913

Source:    Derived from the results from Coffey Geosciences (2003), Watkiss (2002) and Beer (2002).

 

The introduction of a particle number standard, while not quantified will also deliver significant health benefits as it will directly reduce the number of ultrafine particles emitted from Euro 5/6 vehicles.  Of all the vehicle pollutants reduced by the new standards, ultrafine particles have the strongest association with adverse health effects.

The health benefits are dominated by the PM reductions delivered by the new vehicle emissions standards, with the reductions in NOx also contributing to total benefits. 

It is not possible to isolate and quantify the benefits from the increased durability standards and the upgraded OBD requirements for both petrol and diesel vehicles under the new standards, and thus these have not directly factored into the health benefit estimates.  Nevertheless, as noted in the EC impact assessment, increasing the durability requirements (reinforced by the OBD provisions) will provide a greater level of assurance that emissions control systems on vehicles will continue to function over the expected life of the vehicle.  The value of increased durability in emissions control systems is illustrated by the sensitivity analyses (see Section 4.5), where the sensitivity testing for deterioration rates (the corollary of durability) indicates that increased rates of deterioration in emissions control systems can significantly impact emissions outcomes. 

 

4.4    Net Benefit – Options 2, 3 & 4

As illustrated in Tables 10 and 11, the BCA results show that both Option 2 and Option 3 provide net benefits for the light vehicle fleet over the analysis period under the base case assumptions identified in Sections 4.1 – 4.3, although the overall net benefit calculated in the BCA is delivered by diesel vehicles meeting the new standards, not petrol vehicles (which, under the BCA, incur net costs). 

A further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of removing petrol (and LPG) vehicles from the application of the Euro 5/6 standards.  This was undertaken by apportioning the costs and benefits applicable to petrol vehicles under Option 2 as accurately as possible, and undertaking the BCA under the same assumptions for Option 2.  This is presented as Option 4 (see Section 3.5).  As illustrated in Table 12, the BCA results show that net benefit of Option 4 (the diesel only option) relative to Option 2 or 3, is around $200-220 million higher over the analysis period.

 

 


Table 10      Summary of Net Benefit for Option 2

 

Undiscounted Cash Flow

($m, in 2009 prices)

Discount Factor

Discounted Cash Flow ($m)

($m, in 2009 prices)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

(7%)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

2009

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0000

0.0

0.0

0.0

2010

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9346

0.0

0.0

0.0

2011

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.8734

0.0

0.0

0.0

2012

-79.1

12.7

-66.4

0.8163

-64.6

10.4

-54.2

2013

-162.7

38.5

-124.2

0.7629

-124.1

29.3

-94.8

2014

-162.2

66.2

-96.0

0.7130

-115.6

47.2

-68.4

2015

-160.9

95.4

-65.5

0.6663

-107.2

63.6

-43.6

2016

-166.1

127.3

-38.8

0.6227

-103.4

79.3

-24.2

2017

-287.8

162.0

-125.9

0.5820

-167.5

94.3

-73.3

2018

-282.5

198.9

-83.5

0.5439

-153.6

108.2

-45.4

2019

-274.7

238.2

-36.5

0.5083

-139.6

121.1

-18.5

2020

-261.0

278.7

17.7

0.4751

-124.0

132.4

8.4

2021

-240.2

320.1

79.9

0.4440

-106.7

142.1

35.5

2022

-214.5

360.1

145.6

0.4150

-89.0

149.4

60.4

2023

-188.1

399.7

211.5

0.3878

-73.0

155.0

82.0

2024

-161.3

442.6

281.3

0.3624

-58.5

160.4

101.9

2025

-134.0

485.7

351.7

0.3387

-45.4

164.5

119.1

2026

-106.2

528.5

422.3

0.3166

-33.6

167.3

133.7

2027

-78.5

569.5

491.1

0.2959

-23.2

168.5

145.3

2028

-51.2

609.1

557.9

0.2765

-14.2

168.4

154.3

2029

-24.9

647.2

622.3

0.2584

-6.4

167.3

160.8

Total

-3,035.9

5,580.3

2,544.4

-1,549.7

2,128.7

579.0

Benefit–cost Ratio =                        1.37

NPV =                                                                    $579m

 


Table 11      Summary of Net Benefit for Option 3

 

Undiscounted Cash Flow

($m, in 2009 prices)

Discount Factor

Discounted Cash Flow ($m)

($m, in 2009 prices)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

(7%)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

2009

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0000

0.0

0.0

0.0

2010

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9346

0.0

0.0

0.0

2011

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.8734

0.0

0.0

0.0

2012

-56.4

12.3

-44.2

0.8163

-46.1

10.0

-36.1

2013

-140.0

37.2

-102.8

0.7629

-106.8

28.4

-78.4

2014

-162.2

64.6

-97.6

0.7130

-115.6

46.1

-69.6

2015

-160.9

93.9

-67.0

0.6663

-107.2

62.6

-44.6

2016

-166.1

125.8

-40.3

0.6227

-103.4

78.3

-25.1

2017

-287.8

160.4

-127.4

0.5820

-167.5

93.4

-74.1

2018

-282.5

197.4

-85.0

0.5439

-153.6

107.4

-46.2

2019

-274.7

236.7

-38.0

0.5083

-139.6

120.3

-19.3

2020

-261.0

277.3

16.3

0.4751

-124.0

131.7

7.7

2021

-240.2

318.7

78.5

0.4440

-106.7

141.5

34.9

2022

-214.5

358.7

144.2

0.4150

-89.0

148.9

59.9

2023

-188.1

398.4

210.2

0.3878

-73.0

154.5

81.5

2024

-161.3

441.3

280.0

0.3624

-58.5

160.0

101.5

2025

-134.0

484.5

350.5

0.3387

-45.4

164.1

118.7

2026

-106.2

527.4

421.2

0.3166

-33.6

167.0

133.3

2027

-78.5

568.5

490.1

0.2959

-23.2

168.2

145.0

2028

-51.2

608.2

557.0

0.2765

-14.2

168.2

154.0

2029

-24.9

646.4

621.5

0.2584

-6.4

167.0

160.6

Total

-2,990.5

5,557.8

2,567.3

-1,513.9

2,117.5

603.6

Benefit–cost Ratio =                        1.40

NPV =                                                    $604m

 

 

 


Table 12      Summary of Net Benefit for Option 4

 

Year

Undiscounted Cash Flow

($m, in 2009 prices)

Discount Factor

Discounted Cash Flow ($m)

($m, in 2009 prices)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

(7%)

