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Federal Court Rules

Authoritative Version
SR 1979 No. 140 Rules/Court & Tribunal Rules as amended, taking into account amendments up to SLI 2010 No. 338
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 06 Jan 2011
Start Date 01 Jan 2011
End Date 01 Aug 2011
Date of repeal 01 Aug 2011
Repealed by Federal Court Rules 2011
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Order 1 Preliminary 
Order 1 Preliminary
1 Short title [see Note 1]
2 Commencement
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Exercise of Court’s power
5 Order on terms
5A Filing and lodging documents
5AB Filing and lodging by facsimile transmission
5AC Filing and lodging by electronic communication
6 Serial number
7 Forms
8 Relief from rules
9 Proceedings wanting or in doubt
Expand Order 2 Sittings and vacation 
Order 2 Sittings and vacation
Expand Order 3 Time 
Order 3 Time
Expand Order 4 Commencement of proceedings 
Order 4 Commencement of proceedings
Expand Order 5 Cross-claims and third party claims 
Order 5 Cross-claims and third party claims
Expand Order 6 Parties, causes of action and interveners 
Order 6 Parties, causes of action and interveners
Expand Order 7 Service 
Order 7 Service
Expand Order 8 Service outside Australia 
Order 8 Service outside Australia
Expand Order 8A Service under the Hague Convention 
Order 8A Service under the Hague Convention
Expand Order 9 Appearance 
Order 9 Appearance
Expand Order 10 Directions hearing 
Order 10 Directions hearing
Expand Order 10A Cross-vesting 
Order 10A Cross-vesting
Expand Order 11 Pleadings 
Order 11 Pleadings
Expand Order 12 Particulars 
Order 12 Particulars
Expand Order 13 Amendment 
Order 13 Amendment
Expand Order 14 Affidavits 
Order 14 Affidavits
Expand Order 15 Discovery and inspection of documents 
Order 15 Discovery and inspection of documents
Expand Order 15A Preliminary discovery and discovery from non-party 
Order 15A Preliminary discovery and discovery from non-party
Expand Order 16 Interrogatories 
Order 16 Interrogatories
Expand Order 17 Inspection of property 
Order 17 Inspection of property
Expand Order 18 Admissions 
Order 18 Admissions
Expand Order 19 Motions 
Order 19 Motions
Expand Order 20 Summary disposal and stay of proceedings 
Order 20 Summary disposal and stay of proceedings
Expand Order 21 Vexatious litigants 
Order 21 Vexatious litigants
Expand Order 22 Withdrawal and discontinuance 
Order 22 Withdrawal and discontinuance
Expand Order 23 Offer of compromise and payment into court 
Order 23 Offer of compromise and payment into court
Expand Order 24 Evidence taken in Australia or abroad or evidence taken under Part 2 of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994 
Order 24 Evidence taken in Australia or abroad or evidence taken under Part 2 of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994
Expand Order 25 Interim Orders 
Order 25 Interim Orders
Expand Order 25A Freezing Orders 
Order 25A Freezing Orders
Expand Order 25B Search Orders 
Order 25B Search Orders
Expand Order 26 Receivers 
Order 26 Receivers
Expand Order 27 Subpoenas 
Order 27 Subpoenas
Expand Order 27A Leave to issue subpoena 
Order 27A Leave to issue subpoena
Expand Order 28 Security for costs 
Order 28 Security for costs
Expand Order 29 Separate decision of questions: consolidation 
Order 29 Separate decision of questions: consolidation
Expand Order 30 Setting down 
Order 30 Setting down
Expand Order 31 Juries 
Order 31 Juries
Expand Order 32 Trial 
Order 32 Trial
Expand Order 32A Dealing with applications and matters in original jurisdiction without oral hearing 
Order 32A Dealing with applications and matters in original jurisdiction without oral hearing
Expand Order 33 Evidence: general 
Order 33 Evidence: general
Expand Order 34 Court expert 
Order 34 Court expert
Expand Order 34A Evidence of expert witnesses 
Order 34A Evidence of expert witnesses
Expand Order 34B Expert assistant 
Order 34B Expert assistant
Expand Order 35 Judgments and orders 
Order 35 Judgments and orders
Expand Order 35A Order or judgment on default 
Order 35A Order or judgment on default
Expand Order 36 Entry of orders 
Order 36 Entry of orders
Expand Order 37 Judgments and orders: enforcement 
Order 37 Judgments and orders: enforcement
Expand Order 38 Assessment of damages 
Order 38 Assessment of damages
Expand Order 39 Accounts and inquiries 
Order 39 Accounts and inquiries
Expand Order 40 Contempt 
Order 40 Contempt
Expand Order 41 Documents 
Order 41 Documents
Expand Order 42 Partnerships and business names 
Order 42 Partnerships and business names
Expand Order 43 Disability 
Order 43 Disability
Expand Order 44 Interpleader 
Order 44 Interpleader
Expand Order 45 Solicitors 
Order 45 Solicitors
Expand Order 46 Registries 
Order 46 Registries
Expand Order 47 Sheriff 
Order 47 Sheriff
Expand Order 48 Fair Work proceedings 
Order 48 Fair Work proceedings
Expand Order 49 Proceedings for an offence 
Order 49 Proceedings for an offence
Expand Order 50 Case stated and questions reserved 
Order 50 Case stated and questions reserved
Expand Order 51 Judiciary Act 1903 — section 78B 
Order 51 Judiciary Act 1903 — section 78B
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3
Expand Volume 4Volume 4

Federal Court Rules

Statutory Rules 1979 No. 140 as amended

made under the

This compilation was prepared on 1 January 2011
taking into account amendments up to SLI 2010 No. 338

This document has been split into four volumes
Volume 1 contains Orders 1 to 51,
Volume 2 contains Orders 51A to 82,
Volume 3 contains Schedules 1 to 4, and
Volume 4 contains the Notes
Each volume has its own Table of Contents

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra


Contents

Order 1                   Preliminary                                                                    

                        1      Short title [see Note 1]                                                   22

                        2      Commencement                                                            22

                        3      Repeal                                                                          22

                        4      Interpretation                                                                 22

                      4A      Exercise of Court’s power                                              25

                        5      Order on terms                                                              25

                      5A      Filing and lodging documents                                        25

                    5AB      Filing and lodging by facsimile transmission                   28

                    5AC      Filing and lodging by electronic communication              30

                        6      Serial number                                                                32

                        7      Forms                                                                           32

                        8      Relief from rules                                                            32

                        9      Proceedings wanting or in doubt                                    32

Order 2                   Sittings and vacation                                                 

                        1      Sittings                                                                         34

Order 3                   Time                                                                                

                        1      Month                                                                           35

                        2      Reckoning                                                                    35

                        3      Extension and abridgment                                             35

                        4      Fixing times                                                                  36

                        6      Registry hours                                                               36

Order 4                   Commencement of proceedings                            

                        1      Commencement by application — Form 5                      37

                      1A      Certification of merits of application commencing migration litigation            37

                        2      Parties                                                                          37

                        3      Relief claimed                                                               38

                        4      Name, address etc                                                        38

                        5      Notice to appear                                                           39

                        6      Affidavit or statement of claim — Form 7                       39

                        7      Filing and copies                                                           39

                        8      Date for hearing                                                            39

                        9      Claim for interlocutory relief                                           40

                       10      Endorsement of date                                                     40

                       11      Time for service                                                            40

                       12      Alteration of hearing date                                               40

                       13      Alteration of date where service less than 5 days before hearing       40

                       14      Suit in person                                                                41

                       15      Application for the issue of a summons (Corporations Act s 596A, s 596B)   41

Order 5                   Cross‑claims and third party claims                      

                        1      Claim by respondent                                                     42

                        2      Cross‑claim                                                                   42

                        3      Title                                                                              42

                        4      Rules applicable where statement of claim                      43

                        5      Pleading — Forms 8, 9, 10                                            43

                        6      Service of prior pleadings — Form 11                            43

                        7      Rules applicable where affidavit                                     44

                        8      Cross‑claims by leave                                                   44

                        9      Cross‑claim after directions hearing                                45

                       10      Service                                                                         45

                       11      Conduct of proceeding generally                                   45

                       12      Directions                                                                     46

                       15      Separate prosecution                                                    47

                       16      Contribution or indemnity                                               47

                       17      Offer of contribution                                                      48

Order 6                   Parties, causes of action and interveners            

                        1      Multiple claims                                                              49

                        2      Joinder of parties generally                                            49

                        3      Joint right                                                                     49

                        4      Leave under rule 2 and subrule 3 (2)                               50

                        5      Common liability                                                           50

                        6      Inconvenient joinder                                                       50

                        7      Misjoinder and non‑joinder of parties                              50

                        8      Addition of parties                                                        51

                        9      Removal of parties                                                        51

                       10      Death, transmission etc                                                 51

                       11      Further conduct of proceedings                                     51

                       12      Failure to proceed after death of party                           52

                       13      Representation: concurrent interests                               53

                       14      Representation of beneficiaries by trustees                    54

                       15      Deceased person                                                          54

                       16      Conduct                                                                        54

                       17      Interveners                                                                    55

Order 7                   Service                                                                           

                        1      Originating process                                                       56

                        2      Personal service: how effected                                      56

                        3      Mode of service                                                            57

                        4      Ordinary service: how effected                                       57

                      4A      Service on principal solicitor                                          59

                        5      Identity                                                                         60

                        6      Address for service                                                       60

                        7      Document exchange, facsimile number or email address — Form 12            60

                        8      Acceptance by solicitor                                                 61

                        9      Substituted service                                                        62

                       10      Informal service: confirmation                                        62

                       11      Service by filing                                                            62

                       12      Notice etc by the Court                                                  63

                       13      Injunction: service                                                          63

                       14      Service under contract                                                   64

Order 8                   Service outside Australia                                          

Division 1                    General                                                                           

                        1      Definitions for Order 8                                                   65

                        2      When originating process may be served outside Australia 65

                        3      Application for leave to serve originating process outside Australia  68

                        4      Service of other documents                                           69

                        5      Application of other rules                                               70

                        6      Method of service                                                         70

                        7      Substituted service                                                        71

                        8      Proof of service                                                            71

Division 2                    Service through the diplomatic channel or by transmission to a foreign government       

                        9      Documents to be lodged with the Court                          72

                       10      Order for payment of expenses                                     73

Order 8A               Service under the Hague Convention                   

Division 1                    Preliminary                                                                     

                        1      Definitions for Order 8A                                                 74

                        2      Provisions of this Order to prevail                                  76

Division 2                    Service abroad of local judicial documents                    

                        3      Application of Division                                                  76

                        4      Application for request for service abroad                      77

                        5      How application to be dealt with                                     78

                        6      Procedure on receipt of certificate of service                  79

                        7      Payment of costs                                                          80

                        8      Evidence of service                                                       80

Division 3                    Default judgment following service abroad of initiating process   

                        9      Application of Division                                                  81

                       10      Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service filed   81

                       11      Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service not filed         82

                       12      Setting aside judgment in default of appearance             83

Division 4                    Local service of foreign judicial documents                   

                       13      Application of Division                                                  83

                       14      Certain documents to be referred back to the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth                                                             84

                       15      Service                                                                         85

                       16      Affidavit as to service                                                   86

Order 9                   Appearance                                                                  

                        1      Appearance by solicitor or in person                              87

                        2      Time for appearance                                                      87

                        3      Mode of entry                                                               87

                        4      Notice of appearance                                                    88

                        5      Service of appearance                                                   88

                        6      Conditional appearance                                                 89

                        7      Setting aside originating process etc                              89

Order 10                Directions hearing                                                      

                        1      Directions hearing — general                                         90

                        2      Fixing of date                                                               93

                        3      Determination of proceeding                                          93

                        4      Motion for summary judgment, stay or dismissal            93

                        5      Interlocutory orders                                                       94

                        6      Motion on notice                                                           94

                        9      Use of recording device or communication device in place where hearing taking place           94

Order 10A            Cross‑vesting                                                              

                        1      Interpretation                                                                 96

                        2      Application of order                                                      96

                        3      Application under the Act                                               96

                        4      Applications for transfer of proceedings                        96

                        5      Proceedings in which jurisdiction under cross‑vesting laws is or may be invoked       97

                        6      Proceedings transferred under cross‑vesting laws           97

                        7      Conduct of proceedings                                                98

Order 11                Pleadings                                                                      

Division 1                    General                                                                           

                        1      Paragraphs — Form 7                                                   99

                      1A      Pleading to include name of person who prepared it       99

                      1B      Pleading prepared by lawyer                                          99

                        2      Facts not evidence                                                        99

                        3      Brevity                                                                        100

                        4      Documents and spoken words                                     100

                        5      Presumed facts                                                           100

                        6      Conditions precedent                                                   100

                        7      New fact or matter                                                       100

                        8      Departure                                                                    101

                        9      Points of law                                                               101

                       10      Matters for specific pleading                                        101

                       11      Tender                                                                        101

                       12      Set‑off                                                                        101

                       13      Admissions and traverse                                              102

                       14      Joinder of issue                                                          102

                       15      Close of pleadings                                                      103

                       16      Embarrassment etc                                                      103

                       17      General issue                                                              103

                       18      Denial to be substantial answer                                    103

Division 2                    Progress of pleadings                                                    

                       19      Times for filing and service of pleadings                      104

                       20      Defence — Form 16                                                    104

                       21      Defence to cross‑claim                                                104

                       22      Reply — Forms 17 and 18                                            104

Order 12                Particulars                                                                     

                        1      General                                                                       106

                        2      Fraud etc                                                                    106

                        3      Conditions of mind                                                      106

                        4      Damages                                                                    106

                        5      Order for particulars                                                     107

Order 13                Amendment                                                                  

                        1      Application of Order                                                    108

                        2      General                                                                       108

                        3      Amendment of pleading without leave                          109

                      3A      Date when amendment takes effect                              110

                        4      Consequential amendment of defence or reply              110

                        5      Disallowance of amendment                                        111

                        6      Duration of leave                                                         111

                        7      Mode of amendment — directions                                112

                        8      Mode of amendment — simple amendment — Form 19 112

                        9      Mode of amendment — fresh document                       112

                       10      Service after amendment                                             112

Order 14                Affidavits                                                                       

                        1      Time for swearing                                                        114

                        2      Form of affidavit — Form 20                                        114

                        3      Alteration                                                                    116

                        4      Exhibits and annexures                                                116

                        5      Irregularity                                                                   116

                      5A      Certificate of compliance — Form 20A                         116

                        6      Use of affidavit                                                           117

                        7      Service                                                                       117

                        8      Scandal etc                                                                 117

                        9      Cross‑examination                                                       117

Order 15                Discovery and inspection of documents             

Division 1                    Discovery                                                                       

                        1      Notice of discovery — Form 21                                    118

                        2      Discovery on notice                                                     118

                        3      Limitation of discovery on notice                                  119

                        4      Co‑respondents                                                           119

                        5      Order for general discovery                                          119

                        6      Contents of list — Form 22                                          120

                      6A      Discovery of documents                                              120

                        7      Absence of privilege                                                    121

                      7A      Supplementary discovery                                             121

                        8      Order for particular discovery                                       121

                        9      Deponent                                                                    122

Division 2                    Inspection                                                                      

                       10      Document referred to in pleading or affidavit                123

                       11      Order for production                                                    123

                       12      Copying of documents produced for inspection           124

                       13      Production to the Court                                                124

                       14      Inspection to decide objection                                     124

Division 3                    General                                                                           

                       15      Order only if necessary                                                125

                       17      Public interest                                                             125

                       18      Use of documents                                                       125

Order 15A            Preliminary discovery and discovery from non‑party    

                        1      Interpretation                                                               126

                        2      Privilege                                                                      126

                        3      Discovery to identify a respondent                               127

                        4      Conduct money                                                           127

                        5      Party an applicant                                                        128

                        6      Discovery from prospective respondent                       128

                        7      Party an applicant                                                        128

                        8      Discovery from non‑party                                            129

                        9      Procedure                                                                   129

                       10      Inspection of documents                                             129

                       11      Costs                                                                          129

                       12      Power to order inspection, preservation etc of property 130

Order 16                Interrogatories                                                             

                        1      Interrogatories by notice — Form 23                             131

                        2      Answers pursuant to notice                                          131

                        3      Limitation of interrogatories by notice                           131

                        4      Co‑respondents                                                           132

                        5      Order to answer                                                           132

                        6      Contents of statement — Form 24                                132

                        7      Deponent — Form 24                                                  133

                        8      Insufficient answer                                                       134

                       10      Answers as evidence                                                   134

                       11      Public interest                                                             134

Order 17                Inspection of property                                               

                        1      Inspection of property                                                 135

                        2      Application and service                                                135

                        3      View                                                                           135

Order 18                Admissions                                                                   

                        1      Voluntary admission                                                    136

                        2      Notice to admit facts — Form 25                                  136

                        3      Admission of documents discovered                           136

                        4      Judgment on admissions                                             137

Order 19                Motions                                                                          

                        1      Application                                                                  138

                        2      Notice of motion — Form 27                                        138

                        3      Time for service of notice                                            139

                        4      Service                                                                       139

                        5      Absence of party                                                         139

                        6      Notice of adjournment                                                 139

                        7      Further hearing                                                            140

Order 20                Summary disposal and stay of proceedings       

                        1      Definitions                                                                  141

                        2      Summary judgment (proceedings commenced before 1 December 2005)      141

                        3      Stay of enforcement of summary judgment (proceedings commenced on or after 1 December 2005)                                                                          142