Cost

Benefit

Net benefit

2009

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0000

0.0

0.0

0.0

2010

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9346

0.0

0.0

0.0

2011

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.8734

0.0

0.0

0.0

2012

-56.4

12.60

-43.8

0.8163

-46.1

10.3

-35.8

2013

-117.3

38.03

-79.3

0.7629

-89.5

29.0

-60.5

2014

-118.4

65.32

-53.0

0.7130

-84.4

46.6

-37.8

2015

-118.7

94.14

-24.6

0.6663

-79.1

62.7

-16.4

2016

-125.6

125.30

-0.3

0.6227

-78.2

78.0

-0.2

2017

-249.1

159.07

-90.1

0.5820

-145.0

92.6

-52.4

2018

-245.8

195.28

-50.5

0.5439

-133.7

106.2

-27.5

2019

-240.0

233.76

-6.3

0.5083

-122.0

118.8

-3.2

2020

-229.1

273.57

44.5

0.4751

-108.8

130.0

21.1

2021

-211.5

314.26

102.8

0.4440

-93.9

139.5

45.6

2022

-189.3

353.56

164.3

0.4150

-78.6

146.7

68.2

2023

-166.5

392.55

226.1

0.3878

-64.6

152.2

87.7

2024

-143.1

434.86

291.7

0.3624

-51.9

157.6

105.7

2025

-119.2

477.37

358.2

0.3387

-40.4

161.7

121.3

2026

-94.7

519.52

424.8

0.3166

-30.0

164.5

134.5

2027

-70.1

560.01

489.9

0.2959

-20.7

165.7

144.9

2028

-45.8

599.04

553.2

0.2765

-12.7

165.6

153.0

2029

-22.3

636.59

614.3

0.2584

-5.8

164.5

158.8

Total

-2,562.9

5,484.8

2,921.9

-1,285.2

2,092.3

807.1

Benefit–cost Ratio =

1.63

NPV =

$807m


 

4.5    Sensitivity Analyses

Given the inevitable uncertainties with some of the assumptions used in the base case, a number of sensitivity analyses were undertaken on the assumptions for:

  • Fleet parameters (diesel penetration and durability of emissions controls);
  • Unit health costs;
  • Vehicle costs;
  • Discount rates; and
  • Value of statistical life.

As the BCA results for Options 2 and 3 are so similar (especially over the longer term), sensitivity testing was done for Option 2 only.  Sensitivity analyses were also not undertaken for Option 4, as the only sensitivity test which might affect the result (diesel vehicle penetration) was shown to have limited effect on the overall results. 

These analyses indicate that Option 2 (and by implication Option 3) deliver net benefits under all circumstances, except where a very low unit health cost value is applied.

As noted at the beginning of Section 4, the vehicle industry raised concerns in the public comment phase regarding the implementation timeframe for the introduction of the new emissions standards, so an additional sensitivity analysis (again using Option 2 as the base case) on the FCAI’s preferred timeframe is included at the end of this Section 4.5.  A further analysis is also included for a revised version of Option 3 to reflect the final text of UN ECE Regulation 83/06 (see Section 3.1 for an explanation of the changes to R83/06).

 

Changes to Fleet Parameters

The first set of sensitivity tests (ST1) is for diesel vehicle penetration.  The ‘low’ case has new sales remaining roughly at their current proportion of total sales (leading to around 17% of 2029 sales) and the ‘high’ case has strong increases in diesel vehicles sales (with the result that about 40%of 2029 car sales, and most of LCV sales, are diesels).

The second set of sensitivity tests (ST2) is for durability of the emissions control technology.  The ‘low’ case has the deterioration rates set to zero for all post-2010 models, and the ‘high’ case has the default parameter values doubled for all post-2010 models.

If the changed deterioration rates applied only to the Euro 5 and 6 technology, the zero deterioration assumption would lead to higher benefits (the ‘high’ case), and conversely for doubling the deterioration rate parameter (the ‘low’ case).  However, the changes to the deterioration rate parameter are applied to the Option 1 case as well as the ‘new standards’ case, and they affect the status quo results more than they affect the ‘new standards’ results.  Consequently, the savings in emissions are lower for the sensitivity run with zero deterioration (making it the ‘low’ case) and greater for the run that doubles the deterioration rate (making it the ‘high’ case).

The impact of these sensitivity tests on PM emissions (which is the dominant emissions factor in the BCA) is illustrated in Figure 10.  The chart indicates that under all test conditions, Option 2 (and implicitly Option 3) deliver emissions reductions relative to the base case (Option 1).  The chart indicates that PM emissions are more sensitive to changes in deterioration rates than diesel penetration, presumably because the PM emissions rate from diesel vehicles meeting Euro 5 is not markedly different from those of petrol vehicles.

 

Figure 10 illustrates the impact of the sensitivity tests on PM emissions (which is the dominant emissions factor in the BCA).  The chart indicates that under all test conditions, Option 2 (and implicitly Option 3) will result in lower PM emissions relative to the base case (Option 1).  The chart indicates that PM emissions are most sensitive to changes in deterioration rates with the maximum emissions reductions being delivered when the deterioration rates are low.

Source: BITRE Estimates (2009)

 

Figure 10          Projected Impact on PM Emissions of the Light Vehicle Fleet from the Introduction of Euro 5/6 Emissions Standards under Different Diesel Penetration and Durability Sensitivity Tests


The results of sensitivity tests for ST1 and ST2 in terms of the BCA are presented in Table 13.  While there are still net benefits under all tests, as noted above, it appears that the results are more sensitive to the changes in the deterioration rates than diesel penetration rates.

 

Table 13      Impact of Changes to Specified Fleet Parameters

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case

579

1.37

ST1 (diesel penetration)

 

 

Low

444

1.37

High

581

1.37

ST2 (deterioration rates)

 

 

Low

248

1.16

High

922

1.60

 

Changes to Unit Health Costs

The two tests for health costs were simply to apply a ±50% factor to the base case estimates.  As shown in Table 14, under the unlikely scenario where unit health cost values (i.e. the benefits measured in terms of avoided health costs) are reduced by 50%, there is a net cost over the analysis period.

 

Table 14      Impact of Changes to Unit Health Costs

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case

579

1.37

Low Avoided Cost (– 50%)

– 485

0.69

High Avoided Cost (+ 50%)

1,643

2.06


Changes to Implementation Costs

As noted earlier, there are considerable uncertainties in the assumed cost adjustment process illustrated in Figure 9.  An alternative assumption tested in this RIS is to assume no downward cost adjustment over time.  The result of the testing is presented in Table 15.  Even with this very conservative assumption, there are still net benefits over the analysis period.

 

Table 15      Impact of Changes to Implementation (Vehicle) Costs

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case

579

1.37

High Cost
(no downward cost adjustment)

489

1.30

 

Changes to Discount Rates

The results of sensitivity testing in relation to the discount rates are shown in Table 16.  There are net benefits under all three rates, with the 3% discount rate preferred by BITRE delivering a significantly higher net benefit than the base case.

 

Table 16      Impact of Changes to Discount Rates

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case (7%)

579

1.37

Low (3%)

1,576

1.77

High (11%)

132

1.11

 

Changes to Value of a Statistical Life

As noted in Section 4.3, the estimates for avoided health costs can vary widely, and in part this is affected by the assumed value of a statistical life (VSL).  The implied average VSL used by the three most recent studies evaluated in the BCA was $6 million and was derived from a consistent methodology (willingness to pay).  This is consistent with a 2008 report[47] for Australian Safety and Compensation Council, which, while also noting the inherent uncertainties in VSL estimates suggested a “ballpark average” of $6 million for VSL, with sensitivity analysis recommended at $3.7 million and $8.1 million.  To assess the influence of changes in VSL on the BCA outcomes, a sensitivity test using the VSL estimate preferred by the OBPR ($3.7 million) was conducted.  The result of the testing is presented in Table 17.  Using this very conservative assumption, the net benefits are greatly reduced, although still positive over the analysis period.

 

Table 17      Impact of Changes to Value of Statistical Life Estimates

Assumed VSL

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case ($6m)

579

1.37

Low Case ($3.7m)

20

1.01

 

Changes to Implementation Timelines

The FCAI and some individual manufacturers have claimed that the timing proposed in Option 3 would incur higher costs (albeit in the absence of any usable quantification of such costs) and would disrupt product planning for some models.  In response to these FCAI concerns, a revised timeframe (using Option 2 as the base case) was developed to assess the impact on the BCA outcomes.  In subsequent discussions, the FCAI also indicated that they would prefer the implementation dates be based on vehicle type rather than fuel type, arguing that the model life for light commercial vehicles (LCVs) was longer than passenger cars and sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and thus it was appropriate to have later implementation dates for LCVs. 

The FCAI also argued that it was too early for a decision on Euro 6, but as explained elsewhere in this RIS, this position is not supported by the evidence.  Thus for the purposes of the RIS analysis, a timing for Euro 6 has been included in the FCAI scenario, allowing a significant 4-5 year lag between the start of Euro 5 and the start of Euro 6. 

The “FCAI” scenario in Table 18 represents the FCAI’s preferred position on Euro 5 and incorporates a much later start for Euro 6 timing.

As noted in Section 3.1 of this RIS, changes in the final text of ECE Reg 83/06 also mean that the staged approach applying in the European Union has not ultimately been not reflected in the UN regulation.  Nevertheless, it would be undesirable to impose a timeline in Australia that impacted on vehicles legitimately certified to European standards.  For this reason a modified version of the preferred Option 3 from the draft RIS has been prepared for the final RIS.  The timing of this option ensures a minimum 18 month buffer between the EU timeline and any ADR timeline, and would allow for a phased introduction of the core emissions standards under Euro 5 to new models, with the full Euro 5 requirements taking effect at the “all model” date.  This option is described as “Modified Option 3” in Table 18.

 

Table 18      Two Scenarios with Revised Implementation Timelines

Scenario Name

Emissions Standard

Vehicle Type

Implementation Dates #

New Models

All Models

Modified Option 3

Euro 5

Cars & SUVs

1 April 2013

1 April 2015

LCVs & Light Buses

1 July 2013

1 July 2015

Euro 6

Cars & SUVs

1 April 2017

1 April 2018

LCVs & Light Buses

1 July 2017

1 July 2018

FCAI

Euro 5

Cars & SUVs

1 Jan 2015

1 Jan 2017

LCVs & Light Buses

1 Jan 2016

1 Jan 2018

Euro 6

Cars & SUVs

1 Jan 2020

1 Jan 2021

LCVs & Light Buses

1 Jan 2020

1 Jan 2021

 

#              The implementation dates applicable to “new models” mean that from 1 April 2013 (for example) any new model (type) first produced with a date of manufacture after 1 April 2013 must comply with the new standard.  For “all models” the 1 April 2015 date (for example) means that all new vehicles (regardless of the first production date for that particular model) must comply as of 1 April 2015.

 

As shown in Table 19, the impact of the delayed timing relative to Option 2 (base case) reduces the net benefit over the analysis period – by some 36% under the “Modified Option 3” and 75% under the “FCAI Option” and the benefit cost ratio is also reduced under both scenarios.  It is reasonable to conclude that any final timeline which may be negotiated between the Government and the industry would fall between the FCAI option and the Modified Option 3, and such an outcome would logically deliver estimated net benefits between the $147 million and $371 million estimated for these two options.

 

Table 19      Impact of Changes to Implementation Timing

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Option (Option 2)

579

1.37

Modified Option 3

371

1.26

FCAI

147

1.12

 

Changes to Analysis Period

The BCA analysis presented in the draft RIS was conducted over a 30 year timeframe (to 2040).  The draft RIS sought stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of this 30 year time frame, including the rationale for any alternative timeframe proposed.  No submission questioned the 30 year timeframe. 

Nevertheless, following discussions with the Office of Best Practice Regulation, it was agreed that due to the uncertainties inherent in analysis over an extended period, the BCA in the final RIS should adopt a shorter analysis period based on the  using the average vehicle life (17 years) to determine as the end point - thus making 2029 the last year of the evaluation period (given the standards first take effect in 2012).  As shown in Table 20 the benefit cost ratio (BCR) is not particularly sensitive to the length of the evaluation period chosen - extending the study period to 2040 yields a slightly higher BCR.  Not surprisingly, however, the dollar magnitude of the net benefit is significantly higher, given the longer (28 year) period to accrue benefits at reduced long term costs, compared to the 17 year base case period.

 

Table 20      Impact of Changes to Analysis Period

Scenarios

Net Benefit
($m)

Benefit–cost Ratio

Base Case (end 2029)

579

1.37

Longer Analysis Period (end 2040)

1,250

1.51

 

 


4.6       Summary of Net Benefit – Options 2, 3, 4 & Sensitivity Analyses

Table 21 summarises presents the net benefit calculations from Sections 4.4 and 4.5 under:

·         the base case (Option 2);

·         the various sensitivity analyses conducted on Option 2; and

·         Options 3 and 4 (which, as explained in Section 4.5, were not subject to sensitivity analyses). 

 

Table 21      Summary of Net Benefit under Options 2, 3, 4 & Sensitivity Analyses

Option

Net Benefit ($m)

 

Core Assumptions

Sensitivity Analyses (with Option 2 as Base Case)

 

 

Diesel Penetration Rate

Deterioration Rate

Avoided Health Costs

High Vehicle Costs

Discount Rate

Lower Value of Statistical Life

Implementation Timing

Longer Analysis Period

 

 

Low

High

Low

High

Low

High

 

Low (3%)

High (11%)

 

Moderate (1-2 yr) Delay

Extended (3-4 yr) Delay

 

2

579

444

581

248

922

-485

1,643

489

1,576

132

20

371

147

1,250

3

604

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

807

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

5.1       Draft RIS Process

This final RIS has been prepared following consideration of the public comment on the draft RIS which was released on 8 January 2010.  The draft RIS included  a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) to enable stakeholders to evaluate the assumptions and estimates of costs and benefits used to derive the net benefit calculation, and ultimately the recommended option in the draft.  The draft RIS specifically sought comments on these assumptions and estimates, and the provision of any alternative data. 

While the impact of changes to fuel quality (particularly sulfur levels in petrol) was not assessed in the BCA, the Government also sought the provision of any data which might improve the understanding of this issue and assist any further analysis that may be conducted under the auspices of the Fuel Quality Standards Act 2000.  The draft RIS noted that advice on fuel quality issues will be provided to the Fuel Standards Consultative Committee which has been established under the FQS Act to provide advice to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts.  The responses to this issue are discussed in Section 5.2 below and in Section 1.5.4.

Notification of this draft proposal was also sent to the World Trade Organisation, consistent with Australia’s obligations under the Technical Barriers to Trade agreement.

 

5.2    Public Comment

5.2.1  Summary

There were 27 submissions received on the draft RIS.  Three companies (Ford, Holden and Toyota) marked their submissions as confidential, and two submissions (Nissan, Skoda) took the form of letters to the Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government (also not made public).