                        4      Stay or dismissal (proceedings commenced before 1 December 2005)         142

                        5      Stay or dismissal (proceedings commenced on or after 1 December 2005)   142

                        6      Residue of proceedings                                               143

Order 21                Vexatious litigants                                                      

                        1      Vexatious litigant                                                         144

                        2      Vexatious proceeding against a person                        144

                        3      Application                                                                  145

                        4      Rescission or variation of order                                    145

                        5      Leave to start or continue proceeding                           145

Order 22                Withdrawal and discontinuance                             

                        1      Withdrawal of appearance — Form 28                          146

                        2      Discontinuance — Form 29                                          146

                        3      Costs                                                                          147

                        4      Withdrawal of defence reply etc — Form 30                  147

                        5      Mode of discontinuance or withdrawal                          147

                        6      Service                                                                       147

                        7      Effect of discontinuance                                              147

                        8      Stay to secure costs                                                    148

Order 23                Offer of compromise and payment into court     

                        1      Interpretation                                                               149

                        2      Application                                                                  149

                        3      Form of offer                                                              149

                        4      Further requirements of offer                                        150

                        5      Time for making or accepting offer                               150

                        6      Withdrawal of acceptance                                            151

                        7      Offer to be without prejudice                                        152

                        8      Offer not to be disclosed to Court                                152

                        9      Failure to comply with accepted offer                           152

                       10      Multiple respondents                                                   153

                       11      Costs                                                                          154

                       12      Where tender before action pleaded                             156

                       13      Payment of money out of Court                                   156

                       14      Notice of deposit — Form 31                                       156

                       15      Security to pay into Court — Form 36                           156

                       16      Service                                                                       158

Order 24                Evidence taken in Australia or abroad or evidence taken under Part 2 of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994                                                      

                        1      Order for examination of witness — Forms 37, 38 and 39 159

                        2      Letter of request                                                          159

                      2A      Procedure where orders are made under paragraph 7 (1) (a) or (b) of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994                                                                           160

                        3      Documents for examiner                                              160

                        4      Appointment for examination                                       161

                        5      Conduct of examination                                               161

                        6      Examination of additional persons                               162

                        7      Objection                                                                    162

                        8      Taking of depositions                                                  162

                        9      Authentication and filing                                               163

                       10      Special report                                                              163

                       11      Default of witness                                                       163

                       12      Order for payment of expenses                                    164

                       13      Perpetuation of testimony                                            164

                       14      Exclusion of evidence in criminal proceedings              165

Order 25                Interim Orders                                                              

                        1      Order before commencement of proceeding                 166

                        2      Preservation of property                                              166

                        3      Disposal of personal property                                      167

                        4      Interim distribution                                                       167

                        5      Interim income                                                             167

                        6      Payment before ascertainment of all persons interested 167

                        7      Terms: time for order                                                   168

Order 25A            Freezing Orders                                                           

                        1      Interpretation                                                               169

                        2      Freezing order                                                             169

                        3      Ancillary order                                                             169

                        4      Respondent need not be party to proceeding               170

                        5      Order against judgment debtor or prospective judgment debtor or third party            170

                        6      Jurisdiction                                                                 172

                        7      Service outside Australia of application for freezing order or ancillary order   172

                        8      Costs                                                                          172

Order 25B            Search Orders                                                              

                        1      Interpretation                                                               173

                        2      Search order                                                               173

                        3      Requirements for grant of search order                         173

                        4      Jurisdiction                                                                 174

                        5      Terms of search order                                                  174

                        6      Independent solicitors                                                  175

                        7      Costs                                                                          175

Order 26                Receivers                                                                      

                        1      Receiver and manager                                                 176

                        2      Address for service                                                     176

                        3      Security — Form 40                                                     176

                        4      Remuneration                                                              177

                        5      Accounts                                                                    177

                        6      Default                                                                        177

                        7      Powers                                                                       178

                        8      Account on death                                                        178

Order 27                Subpoenas                                                                   

                        1      Definitions                                                                  179

                        2      Issuing of subpoena                                                    179

                        3      Form of subpoena                                                       180

                      3A      Change of date for attendance or production                181

                        4      Setting aside or other relief                                          181

                        5      Service                                                                       181

                        6      Compliance with subpoena                                          182

                        7      Production otherwise than upon attendance                  183

                        8      Removal, return, inspection, copying and disposal of documents and things            183

                        9      Inspection of, and dealing with, documents and things produced otherwise than on attendance                                                                                  184

                       10      Return of documents and things produced                   185

                       11      Costs and expenses of compliance                              186

                       12      Failure to comply with subpoena — contempt of court  186

                       13      Documents and things in the custody of a court           187

Order 27A            Leave to issue subpoena                                         

                        1      Application of Order 27A                                             188

                        2      Leave to issue subpoena                                             188

Order 28                Security for costs                                                        

                        1      Interpretation                                                               190

                        2      Application                                                                  190

                        3      Cases for security                                                       190

                        4      Manner of giving security                                             191

                        5      Stay or dismissal                                                         191

                        6      Saving                                                                        191

Order 29                Separate decision of questions: consolidation  

Division 1                    Separate decision of questions                                       

                        1      Interpretation                                                               192

                        2      Order for decision                                                       192

                        3      Orders, directions upon decision                                  192

                        4      Disposal of proceedings                                             192

Division 2                    Consolidation                                                                 

                        5      Consolidation etc                                                        193

Order 30                Setting down                                                                

                        1      Interpretation                                                               194

                        2      Request to fix date for trial (Form 44)                           194

                        3      Fixing date for trial                                                      194

                        4      Notice of date for trial (Form 44A)                                195

                        6      Place of trial                                                                195

                        7      Vacating date for trial                                                  195

Order 31                Juries                                                                             

                        1      Notice of motion for jury trial                                        196

Order 32                Trial                                                                                 

                        1      Interpretation                                                               197

                        2      Absence of party                                                         197

                        3      Default of appearance of both parties                          197

                        4      Conduct of the trial                                                      198

                      4A      Limitation on time etc to be taken for trial                     199

                        5      Record                                                                        199

                        6      Death before judgment                                                200

Order 32A            Dealing with applications and matters in original jurisdiction without oral hearing                                                                                         

                        1      Court may deal with certain applications and matters without an oral hearing  201

                        2      Request that Court deal with application or matter without an oral hearing      201

                        3      Summary of argument                                                 201

Order 33                Evidence: general                                                       

                        1      Witnesses at a trial                                                      203

                        4      Depositions                                                                203

                        5      Evidence in other proceedings                                     203

                        6      Plans, photographs and models                                   203

                        8      Production of court documents                                    204

                        9      Consent of trustee etc                                                 204

                       10      Leading questions to witness                                       204

                       11      Privilege                                                                      205

                       12      Production on notice — Form 45                                  206

                       13      Attendance and production                                          206

                       14      Attendance of prisoner in proceedings before Court or examiner      207

                       15      Parties in lawful custody                                              207

                       16      Notice of intention to adduce evidence of previous representation — Form 144         207

                       17      Notice of objection to tender of hearsay evidence if maker available — Form 145     208

                       18      Notice of intention to adduce tendency evidence — Form 146          208

                       19      Notice of intention to adduce coincidence evidence — Form 147      209

                       20      Form of expert report                                                  209

Order 34                Court expert                                                                 

                        1      Application                                                                  211

                      1A      Definition                                                                    211

                        2      Appointment                                                               211

                        3      Report                                                                        211

                        4      Cross‑examination                                                       212

                        5      Remuneration                                                              212

                        6      Further expert evidence                                                212

Order 34A            Evidence of expert witnesses                                 

                        1      Application                                                                  214

                        2      Definitions                                                                  214

                        3      Evidence by expert witnesses                                      214

Order 34B            Expert assistant                                                          

                        1      Application                                                                  216

                        2      Appointment of expert assistant                                   216

                        3      Assistance to be given                                                216

                        4      Remuneration of expert assistant                                 217

Order 35                Judgments and orders                                              

                        1      General relief                                                               218

                        2      Written reasons                                                           218

                        3      Date of effect                                                             218

                        4      Time for compliance                                                    218

                        5      Fine                                                                            219

                        6      Dismissal                                                                    219

                        7      Setting aside                                                               220

                        8      Interest on judgment                                                    220

                        9      Judicial notice of order                                                221

                       10      Consent orders by filing in a Registry                           221

                    10A      Consent orders                                                            222

                       11      Undertakings                                                               222

Order 35A            Order or judgment on default                                  

                        1      Definitions                                                                  223

                        2      When a party is in default                                             223

                        3      Orders on default                                                        224

                        4      Contempt                                                                    226

Order 36                Entry of orders                                                             

                        1      Definition                                                                    227

                        2      When entry is required                                                 227

                        3      Entry of an order                                                         227

                        4      Lodgment of orders for entry                                       228

                        5      Courtroom entry                                                          228

                        6      Date of effect                                                             228

                        7      Authentication of orders                                               228

                        8      Service of orders                                                         229

                        9      Certificate of judgment                                                229

Order 37                Judgments and orders: enforcement                    

                        1      Attendance                                                                  230

                        2      Service before committal or sequestration                    230

                        3      Substituted performance                                              232

                        4      Enforcements by or against non‑party                          232

                        5      Non‑performance of condition                                      233

                        6      Matters occurring after judgment                                  233

                        7      Enforcement as in State and Territory Supreme Courts  233

                        8      Ex parte application                                                     234

                        9      Warrant for committal  — Forms 49 and 49A                 234

                       10      Stay of execution                                                        234

Order 38                Assessment of damages                                          

                        1      Ascertainment of damages where a matter of calculation 235

                        2      Certificate of Registrar                                                 235

                        3      Damages in respect of continuing cause of action        236

Order 39                Accounts and inquiries                                             

                        1      Account: summary order                                              237

                        2      Account or inquiry at any stage                                    237

                        3      Account: directions                                                      237

                        4      Account: form and verification                                     237

                        5      Account: filing and service                                           238

                        6      Account: notice of charge or error                                238

                        7      Account: allowances                                                    238

                        8      Delay                                                                          238

                        9      Account: taken before Registrar                                   238

                       10      Certificate of Registrar                                                 239

Order 40                Contempt                                                                      

Division 1                    Contempt in the face or hearing of the Court                  

                        1      Arrest                                                                          240

                        2      Charge, defence and determination                              240

                        3      Interim custody                                                            240

Division 2                    Motion or proceedings for punishment                           

                        4      Application                                                                  241

                        5      Procedure generally                                                     241

                        6      Statement of charge                                                    241

                        7      Evidence                                                                     241

                        8      Service                                                                       242

                        9      Arrest — Form 48                                                        242

                       10      Motion or proceedings by the Registrar                        242

Division 3                    General                                                                           

                       11      Warrant — Form 48                                                      243

                       12      Discharge                                                                   243

Order 41                Documents                                                                   

                        1      First page of a document — Form 1                             244

                        2      Documents                                                                 244

                        3      Details to be shown on first page of a document          245

                        4      Numbers                                                                     246

                        5      Scandalous, vexatious or oppressive material               246

                        6      Signing documents — Form 4                                      246

                        7      Signature by electronic means                                      246

                      7A      Signature by electronic means — Registrar                   247

                        8      Documents filed electronically                                      247

Order 42                Partnerships and business names                        

Division 1                    Partnerships                                                                   

                        1      Interpretation                                                               248

                        2      Action in partnership name                                           248

                        3      Disclosure of names etc of partners                             248

                        4      Service                                                                       249

                        5      Appearance of partners                                               249

                        6      Appearance under protest of person served as partner  250

                        7      Defence                                                                      250

                        8      Entry of order                                                              250

                        9      Execution of judgment against a partnership                 250

                       10      Judgment against individual partner                              251

                       11      Application to proceedings between co‑partners           251

Division 2                    Individuals trading under a business name                    

                       12      Interpretation                                                               252

                       13      Proceedings in business name                                     252

                       14      Application of rules                                                     253

                       15      Service                                                                       253

                       16      Appearance                                                                 253

                       17      Proceeding under either Division                                  253

                       18      Amendment as to parties                                             254

                       19      Execution                                                                    254

                       20      Variation of judgment or order                                      255

                       21      Discovery in aid of rules 18 and 20                               255

Order 43                Disability                                                                        

                        1      Proceeding by or against person under disability          256

                        2      Appointment of tutor by the court                                 256

                        3      Removal of tutor                                                         256

                        4      Appointment of tutor generally                                     257

                        5      Conduct of proceedings by tutor                                  258

                        6      Cross‑claim                                                                 258

                        7      No imputed admission on pleadings                             258

                        8      Discovery and interrogatories                                       258

                        9      Compromise etc of matter in suit                                  259

                       10      Payment into Court                                                      259

                       11      Compromise etc before suit                                         259

                       12      Terms of approval                                                       260

                       13      Service                                                                       260

Order 44                Interpleader                                                                  

Division 1                    Preliminary                                                                     

                        1      Interpretation                                                               262

Division 2                    Stakeholder’s interpleader                                              

                        2      Case for relief                                                             262

                        3      Application in a pending proceeding                             263

Division 3                    Sheriff’s interpleader                                                      

                        4      Notice of claim — Form 50                                          263

                        5      Notice to execution creditor                                         264

                        6      Admission of claim                                                      264

                        7      Interpleader motion                                                      265

Division 3A                 Payment pursuant to statutory entitlement                      

                      7A      Payment pursuant to statutory entitlement                     265

Division 4                    General                                                                           

                        8      Powers generally                                                         266

                        9      Default by claimant                                                      266

                       10      Neutrality of applicant                                                  267

                       11      Order in several proceedings                                        267

                       12      Disposal                                                                     268

Order 45                Solicitors                                                                       

                        1      Power to act by solicitor                                              269

                        2      Adverse parties                                                           269

                        3      Change of solicitor                                                      269

                        4      Change of agent                                                          269

                        5      Appointment of solicitor                                              270

                        6      Removal of solicitor                                                    270

                        7      Withdrawal of solicitor                                                 270

                      7A      New address for service                                              271

                        8      Effect of change                                                         271

                        9      Signature for lawyer                                                     271

Order 46                Registries                                                                      

                        1      Taking of oaths and affidavits                                      273

                        2      Seal of Court                                                               273

                        3      Use of seal                                                                 274

                        4      Stamp of Court                                                           274

                      4A      Affixing the seal or stamp of the Court                         274

                        5      Custody of documents                                                274

                        6      Inspection of documents                                             275

                        7      Operation of registries                                                 277

                      7A      Refusal to accept document for filing                           277

                    7AA      Powers of the Court that may be exercised by a Registrar (Act s 35A)           278

                      7B      Registrar’s exercise of power (Act, s 35A)                     279

                        8      Temporary venue                                                         279

                        9      Transmission of documents                                         280

                       10      Transmission of order                                                  281

                       11      Summary of order                                                       281

                       12      Facsimile                                                                    281

Order 47                Sheriff                                                                             

Division 1                    General                                                                           

                        1      Interpretation                                                               282

                        2      Suspension of execution                                             282

                        3      Default                                                                        282

                        4      Execution: motion for directions                                   283

Division 2                    Fees                                                                               

                        5      Security                                                                      283

                        6      Liability of solicitor                                                      283

                        7      Bill                                                                              284

                        8      Taxation                                                                      284

                        9      Determination                                                              284

                       10      Default by solicitor                                                      284

Order 48                Fair Work proceedings                                              

Division 1                    General                                                                           

                        1      Definitions for Order 48                                               285

                        2      Expressions used in the Workplace Relations Act, the Fair Work Act and the Registered Organisations Act                                                        285

                        3      Application of Order 48                                                286

Division 2                    Unlawful termination of employment (Workplace Relations Act)   

                        4      Application in relation to alleged unlawful termination of employment (Workplace Relations Act s 663)                                                                            286

Division 3                    Unlawful dismissal from, or termination of, employment (Fair Work Act) 

                        5      Application in relation to dismissal from employment in contravention of a general protection (Fair Work Act, s 539 (2), table, item 11)                       287

                        6      Application in relation to alleged unlawful termination of employment (Fair Work Act, s 539 (2), table, item 35)                                                             287

Division 4                    Unlawful discrimination (Fair Work Act)                          

                        7      Application in relation to alleged discrimination (Fair Work Act, s 539 (2), table, item 11)        288

Division 5                    Rules to show cause                                                       

                        8      Definition for Division 5                                               289

                        9      Application of Division 5                                              290

                       10      Requirements for applications (RAO Schedule ss 163, 164, 164A and 167 and Registered Organisations Act ss 163, 164, 164A and 167)               290

                       11      Form of rule to show cause — Form 6                          292

                       12      Filing of rule to show cause                                         292

Division 6                    Inquiries and ballots in relation to registered organisations         

                       13      Application of Division 6                                              292

                       14      Form of application for an inquiry or ballot                   293

                       15      Duties of District Registrar on receiving application       294

                       16      Service of application and supporting documents         295

                       17      Application for interim orders                                       295

                       18      Court directions to issue subpoenas                             296

Order 49                Proceedings for an offence                                      

                        1      Prosecutions                                                               297

                        2      Form of summons, Forms 51 and 52                            297

                        3      Summons in paragraphs                                              297

                        4      Appointment of date                                                    297

                        5      Affidavits as to fine or penalty                                     298

Order 50                Case stated and questions reserved                     

                        1      Definition for Order 50                                                 299

                        2      Application                                                                  299

                        3      Special case to be prepared etc                                   299

                        4      Setting down for hearing                                              300

                        5      Setting down for hearing (Fair Work Act 2009 s 608)      300

                        6      Party having carriage of the proceedings                      300

Order 51                Judiciary Act 1903 — section 78B                          

                        1      Notice of a constitutional matter — Form 53                 301

                        2      Notices of a constitutional matter                                 301

                        3      Affidavit of service                                                      302

                        4      Additional papers for intervening Attorneys‑General      302

 


Order 1        Preliminary

  

  

1              Short title [see Note 1]

                These Rules may be cited as the Federal Court Rules.

2              Commencement

                These Rules shall come into operation on 1 August 1979.

3              Repeal

                Upon the coming into operation of these Rules, the Federal Court of Australia Rules, being Statutory Rule No. 20 of 1977 and Statutory Rule No. 220 of 1977, are repealed.

4              Interpretation

                In these Rules, unless the contrary intention appears:

the Act means the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976.

arbitration means arbitration conducted under an arbitration order.

arbitration order means an order referring a matter to an arbitrator as mentioned in Order 72, rule 1.

arbitrator means an arbitrator to whom a matter is referred under an arbitration order.

Australia or the Commonwealth means the Commonwealth of Australia and when used in a geographical sense includes external territories.

Bankruptcy Rules means the Federal Court (Bankruptcy) Rules 2005.

committee includes a person entrusted under a law of the Commonwealth, or of a State or Territory, with the care or management of the person or estate of a mentally disabled person.

Commonwealth means the Commonwealth of Australia and includes a Territory.

corporation includes any artificial person other than an organisation.

Corporations Rules means the Federal Court (Corporations) Rules 2000.

cross‑claim includes a counter‑claim, cross‑action, set‑off, and third party claim.

directions hearing means:

                (a)    a hearing appointed in an originating process; or

               (b)    except for the purpose of computation of time within which acts must be done — any other hearing fixed for the purpose of giving, or at which the Court in fact gives, directions about the conduct of a proceeding.

document includes any record of information which is a document within the definition contained in the Dictionary
in the Evidence Act 1995 and any other material data or information stored or recorded by mechanical or electronic means.

document exchange means a facility or service through which a member of the facility or service may send a document to another member of the facility or service.

document exchange box means a box in a document exchange.

electronic communication means a communication of information in the form of data, text or images by means of guided or unguided electromagnetic energy, including an email or an email attachment.

email address means the mailing address to and from which an electronic communication may be sent and received using the Internet, an intranet or other similar network.

examination includes where relevant an examination held pursuant to an order made under Order 24, and, in proceedings under Division 1 of Part 2 of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994, includes any proceeding for the taking of evidence of a person conducted by the judicial authorities of a foreign country in relation to a letter of request issued as a result of an order made by the Court under that Part.

examiner includes an officer of the Court or any other person appointed under Order 24, or under paragraph 7 (1) (a) or (b) of the Foreign Evidence Act 1994, for the purpose of an examination before the examiner of any person.

hearing includes any hearing before the Court, whether final or interlocutory, and whether in open court or in chambers.

image means a picture that has been created, copied, stored or transmitted in electronic form.

Judge means a Judge of the Court (including the Chief Justice) and in the expression ‘the Court or a Judge’ means a Judge sitting in chambers.

mediation means mediation conducted under a mediation order.

mediation or arbitration order means a mediation order or an arbitration order.

mediation order means an order referring a matter to a mediator as mentioned in Order 72, rule 1.

mediator means a mediator to whom a matter is referred under a mediation order.

mentally disabled person means a person who, owing to mental illness, is incapable of managing his or her affairs in respect of the proceedings.

oath includes affirmation.

organisation has the meaning given by section 6 of the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

originating process means a document, filed in the Court, that commences a proceeding in the Court’s original jurisdiction.

person under disability means an infant, minor or mentally disabled person.

pleading includes a statement of claim and a cross‑claim to which Order 5 applies and subsequent pleadings, but does not include an application, notice of motion or affidavit.

proper place in relation to any proceeding:

                (a)    where there has been no transfer means the place at which the proceeding was commenced;

               (b)    where there has been a transfer means the place to which the proceeding was transferred.

Registrar means the Registrar or a District Registrar of the Court, and includes a Deputy Registrar or a Deputy District Registrar of the Court or other officer for the time being discharging the duties of any one of them, and when used in relation to any proceeding means the Registrar or District Registrar at the proper place.

Registry includes the Principal Registry and a District Registry.

Rules means Federal Court Rules.

Sheriff includes a Deputy Sheriff or any person for the time being discharging the duties of Sheriff or Deputy Sheriff.

trial includes any hearing other than an interlocutory hearing.

tutor means a next friend, guardian ad litem or committee of the person or estate of a person under disability.

4A           Exercise of Court’s power

                Unless these Rules provide otherwise, the Court may exercise a power under these Rules in a proceeding:

                (a)    on its own initiative; or

               (b)    on the application of a party, or a person who has sufficient interest in the proceeding.

5              Order on terms

                Unless the contrary intention appears, where under these Rules the Court has the power to make an order or do any other act or thing, it may make that order or do that other act or thing on terms.

5A           Filing and lodging documents

         (1)   A document that is required or permitted by these Rules to be filed or lodged may be:

                (a)    presented to a Registry when the Registry is open for business; or

               (b)    sent by post to a Registry with a written request for the processing required; or

                (c)    sent by document exchange by being left, addressed to the Federal Court of Australia, at its box at the Australian Document Exchange, with a written request for the processing required; or

               (d)    sent by facsimile transmission to a Registry in accordance with rule 5AB; or

                (e)    sent by electronic communication to a Registry in accordance with rule 5AC.

         (2)   However, a document may not be sent:

                (a)    by facsimile transmission if the document (including any annexure or attachment) is more than 20 pages long; or

               (b)    by electronic communication if the document (including any attachment) is more than 100 pages long; or

                (c)    by facsimile transmission or electronic communication if it is an affidavit referred to in paragraph 4.07 (b) of the Bankruptcy Rules.

Note   Because of the Court’s computer security firewall, the Court cannot accept an electronic communication that is more than 5 megabytes in size.

         (3)   If a document is required to be signed or stamped, it must be accompanied by the number of copies required, unless it is sent by facsimile transmission or electronic communication.

         (4)   If the fee for a document to be filed is not payable, the document must be accompanied by a statement of the reason it is not payable and any supporting evidence.

         (5)   A document presented, or sent in accordance with paragraph (1) (b) or (c), to a Registry that is not the proper place for the proceeding, must be accompanied by a letter:

                (a)    identifying the proper place; and

               (b)    requesting that the document be sent to the proper place.

         (6)   A document is filed:

                (a)    for a document in an existing proceeding — if it is accepted in the Registry that is the proper place for the proceeding and stamped in accordance with Order 46, rule 4; or

               (b)    otherwise — if it is accepted in a Registry and stamped in accordance with Order 46, rule 4.

      (6A)   If a document in an existing proceeding:

                (a)    is presented to or sent in accordance with paragraph (1) (b) or (c) to a Registry that is not the proper place; and

               (b)    is sent by that Registry to the proper place; and

                (c)    is filed in accordance with paragraph (6) (a);

the document is taken to have been filed on the day when it was received by the Registry that is not the proper place.

         (7)   However, a document sent by facsimile transmission or electronic communication is, if accepted, taken to have been filed:

                (a)    if the whole document is received by 4.30 pm on a day when the Registry is open for business — on that day; and

               (b)    otherwise — on the next day when the Registry is open for business.

Note   Because of the Court’s computer security firewall, there may be a delay between the time a document is sent by electronic communication and the time the document is received by the Court.

         (8)   A document must not be accepted, without leave of the Court, a Judge or a Registrar, if it appears to a Registrar that the document:

                (a)    is not substantially complete; or

               (b)    does not substantially comply in form with these Rules; or

                (c)    is not properly signed or executed.

         (9)   A document must not be accepted if a Registrar, under Order 46 rule 7A:

                (a)    refuses to accept or issue the document; or

               (b)    is directed by a Judge to refuse to accept or issue the document; or

                (c)    is directed by a Judge to refuse to accept or issue the document without first obtaining the leave of a Judge.

       (10)   If a document sent in accordance with paragraph (1) (b), (c), (d) or (e) is not accepted, the Registrar must notify the sender of the document:

                (a)    by telephone on the telephone number stated on the document, cover sheet or accompanying request; or

               (b)    in writing to the postal address or facsimile number stated on the document, cover sheet or accompanying request; or

                (c)    by electronic communication to the email address stated on the document, cover sheet or accompanying request.

       (11)   If a document sent to a Registry by post or document exchange is required to be signed or stamped, and is accepted at the Registry, the Registrar must:

                (a)    if the sender requests that the document be held for collection — hold it for collection for 7 days; or

               (b)    if the sender does not request the document to be held for collection, or having made a request does not collect the document within 7 days — return the document in the same way it was sent.

Note   See Part 2 of the Federal Court of Australia Regulations 2004 in relation to fees for filing documents.

5AB        Filing and lodging by facsimile transmission

         (1)   The Registrar must approve at least one facsimile number for each Registry for the purpose of receiving documents.

         (2)   A document sent to a Registry by facsimile transmission must be:

                (a)    sent to an approved facsimile number for the Registry; and

               (b)    accompanied by a cover sheet clearly stating:

                          (i)    the sender’s name, postal address, document exchange number (if any), telephone number and facsimile number; and

                         (ii)    the number of pages transmitted; and

                        (iii)    the processing of the document required.

         (3)   If the document is in an existing proceeding, it must be sent to an approved facsimile number for the Registry which is the proper place for the proceeding.

         (4)   If the document is required to be signed or stamped, and is accepted at the Registry, the Registrar must:

                (a)    make one copy of the document; and

               (b)    if the sender requests that the document be held for collection — hold it for collection for 7 days; and

                (c)    if the sender does not request the document to be held for collection, or having made a request does not collect the document within 7 days — return the document by sending it:

                          (i)    by facsimile transmission to the facsimile number stated on the cover sheet; or

                         (ii)    if there is no facsimile number stated, to the postal address stated on the cover sheet.

         (5)   If more than one copy is required for issue, the sender of the document must send, or ask the Registry to make, any additional copies required.

         (6)   A person who sends a document to a Registry by facsimile transmission must:

                (a)    keep the original document and the transmission report evidencing successful transmission; and

               (b)    produce the original document or the transmission report as directed by the Court.

         (7)   If the court directs that the original document be produced, the first page of the document must be endorsed with:

                (a)    a statement that the document is the original of a document sent by facsimile transmission; and

               (b)    the date that the document was sent by facsimile transmission.

5AC        Filing and lodging by electronic communication

         (1)   The Registrar:

                (a)    must approve the formats in which electronic versions of documents will be accepted by a Registry; and

               (b)    may approve at least one email address for any Registry for the purpose of receiving documents by electronic communication.

         (2)   A document sent to a Registry by electronic communication must:

                (a)    be sent:

                          (i)    by using the Court’s Internet home page at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au or the Commonwealth Courts Portal at https://www.comcourts.gov.au; or

                         (ii)    to an email address approved for the Registry; and

               (b)    be in an electronic format approved for the Registry; and

                (c)    to the extent practicable, be in a form that complies with rule 7; and

               (d)    be capable of being printed with the content and in the form in which it was created.

         (3)   An affidavit may only be filed by electronic communication by sending an image of the affidavit in accordance with subrule (2).

         (4)   If the document is in an existing proceeding, it must be sent to the Registry which is the proper place for the proceeding:

                (a)    by using the Court’s Internet home page at http://www.fedcourt.gov.au or the Commonwealth Courts Portal at https://www.comcourts.gov.au; or

               (b)    by addressing it to an email address approved for that Registry.

         (5)   Subject to subrule (5A), if the document is required to be signed or stamped, and is accepted at the Registry, the Registrar must:

                (a)    for a document that, under these Rules, must be endorsed with a date for hearing — insert a notice of filing and hearing in accordance with Form 173 as the first page of the document; and

               (b)    for any other document — insert a notice of filing in accordance with Form 174 as the first page of the document; and

                (c)    make one copy of the document (including the notice mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) (whichever is applicable)); and

               (d)    if the sender requests that the document be held for collection — hold it for collection for 7 days; and

                (e)    if the sender does not request the document to be held for collection, or having made a request does not collect the document within 7 days — return the document by sending it:

                          (i)    by electronic communication to the email address stated on the cover sheet; or

                         (ii)    if there is no email address stated, to the postal address stated on the cover sheet.

         (7)   A person who sends a document to a Registry by electronic communication must:

                (a)    if the document is an image of an affidavit — produce the original of the affidavit as directed by the Court; or

               (b)    in any other case — produce a paper copy of the document as directed by the Court.

         (8)   If the Court directs that an original affidavit or a paper copy of a document be produced, the person who sent the document must:

                (a)    for an original affidavit — attach a statement that it is the original of the affidavit sent by electronic communication and the date that the affidavit was sent by electronic communication; or

               (b)    in any other case — endorse the first page with a statement that the paper copy is a true copy of the document sent by electronic communication and the date that the document was sent by electronic communication.

6              Serial number

         (1)   The first document filed in any proceeding shall have a serial number assigned to it for the Registry in which it is filed, and that and each other document in the proceeding shall bear that number preceded by a reference to the appropriate Registry together with a reference to the calendar year in which the first document is filed.

         (2)   A new series of numbers shall be commenced at the beginning of each calendar year.

7              Forms

         (1)   Subject to subrule (2), the forms in Schedule 1 shall be used where applicable notwithstanding the absence of any specific provision in the Rules in respect of the use of any particular form.

      (1A)   A reference in a provision of the Rules to a Form by number is to be read as a reference to the Form so numbered in Schedule 1.

         (2)   It shall be sufficient compliance with these Rules as to the form of any document if the document is substantially in accordance with the requirement or has only such variations as the nature of the case requires.

8              Relief from rules

                The Court may dispense with compliance with any of the requirements of the Rules, either before or after the occasion for compliance arises.

9              Proceedings wanting or in doubt

         (1)   Where a person desires to commence a proceeding or take any step in a proceeding, and the manner or form of procedure is not prescribed by the Act or the Rules or by or under any other Act, or that person is in doubt as to the manner or form of procedure, the Court may give directions.

         (2)   A proceeding commenced in accordance with the directions of the Court shall be well commenced.

         (3)   A step taken in accordance with the directions of the Court shall be regular and sufficient.

Order 2        Sittings and vacation

  

  

1              Sittings

                The sittings of the Full Court in the Court’s appellate jurisdiction shall be held in each year at such times and places as the Chief Justice directs.

Order 3        Time

  

  

1              Month

                In any judgment or order and in any document in any proceeding, unless the context or subject matter otherwise indicates or requires, month means calendar month.

2              Reckoning

         (1)   Any period of time fixed by rules or by any judgment or order or by any document in any proceeding, shall be reckoned in accordance with this rule.

         (2)   Where a time of one day or a longer time is to be reckoned by reference to a given day or event, the given day or the day of the given event shall not be counted.

         (3)   Where, apart from this subrule, the period in question, being a period of 5 days or less, would include a day on which the Registry is closed, that day shall be excluded.

         (4)   Where the last day for doing a thing is a day on which the Registry is closed, the thing may be done on the next day on which the Registry is open.

      (4A)   In calculating the time fixed by these Rules or by any order fixing, extending or abridging time, the period from 24 December to 14 January next following is excluded, unless the Court otherwise orders.

         (5)   Subsection 36 (2) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 does not apply to these Rules.

3              Extension and abridgment

         (1)   The Court or a Judge may by order extend or abridge any time fixed by the Rules or by any judgment or order.

         (2)   The time may be extended under this rule, or any other rule allowing for an extension of time (unless the rule provides otherwise):

                (a)    before or after the time expires; and

               (b)    whether or not an application for extension is made before the time expires.

         (3)   The period within which a person is required by rules or by any order to serve, file or amend any pleading or other document may be extended by consent without an order for extension.

4              Fixing times

                Where no time is fixed by the Rules or by any judgment or order of the Court or a Judge for the doing of any thing in or in connection with any proceeding, the Court may, by order, fix the time within which the thing is to be done.