The submissions can be categorised into the following broad groupings:

1.    Vehicle/component  manufacturers (FCAI, Ford, Holden, Toyota, VW, Skoda, Nissan, Ferrari, Bosch)

2.    Industry groups with vehicle or vehicle component focus (Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association [AAAA], Motor Trades Association of Australia [MTAA])

3.    Fleet managers (Australasian Fleet Managers Association [AFMA])

4.    Fuel producer/supplier groups (AIP, LPG Australia)

5.    Motoring Associations (Australian Automobile Association (AAA), NRMA)

6.    State Governments (Transport agencies in NSW, Qld & WA; Environment agencies in NSW, Vic, SA, WA and Tas)

7.    NGOs (Environment Victoria, Allergy and Environmental Sensitivity Support and Research Association)

8.    Consulting firm (PAE Holmes)

9.    Individuals (2)

The responses to the recommendations in the draft RIS were mixed.

All the state governments that responded supported the recommendations in the RIS.  The NSW government submission (a joint environment and transport agency submission) provided detailed comments and some analysis, while the others were relatively short statements of support.

The NRMA, LPG Australia, AFMA, Ferrari, Skoda, Bosch, the NGOs and the individuals supported the recommendations in the RIS – some proposing an earlier timeline than that proposed in the recommended option.  Some of these submissions also suggested the issue of fuel quality needs further consideration.

VW Australia was broadly supportive of the move to adopt the later standards, but raised concerns about fuel sulfur levels and some issues of detail.

The remaining four vehicle manufacturers who made individual submissions (Ford, Holden, Toyota, Nissan) expressed a range of concerns, principally:

  • the timeframe for compliance is too early, and underestimates the design and engineering implications for compliance with Euro 5/6 - particularly for the domestic manufacturing industry and for importers from the Asian region;
  • the EC costs estimates are not relevant in the Australian context;
  • the fuel (petrol) quality in Australia is inadequate;
  • the Euro 5/6 RIS should be linked to CO2 emissions RIS process; and
  • some underlying assumptions in the emissions projections are questionable.

The FCAI submission mirrored many of the criticisms of the local manufacturers, and also argued that price impact of possible changes to fuel quality standards should also be factored into the BCA for this RIS.

The MTAA considered the lead times were too short for local manufacturers and the local servicing industry, and also raised questions about fuel quality issues.

The AAA gave qualified support for the recommendations, but wanted further assessment of costs for motorists and consideration of petrol sulfur levels and integration with the CO2 RIS process.

The AIP focussed on the fuel quality issues, specifically the question of sulfur levels in petrol.  The submission argued that no changes to current fuel standards were warranted to support compliance with Euro 5/6, and that a full benefit-cost analysis would be required if changes to fuel standards were to be contemplated.

The AAAA focussed on issues around access for 3rd party servicing to electronic emission control systems and diagnostics, raising concerns that the adoption of the Euro 5 standards would limit access. 

 

5.2.2  Discussion

The key comments from the public submissions have been incorporated in the relevant parts of this RIS, to enable those comments to be read in context.  In addition, a response to the key concerns/criticism raised in the public comment are set out under the headings below.

The 3rd party access issues raised by the AAAA (and to a lesser extent by the MTAA), is an aftermarket issue which is out of scope for this RIS - which is focussed on standards for new vehicles.  DIT is not aware that the introduction of Euro 5/6 materially changes the nature of this issue relative to current standards, which also rely on sophisticated diagnostics systems.  In this context, the Euro 5 standards contain the same provisions as the current Euro 4 standards which require manufacturers to make repair and maintenance technical information available to the vehicle service, repair, inspection and testing industries, and to suppliers of components to these industries. 

 

Timeframe for compliance too early

All timelines proposed in the RIS are at least one year later than the UN ECE timeline and manufacturers have been aware of the Government’s intention to consider the case for aligning with Euro 5/6 standards since at least the middle of 2009. 

The draft RIS provided an opportunity for the industry to propose an alternative timetable if they believe the current one is not practical or cost effective.  One manufacturer proposed a 2014-2016 timetable for Euro 5 (1‑2 years later than that proposed in the recommended option), while another indicated that they would need 3½ years to deliver a Euro 5 (E5) compliant diesel version of their current petrol model to the Australian market.  This was for a vehicle which would be built in Australia with an imported diesel engine.  All other diesel vehicles are fully imported.  The draft RIS acknowledged that achieving Euro 5 compliance is a significant investment for diesel engined vehicles.

For petrol vehicles, the Euro 5 standards are much less demanding (in terms of change from the current Euro 4), and currently many vehicles already on the Australian market have emission limits below those imposed by Euro 5 – including the locally produced Toyota Camry/Aurion and Holden Commodore (except the LPG and V8 models).  It is acknowledged that some changes may be required to upgrade these models to improve their on board diagnostics (OBD) systems and establish compliance with the longer durability standards in Euro 5, but there is no evidence to suggest they require the level of investment which will be required to achieve compliance with the diesel standards. 

The FCAI also highlighted that for some of the OBD elements applying to Euro 5 vehicles, the timing proposed in the option recommended in the draft RIS (Option 3) would impose a timeline ahead of compliance in Europe.  This was not the intention in the draft RIS, and DIT agrees that the option recommended in the final RIS should ensure that all elements of the agreed standards in Australia should take effect no earlier that the timeline applying in Europe.  As noted in Section 3.1, this European timeline is no longer reflected in UN ECE Regulation 83/06, and a modified version of Option 3 (see Table 18) has been prepared to take account of the changes to Reg 83/06 without disadvantaging manufacturers working to the European timelines.   

In discussions between DIT and FCAI following the public consultation period, the FCAI has proposed a longer alternative timeline which it considers is more appropriate than that proposed in the recommended option in the draft RIS (Option 3). 

These alternative timelines have been evaluated as sensitivity analyses and the impacts are reported in Section 4.5 of the RIS.

 

Euro 5/6 RIS not linked to the CO2 emissions RIS process

The proposition that a decision can’t be made on Euro 5/6 noxious emissions standards ahead of any decision on CO2 standards is not supported by the evidence.  The implication is that there is a trade off between air quality and CO2 goals, when in reality manufacturers internationally are being required to simultaneously meet tighter air quality standards (like Euro 5/6) and deliver lower CO2 outcomes.  There does not appear to be any logic to deferring or compromising improvements in air quality (that have a demonstrated net public benefit) to achieve CO2 emissions reductions (or vice versa).  In addition, in all major economies, air quality and CO2 emissions standards are – and continue to be - developed under separate processes.

 

Vehicle cost estimates not appropriate in Australian context

The draft RIS used the only published data that is directly related to Euro 5/6 compliance.  Section 4.2 of the RIS acknowledges the potential limitations of such data, includes references to reports questioning the data, notes the problems internationally in obtaining data from manufacturers and suppliers on compliance costs for meeting new standards, and also includes a sensitivity analysis on costs over time in the benefit-cost analysis. 

The RIS also specifically sought input from manufacturers on the cost estimates.  One manufacturer provided confidential data for the cost of upgrading its local models to comply with Euro 5, but in isolation this data is not adaptable to the BCA used in this RIS.  DIT’s experience with earlier vehicle emissions RISs of this type indicate that it is most unlikely that any cost data will be supplied by the vehicle industry (and as noted in Section 4.2, this is often the international experience as well).  The FCAI has indicated that it will not be in a position to provide cost estimates.

 

Fuel (petrol) quality inadequate

The 150ppm sulfur limit currently applying to regular ULP (91 RON) is higher than the limits now applying in most advanced markets, and the RIS sought input from stakeholders on whether this presents a barrier to compliance with Euro 5/6 standards. 