6              Registry hours

         (1)   The District Registries of New South Wales and Victoria shall be open to the public for business between 10 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon, except on Saturdays, Sundays and other holidays.

         (2)   The Principal Registry and the District Registries of the States other than New South Wales and Victoria and of the Territories, shall be open to the public for business from 10 in the morning until 1 in the afternoon and from 2 until 4 in the afternoon, except on Saturdays, Sundays and other holidays.

         (3)   A Registry may in the discretion of the Registrar, and shall on the direction of a Judge, be opened at other times for urgent business.

Order 4        Commencement of proceedings

  

  

1              Commencement by application — Form 5

         (1)   Except as otherwise provided in these Rules all proceedings in the Court’s original jurisdiction shall be commenced by filing an application.

         (2)   An application shall be in or substantially in the form numbered 5 in Schedule 1.

1A           Certification of merits of application commencing migration litigation

         (1)   For the purposes of section 486I of the Migration Act 1958, a lawyer must not file an application commencing migration litigation unless the application includes, or is accompanied by, a certificate in accordance with Form 56B signed by the lawyer.

         (2)   In this rule:

lawyer has the meaning given by section 486K of the Migration Act 1958.

migration litigation has the meaning given by section 486K of the Migration Act 1958.

2              Parties

         (1)   A party claiming relief shall be called an applicant.

         (2)   A party against whom relief is claimed shall be called a respondent.

3              Relief claimed

         (1)   An application must specify:

                (a)    the relief claimed by the applicant; and

               (b)    if the relief depends on a provision of an Act — the Act and the provision.

         (2)   Where the claim for relief includes a claim for the determination or direction of the Court on any question, the application shall state the question.

         (3)   Costs need not be specifically claimed.

         (4)   Exemplary damages shall be specifically claimed.

4              Name, address etc

         (1)   An application shall contain:

                (a)    the name and address of the applicant;

               (b)    where a party sues or is sued in a representative capacity a statement of that fact;

                (c)    where the applicant sues by a solicitor, the name, address, telephone number, facsimile number and email address of the solicitor;

               (d)    where the applicant sues by a solicitor and that solicitor has another solicitor as agent for him in the proceeding, the name, address, telephone number, facsimile number and email address of the agent; and

                (e)    an address for service.

         (2)   Where it appears from an application that the applicant sues by a solicitor:

                (a)    the solicitor shall, on request in writing by a respondent, declare in writing whether the application was filed by the solicitor; and

               (b)    if the solicitor declares in writing that the application was not filed by the solicitor, the Court may stay the proceeding.

5              Notice to appear

                Where there is a respondent, an application shall bear a note that:

                (a)    if there is no attendance before the Court by the respondent or a lawyer representing the respondent at the time and place stated in the application, the proceeding may be heard and an order may be made or judgment given against the respondent; and

               (b)    before any attendance at that time the respondent must enter an appearance in the Registry.

6              Affidavit or statement of claim — Form 7

         (1)   The applicant shall file and serve with the application either an affidavit in accordance with Form 20, or a statement of claim in accordance with Form 7, whichever is appropriate.

      (1A)   However, an applicant seeking to rely on an allegation of fraud, misrepresentation, breach of trust, wilful default or undue influence must file and serve a statement of claim.

         (2)   The affidavit or statement of claim shall show:

                (a)    the nature of the applicant’s claim; and

               (b)    the material facts on which it is based.

7              Filing and copies

         (1)   Upon an application and affidavit or statement of claim being filed, the Registrar on the applicant’s request shall sign, and affix the seal of the Court to, a sufficient number of copies of the application for service and proof of service.

         (2)   The serial number of the proceeding shall be endorsed on each document.

8              Date for hearing

                An application must state a date for a hearing at which the Court may hear the proceeding in whole or in part, or give directions for the further conduct of the proceeding.

9              Claim for interlocutory relief

         (1)   Where by his application an applicant seeks interlocutory relief, he shall make a distinct claim for that relief.

         (2)   The Court may hear and determine the claim for interlocutory relief on the hearing date specified in the application.

         (3)   At the hearing of the claim for interlocutory relief the Court may give any directions it thinks fit.

10            Endorsement of date

         (1)   The date for a hearing under rule 8 or rule 9 to be endorsed on the application shall be obtained from the Registry.

         (2)   Where the Court has made an order abridging time, the application shall bear a note of the order made.

11            Time for service

                An application and affidavit or statement of claim shall, unless the court otherwise orders, be served upon the respondent named in the application in accordance with Order 7, not less than five days before the date appointed for hearing pursuant to rule 8 or rule 9 of this Order.

12            Alteration of hearing date

                If a date for hearing has been obtained or made, the Court may:

                (a)    alter the date for hearing to a later date; and

               (b)    authorise the lawyer for a party to make corresponding alterations in any copy for service of any application or notice.

13            Alteration of date where service less than 5 days before hearing

         (1)   Where an application and affidavit or statement of claim have been served upon the respondent named in the application less than five days before the date for hearing endorsed on the application pursuant to Order 4, rule 8 or rule 9, the Court or Registrar may alter the date to a later date and may authorise the solicitor for a party to give notice to that respondent of that altered date for hearing by posting an altered copy of the application by registered post to the usual or last known place of business or abode of the respondent or to the place at which the application was served if appropriate.

         (2)   The Registrar may give the authority by telephone or by some other means as the Registrar thinks fit.

14            Suit in person

         (1)   Subject to subrule (2) and to Order 43 (which relates to disability), any person may proceed in the Court by a solicitor or in person.

         (2)   Except as provided by or under any Act, a corporation may not, without the leave of the Court, commence or carry on any proceeding otherwise than by a solicitor.

15            Application for the issue of a summons (Corporations Act s 596A, s 596B)

                An application for the issue of a summons under section 596A or 596B of the Corporations Act 2001 may be made to:

                (a)    the Court or a Judge; or

               (b)    if the Court or a Judge has, under paragraph 35A (1) (h)
of the Act, directed that a Registrar may exercise the power of the Court under section 596A or 596B of the Corporations Act 2001 — a Registrar, including a Registrar sitting in chambers.

Order 5        Cross‑claims and third party claims

Note   Order 35A deals with the procedure on default.

  

  

1              Claim by respondent

         (1)   A respondent may cross‑claim against an applicant for any relief to which the respondent would be entitled against the applicant if the applicant were a respondent in a separate proceeding commenced in the Court by the respondent for that purpose.

         (2)   A respondent may cross‑claim against any person whether another party or a third party for any relief which is related to or connected with the subject of the proceeding.

         (3)   Without prejudice to the generality of subrule (2), a respondent may cross‑claim for contribution or indemnity.

2              Cross‑claim

         (1)   A cross‑claim shall be entitled in the proceeding with an addition showing the names of the parties to the cross‑claim.

         (2)   Order 4, rule 3 applies to a cross‑claim whether the cross‑claim is against an applicant or any other person.

3              Title

                On a cross‑claim being filed, a document afterwards filed or used in the proceeding shall be entitled in the manner in which the cross‑claim is entitled.

4              Rules applicable where statement of claim

                Rules 5 and 6 of this Order apply where a proceeding is commenced by application supported by statement of claim, or where the Court has ordered that the proceeding continue on pleadings.

5              Pleading — Forms 8, 9, 10

         (1)   A respondent may file a pleading by way of cross‑claim within the time fixed for filing his defence or any extension thereof.

         (2)   A cross‑claim under subrule (1) shall be in or substantially in the forms numbered 8, 9 or 10 in Schedule 1.

         (3)   Where a cross‑claimant cross‑claims solely against a party who claims in the proceeding against the cross‑claimant, the cross‑claimant may add the cross‑claim to his defence.

         (4)   Subject to Order 11, rule 16 (which relates to embarrassing proceedings and the like), a cross‑claimant may in his cross‑claim plead all or any of the facts on which he relies by reference to the prior pleadings in the proceeding.

         (5)   A cross‑claimant shall, in addition to pleading any other facts on which he relies, plead the facts showing that the cross‑claim is one to which rule 1 of this Order applies.

6              Service of prior pleadings — Form 11

         (1)   Where a respondent to a cross‑claim is made a party to the proceeding by the filing of the cross‑claim, he may, by notice in accordance with Form 11 filed and served on the cross‑claimant, require the cross‑claimant to serve on him all or any of the pleadings in the proceeding filed before the filing of the cross‑claim.

         (2)   A respondent to a cross‑claim may add a notice under subrule (1) to his notice of appearance.

         (3)   Where a notice under subrule (1) is served on a cross‑claimant then, unless the Court otherwise orders, he shall, within three days after service of the notice or such longer times as may be specified in the notice, serve on the respondent to the cross‑claim giving the notice each pleading mentioned in the notice.

7              Rules applicable where affidavit

                Rules 8 and 9 apply where a proceeding is commenced by application supported by affidavit and where:

                (a)    a cross‑claim is filed before the directions hearing; or

               (b)    a cross‑claim is filed after the directions hearing and the Court has not ordered that the proceedings continue on pleadings.

8              Cross‑claims by leave

         (1)   Subject to subrules 9 (1) and (2), a respondent may cross‑claim against an applicant or any other party without the leave of the Court, but may not cross‑claim against any other person not being a party without such leave.

         (2)   Subject to subrule (4), a respondent shall not cross‑claim against an applicant before he has filed an affidavit in reply to the applicant’s claim.

         (3)   A cross‑claim shall be in or substantially in the forms numbered 8 or 9 in Schedule 1, and shall be accompanied by an affidavit stating:

                (a)    the nature of the cross‑claim;

               (b)    the material facts on which the cross‑claimant relies; and

                (c)    the facts showing that the cross‑claim is one to which rule 1 of this Order applies.

         (4)   A respondent who cross‑claims against an applicant only may include the matters referred to in subrule (3) in his affidavit in reply to the applicant’s claim, and need not file a separate affidavit in support of the cross‑claim.

9              Cross‑claim after directions hearing

         (1)   A respondent desiring to cross‑claim after the directions hearing shall obtain all necessary directions at the directions hearing in relation to the cross‑claim, including the time within which the cross‑claim is to be filed.

         (2)   A respondent who does not obtain directions pursuant to subrule (1) shall not cross‑claim after the directions hearing without the leave of the Court.

10            Service

         (1)   Where a respondent to a cross‑claim has, on the date of filing the cross‑claim, an address for service in the proceeding, the cross‑claimant shall, on that date, serve the cross‑claim on the respondent to the cross‑claim.

         (2)   Where a respondent to a cross‑claim has an address for service in the proceeding, personal service of the cross‑claim on him is not required.

         (3)   Order 7, rule 11 (which relates to cases where filing operates as service) does not apply to the service of a cross‑claim.

11            Conduct of proceeding generally

         (1)   Subject to this Order and to Order 11, a proceeding on a cross‑claim shall follow as nearly as may be the course of the proceeding on the originating process in respect of which the cross‑claim is filed.

         (2)   Subject to this Order and to Order 11, and without limiting the generality of subrule (1), these Rules apply to a cross‑claim and the proceeding arising from it as they apply to the originating process in respect of which the cross‑claim is filed and the proceeding arising from it.

         (3)   Subrules (1) and (2) apply as if:

                (a)    the cross‑claim were the originating process in respect of which the cross‑claim is filed;

               (b)    the cross‑claimant were an applicant; and

                (c)    the respondent to the cross‑claim were a respondent.

         (4)   An applicant in an originating process need not enter an appearance to a cross‑claim in the same proceeding.

         (5)   An appearance entered by a party to the proceeding shall, upon service of a cross‑claim on him, operate as an appearance to the cross‑claim.

         (6)   A cross‑respondent who has not previously entered an appearance in the original proceedings shall enter an appearance:

                (a)    where the cross‑claim is served on him before the date appointed for a directions hearing in the application in the original proceeding — before that date; or

               (b)    in any other case — within 14 days after service of the cross‑claim on him.

         (7)   Subject to this Order, the trial or hearing and all other steps in the proceeding on the cross‑claim shall as far as practicable be carried on together with the trial or hearing and similar steps in the proceeding on the originating process in respect of which the cross‑claim is filed.

12            Directions

         (1)   A party to the proceeding may, at any time after the filing of a cross‑claim, move for directions.

         (2)   On any directions hearing, or on the trial or hearing of the cross‑claim, the Court may:

                (a)    make any order or direction it may make under Order 10 (which relates to directions hearings);

               (b)    order that any claim, question or issue in or arising on the cross‑claim be tried in such manner as the Court may direct;

                (c)    give to a respondent to the cross‑claim leave to defend the claim on the originating process or any other cross‑claim in the proceeding, either alone or in addition to any other party;

               (d)    give to a respondent to the cross‑claim leave to appear at the trial or hearing of the claim on the originating process or on any other cross‑claim in the proceeding and to take such part in the trial or hearing as the Court thinks fit;

                (e)    dismiss the cross‑claim;

                (f)    determine the extent to which the cross‑claimant and a respondent to the cross‑claim shall be bound as between themselves by a judgment (including a judgment by consent or by default) or decision (including a decision by consent) on the claim on the originating process or any other cross‑claim in the proceeding;

               (g)    pronounce such judgment as the nature of the case may require;

               (h)    give such directions as the Court thinks fit for having the rights and liabilities of the parties determined and enforced, including any order or direction which may be made or given under this Order.

         (3)   Order 10, rules 4 to 6 (directions hearing) apply to a motion for directions under this rule.

15            Separate prosecution

                A cross‑claim may proceed notwithstanding that judgment has been pronounced and an order made and entered on the originating process or any other cross‑claim in the proceeding, or that the proceeding on the originating process or any other cross‑claim is stayed, dismissed or discontinued.

16            Contribution or indemnity

                Where a respondent makes a cross‑claim for contribution or indemnity in respect of a claim against him in the proceeding:

                (a)    an order on a judgment for the claimant on the cross‑claim shall not be entered except by direction of the Court;

               (b)    judgment for the claimant on the cross‑claim shall not, unless the Court otherwise orders, be enforced by execution until satisfaction of any judgment in the proceeding against the cross‑claimant.

17            Offer of contribution

                Where in any proceeding:

                (a)    a party (in this rule called the first party) stands to be held liable to another party (in this rule called the second party) to contribute towards any debt or damages which may be recovered against the second party in the proceeding; and

               (b)    the first party, at any time after he has entered an appearance, makes an offer to the second party to contribute to a specific extent to the debt or damages;

then, if the first party makes the offer without prejudice to his defence, the offer shall not be brought to the attention of the Court until all questions of liability or amount of debt or damages have been decided.

Order 6        Parties, causes of action and interveners

  

  

1              Multiple claims

                Subject to rule 6 an applicant, whether claiming in the same or different capacities, may, in any proceeding, claim relief in respect of more than one cause of action.

2              Joinder of parties generally

                Two or more persons may be joined as applicants or respondents in any proceeding:

                (a)    where:

                          (i)    if a separate proceeding were brought by or against each of them, as the case may be, some common question of law or of fact would arise in all the proceedings; and

                         (ii)    all rights to relief claimed in the proceeding (whether they are joint, several or alternative) are in respect of or arise out of the same transaction or series of transactions; or

               (b)    where the Court gives leave so to do.

3              Joint right

         (1)   Where, in any proceeding, the applicant claims relief to which any other person is entitled jointly with him:

                (a)    all persons so entitled shall be parties to the proceeding; and

               (b)    any of them who does not consent to being joined as an applicant shall be made a respondent.

         (2)   Subrule (1) applies subject to any Act and subject to section 62 of the Bankruptcy Act 1966 and applies unless the Court gives leave to the contrary.

4              Leave under rule 2 and subrule 3 (2)

         (1)   The Court may grant leave under rule 2 before or after the joinder and may grant leave under subrule 3 (2) before or after the non‑joinder.

         (2)   An applicant may apply for leave under rule 2 or subrule 3 (2) either before or after the filing of his originating process and may apply without serving notice of the motion on any person on whom the application has not been served.

5              Common liability

         (1)   Where, in any proceeding, relief is claimed against a respondent who is jointly liable with some other person and also severally liable, that other person need not be made a respondent to the proceeding.

         (2)   Where persons may be jointly, but not severally, liable and relief is claimed against some but not all of those persons in a proceeding, the Court may stay the proceeding until the other persons so liable are added as respondents.

6              Inconvenient joinder

                Where any joinder of parties or of causes of action may complicate or delay trial of the proceeding or is otherwise inconvenient, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as the Court thinks fit.

7              Misjoinder and non‑joinder of parties

         (1)   A proceeding shall not be defeated by reason of the misjoinder of a party or the non‑joinder of any person as a party.

         (2)   The Court may in any proceeding determine the issues or questions in dispute so far as they affect the rights and interests of the parties.

8              Addition of parties

         (1)   Where a person who is not a party:

                (a)    ought to have been joined as a party; or

               (b)    is a person whose joinder as a party is necessary to ensure that all matters in dispute in the proceeding may be effectually and completely determined and adjudicated upon;

the Court may order that the person be added as a party and make orders for the further conduct of the proceeding.

         (2)   A person shall not be added as an applicant without the person’s consent.

9              Removal of parties

                If a person:

                (a)    has been improperly or unnecessarily joined as a party to a proceeding; or

               (b)    has ceased to be a proper or necessary party to a proceeding;

the Court may order that the person cease to be a party and make orders for the further conduct of the proceeding.

10            Death, transmission etc

         (1)   Where a party dies or becomes bankrupt but a cause of action in the proceeding survives, the proceeding shall not abate by reason of the death or bankruptcy.

         (2)   Where the interest or liability of a party passes by assignment, transmission, devolution or otherwise to another person, the Court may make orders for the addition, removal or re‑arrangement of parties and may make orders for the further conduct of the proceeding.

11            Further conduct of proceedings

         (1)   Without limiting the generality of the powers of the Court under rules 8, 9 and 10, orders under those rules for the further conduct of the proceeding may include orders relating to:

                (a)    service of the order and other documents in the proceeding;

               (b)    amendment;

                (c)    appearance of added parties; and

               (d)    substitution of one party for another party or former party.

         (2)   Where the Court orders that a party be substituted for another party or a former party, all things done in the proceeding before the making of the order shall, unless the Court otherwise orders, have effect in relation to the new party as those things had effect in relation to the old, but entry of appearance by the old party shall not dispense with entry of appearance by the new.

         (3)   Subject to subrule (2), where a party is added pursuant to an order under rule 8 or rule 10, the date of commencement of the proceeding so far as concerns him shall be the date of filing of the originating process amended so as to add him as a party or, where an amended originating process is not filed, the date of the amendment adding him as a party.

12            Failure to proceed after death of party

         (1)   Where:

                (a)    a party dies but a cause of action in the proceeding survives the party’s death; and

               (b)    an order under rule 10 for the addition of a party in substitution for the deceased party is not made within three months after the death;

the Court may order that, unless, within a specified time after service of the order in accordance with subrule (2), a party is added in substitution for the deceased party, the proceedings be dismissed so far as concerns relief on the cause of action for or against the person to whom the cause of action or the liability thereon, as the case may be, survives on the death.

         (2)   On making an order under subrule (1), the Court shall give such directions as it thinks fit for service of the order on the persons (whether parties or not) interested in continuing the proceeding.

13            Representation: concurrent interests

         (1)   Where numerous persons have the same interest in any proceeding the proceeding may be commenced, and, unless the Court otherwise orders, continued, by or against any one or more of them as representing all or as representing all except one or more of them.

         (2)   At any stage of a proceeding pursuant to this rule the Court may appoint any one or more of the respondents or other persons (as representing whom the respondents are sued) to represent all, or all except one or more, of those persons in the proceeding.

         (3)   Where, under subrule (2), the Court appoints a person who is not a respondent, the Court shall make an order under rule 8 adding him as a respondent.

         (4)   A judgment pronounced or an order made in a proceeding pursuant to this rule shall be binding on all the persons as representing whom the applicants sue or, as the case may be, the respondents are sued but shall not be enforced against any person not a party to the proceeding except with the leave of the Court.

         (5)   An application for leave under subrule (4) shall be made by motion, notice of which shall be served personally on the person against whom it is sought to enforce the judgment or order.

         (6)   Notwithstanding that a judgment or order to which an application under subrule (5) relates is binding on the person against whom the application is made, that person may dispute liability to have the judgment or order enforced against him on the ground that by reason of facts and matters particular to his case he is entitled to be exempted from the liability.

         (7)   This rule does not apply to a proceeding concerning property subject to a trust or included in a deceased estate.

14            Representation of beneficiaries by trustees

         (1)   A proceeding concerning property subject to a trust or included in a deceased estate may be brought by or against the trustees or personal representatives without joining a person having a beneficial interest in the trust or estate and unless the Court otherwise orders on the ground that the trustees or personal representatives could not or did not represent the interest of that person, an order granted or made in the proceedings is binding on that person.

         (2)   Subrule (1) does not limit the power of the Court to order a person having an interest to be made a party.

15            Deceased person

         (1)   Where in any proceeding it appears to the Court that a deceased person was interested, or that the estate of a deceased person is interested, in any matter in question in the proceeding and that the deceased person has no personal representative, the Court may:

                (a)    order that the proceeding continue in the absence of a person representing the estate of the deceased person; or

               (b)    by order (with the consent of the person appointed) appoint a person to represent that estate for the purposes of the proceeding.

         (2)   An order under subrule (1), and any judgment or order subsequently pronounced or made in the proceeding, shall bind the estate of the deceased person to the same extent as the estate would have been bound had a personal representative of the deceased person been a party to the proceeding.

         (3)   Before making an order under this rule, the Court may require notice of the application for the order to be given to such (if any) of the persons having an interest in the estate as it thinks fit.

16            Conduct

                The Court may give the conduct of the whole or any part of any proceeding to such person as it thinks fit.

17            Interveners

         (1)   The Court, at any stage of a proceeding, may give leave to a person (the intervener) to intervene in the proceeding, on the terms and conditions, and with the rights, privileges and liabilities (including liabilities for costs), determined by the Court.

         (2)   In deciding whether to give leave, the Court must have regard to:

                (a)    whether the intervener’s contribution will be useful and different from the contribution of the parties to the proceeding; and

               (b)    whether the intervention might unreasonably interfere with the ability of the parties to conduct the proceeding as they wish; and

                (c)    any other matter that the Court considers relevant.

         (3)   The role of the intervener is solely to assist the Court in its task of resolving the issues raised by the parties.

         (4)   For subrule (3), assisting the Court includes suggesting witnesses to be called by the Court, but does not include filing pleadings, leading evidence or examining witnesses.

         (5)   When giving leave, the Court must specify the form of assistance to be given by the intervener and the manner of participation of the intervener, and, in particular, must specify:

                (a)    the matters that the intervener may raise; and

               (b)    whether the intervener’s submissions are to be oral, in writing, or both.

Order 7        Service

  

  

1              Originating process

         (1)   Subject to the provisions of this Order, originating process shall be served personally on each respondent.

         (2)   The copy for service shall be signed and sealed as mentioned in Order 4, rule 7.

         (3)   If a respondent to an originating process:

                (a)    enters an appearance; or

               (b)    files a defence; or

                (c)    appears before the Court in response to the process;

the originating process is taken to have been served on the respondent personally when the earliest of those events occurred, unless personal service on an earlier day is established.

2              Personal service: how effected

         (1)   Personal service of a document is effected on:

                (a)    an individual — by leaving a copy of the document with him;

               (b)    a corporation — by leaving a copy of the document with some person apparently an officer of or in the service of the corporation and apparently of or above the age of sixteen years:

                          (i)    at the registered office of the corporation; or

                         (ii)    if there is no registered office, at the principal place of business or the principal office of the corporation; and

                (c)    an unincorporated association — by leaving a copy of the document at the principal place of business or the principal office of the association with some person apparently an officer of or in the service of the association and apparently of or above the age of sixteen years; and

               (d)    an organisation — by leaving a copy of the document with a person apparently an officer of or in the service of the organisation and apparently of or above the age of 16 years at the office of the organisation shown in the records of the organisation lodged with Fair Work Australia under section 233 of the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

         (2)   If a person refuses to accept service of a document, personal service may be effected on him by putting the document down in his presence and telling him the nature of it.

         (3)   It shall not be necessary in order to effect personal service that the original document be shown.

         (4)   Despite subrule 2 (1), for the purposes of the Corporations Rules, personal service may be effected:

                (a)    on a company, as defined in section 9 of the Corporations Act 2001 (the Corporations Act), in any way permitted by section 109X of the Corporations Act; and

               (b)    on a liquidator of a company, in the way described in paragraph 109X (1) (c) of the Corporations Act; and

                (c)    on an administrator of a company, in the way described in paragraph 109X (1) (d) of the Corporations Act.

3              Mode of service

                A document which is not an originating process and which is required or permitted to be served in any proceeding may be served personally, but unless personal service is expressly required, it need not be served personally.

4              Ordinary service: how effected

         (1)   Where personal service of a document is not required, the document may be served:

                (a)    by leaving a copy of the document at the proper address of the person to be served between the hours of nine in the morning and five in the afternoon on any day on which the Registry in that State or Territory is open; or

               (b)    by sending a copy of the document by pre‑paid post addressed to the person to be served at his or her proper address; or

                (c)    where any enactment of the Commonwealth or of the State or Territory in which service is to be effected provides for service of a document on a corporation or organisation by serving the document in accordance with such provision; or

               (d)    if a person to be served has filed a notice for service at an exchange box of a solicitor under paragraph 7 (1) (a) of this Order — by leaving a copy of the document, addressed to that solicitor, in that exchange box; or

                (e)    if a person to be served has filed a notice for service by facsimile transmission under paragraph 7 (1) (b) of this Order — by sending the document to the facsimile number specified in the notice; or

                (f)    if a person to be served has filed a notice for service by electronic communication under paragraph 7 (1) (c) of this Order — by sending the document to the email address specified in the notice.

         (2)   For the purposes of subrule (1), the proper address of a person shall be the address for service of that person in the proceeding but if, at the time when the copy is left or posted pursuant to subrule (1), the person has no address for service in the proceeding, the person’s usual or last known place of business or of abode shall be the person’s proper address.

         (3)   The time of service of any document for the purpose of any proceeding shall, where the copy of the document:

                (a)    is sent by pre‑paid post in accordance with paragraph (1) (b) — be seven days after the copy is so sent; or

               (b)    is left in an exchange box in accordance with paragraph (1) (d) — be two days after the copy is so left; or

                (c)    is sent by facsimile transmission in accordance with paragraph (1) (e) — be one day after the copy is transmitted excluding Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays; or

               (d)    is sent by electronic communication in accordance with paragraph (1) (f) — be one day after the copy is sent.

         (4)   For paragraphs (3) (b), (c) and (d), mention of a day or days does not include a Saturday, Sunday or a public holiday.

4A           Service on principal solicitor

         (1)   Where personal service of a document is not required and the person to be served has a solicitor acting for him or her which solicitor has another solicitor as agent whose address is that person’s proper address the document may be served:

                (a)    by leaving a copy of the document at the address of the first‑named solicitor; or

               (b)    by sending a copy of the document by pre‑paid post addressed to the person to be served at the address of the first‑named solicitor; or

                (c)    where an appropriate notice has been given under rule 7 of this Order by leaving a copy of the document addressed to the first‑named solicitor at the exchange box of that solicitor; or

               (d)    by sending a copy of the document by facsimile transmission directed to the facsimile number operated at the premises of, or in connection with, the first‑named solicitor; or

                (e)    by sending a copy of the document by electronic communication directed to the email address of the first‑named solicitor.

         (2)   The time of service of any document for the purpose of any proceedings shall, where the copy of the document:

                (a)    is sent by pre‑paid post in accordance with paragraph (1) (b) — be 7 days after the copy is so sent; or

               (b)    is left in an exchange box in accordance with paragraph (1) (c) — be 2 days after the copy is so left; or

                (c)    is sent by facsimile transmission in accordance with paragraph (1) (d) — be one day after the copy is sent; or

               (d)    is sent by electronic communication in accordance with paragraph (1) (c) — be one day after the copy is sent.

         (3)   For paragraphs (2) (b), (c) and (d), mention of a day or days does not include a Saturday, Sunday or a public holiday.

5              Identity

                For the purposes of the proof of service, evidence of a statement by a person of his identity or that he holds some office is evidence of his identity or that he holds that office, as the case may be.

6              Address for service

         (1)   Unless the Court or a Judge otherwise orders, an address for service for a person must be the address of a place within Australia at which documents in the proceeding may, during ordinary business hours, be left for the person and to which documents in the proceeding may be posted to the person.

         (2)   If a person is represented by a solicitor, the address for service for the person must be the address of the solicitor or of the solicitor’s agent.

         (3)   A person may change his address for service by filing a notice of the change showing his new address for service.

         (4)   A person who files a notice of a change of his address for service shall, on the date of filing, serve the notice on each party to the proceedings.

7              Document exchange, facsimile number or email address — Form 12

         (1)   A person may, by filing a notice in accordance with Form 12, or by adding a notice to that effect to the person’s originating process (other than a cross‑claim) or notice of appearance, authorise that documents in the proceeding may be served on the person:

                (a)    if the person’s address for service is the office of a solicitor who uses the facilities of a document exchange — at the solicitor’s document exchange box specified in the notice; or

               (b)    by sending the documents to the facsimile number specified in the notice; or

                (c)    by sending the documents by electronic communication to the email address specified in the notice.

         (2)   A person may:

                (a)    change the particulars stated in the notice by filing a further notice showing the new particulars; or

               (b)    cancel the notice by filing a further notice to that effect.

         (3)   A person who files a notice under subrule (1) (other than a notice added to an originating process or a notice of appearance), a notice of change or notice of cancellation must, on the date of filing, serve the notice on each party to the proceeding.

         (4)   A change or cancellation of which notice is required to be served under this rule shall not be effective as between the person to be served and another party until the notice is filed and served on that other party.

8              Acceptance by solicitor

         (1)   This rule applies to:

                (a)    any originating process; and

               (b)    any document required or permitted to be served in any proceeding, but not required to be served personally.

         (2)   Where a solicitor makes on a copy of a document to which this rule applies a note that he accepts service of the document on behalf of any person, the document shall, unless he is shown not to have had authority to act for such person, be taken to have been duly served on that person on the date on which the solicitor makes the note or on such earlier date of service as may be proved.

9              Substituted service

         (1)   Where for any reason it is impractical to serve a document in the manner set out in the Rules, the Court may by motion in an existing proceeding made ex parte order that, instead of service, such steps be taken as are specified in the order for the purpose of bringing the document to the notice of the person to be served.

         (2)   Where the Court makes an order under subrule (1), the Court may order that the document be taken to have been served on the happening of any specified event, or on the expiry of any specified time.

10            Informal service: confirmation

                Where for any reason it is impractical to serve a document in the manner set out in the Rules, but steps have been taken to bring the document to the notice of the person to be served, the Court may order that the document be taken to have been served on that person on a date specified in the order.

11            Service by filing

         (1)   Unless the Court otherwise orders, the filing of a document has effect as service of the document on a person, if personal service is not required and:

                (a)    the person to be served:

                          (i)    is in default of appearance; or

                         (ii)    has entered an appearance but has no address for service in the proceeding; or

               (b)    there is proof of non‑delivery of the document, being a document sent by the Court to the person’s proper address.

         (2)   For paragraph (1) (b), the proper address of a person is:

                (a)    the address for service of the person in the proceeding; or

               (b)    if, when the document is left or posted the person has no address for service in the proceeding, the person’s last known place of business or of abode.

         (3)   Unless the Court otherwise orders, the filing of a document in a proceeding has effect as service of the document on a party to the proceeding if:

                (a)    personal service of the document is not required; and

               (b)    the party has not filed a new address for service in accordance with Order 45, rule 7A although:

                          (i)    the party has changed the solicitor acting for the party in the proceeding; or

                         (ii)    the principal solicitor acting for the party has changed the solicitor acting as the principal solicitor’s agent; or

                        (iii)    the party, having acted for him or herself in the proceeding, has appointed a solicitor to act for the party in the proceeding; or

                        (iv)    the party has determined the authority of the party’s solicitor to act for the party in the proceeding; or

                         (v)    the party’s solicitor has ceased to act for the party in the proceeding.

12            Notice etc by the Court

                Where, under the Rules or under an order, any notice or other document is to be given to or served on any party by the Court or any officer of the Court, the notice or document shall, unless the Rules otherwise provide or the Court otherwise orders, be sufficiently given or served in any manner in which a document not requiring personal service may be served under this Order.

13            Injunction: service

                Where the Court grants an interlocutory injunction, the party may serve notice of the injunction, if desired, by telegram or letter signed by or on behalf of the Registrar.

14            Service under contract

                Where a respondent in any proceeding has, before or after the commencement of the proceeding, agreed that originating process or any other document in the proceeding may be served on the respondent or on some other person on behalf of the respondent in a manner or at a place (whether in or outside the Commonwealth) specified in the agreement, service in accordance with the agreement shall be sufficient service on the respondent.

Order 8        Service outside Australia

  

Division 1              General

1              Definitions for Order 8

                In this Order, unless the contrary intention appears:

Attorney‑General’s Department means the Commonwealth Attorney‑General’s Department.

convention, in relation to a foreign country, means a convention (other than the Hague Convention), agreement, arrangement or treaty about service abroad of judicial documents to which the Crown in right of the Commonwealth or, where appropriate, in right of a State, and a foreign country are parties.

foreign country means a country other than Australia.

Hague Convention means the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters done at the Hague on 15 November 1965.

originating process means an application commencing a proceeding, and includes a cross‑claim in the proceeding against a person who was not previously a party to the proceeding.