The FCAI and all vehicle industry submissions argued that the 150ppm level was too high, but did not provide any specific evidence to support their claim.  In contrast, the oil industry, represented by the AIP, argued that there is no evidence that even 150ppm sulfur is a problem and presents a referenced submission to support their arguments.  The AIP also argues that any proposal to change fuel standards would need to undergo a full regulatory assessment.

The review is not aware of any evidence that the 150ppm sulfur level in ULP is a barrier to supplying Euro 5 compliant petrol vehicles to the market, and the public submissions provided no evidence to the contrary.  Equally no evidence was supplied to suggest that sulfur levels below 50ppm were essential, except in some technologies that appear to be in very limited use. 

There is less certainty over the impact of 150ppm sulfur on the durability and longevity of emission control systems in petrol vehicles (such as catalysts).  While this remains an open question, the review considers a decision can still be made on the Euro 5/6 emissions standards as there is no evidence that the current fuel standards will prevent in-service compliance with Euro 5 standards or cause operational problems, and 50ppm sulfur petrol (95 RON) is available to manufacturers where they have concerns about operation on 150ppm sulfur petrol (91 RON).

Diesel sulfur levels in Australia are already at the international 10ppm sulfur level.

The draft RIS indicated that a decision on fuel standards is outside the scope of this vehicle emissions RIS process, and that any recommendations out of this process relating to fuel quality would be referred to DSEWPC as the agency responsible for fuel quality standards. 


 

 

6.1    Conclusion

The benefit-cost analysis (BCA) undertaken in the preparation of this RIS has demonstrated a net benefit in adopting the Euro 5/6 emissions standards for the new light vehicle fleet under all scenarios (except in the unlikely circumstances where the avoided health costs are discounted by 50%). 

The net benefit under base case assumptions[48] for the whole light vehicle fleet ranges from $579 million (Option 2) to $604 million (Option 3), depending on the start date for the standards.  The BCA also identifies that the overall net benefit in the base case is due to the avoided health costs from the very large PM emissions reductions from diesel vehicles meeting the new standards.  Under base case conditions, the BCA concludes that the “diesel only” option (Option 4) has the highest net benefit at $807 million.  Under the BCA, the application of the Euro 5/6 standards to petrol vehicles incurs net costs. 

There are, however, non-quantified benefits from the adoption of Euro 5/6 standards for petrol vehicles which are not incorporated in the BCA (see discussion in Section 6.2). 

The sensitivity analyses on the base case indicate that the strongest influences on the net benefit are the assumptions regarding avoided health costs, the value of a statistical life, the length of the analysis period, the start date for the standards and the discount rate.  The lowest and highest outcomes from the sensitivity analyses, are set out in Table 22.

 

Table 22               Best/Worst NPV Estimates under Sensitivity Analyses

NPV ($million)

Sensitivity Condition (relative to base case)

Worst

 

-485 (net cost)

Avoided health cost 50% lower

20

Value of Statistical life reduced from $6million to $3.7million

132

Discount rate increased from 7% to 11%

147

Start dates delayed by 3-4 years

Best

 

1,250

End of analysis period extended from 2029 to 2040

1,576

Discount rate decreased from 7% to 3%

1,643

Avoided health cost 50% higher

 

 

This final RIS makes no specific recommendations regarding fuel standards, but suggests that the Fuel Standards Consultative Committee consider any potential impacts for fuel quality which may arise from the adoption of Euro 5/6 standards for light vehicles. 

 

6.2    Recommended Option

The draft RIS considered six options, comprising the status quo option, four options introducing Euro 5/6 standards on a range of timelines, and one option (Option 4) limited to diesel engined vehicles. 

Following discussions with the FCAI regarding their concerns over implementation timing, the impact of a range of delayed implementation dates was also assessed in the BCA.  A modified version of Option 3 was also prepared for this final RIS to take account of the final text of ECE Regulation 83/06 (which is the technical standard giving effect to the Euro 5 emissions standards).

As noted in Section 6.1, under base case scenarios, Option 4 - which would see the new standards apply to diesel engined vehicles only - delivers the largest net benefit, and as such would normally be the recommended option.  However, as explained below, this RIS recommends the adoption of an option which applies the new standards to petrol, LPG, NG and diesel vehicles. 

Including petrol and gas fuelled vehicles in the new standards would ensure the delivery of the additional benefits flowing from adoption of Euro 5/6 standards for petrol vehicles which were not quantified in the BCA.  These include:

  • increased durability of emissions control systems;
  • greater confidence with in-service compliance through enhanced OBD systems governing the operation of the emission control systems;
  • removal of current concessional provisions which allow heavier passenger cars to meet more lax emissions limits; and
  • controls on PM emissions from direct injection petrol engines.

While data is not available to enable the BCA to quantify the additional benefits from these elements, it is reasonable to conclude they would improve the net benefit over the longer term. 

From a cost perspective, the EC estimates which underpinned the BCA either include the costs associated with these measures (such as the removal of concessions for heavier cars) or conclude that they add no additional costs (increased durability). 

In addition, petrol vehicles remain the dominant vehicle type in Australia’s light vehicle sector, and their exclusion from the Euro 5/6 standards, while allowable under Australia’s current treaty obligations under the 1958 Agreement, would nevertheless be inconsistent with the Australian Government’s desire to develop an internationally competitive vehicle industry.  As noted in the 2008 Review of Australia’s Automotive Industry[49]:

“The harmonisation of Australian Design Rules with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe regulations removes barriers to trade, and facilitates participation in global markets by the Australian automotive industry”.

For these reasons, this RIS recommends the inclusion of petrol, LPG and NG vehicles within the scope of the recommended option.

Of the two remaining base case options which include petrol and gas fuelled vehicles and which were subject to the BCA, the draft RIS recommended Option 3 over Option 2 as it provided a more realistic timeframe for industry compliance.

In the public comment phase, the vehicle industry raised further concerns about the timing issue, and as a consequence, additional sensitivity analyses on Option 3 were undertaken on delayed timeframes.  Those analyses indicate that the a further 1-2 year delay proposed under the “Modified Option 3” (see Section 4.5) reduces the net benefits by around 36% over the 17 year analysis period.  Despite this reduction in net benefits, this scenario could be supported as an alternative to the original Option 3 in the draft RIS as it would assist industry in achieving compliance at reduced cost by providing additional time to prepare for the new standards and a longer time to amortise investment costs for existing vehicles.  In addition, over the longer term the net benefit scenario is likely to improve as vehicle costs fall and benefits continued to be delivered.

The RIS considers more significant delays of 3-4 years reflecting the FCAI’s ideal timeframe for implementing the standards are excessive.  They would lead to Australia’s standards being well out of step with international practice, significantly delay the health benefits provided by the new standards and lead to very significant reductions (around 75%) in the net benefit over the analysis period. 

After consideration of the public comment, the outcomes of the BCA and the sensitivity analyses, and the other non-quantified benefits, and in recognition of the final text of UN ECE Reg 83/06, this RIS recommends the implementation of the “Modified Option 3” evaluated in Section 4.5. 

In summary, this means that for all types of new light vehicles (petrol, diesel, LPG and NG):

·         Euro 5 emissions standards would be phased in from April 2013 as detailed in Table 23 and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 6.2.1; and

·         Euro 6 emissions standards would be phased in from April 2017 as detailed in, and in accordance with the conditions specified in, Section 6.2.2.