2              When originating process may be served outside Australia

                Subject to rule 3, an originating process may be served on a person in a foreign country in a proceeding which consists of, or includes, any 1 or more of the kinds of proceeding mentioned in the following table:

 

Item

Kind of proceeding in which originating process may be served on a person outside Australia

1

Proceeding based on a cause of action arising in Australia

2

Proceeding based on a breach of a contract in Australia

3

Proceeding in relation to a contract that:

   (a)  is made in Australia; or

  (b)  is made on behalf of the person to be served by or through an agent who carries on business, or is resident, in Australia; or

   (c)  is governed by the law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory;

in which the applicant seeks:

  (d)  an order for the enforcement, rescission, dissolution, rectification or annulment of the contract; or

   (e)  an order otherwise affecting the contract; or

   (f)  an order for damages or other relief in relation to a breach of the contract

4

Proceeding based on a tort committed in Australia

5

Proceeding based on, or seeking the recovery of, damage suffered wholly or partly in Australia caused by a tortious act or omission (wherever occurring)

6

Proceeding seeking the construction, rectification, setting aside or enforcement of:

   (a)  a deed, will or other instrument; or

  (b)  a contract, obligation or liability;

affecting property in Australia

7

Proceeding seeking the execution of a trust governed by a law of the Commonwealth, or of a State or Territory, or any associated relief

8

Proceeding that affects the person to be served in relation to the person’s membership of a corporation that carries on business in Australia or is registered in a State or Territory as a foreign company

9

Proceeding in relation to an arbitration carried out in Australia

10

Proceeding in which the Court has jurisdiction, seeking relief in relation to the guardianship, protection, or care, welfare and development of a person under 18 years (whether or not the person is in Australia)

11

Proceeding based on a breach of a provision of an Act that is committed in Australia

12

Proceeding based on a breach of a provision of an Act (wherever occurring) seeking relief in relation to damage suffered wholly or partly in Australia

13

Proceeding in relation to the construction, effect or enforcement of an Act, regulations or any other instrument having, or purporting to have, effect under an Act

14

Proceeding in relation to the effect or enforcement of an executive, ministerial or administrative act done, or purporting to be done, under an Act, regulations or any other instrument having, or purporting to have, effect under an Act

15

Proceeding seeking contribution or indemnity in relation to a liability enforceable by a proceeding in the Court

16

Proceeding in which:

   (a)  the person to be served is domiciled or ordinarily resident in Australia; or

  (b)  if the person is a corporation, the corporation is incorporated in Australia, carries on business in Australia or is registered in a State or Territory as a foreign company

17

Proceeding in which the person to be served has submitted to the jurisdiction of the Court

18

Proceeding properly brought against a person who is served, or is to be served, in Australia, if the person to be served has been properly joined as a party

19

Proceeding in which the subject matter, so far as it concerns the person to be served, is property in Australia

20

Proceeding seeking the perpetuation of testimony in relation to property in Australia

21

Proceeding seeking an injunction ordering a person to do, or to refrain from doing, anything in Australia (whether or not damages are also sought)

22

Proceeding affecting the person to be served in relation to:

   (a)  the person’s membership of, or office in, a corporation incorporated, or carrying on business, in Australia; or

  (b)  the person’s membership of, or office in, an association or organisation formed, or carrying on business, in Australia; or

   (c)  the person’s conduct as a member or officer of such a corporation, association or organisation

3              Application for leave to serve originating process outside Australia

         (1)   Service of an originating process on a person in a foreign country is effective for the purpose of a proceeding only if:

                (a)    the Court has given leave under subrule (2) before the application is served; or

               (b)    the Court confirms the service under subrule (5); or

                (c)    the person served waives any objection to the service by entering an appearance in the proceeding.

         (2)   The Court may give leave to a party to serve an originating process on a person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of the foreign country, on such terms and conditions as it considers appropriate, if the Court is satisfied that:

                (a)    the Court has jurisdiction in the proceeding; and

               (b)    the proceeding is of a kind mentioned in rule 2; and

                (c)    the person seeking leave has a prima facie case for all or any of the relief claimed by the person in the proceeding.

Note 1   The law of a foreign country may permit service through the diplomatic channel or service by a private agent.

Note 2   Order 8A, Division 2 deals with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

         (3)   The evidence on an application for leave under subrule (2) must include the following:

                (a)    the name of the foreign country where the person to be served is or is likely to be;

               (b)    the proposed method of service;

                (c)    a statement that the proposed method of service is permitted by:

                          (i)    if a convention applies — the convention; or

                         (ii)    if the Hague Convention applies — the Hague Convention; or

                        (iii)    in any other case — the law of the foreign country.

         (4)   Nothing in this rule prevents the Court from giving leave to a person to give notice, in a foreign country, of a proceeding in the Court on the basis that giving the notice takes the place of serving the originating process in the proceeding.

         (5)   If an originating process was served on a person in a foreign country without the leave of the Court, the Court may, by order, confirm the service if the Court is satisfied that:

                (a)    paragraphs (2) (a), (b) and (c) apply to the proceeding; and

               (b)    the service was permitted by:

                          (i)    if a convention applies — the convention; or

                         (ii)    if the Hague Convention applies — the Hague Convention; or

                        (iii)    in any other case — the law of the foreign country; and

                (c)    the failure to apply for leave is sufficiently explained.

4              Service of other documents

         (1)   The Court may give leave to a party to serve a document issued by the Court (other than an originating process) on a person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or the law of the foreign country, on such terms and conditions as it considers appropriate.

Note 1   The law of a foreign country may permit service through the diplomatic channel or service by a private agent.

Note 2   Order 8A, Division 2 deals with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

         (2)   The evidence on an application for leave under subrule (1) must include the information mentioned in paragraphs 3 (3) (a) to (c).

         (3)   If a document (other than an originating process) was served on a person in a foreign country without the leave of the Court, the Court may confirm the service if the Court is satisfied that:

                (a)    the service was permitted by:

                          (i)    if a convention applies — the convention; or

                         (ii)    if the Hague Convention applies — the Hague Convention; or

                        (iii)    in any other case — the law of the foreign country.

               (b)    the failure to apply for leave is sufficiently explained.

5              Application of other rules

                The other Orders of these Rules apply to service of a document on a person in a foreign country in the same way as they apply to service on a person in Australia, so far as they are:

                (a)    relevant and not inconsistent with this Order; and

               (b)    not inconsistent with:

                          (i)    if a convention applies — the convention; or

                         (ii)    if the Hague Convention applies — the Hague Convention; or

                        (iii)    in any other case — the law of the foreign country.

6              Method of service

                A document that is to be served on a person in a foreign country need not be served personally on the person if it is served on the person in accordance with the law of the foreign country.

7              Substituted service

         (1)   This rule applies if an official certificate or declaration (whether made on oath or otherwise) is sent to the Court by the government or a court of a foreign country stating that attempts to serve a document on a person in the foreign country, in accordance with a convention, the Hague Convention or through the diplomatic channel, have not been successful.

         (2)   On application by the person seeking service, the Court may order such steps be taken, as are specified in an order, for the purpose of bringing the document to the notice of the person to be served.

         (3)   If the Court makes an order under subrule (2), the Court may order that a document is taken to have been served when a specified event happens or on the expiry of a specified time.

8              Proof of service

         (1)   This rule does not apply to a document served in accordance with the Hague Convention.

Note   Order 8A, Division 2 deals with service of local judicial documents in a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

         (2)   An official certificate or declaration (whether made on oath or otherwise) stating that a document has been personally served on a person in a foreign country, or served on the person in another way in accordance with the law of the foreign country, is sufficient proof of the service of the document.

         (3)   If filed, the certificate or declaration:

                (a)    is taken to be a record of the service of the document; and

               (b)    has effect as if it were an affidavit of service.

Division 2              Service through the diplomatic channel or by transmission to a foreign government

9              Documents to be lodged with the Court

         (1)   This rule applies if a person has been given leave to serve a document on a person in a foreign country:

                (a)    through the diplomatic channel; or

               (b)    by transmission to a foreign government in accordance with a convention (the relevant convention).

Note   This rule does not apply if a person has been given leave to serve a document on a person in a foreign country that is a party to the Hague Convention. Service in a foreign country that is a party to the Hague Convention is dealt with in Order 8A, Division 2.

         (2)   The person given leave must lodge in the District Registry:

                (a)    a request for service in accordance with Form 14A; and

               (b)    a request for transmission in accordance with Form 14B; and

                (c)    a written undertaking by the person, or the person’s lawyer, to pay to the Registrar the amount of the expenses incurred by the Court in giving effect to the person’s request; and

               (d)    2 copies (or such other number of copies as may be required by the relevant convention) of each document to be served; and

                (e)    if necessary, a translation into an official language of the foreign country (including a statement by the translator attesting to the accuracy of the translation) of the following:

                          (i)    the request for transmission mentioned in paragraph (b);

                         (ii)    each document to be served.

10            Order for payment of expenses

         (1)   This rule applies if:

                (a)    a person files an undertaking under paragraph 9 (2) (c) in relation to a request for service on a person in a foreign country in accordance with a convention or through the diplomatic channel; and

               (b)    the person does not, within 14 days after being sent an account for expenses incurred in relation to the request, pay to the Registrar the amount of the expenses.

         (2)   On application by the Registrar, the Court may:

                (a)    order the person to pay the amount of the expenses to the Registrar; and

               (b)    stay the proceeding, so far as it concerns the whole or any part of a claim for relief by the person, until the amount of the expenses is paid.

Order 8A      Service under the Hague Convention

  

Division 1              Preliminary

Note 1   This Order forms part of a scheme to implement Australia’s obligations under the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters. Under the Convention, the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth is designated as the Central Authority (under Article 2 of the Convention) and certain courts and government departments are, for certain purposes, designated as  ‘other ‘ or  ‘additional ‘ authorities (under Article 18 of the Convention).

Note 2    This Order provides (in Division 2) for service in overseas Convention countries of local judicial documents (documents that relate to proceedings in the Court) and (in Division 3) for default judgment in proceedings in the Court after service overseas of such a document. Division 4, on the other hand, deals with service by the Court or arranged by the Court in its role as an other or additional authority, of judicial documents emanating from overseas Convention countries.

Note 3    The Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth maintains a copy of the Convention, a list of all Convention countries, details of declarations and objections made under the Convention by each of those countries and the names and addresses of the Central and other authorities of each of those countries. A copy of the Convention can be found at http://www.hcch.net.

1              Definitions for Order 8A

                In this Order:

additional authority, for a Convention country, means an authority that is:

                (a)    for the time being designated by the country, under Article 18 of the Hague Convention, to be an authority (other than the Central Authority) for the country; and

               (b)    competent to receive requests for service abroad emanating from Australia.

applicant, for a request for service abroad or a request for service in this jurisdiction, means the person on whose behalf service is requested.

Note   The term applicant may have a different meaning in other provisions of these Rules.

Central Authority, for a Convention country, means an authority that is for the time being designated by that country, under Article 2 of the Hague Convention, to be the Central Authority for that country.

certificate of service means a certificate of service that has been completed for the purposes of Article 6 of the Hague Convention.

certifying authority, for a Convention country, means the Central Authority for the country or some other authority that is for the time being designated by the country, under Article 6 of the Hague Convention, to complete certificates of service in the form annexed to the Hague Convention.

civil proceedings means any judicial proceedings in relation to civil or commercial matters.

Convention country means a country, other than Australia, that is a party to the Hague Convention.

defendant, for a request for service abroad of an initiating process, means the person on whom the initiating process is requested to be served.

foreign judicial document means a judicial document that originates in a Convention country and relates to civil proceedings in a court of that country.

forwarding authority means:

                (a)    for a request for service of a foreign judicial document in this jurisdiction — the authority or judicial officer of the Convention country in which the document originates that forwards the request (being an authority or judicial officer that is competent under the law of that country to forward a request for service under Article 3 of the Hague Convention); or

               (b)    for a request for service of a local judicial document in a Convention country — the Registrar.

Hague Convention means the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters done at the Hague on 15 November 1965.

initiating process means any document by which proceedings (including proceedings on any cross‑claim or third party notice) are commenced.

local judicial document means a judicial document that relates to civil proceedings in the Court.

request for service abroad means a request for service in a Convention country of a local judicial document mentioned in subrule 4 (1).

request for service in this jurisdiction means a request for service in this jurisdiction of a foreign judicial document mentioned in subrule 13 (1).

this jurisdiction means Australia.

2              Provisions of this Order to prevail

                The provisions of this Order prevail to the extent of any inconsistency between those provisions and any other provisions of these Rules.

Division 2              Service abroad of local judicial documents

3              Application of Division

         (1)   Subject to subrule (2), this Division applies to service in a Convention country of a local judicial document.

         (2)   This Division does not apply if service of the document is effected, without application of any compulsion, by an Australian diplomatic or consular agent mentioned in Article 8 of the Hague Convention.

4              Application for request for service abroad

         (1)   A person may apply to the Registrar, in the Registrar’s capacity as a forwarding authority, for a request for service in a Convention country of a local judicial document.

         (2)   The application must be accompanied by 3 copies of each of the following documents:

                (a)    a draft request for service abroad, which must be in accordance with Part 1 of Form 14D;

               (b)    the document to be served;

                (c)    a summary of the document to be served, which must be in accordance with Form 14E;

               (d)    if, under Article 5 of the Hague Convention, the Central Authority or any additional authority of the country to which the request is addressed requires the document to be served to be written in, or translated into, an official language or one of the official languages of that country, a translation into that language of both the document to be served and the summary of the document to be served.

         (3)   The application must contain a written undertaking to the Court, signed by the legal practitioner on the record for the applicant in the proceedings to which the local judicial document relates or, if there is no legal practitioner on the record for the applicant in the proceedings, by the applicant:

                (a)    to be personally liable for all costs that are incurred:

                          (i)    by the employment of a person to serve the documents to be served, being a person who is qualified to do so under the law of the Convention country in which the documents are to be served; or

                         (ii)    by the use of any particular method of service that has been requested by the applicant for the service of the documents to be served; and

               (b)    to pay the amount of those costs to the Registrar within 28 days after receipt from the Registrar of a notice specifying the amount of those costs under subrule 6 (3); and

                (c)    to give such security for those costs as the Registrar may require.

         (4)   The draft request for service abroad:

                (a)    must be completed (except for signature) by the applicant; and

               (b)    must state whether (if the time fixed for entering an appearance in the proceedings to which the local judicial document relates expires before service is effected) the applicant wants service to be attempted after the expiry of that time; and

                (c)    must be addressed to the Central Authority, or to an additional authority, for the Convention country in which the person is to be served; and

               (d)    may state that the applicant requires a certificate of service that is completed by an additional authority to be countersigned by the Central Authority.

         (5)   Any translation required under subrule (2) (d) must bear a certificate (in both English and the language used in the translation) signed by the translator stating:

                (a)    that the translation is an accurate translation of the documents to be served; and

               (b)    the translator’s full name and address and his or her qualifications for making the translation.

5              How application to be dealt with

         (1)   If satisfied that the application and its accompanying documents comply with rule 4, the Registrar:

                (a)    must sign the request for service abroad; and

               (b)    must forward 2 copies of the relevant documents:

                          (i)    if the applicant has asked for the request to be forwarded to a nominated additional authority for the Convention country in which service of the document is to be effected — to the nominated additional authority; or

                         (ii)    in any other case — to the Central Authority for the Convention country in which service of the document is to be effected.

         (2)   The relevant documents mentioned in subrule (1) (b) are the following:

                (a)    the request for service abroad (duly signed);

               (b)    the document to be served;

                (c)    the summary of the document to be served;

               (d)    if required under paragraph 4 (2) (d), a translation into the relevant language of each of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (b) and (c).

         (3)   If not satisfied that the application or any of its accompanying documents complies with rule 4, the Registrar must inform the applicant of the respects in which the application or document fails to comply.

6              Procedure on receipt of certificate of service

         (1)   Subject to subrule (5), on receipt of a certificate of service in due form in relation to a local judicial document to which a request for service abroad relates, the Registrar:

                (a)    must arrange for the original certificate to be filed in the proceedings to which the document relates; and

               (b)    must send a copy of the certificate to:

                          (i)    the legal practitioner on the record for the applicant in the proceedings; or

                         (ii)    if there is no legal practitioner on the record for the applicant in the proceedings — the applicant.

         (2)   For the purposes of subrule (1), a certificate of service is in due form if:

                (a)    it is in accordance with Part 2 of Form 14D; and

               (b)    it has been completed by a certifying authority for the Convention country in which service was requested; and

                (c)    if the applicant requires a certificate of service that is completed by an additional authority to be countersigned by the Central Authority, it has been so countersigned.

         (3)   On receipt of a statement of costs in due form in relation to the service of a local judicial document mentioned in subrule (1), the Registrar must send to the legal practitioner or applicant who gave the undertaking mentioned in subrule 4 (3) a notice specifying the amount of those costs.

         (4)   For the purposes of subrule (3), a statement of costs is in due form if:

                (a)    it relates only to costs of a kind mentioned in paragraph 4 (3) (a); and

               (b)    it has been completed by a certifying authority for the Convention country in which service was requested.

         (5)   Subrule (1) does not apply unless:

                (a)    adequate security to cover the costs mentioned in subrule (3) has been given under paragraph 4 (3) (c); or

               (b)    to the extent to which the security so given is inadequate to cover those costs, an amount equal to the amount by which those costs exceed the security so given has been paid to the Registrar.

7              Payment of costs

         (1)   On receipt of a notice under subrule 6 (3) in relation to the costs of service, the legal practitioner or applicant, as the case may be, must pay to the Registrar the amount specified in the notice as the amount of the costs.

         (2)   If the legal practitioner or applicant fails to pay that amount within 28 days after receiving the notice:

                (a)    except by leave of the Court, the applicant may not take any further step in the proceedings to which the local judicial document relates until the costs are paid to the Registrar; and

               (b)    the Registrar may take such steps as are appropriate to enforce the undertaking for payment of the costs.

8              Evidence of service

                A certificate of service in relation to a local judicial document (being a certificate in due form within the meaning of subrule 6 (2)) that certifies that service of the document was effected on a specified date is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, sufficient proof that:

                (a)    service of the document was effected by the method specified in the certificate on that date; and

               (b)    if that method of service was requested by the applicant, that method is compatible with the law in force in the Convention country in which service was effected.

Division 3              Default judgment following service abroad of initiating process

9              Application of Division

                This Division applies to civil proceedings for which an initiating process has been forwarded following a request for service abroad to the Central Authority (or to an additional authority) for a Convention country.

10            Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service filed

         (1)   This rule applies if:

                (a)    a certificate of service of initiating process has been filed in the proceedings (being a certificate in due form (within the meaning of subrule 6 (2)) that states that service has been duly effected; and

               (b)    the defendant has not appeared or filed a notice of address for service.

         (2)   In circumstances to which this rule applies, default judgment may not be given against the defendant unless the Court is satisfied that:

                (a)    the initiating process was served on the defendant:

                          (i)    by a method of service prescribed by the internal law of the Convention country for the service of documents in domestic proceedings on persons who are within its territory; or

                         (ii)    if the applicant requested a particular method of service (being a method under which the document was actually delivered to the defendant or to his or her residence) and that method is compatible with the law in force in the country, by that method; or

                        (iii)    if the applicant did not request a particular method of service, in circumstances where the defendant accepted the document voluntarily; and

               (b)    the initiating process was served in sufficient time to enable the defendant to enter an appearance in the proceedings.

         (3)   In paragraph (2) (b), sufficient time means:

                (a)    42 days from the date specified in the certificate of service in relation to the initiating process as the date on which service of the process was effected; or

               (b)    such lesser time as the Court considers, in the circumstances, to be a sufficient time to enable the defendant to enter an appearance in the proceedings.

11            Restriction on power to enter default judgment if certificate of service not filed

         (1)   This rule applies if:

                (a)    a certificate of service of initiating process has not been filed in the proceedings; or

               (b)    a certificate of service of initiating process has been filed in the proceedings (being a certificate in due form within the meaning of subrule 6 (2)) that states that service has not been effected;

and the defendant has not appeared or filed a notice of address for service.

         (2)   If this rule applies, default judgment may not be given against the defendant unless the Court is satisfied that:

                (a)    the initiating process was forwarded to the Central Authority, or to an additional authority, for the Convention country in which service of the initiating process was requested; and

               (b)    a period that is adequate in the circumstances (being a period of not less than 6 months) has elapsed since the date on which initiating process was so forwarded; and

                (c)    every reasonable effort has been made:

                          (i)    to obtain a certificate of service from the relevant certifying authority; or

                         (ii)    to effect service of the initiating process;

                        as the case requires.

12            Setting aside judgment in default of appearance

         (1)   This rule applies if default judgment has been entered against the defendant in proceedings to which this Division applies.

         (2)   If this rule applies, the Court may set aside the judgment on the application of the defendant if it is satisfied that the defendant:

                (a)    without any fault on the defendant’s part, did not have knowledge of the initiating process in sufficient time to defend the proceedings; and

               (b)    has a prima facie defence to the proceedings on the merits.

         (3)   An application to have a judgment set aside under this rule may be filed:

                (a)    at any time within 12 months after the date on which the judgment was given; or

               (b)    after the expiry of that 12‑month period, within such time after the defendant acquires knowledge of the judgment as the Court considers reasonable in the circumstances.

         (4)   Nothing in this rule affects any other power of the Court to set aside or vary a judgment.

Division 4              Local service of foreign judicial documents

13            Application of Division

         (1)   This Division applies to service in this jurisdiction of a foreign judicial document in relation to which a due form of request for service has been forwarded to the Court:

                (a)    by the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth, whether in the first instance or following a referral under rule 14; or

               (b)    by a forwarding authority.

         (2)   Subject to subrule (3), a request for service in this jurisdiction is in due form if it is in accordance with Part 1 of Form 14D and is accompanied by the following documents:

                (a)    the document to be served;

               (b)    a summary of the document to be served, which must be in accordance with Form 14E;

                (c)    a copy of the request and of each of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b);

               (d)    if either of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) is not in the English language, an English translation of the document.

         (3)   Any translation required under paragraph (2) (d) must bear a certificate (in English) signed by the translator stating:

                (a)    that the translation is an accurate translation of the document; and

               (b)    the translator’s full name and address and his or her qualifications for making the translation.

14            Certain documents to be referred back to the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth

                If, after receiving a request for service in this jurisdiction, the Registrar is of the opinion:

                (a)    that the request does not comply with rule 13; or

               (b)    that the document to which the request relates is not a foreign judicial document; or

                (c)    that compliance with the request may infringe Australia’s sovereignty or security;

the Registrar must refer the request to the Attorney‑General’s Department of the Commonwealth together with a statement of his or her opinion.

Note   The Attorney General’s Department of the Commonwealth will deal with misdirected and non‑compliant requests, make arrangements for the service of extrajudicial documents and assess and decide questions concerning Australia’s sovereignty and security.

15            Service

         (1)   Subject to rule 14, on receipt of a request for service in this jurisdiction, the Court must arrange for the service of the relevant documents in accordance with the request.

         (2)   The relevant documents mentioned in subrule (1) are the following:

                (a)    the document to be served;

               (b)    a summary of the document to be served;

                (c)    a copy of the request for service in this jurisdiction;

               (d)    if either of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) is not in the English language, an English translation of the document.

         (3)   Service of the relevant documents may be effected by any of the following methods of service:

                (a)    by a method of service prescribed by the law in force in this jurisdiction:

                          (i)    for the service of a document of a kind corresponding to the document to be served; or

                         (ii)    if there is no such corresponding kind of document — for the service of initiating process in proceedings in the Court;

               (b)    if the applicant has requested a particular method of service and that method is compatible with the law in force in this jurisdiction — by that method;

                (c)    if the applicant has not requested a particular method of service and the person requested to be served accepts the document voluntarily — by delivery of the document to the person requested to be served.

16            Affidavit as to service

         (1)   If service of a document has been effected pursuant to a request for service in this jurisdiction, the person by whom service has been effected must lodge with the Court an affidavit specifying:

                (a)    the time, day of the week and date on which the document was served; and

               (b)    the place where the document was served; and

                (c)    the method of service; and

               (d)    the person on whom the document was served; and

                (e)    the way in which that person was identified.

         (2)   If attempts to serve a document pursuant to a request for service in this jurisdiction have failed, the person by whom service has been attempted must lodge with the Court an affidavit specifying:

                (a)    details of the attempts made to serve the document; and

               (b)    the reasons that have prevented service.

         (3)   When an affidavit as to service of a document has been lodged in accordance with this rule, the Registrar:

                (a)    must complete a certificate of service, sealed with the seal of the Court, on the reverse side of, or attached to, the request for service in this jurisdiction; and

               (b)    must forward the certificate of service, together with a statement as to the costs incurred in relation to the service or attempted service of the document, directly to the forwarding authority from which the request was received.

         (4)   A certificate of service must be:

                (a)    in accordance with Part 2 of Form 14D; or

               (b)    if a form or certificate that substantially corresponds to Part 2 of Form 14D accompanies the request for service, in that accompanying form.

Order 9        Appearance

  

  

1              Appearance by solicitor or in person

         (1)   A respondent may enter an appearance and may defend a proceeding by a solicitor or in person.

         (2)   Where a respondent is a person under disability subrule (1) has effect subject to Order 43.

         (3)   Notwithstanding subrule (1) and subject to any Act, a corporation may not without the leave of the Court or a Judge enter an appearance or defend any proceeding except by a solicitor.

         (4)   For the purposes of this Order respondent includes a person who is required to enter an appearance but is not named as a respondent.

2              Time for appearance

         (1)   Subject to these Rules a respondent shall enter an appearance before the date appointed for a directions hearing and before filing any document.

         (2)   Notwithstanding subrule (1) a respondent who has not entered an appearance by the date appointed for a directions hearing, may enter an appearance after that date without leave.

3              Mode of entry

         (1)   An appearance shall be entered by filing a notice of appearance in accordance with Form 15.

         (2)   Two or more persons entering an appearance by the same solicitor on the same date may do so by a single notice of appearance.

         (3)   The date of entry of an appearance shall be the date when notice of the appearance is received in the Registry.

         (4)   On the filing of the notice of appearance, the Registrar must:

                (a)    affix the stamp of the Court to the notice and to any copies of the notice; and

               (b)    write the date when the stamp has been affixed on the notice and on any other copies; and

                (c)    return the documents to the person entering the appearance.

4              Notice of appearance

         (1)   A notice of appearance shall show:

                (a)    the name and address of the person entering the appearance;

               (b)    where the person entering the appearance appears by a solicitor, the name, address and telephone number of the solicitor;

                (c)    where the person entering the appearance appears by a solicitor and that solicitor has another solicitor as agent for him in the proceeding, the name, address and telephone number of the agent; and

               (d)    an address for service in accordance with rule 6 of Order 7.

         (2)   Where an address shown in a notice of appearance by which a respondent enters an appearance is not genuine, the applicant may, with the leave of the Court, continue the proceeding as if the appearance had not been entered.

5              Service of appearance

                A respondent shall, upon receiving the copies of the notice of appearance stamped with the stamp of the Registry, forthwith serve on the applicant at his place for service one of the copies so received.

6              Conditional appearance

         (1)   A respondent may enter a conditional appearance.

         (2)   A conditional appearance shall have effect for all purposes as an unconditional appearance, unless the Court otherwise orders or the respondent applies under and in accordance with rule 7 and the Court makes an order under that rule.

7              Setting aside originating process etc

         (1)   The Court may make an order:

                (a)    setting aside an originating process; or

               (b)    setting aside the service of an originating process on the respondent; or

                (c)    declaring that an originating process has not been duly served on the respondent; or

               (d)    discharging any order giving leave to serve an originating process outside Australia or confirming service of an originating process outside Australia.

         (2)   A respondent applying for an order under subrule (1) must file and serve the notice of motion:

                (a)    before the respondent enters an appearance; or

               (b)    within 14 days after the respondent enters a conditional appearance.

Order 10      Directions hearing

 

Note   Order 35A deals with the procedure on default.

  

  

1              Directions hearing — general

         (1)   On a directions hearing the Court shall give such directions with respect to the conduct of the proceeding as it thinks proper.

      (1A)   In any proceeding which is to be heard by a Full Court, whether in the original or appellate jurisdiction, such directions as is thought proper with respect to the conduct of the proceeding may be given by the Court constituted by a single Judge.

         (2)   Without prejudice to the generality of subrule (1) or (1A) the Court may:

                (a)    make orders with respect to:

                          (i)    discovery and inspection of documents;

                         (ii)    interrogatories;

                        (iii)    inspections of real or personal property;

                        (iv)    admissions of fact or of documents;

                         (v)    the defining of the issues by pleadings or otherwise;

                        (vi)    the standing of affidavits as pleadings;

                       (vii)    the joinder of parties;

                      (viii)    the mode and sufficiency of service;

                        (ix)    amendments;

                         (x)    cross‑claims;

                        (xi)    the filing of affidavits;

                       (xii)    the giving of particulars;

                      (xiii)    the place, time and mode of hearing;

                      (xiv)    the giving of evidence at the hearing, including whether evidence of witnesses in chief shall be given orally or by affidavit, or both;

                       (xv)    the disclosure of reports of experts;

                      (xvi)    costs;

                     (xvii)    the filing and exchange of signed statements of evidence of intended witnesses and their use in evidence at the hearing;

                    (xviii)    the taking of evidence and receipt of submissions
by video link, or audio link, or electronic communication, or such other means as the Court considers appropriate;

                      (xix)    the proportion in which the parties are to bear
the costs (if any) of taking evidence or making submissions in accordance with a direction under subparagraph (xviii); and

                       (xx)    the use of mediation, arbitration or an alternative dispute resolution process to assist in the conduct and resolution of all or part of the proceeding.

              (aa)    where, in any proceeding commenced in respect of any alleged or threatened breach of a provision of Part IV of the Trade Practices Act 1974, an order pursuant to section 80 of that Act is sought, direct that notice be given of the order sought by public advertisement or in such other form as the Court directs;

               (b)    notwithstanding that the application is supported by a statement of claim, order that the proceeding continue on affidavits;

                (c)    order that evidence of a particular fact or facts be given at the hearing:

                          (i)    by statement on oath upon information and belief;

                         (ii)    by production of documents or entries in books;

                        (iii)    by copies of documents or entries; or

                        (iv)    otherwise as the Court directs;

              (ca)    order that an agreed bundle of documents be prepared by the parties;

            (cab)    direct that the parties give consideration to jointly instructing an expert to provide to the parties a report of the expert’s opinion in relation to a particular issue or issues in the proceeding, on the basis that the parties concerned will be jointly responsible to pay the expert’s fees and expenses;

               (d)    order, under paragraph 37P (3) (c) of the Act, that no more than a specified number of expert witnesses may be called;

             (da)    order that the reports of experts be exchanged;

                (e)    appoint a court expert in accordance with Order 34, rule 2;

                (f)    direct that the proceeding be transferred to a place at which there is a Registry other than the then proper place. Where the proceeding is so transferred, the Registrar at the proper place from which the proceeding is transferred shall transmit all documents in his charge relating to the proceeding to the Registrar at the proper place to which the proceeding is transferred;

               (g)    order, under section 53A of the Act, that proceedings, a part of proceedings or a matter arising out of proceedings be referred to a mediator, arbitrator or a person suitable to conduct an alternative dispute resolution process;

               (h)    order that the parties attend before a Registrar for a conference with a view to satisfying the Registrar that all reasonable steps to achieve a negotiated outcome of the proceedings have been taken, or otherwise clarifying the real issues in dispute so that appropriate directions may be made for the disposition of the matter, or otherwise to shorten the time taken in preparation for and at the trial;

                (i)    in a case in which the Court considers it appropriate, direct the parties to attend a case management conference with a Judge or Registrar to consider the most economic and efficient means of bringing the proceedings to trial and of conducting the trial, at which conference the Judge or Registrar may give further directions;

                (j)    in proceedings in which a party seeks to rely on the opinion of a person involving a subject in which the person has specialist qualifications, direct that all or part of such opinion be received by way of submission in such manner and form as the Court may think fit, whether or not the opinion would be admissible as evidence.

         (3)   The Court may revoke or vary any order made under (1), (1A) or (2).

         (4)   Paragraph (aa) of subrule (2) does not limit the power of the Court to direct at any stage of the proceeding that such notice be given.

2              Fixing of date

         (1)   On the directions hearing the Court may:

                (a)    fix a date for a further directions hearing;

               (b)    fix a date for trial;

                (c)    direct the parties to arrange with the Registrar a date for trial;

               (d)    fix a date after which either party may request a date for trial; or

                (e)    stand the matter out of the list.

3              Determination of proceeding

                If the Court thinks fit and the parties agree, the Court may hear and determine the proceeding on a directions hearing.

4              Motion for summary judgment, stay or dismissal

         (1)   A party may, at the directions hearing, move for:

                (a)    an order under Order 20, rule 4 or 5; or

               (b)    judgment under Order 20, rule 2 or section 31A of the Act.

         (2)   The party must serve notice of the motion on each other party to the proceeding at least 3 days before the directions hearing.

         (3)   The Court may dispense with service under subrule (2).

5              Interlocutory orders

                On a directions hearing, each party shall, so far as is practicable, apply for any interlocutory order or directions which he may require.

6              Motion on notice

                A party may move on notice for any interlocutory order or directions not made at the directions hearing appointed in the application.

9              Use of recording device or communication device in place where hearing taking place

         (1)   In this rule:

communication device includes a mobile telephone, audio link, video link and any other electronic communication equipment.

recording device means a device that is capable of being used to record images or sound (including a camera, tape recorder, video recorder, mobile telephone and digital audio recorder).

         (2)   Except with the leave of the Court or a Judge, a person must not use a communication device or recording device in a place where a hearing is taking place.

         (3)   An application for leave under subrule (2) may be made to the Court or a Judge at any time before the date of the hearing in which the communication device or recording device is sought to be used.