The actual timeline applied to the introduction of the Euro 5/6 standards will be dependent on the outcome of negotiations between the Australian Government and the motor vehicle industry.  In this regard, it is reasonable to conclude that any final timeline that fell between the timelines contained in the FCAI option and the recommended Modified Option 3 would deliver estimated net benefits between the $147 million and $371 million estimated for these two options.

 

6.2.1  Euro 5

The review recommends that the Euro 5 vehicle emissions standards be adopted in Australia via a phased approach based on initial date(s) for new models reflecting the core emissions elements of Euro 5[50], and later date(s) for all models which requires compliance with the full requirements of ECE R83/06.  As discussed above, the dates would reflect those in the “Modified Option 3”.  The recommended approach would also adopt the FCAI’s preference for splitting the compliance timelines based on vehicle type, rather than fuel type.

From an ADR compliance and administration perspective, such an approach would be best achieved by introducing two new and discrete ADRs (ADR79/03 for the core elements and ADR79/04 for full compliance with ECE Regulation 83/06).  The timing for this proposal is set out in Table 23.


 

Table 23     Implementation Timetable for Euro 5

Phase

Vehicle Type

Implementation Dates*

Type

ADR Category

New Models

All Models

1

(ADR79/03)

Cars & SUVs

MA, MB, MC

1 April 2013

NA

LCVs

NA

1 July 2013

NA

2

(ADR79/04)

Cars & SUVs

MA, MB, MC

NA

1 April 2015

LCVs

NA

NA

1 July 2015

 

* The implementation dates applicable to “new models” mean that from 1 April 2013 (for example) any new model (type) first produced with a date of manufacture after 1 April 2013 must comply with the new standard.  For “all models” the 1 April 2015 date (for example) means that all new vehicles (regardless of the first production date for that particular model) must comply as of 1 April 2015.

 

 

6.2.2  Euro 6

The Euro 6 vehicle emissions standards have been agreed in the European Commission (EC) process, but ECE Regulation 83 has not yet been amended to adopt the emissions limits specified for Euro 6.  The review recommends that once ECE Reg 83 is amended to adopt the Euro 6 emissions limits, a new ADR79/05 be introduced to take effect from April/July 2017 for new models and April/July 2018 for all models, unless the ECE Regulation sets a later timeline. 


 

 

7.1    Implementation

Under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989, the responsibility for determining a new or revised ADR rests with the Commonwealth Minister for Infrastructure and Transport. 

Given that ECE R83/06 at this stage only adopts the Euro 5 emissions limits, it is proposed that the Minister would be invited to determine the ADR vehicle emissions package in two steps:

·         Step 1 would recommend that the Minister determine as soon as possible a new ADR79/03 and a new ADR79/04 which adopt the UN ECE R83/06 (Euro 5) emissions standards for light duty petrol, diesel, LPG and NG vehicles in accordance with the phased approach in Table 23 of Section 6.2.1; and

·         Step 2 would recommend that the Minister determine a new ADR79/05 which adopts the version of UN ECE R83 which incorporates the Euro 6 emissions standards for light duty petrol, diesel, LPG and NG vehicles (when finalised) in accordance with the provisions of Section 6.2.2.

Once the Minister has determined the standard under Step 1, the Department would inform key stakeholders through normal consultation mechanisms.  As the party directly impacted by the ADRs, the vehicle industry will also be provided with an opportunity to consider the detail of the draft text of the new ADR(s) prior to finalisation to avoid any unintended outcomes and to ensure consistency with the content of this RIS and the Minister’s decision.

 

7.2    Review

The ADRs are national standards under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 and as such are subject to periodic review in light of international developments in the UN ECE regulations adopted in the ADRs.  The ADRs are also subject to a general review on a 10 year cycle.

In the case of the emissions standards, specific reviews (including this RIS) usually consider the merits of more stringent standards, as ECE regulations for emissions are progressively tightened in line with technology improvements to address potentially adverse impacts on urban air quality from increased vehicle use. 

However, should it be demonstrated that technology or fuel changes render a new emissions related ADR necessary to deliver improved air quality outcomes, an earlier review would be considered by the Department of Infrastructure and Transport, as the agency responsible for the administration of the Act. 

The Department also has standing committee arrangements to facilitate consultation with the key stakeholders and identify any matters that may affect the implementation of existing ADRs.


Appendix A        supplementary information on urban air pollution

 

Health Impacts of Key Urban Air Pollutants

While urban air quality in Australia is generally good, there are still significant health concerns in relation to the concentrations of air pollutants.  The air pollutants relevant to this RIS are particulate matter (PM) - especially fine and ultrafine particles - nitrogen oxides, and ground level ozone - an indicator of photochemical smog.  Motor vehicles are a major contributor to these pollutants in urban air, and vehicle numbers and usage continue to rise.

Studies conducted in cities in the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand[51],[52],[53],[54],[55],[56] have repeatedly found associations between short-term increases in ambient levels of PM10 and PM2.5[57] and daily mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity.  The risk of these effects increases with each 10μg/m3 increase in PM levels.  These associations are observed even when air pollutant concentrations are below national standards.

While most research has been conducted using PM10 as an indicator, recent research indicates that short-term exposure to PM2.5 in urban air is associated with mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases, hospitalization and emergency department visits for cardiopulmonary diseases, increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, and physiological changes or biomarkers for cardiac changes.  Long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer, and effects on the respiratory system such as decreased lung function or the development of chronic respiratory disease.

PM from motor vehicle exhaust in particular is the subject of increasing concern amongst health researchers, with linkages between adverse health effects and exposure being demonstrated at increasingly lower levels of PM in the atmosphere.  New research suggests the risks of cardiovascular effects may be particularly great for exposure to fine (<2.5mm) and ultrafine (<0.1mm) exhaust particles[58].

While the number of studies of exposure to ultrafine particulate (UFPs) is still limited, there is a large body of evidence from controlled human exposure studies using fresh exhaust from diesel engines which demonstrates effects on the cardiovascular system[59].  Diesel exhaust PM is dominated by UFPs.  These studies[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65] suggest that exhaust particles affect vascular function in both healthy individuals and those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

Many studies also suggest that the surface of particles or substances released from the surface (e.g. transition metals, organics) interact with biological substrates, and that surface-associated free radicals or free radical-generating systems may be responsible for toxicity, resulting in greater toxicity of UFPs per particle surface area than larger particles.  Additionally, smaller particles may have greater potential to cross cell membranes and epithelial barriers[66].  For a given mass, the enormous number and large surface area of UFPs highlight the importance of considering the size of the particle in assessing response.  For example, UFPs with a diameter of 20 nm, when inhaled at the same mass concentration, have a number concentration that is approximately 6 orders of magnitude higher than for a 2.5-μm diameter particle.  Particle surface area is also greatly increased with ultrafine PM[67].

In recent years there has been an increased focus among the international scientific community on gaining a better understanding of the potential health effects associated with exposure to UFPs, especially from traffic exhaust, and more research is being conducted that examines associations between particle number concentrations and health effects.

The current consensus is that there is no safe level of exposure to PM and that any reduction in particle concentrations would improve population health outcomes[68],[69],[70],[71].

Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed from the interaction of hydrocarbons (HCs), often referred to as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NOx.  Ambient levels of ozone, below the current standards, are linked with increases in mortality and morbidity, including hospital admissions and emergency department attendances, exacerbation of asthma, decreases in lung function and increases in respiratory symptoms[72],[73],[74],[75] .  As with particulates, it is not possible to detect a distinct threshold for ozone, below which no individual would experience a given adverse health effect, especially given some members of a population are sensitive even at very low concentrations[76].

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from motor vehicles contribute to the formation of both ozone and fine particles. The nitrogen oxides (NOx) are comprised mainly of nitric oxide (NO, approximately 95%) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2, approximately 5%).  In the atmosphere, nitric oxide oxidises to the more toxic nitrogen dioxide.

There are strong associations between levels of nitrogen dioxide in the air and daily mortality, hospital admissions for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease.  Numerous studies[77],[78],[79] in Australian cities have found increases in NO2 are associated with increased daily mortality, hospital admissions of children for respiratory disease and of the elderly (>65 years) for cardiovascular disease[80].  These effects are reported at levels below the current air quality standards.  A 2004 study in Perth[81] reported increases in cardiovascular mortality with each 1 ppb increase in NO2.

Australia’s Ambient Air Quality Standards

In June 1998, the NEPC made the National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality (the AAQ NEPM), which set Australia’s first national ambient air quality standards.  The AAQ NEPM sets national standards for the six criteria pollutants specified in Table A1.  The goals for each pollutant set out in Table A1 apply in the Commonwealth and each State and Territory of Australia and must be met by the year 2008.


 

Table A1          Australia’s Ambient Air Quality NEPM Standards

Criteria Pollutant

Averaging Period

Maximum (ambient) Concentration

Air Quality Goal
(maximum allowable exceedences)

Carbon monoxide (CO)

8 hours

9.0ppm

1 day a year

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

1 hour

0.12ppm

1 day a year

1 year

0.03ppm

None

Photochemical oxidants (as ozone)

1 hour

0.10ppm

1 day a year

4 hours

0.08ppm

1 day a year

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

1 hour

0.20ppm

1 day a year

1 day

0.08ppm

1 day a year

1 year

0.02ppm

None

Lead

1 year

0.50 µg/m3

None

Particles as PM10

1 day

50 µg/m3

5 days a year

Particles as PM2.5

1 day
1 year

25 µg/m3
8 µg/m3

Goal is to gather sufficient data nationally to facilitate a review of the standard as part of the review of this Measure, which commenced in 2005.

 

A review of the AAQ NEPM standards is underway. 

 

Current Status of Urban Air Quality in Australia

As noted earlier, the quality of air in Australian cities is generally good, but some pollutants remain a concern, including some of those derived from motor vehicle emissions.  The status of those AAQ NEPM criteria pollutants which are relevant to the standards being considered in this RIS (viz ozone and PM) are summarised below. 

Ozone

High solar radiation levels, high summer temperatures and location in coastal basins surrounded by hills make Australia’s largest urban areas susceptible to photochemical smog and to its recirculation over areas of the airshed.  Ozone concentrations are monitored under the AAQ NEPM as an indicator of photochemical smog.  Ozone is not directly emitted from motor vehicles, but direct emissions of HCs and NOx react in the presence of sunlight to form ozone.  Ozone levels remain a problem in Sydney and represent a potential problem in some of our other larger cities.

Compliance with the AAQ NEPM goal for ozone requires that from 2008, the 1‑hour and 4‑hour standards are exceeded on no more than one day per year.  To a large extent, the frequency of exceedences from year to year is dependent on the seasonal summer conditions.  Hot stable weather will produce higher ozone levels, while cooler wetter summers lead to reduced levels.  Under unfavourable meteorological conditions, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth can experience ozone levels above the NEPM standards. 

The Sydney region in particular faces a significant challenge in complying with the NEPM goal for ozone, as it has exceeded either or both of the 1‑hour and 4‑hour standards every summer since 1996 (see Figures A1 and A2).  In a 2007 report[82], the then NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (DECC) noted that severe bushfire events clearly contribute to ozone exceedences, but also notes that even in years of little bushfire activity, significant ozone exceedences can still occur.  DECC concluded that “...anthropogenic emissions alone are sufficient to cause regular, widespread exceedences of the Air NEPM standards (e.g. the 2000-01 and 2006-07 seasons)”.  The report also noted that there had been no improvement in ozone since 1998, and that a large area within the Sydney region is susceptible to ozone level exceedences.

Figure A1 shows that under unfavourable meteorological conditions, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth can experience ozone levels above the NEPM standards.  The Sydney region has ozone levels that are significantly higher than other cities and faces a significant challenge in complying with the NEPM goal for ozone, as it has exceeded the 1 hour ozone standard every summer since 1996, with the number of days in Sydney exceeding the annual standard ranging from 1 to 19 over the 1996-2008 period, and in most years more than six days per year.

Figure A1             Number of Days NEPM 1hr Ozone Standard (0.10ppm) Exceeded in Four Australian Cities

 

Figure A2 shows that under unfavourable meteorological conditions, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth can experience ozone levels above the NEPM standards.  The Sydney region in particular faces a significant challenge in complying with the NEPM goal for ozone, as it has exceeded the 4 hour ozone standard every summer since 1996, with the number of days in Sydney exceeding the annual standard ranging from 1 to 21 over the 1995-2008 period, and in most years more than ten days per year.

Figure A2             Number of Days NEPM 4hr Ozone Standard (0.08ppm) Exceeded in Four Australian Cities

 

Data from Melbourne indicate that while the number of days on which the 4‑hour standard is exceeded is relatively low compared to Sydney there can be a significantly higher number of days in the summer months where the peak ozone levels approach the 4 hour standard, even in years where the standard is not actually exceeded.  In 2001 in South East Queensland, the ozone standards were met, but maximum concentrations were up to 94% of the standard.  These results highlight the ozone potential of these cities and point to the likelihood of exceedences in future summers where the meteorological conditions are favourable to ozone formation.

Particulates

Particle emissions are monitored in Australian cities, and some regional areas (as both PM10 and PM2.5).  Multiple exceedences of the PM10 standard occur every year in many cities in Australia.  In most cases vehicles are not the principal contributors to the exceedences, which are triggered by extreme weather events such as bushfires and dust storms.  Nevertheless, vehicle emissions, particularly from diesel vehicles, significantly elevate the background level of particulates in the urban atmosphere and can be a significant contributing factor to exceedences of the standards. 

There are no Australian standards for ultrafine particles. UFPs are best measured in terms of their number concentration, because their particles numbers are large (usually >10,000/m3), whereas their mass is small (usually a few μg/m3) compared with the mass of larger particles.  Only rarely is there a correlation between particle number and mass concentrations[83]; therefore on the basis of existing mass concentration data, it is normally not possible to evaluate the health effects of UFPs.

 

Contribution of Motor Vehicles to Air Pollution

Motor vehicles are one of the major emitters of air pollutants in urban Australia, contributing more than 80% of the CO emissions, 60-70% of the NOx and up to 40% of the HCs.  Light petrol vehicles are the major transport contributors to CO, HC and NOx emissions, with diesel vehicles making a disproportionate contribution to NOx emissions.   For example, in the Sydney airshed, diesel vehicles make up only 8% of the fleet, but are responsible for an estimated 22% of NOx emissions from transport. 

While vehicles are not the major source of particle emissions in most urban airsheds, fuel combustion sources such as motor vehicles are a significant contributor to the overall particle load in urban airsheds.  In Sydney for example, it is estimated that road transport contributes around 12% of annual anthropogenic PM10 emissions[84].  A recent study found motor vehicles contribute about 30% of particulate pollution in Melbourne.  PM levels tend to be highest near busy roads and levels sometimes do not meet the PM standards[85].

Significantly, particulate emissions from diesel vehicles are almost all from the UFP fraction, and, as noted earlier, it is these fine particles that are considered to present the most significant human health risk. 

The absolute contribution that vehicles make to urban air pollution is determined by the total emissions from the vehicle fleet and the complex interaction of those emissions with each city’s meteorology, topography and overall urban structure.  When considering the emissions component of this interaction, the key factors are:

·         the emissions standards to which different vehicle types were certified (as new) and the stringency of those standards;

·         the distribution of vehicles in the fleet meeting specified emissions standards;

·         the age profile of the fleet and the deterioration of emissions control systems over time on emissions performance of vehicles;

·         the total VKT of the vehicles in each of these age/emissions standard groups in the fleet; and

·         the parameters of the market fuels and the mix of fuel types.

The penetration rate of new vehicles into the fleet means there is a lag of approximately 10 years before new emissions standards begin to have a significant impact on total fleet emissions.

 

Air Quality Trends in Australian Cities

Although there have been considerable improvements in emissions performance of the vehicle fleet in Australia, motor vehicles continue to be an ongoing threat to Australian urban air quality, principally due to the growth in vehicle numbers and use.  Recent Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics estimates (BITRE, unpublished) imply growth in total motor vehicle travel (VKT) of 45% between 2000 and 2020 under business as usual conditions, with passenger car VKT growth at 37% and light commercials at 73%.  This VKT growth is expected to occur even though projections of car ownership rates (number of cars per person) are predicted to essentially plateau by around 2015.  Some urban regions face more rapid growth rates, with increasing VKT putting pressure on the capacity to meet some NEPM air quality standards in certain urban airsheds.

The BITRE emissions projections to 2040 undertaken for this RIS concluded that under a “business as usual” scenario, which includes the emissions standards being introduced over the 2006-2010 period, emissions of ozone precursors (HC and NOx) from the light vehicle sector will decline significantly until about 2025, after which they stabilise and then trend slightly upward.  In contrast, PM emissions from light vehicles are expected to fall significantly until about 2016, then trend steeply upward.  Refer to Section 3.2 to view the relevant charts for NOx and PM.

While these emissions projections demonstrate the benefits of new vehicle emissions standards, the pattern and scale of urban development in parts of Australia, and the associated increase in vehicle use, is clearly having an effect on the long term trends and will place increasing pressure on the challenge to maintain improvements in urban air quality, particularly ozone and PM.

The NSW Department of the Environment, Climate Change and Water has concluded that the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) faces an ongoing challenge in meeting the Ambient Air Quality NEPM standards for ozone in the future because of the pressures of population growth, urban expansion and the associated increase in motor vehicle use.  Sydney’s population is expected to reach 4.6 million by 2016 and 5 million by 2026 (increases of 19% and 29%, respectively, over 2001 levels), with significant population growth also expected in the Illawarra and the lower Hunter.  Additionally, the benefits from cleaner vehicles and fuel standards alone are not expected to be enough to offset the impacts of the increase in total VKT, which will continue to place pressure on air quality in the GMR.  Modelling undertaken by the NSW DECC to evaluate how to tackle the ozone challenge also concluded that “ozone formation in the Sydney region is more sensitive to motor vehicle control strategies than to control strategies applied to other sources”[86].

The Port Phillip airshed in Victoria encompasses Melbourne and Geelong.  Melbourne is undergoing rapid population growth with the population predicted to reach 5 million before 2030. Melbourne’s population is expected to increase by 1.8 million between 2006 and 2036[87].  Geelong is also predicted to have rapid population growth over that period.  This increase in population is likely to result in a significant increase in air pollution in the Port Phillip Region.  Modelling conducted by EPA Victoria as part of the development of the draft Air Quality Improvement Plan for the region indicates that reductions in emissions due to improvements in vehicle technology would be offset by increased VKT leading to increases in air pollution out to 2021.  Although air quality in the region generally meets air quality standards currently, the pressure on air quality in the region due to increases in population and VKT, as well as changing climatic conditions, may change that situation in the future.  Motor vehicles remain the major contributor to air pollution in the Port Phillip Region.

South East Queensland is also predicted to experience significant growth over the next 20 years, with 1996 population in the region of some 2.3 million predicted to increase to 3.8 million by 2021.  This will be accompanied by dramatic growth in transport activity, which the Queensland EPA concludes is likely to reduce air quality even allowing for advances in vehicle technology.  This is reinforced by the latest estimates for the SE Qld region that expect VKT to increase at more than twice the rate of the population, principally because of trends to greater use of private vehicles, lower vehicle occupancies and longer trip lengths.  The Queensland EPA also concludes that while there have been no exceedences of the ozone standards since 1998, under more conducive meteorological conditions the SE Qld region could fail to comply, particularly with the increasing pressure on the airshed from rapidly increasing population and resultant vehicle use.

Similar to other capital cities, it is expected that Perth’s population growth and high vehicle ownership is likely to place increasing pressure on maintaining acceptable air quality.  To date, three quarters of the state’s rapid population growth has occurred in the Perth metropolitan area[88].  Perth’s population as at June 2008 was 1.6 million, with projections suggesting this could increase to 2.4 million by 2026, and over 4 million by 2056.  In addition, vehicle ownership is also increasing.  The ABS motor vehicle census identified Western Australian as having the highest rate of passenger and total vehicle ownership across Australia, with 603 and 813 vehicles per 1000 residents, respectively[89].  The WA Department of Environment and Conservation currently records irregular exceedences of the ozone Ambient Air Quality NEPM standards, with the most recent occurrence in January 2009.  As motor vehicles are the single largest source of air pollution in the Perth metropolitan region it is expected that any tightening of the emissions limits will have a positive impact on air quality.

In summary, total emissions from individual motor vehicles are expected to decline steadily over the next twenty years with improving vehicle technology, but will remain high due to increasing traffic and a growing population.

 

 


Appendix b        TAble of Emissions Limits for Euro 2 - Euro 6 Light Vehicles

 

Emissions Limits for Euro 2 – Euro 6

(g/km)

Emissions and Vehicle Type

Petrol, LPG & NG Vehicles

Diesel Vehicles

 

Euro 2

Euro 3

Euro 4

Euro 5

Euro 6

Euro 2

Euro 3

Euro 4

Euro 5

Euro 6

Carbon Monoxide Limits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passenger Cars 

2.200

2.300

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

0.640

0.500

0.500

0.500

LCVs with Ref mass < 1305kg

2.200

2.300

1.000

1.000

1.000

1.000

0.640

0.500

0.500

0.500

LCVs with Ref mass 1305-1760kg

4.000

4.170

1.810

1.810

1.810

1.250

0.800

0.630

0.630

0.630

LCVs with Ref mass > 1760kg

5.000

5.220

2.270

2.270

2.270

1.500

0.950

0.740

0.740

0.740

Total Hydrocarbon Limits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passenger Cars 

0.250

0.200

0.100

0.100

0.100