         (4)   The Court or a Judge may:

                (a)    grant leave under subrule (2) subject to any conditions that the Court or Judge considers appropriate; and

               (b)    either generally or in relation to a particular part of a hearing:

                          (i)    withdraw such leave; or

                         (ii)    impose new conditions or vary or remove any existing conditions to which such leave is subject.

         (5)   In considering whether to grant leave under subrule (2) for the use of a communication device or recording device, the Court or a Judge may have regard to any relevant matter including the following:

                (a)    whether the person seeking leave has a reasonable need to use the device in relation to the hearing;

               (b)    if a direction has been given excluding one or more witnesses from the Court, the risk that the device could be used for the purpose of briefing a witness out of court;

                (c)    any possibility that use of the device would disturb the hearing or distract or cause concern to a witness or other participant in the hearing.

         (6)   This rule does not prevent:

                (a)    the making of, or the use of a recording device for the purpose of making, an official transcript of a hearing; or

               (b)    the use of a communication device for the purpose of allowing a person to appear before, or make a submission to, the Court or a Judge.

         (7)   This rule does not limit the powers of the Court to punish for contempt.

Order 10A    Cross‑vesting

  

  

1              Interpretation

                In this Order:

the Act means the Jurisdiction of Courts (Cross‑vesting) Act 1987 of the Commonwealth.

cross‑vesting law means any law of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory (including the Act) relating to the cross‑vesting of jurisdiction.

special federal matter has the same meaning as in the Act.

2              Application of order

                The other Orders of the Rules apply to proceedings referred to in this Order in so far as they are not inconsistent with the Rules contained in it.

3              Application under the Act

         (1)   An application under the Act for transfer of proceedings shall be made by motion.

         (2)   The heading of the notice of motion shall refer to the Act.

4              Applications for transfer of proceedings

         (1)   An application under the Act for the transfer of proceedings shall be heard and determined by a Judge.

         (2)   If an application for the transfer of proceedings is made by the Attorney‑General of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory, the Attorney‑General does not, by reason of the application, become a party to the proceedings in respect of which the application is made.

5              Proceedings in which jurisdiction under cross‑vesting laws is or may be invoked

         (1)   If a party to a proceeding proposes to invoke a jurisdiction arising under a cross‑vesting law, or relies on a cross‑vesting law in any other way:

                (a)    the statement of claim or the affidavit accompanying the application or a subsequent pleading (in each instance hereinafter called the pleading) shall include a statement of the provision on which the party relies, of the claim in relation to which the party relies on it and of the grounds on which the party relies on it; and

               (b)    the party shall seek directions as soon as practicable on whether the proceeding should be transferred under the Act.

         (2)   If a pleading raises a question involving a special federal matter, the pleading shall identify the special federal matter as such and state the grounds on which it is a special federal matter.

6              Proceedings transferred under cross‑vesting laws

         (1)   On the transfer of proceedings by the court under the Act the Registrar shall send to the proper officer of the Court to which the proceedings are transferred all documents filed and orders made in the proceedings.

         (2)   On the transfer of proceedings to the court under a cross‑vesting law the proper officer shall enter and number the documents received in respect of those proceedings so that the proceedings are distinguished by year of filing and number.

         (3)   On the transfer of proceedings to the court under a cross‑vesting law the plaintiff or applicant (as the case may be) shall make an application for directions as soon as practicable.

7              Conduct of proceedings

         (1)   If the law of a State or Territory may be applied under paragraph 11 (1) (b) of the Act in determining a right of action arising under a written law of that State or Territory, the pleading must identify the right of action and the written law under which it arises.

         (2)   If a party proposed to claim that the law of a State or Territory should be applied under paragraph 11 (1) (b) of the Act or that rules of evidence and procedure other than those of the Court should be applied under paragraph 11 (1) (c) of the Act:

                (a)    the party must seek directions on that matter before the proceedings are set down for trial;

               (b)    the Court may at any time give directions in relation to such matter and may revoke or vary any direction given by it in relation to any such matter.

Order 11      Pleadings

  

Division 1              General

1              Paragraphs — Form 7

                Where a pleading alleges or otherwise deals with several matters:

                (a)    the pleading shall be divided into paragraphs;

               (b)    each matter shall, so far as convenient, be put in a separate paragraph; and

                (c)    the paragraphs shall be numbered consecutively.

1A           Pleading to include name of person who prepared it

                A pleading must:

                (a)    set out the name of the person who prepared the pleading; and

               (b)    include a statement by the person that the person prepared the pleading.

1B           Pleading prepared by lawyer

         (1)   If a pleading is prepared by a lawyer representing a party, the pleading must, when filed, be accompanied by a certificate in accordance with Form 15B signed by the lawyer.

         (2)   The certificate required by subrule (1) may be incorporated in the pleading that is being certified.

2              Facts not evidence

                Subject to these Rules:

                (a)    a pleading of a party shall contain, and contain only, a statement in a summary form of the material facts on which the party relies, but not the evidence by which those facts are to be proved; and

               (b)    paragraph (a) has effect subject to this Order and to Order 4 (which relates to commencement of proceedings) and to Order 12 (which relates to particulars).

3              Brevity

                A pleading shall be as brief as the nature of the case admits.

4              Documents and spoken words

                Where any document or spoken words are referred to in a pleading, it is permissible to state the effect of the document or spoken words without setting out the precise terms thereof.

5              Presumed facts

                A party need not plead a fact if:

                (a)    the fact is presumed by law to be true; or

               (b)    the burden of disproving the fact lies on the other party;

except so far as may be necessary to meet a specific denial of that fact by the other party in his pleading or failure to plead such fact is likely to cause the other party to be taken by surprise.

6              Conditions precedent

         (1)   It shall not in any pleading be necessary to make a general allegation of fulfilment of a condition precedent to a right of action.

         (2)   Any party wishing to deny the fulfilment of any such condition precedent shall plead such denial.

7              New fact or matter

                A party may plead a fact or matter that has occurred or arisen since the commencement of the proceeding.

8              Departure

         (1)   A party shall not in any pleading make an allegation of fact, or raise any ground or claim, inconsistent with a previous current pleading of his.

         (2)   Subrule (1) does not affect the right of a party to make allegations of fact, or raise grounds or claims, in the alternative.

9              Points of law

                A party may by his pleading raise any point of law.

10            Matters for specific pleading

                In a pleading subsequent to a statement of claim a party shall plead specifically any matter of fact or point of law (for example, performance, release, any relevant statute of limitation, fraud or any fact showing illegality) that:

                (a)    the party alleges makes a claim or defence of the opposite party not maintainable;

               (b)    if not specifically pleaded might take the other party by surprise; or

                (c)    raises issues of fact not arising out of the preceding pleading.

11            Tender

                Where in any proceeding a defence of tender before the commencement of the proceeding is pleaded, the respondent shall bring into Court in accordance with Order 23 the amount alleged to have been tendered, and the tender shall, unless the Court has dispensed with compliance with this rule, not be available as a defence unless and until the amount has been brought into Court.

12            Set‑off

                Where a claim by a respondent to a sum of money (whether of an ascertained amount or not) is relied on as a defence to the whole or part of a claim made by an applicant, it may be included in the defence and set off against the applicant’s claim, whether or not the respondent also cross‑claims for that sum of money.

13            Admissions and traverse

         (1)   Subject to subrule (3) and to Order 43, rule 7 (which deals with persons under disability), an allegation of fact made by a party in his pleading is deemed to be admitted by the opposite party unless it is traversed by that party in his pleading or a joinder of issue under rule 14 operates as a denial of it.

         (2)   A traverse may be made either by a specific denial or by a statement of specific non‑admission.

         (3)   Subject to subrule (4), every allegation of fact made in a statement of claim or counterclaim which the party on whom it is served does not intend to admit must be specifically traversed by him in his defence or defence to counterclaim, as the case may be; and a general denial of such allegations, or a general statement on non‑admission of them is not a sufficient traverse of them.

         (4)   Any allegation that a party has suffered damage and any allegations as to the amount of damages is deemed to be traversed unless specifically admitted.

14            Joinder of issue

         (1)   If there is no reply to a defence, there shall be an implied joinder of issue on that defence.

         (2)   Subject to subrule (3), a joinder of issue operates as a denial of every allegation of fact made in the pleading on which there is a joinder of issue.

         (3)   A party may admit or specifically plead to allegations of fact made in the pleading on which there is a joinder of issue, in which case the joinder shall operate as a denial of every other allegation of fact.

15            Close of pleadings

         (1)   The pleadings on a statement of claim shall, unless the Court otherwise orders, be closed, as between any applicant and any respondent, on the date of expiry of the last of the times fixed by or under these Rules for filing a defence or reply or other pleading between those parties.

         (2)   Subrule (1) shall have effect notwithstanding that, on the date mentioned in that subrule, a request or order for particulars has been made but has not been complied with.

16            Embarrassment etc

                Where a pleading:

                (a)    discloses no reasonable cause of action or defence or other case appropriate to the nature of the pleading;

               (b)    has a tendency to cause prejudice, embarrassment or delay in the proceeding; or

                (c)    is otherwise an abuse of the process of the Court;

the Court may at any stage of the proceeding order that the whole or any part of the pleading be struck out.

17            General issue

                A party shall not plead the general issue.

18            Denial to be substantial answer

                When a party in any pleading denies an allegation of fact in the previous pleading of the opposite party, he must not do so evasively or generally, but must answer the point of substance, in accordance with rule 13 of this Order.

Division 2              Progress of pleadings

 

Note   Order 35A deals with the procedure on default.

19            Times for filing and service of pleadings

                Where a proceeding commenced by application supported by statement of claim continues on pleadings after the directions hearing, or at the directions hearing it is ordered that the proceeding continue on pleadings, the times for filing and serving pleadings shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be in accordance with rules 20 to 22 of this Order.

20            Defence — Form 16

         (1)   Where the application was accompanied by a statement of claim, a defence in accordance with Form 16 must be filed within 7 days after the directions hearing.

         (2)   Where at the directions hearing it is ordered that the applicant file and serve a statement of claim or points of claim, the defence or points of defence shall be filed and served within 14 days after service of the statement of claim or the points of claim.

21            Defence to cross‑claim

                Where a cross‑claim is filed and served pursuant to Order 5, a cross‑respondent shall file and serve a defence to the cross‑claim within 21 days after service on him of the cross‑claim or within 7 days after the directions hearing appointed in the application, whichever is the later.

22            Reply — Forms 17 and 18

         (1)   Where a respondent serves a defence on an applicant or a cross‑respondent serves a defence to cross‑claim on a cross‑claimant, and a reply is needed for compliance with rule 10 of this Order, the applicant or cross‑claimant as the case may be must file and serve the reply, in accordance with Form 17, within 14 days after service on him of the defence or defence to the cross‑claim.

         (2)   Where an applicant files both a reply and a defence to a cross‑claim, both must be put in one document, in accordance with Form 18.

Order 12      Particulars

  

  

1              General

         (1)   A party pleading shall state in the pleading or in a document filed and served with it the necessary particulars of any claim, defence or other matter pleaded by him.

         (2)   Rules 2 to 4 do not affect the generality of subrule (1).

2              Fraud etc

                A party pleading shall give particulars of any fraud, misrepresentation, breach of trust, wilful default or undue influence on which he relies.

3              Conditions of mind

         (1)   A party pleading any condition of mind shall give particulars of the facts on which he relies.

         (2)   In subrule (1) condition of mind includes any disorder or disability of mind, any malice and any fraudulent intention, but does not include knowledge.

4              Damages

         (1)   Where a party pleading claims damages which include moneys which he has paid or is liable to pay, he shall give particulars of those moneys.

         (2)   Where a party pleading claims exemplary damages, he shall give particulars of the facts and matters on which he relies to establish that claim.

5              Order for particulars

         (1)   The Court may order a party to file and serve on any other party:

                (a)    particulars of any claim, defence or other matter stated in his pleading, or in any affidavit ordered to stand as his pleading;

               (b)    a statement of the nature of the case on which he relies; or

                (c)    where he claims damages, particulars relating to general or other damages.

         (2)   Without limiting the generality of subrule (1), where a party alleges as a fact that a person had knowledge or notice of some fact, matter or thing, the Court may order that party to file and serve on any other party:

                (a)    where he alleges knowledge, particulars of the facts on which he relies; and

               (b)    where he alleges notice, particulars of the notice.

         (3)   The Court shall not make an order under this rule before the filing of the defence unless, in the opinion of the Court, the order is necessary or desirable to enable the respondent to plead or for some other special reason.

Order 13      Amendment

  

  

1              Application of Order

                This Order does not apply to the amendment of a judgment or order or draft thereof.

2              General

         (1)   Subject to the following provisions of this rule, the Court may, at any stage of any proceeding, order that any document in the proceeding be amended, or that any party have leave to amend any document in the proceeding, in either case in such manner as the Court thinks fit.

         (3)   Where an application to the Court for leave to make the amendment mentioned in subrules (4), (5) or (6) or paragraph (7) (a) is made after any relevant period of limitation current at the date of commencement of the proceeding has expired, the Court may, nevertheless, grant such leave in the circumstances mentioned in that subrule if it thinks it is just to do so.

         (4)   Where there has been a mistake in the name or identity of a party, an amendment to correct the name of the party may be made notwithstanding that the effect of the amendment is to substitute another person as a party.

         (5)   Where an order to correct a mistake in the name of a party has the effect of substituting another person as a party, the proceeding shall be taken to have commenced with respect to that person on the day the proceeding commenced.

         (6)   An amendment to alter the capacity in which a party sues may be made if the new capacity is one which that party had at the date of the commencement of the proceeding or has since acquired.

         (7)   An amendment may be made even if the effect of the amendment is to add a new claim for relief or foundation in law for a claim for relief (whether by way of substitution for an existing claim for relief or foundation in law or not) if the new claim for relief or foundation in law:

                (a)    arises out of the same facts or substantially the same facts as those already pleaded to support an existing claim for relief by the party applying for leave to make the amendment; or

               (b)    subject to subrule (9), arises, in whole or in part, out of facts or matters that have occurred or arisen since the commencement of the proceeding.

         (8)   Subject to subrule (9), an amendment of a pleading may be made even if the amendment pleads a fact or matter that has occurred or arisen since the commencement of the proceeding.

         (9)   Paragraph (7) (b) and subrule (8) do not permit an amendment that would have an effect inconsistent with any statute that limits the time within which an action or a proceeding of a particular kind may be brought or instituted.

3              Amendment of pleading without leave

         (1)   A party may, without leave, amend any pleading filed by the party unless:

                (a)    the time for pleadings has closed; or

               (b)    the party has previously amended the pleading.

         (3)   Subject to subrule (4), an amendment may be made even if:

                (a)    the effect of the amendment is to add a new claim for relief or foundation in law for a claim for relief, whether by way of substitution for an existing claim for relief or foundation in law or not; or

               (b)    the amendment pleads a fact or matter that has occurred or arisen since the commencement of the proceeding.

         (4)   Subrule (3) does not permit an amendment that would have an effect inconsistent with any statute that limits the time within which an action or a proceeding of a particular kind may be brought or instituted.

3A           Date when amendment takes effect

                Unless the Court otherwise orders, an amendment of a document that is made under rule 2 or 3 takes effect:

                (a)    if the amendment is made under paragraph 2 (7) (b), subrule 2 (8) or subrule 3 (3) — on the date when the amendment is made; and

               (b)    in any other case — on the date when the document was first filed.

4              Consequential amendment of defence or reply

         (1)   Where an applicant amends his statement of claim:

                (a)    if the respondent has filed his defence, he may amend his defence; and

               (b)    the time for filing his defence or amended defence, as the case may be, shall be either the time fixed by these Rules for filing his defence or 14 days after service on him under rule 10 whichever expires later.

         (2)   Where a respondent amends his defence:

                (a)    if the applicant has filed a reply, he may amend his reply; and

               (b)    the time for filing his reply or amended reply, as the case may be, shall be either the time fixed by these Rules for filing his reply or 14 days after service on him under rule 10, whichever expires later.

         (3)   The rights to amend under paragraph (1) (a) and paragraph (2) (a) are in addition to the right to amend under rule 3.

         (4)   Where the following is the order of events:

                (a)    a party (in this rule called the first party) files a pleading (in this rule called the first pleading);

               (b)    an opposite party files a pleading (in this rule called the second pleading) in answer (whether by way of defence, reply or otherwise) to the first pleading;

                (c)    the first party amends the first pleading;

               (d)    the opposite party does not amend the second pleading within the time allowed by this rule;

then:

                (e)    the second pleading shall have effect as a pleading in answer to the amended first pleading; and

                (f)    Order 11, subrule 14 (1) shall not apply but, if no further pleading between those parties is filed, there shall be, at the close of pleadings, an implied joinder of issue on the second pleading.

5              Disallowance of amendment

         (1)   If a party amends a pleading under subrule 3 (1), the Court may, subject to subrule (3), by order disallow the amendment.

         (2)   If a party amends a pleading under subrule 3 (2) but without obtaining the consent of a party, the Court may, subject to subrule (3), by order disallow the amendment.