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Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998

Authoritative Version
  • - F2010C00851
  • In force - Superseded Version
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SR 1998 No. 237 Regulations as amended, taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Safety Amendment Regulations 2010 (No. 2)
Principal Regulations
Administered by: Infrastructure and Transport
Registered 10 Dec 2010
Start Date 01 Dec 2010
End Date 26 Jun 2011
Table of contents.

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998

Statutory Rules 1998 No. 237 as amended

made under the

This compilation was prepared on 1 December 2010
taking into account amendments up to SLI 2010 No. 277

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

[Note: Regulation 92.150 ceased to apply at the end of 31 December 2006, see subregulation 92.150 (8)]

This document has been split into four volumes
Volume 1 contains Parts 1 to 43 (Rr. 1.001–39.007)
Volume 2 contains Parts 45 to 92 (Rr. 45.005–92.205)
Volume 3 contains Parts 99 to 138 (Rr. 99.005–137.300)
Volume 4 contains Parts 139 to 202 (Rr. 139.005–202.900), the Dictionary and the Notes
Each volume has its own Table of Contents

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra


How to use the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998                                  1

Part 1                          Preliminary                                                                 

                  1.001      Name of Regulations [see Note 1]                                  22

                  1.003      Harmonisation with FARs                                               22

                  1.004      Dictionary                                                                     23

                  1.005      Appendixes                                                                  23

                  1.006      Status of lists of contents of Parts                                24

                  1.007      Status of notes                                                             24

                  1.008      Inconsistency between MOS and Act or Regulations       24

Part 11                       Regulatory administrative procedures               

Subpart 11.A              Preliminary                                                                     

                11.005      Applicability of this Part                                                28

                11.010      What is in this Part                                                        28

                11.015      Definitions for Part                                                        29

Subpart 11.B              Applications                                                                   

                11.020      Effect of this Subpart                                                    30

                11.025      Application of this Subpart to authorised representatives 30

                11.030      When application taken to be complete                          30

                11.035      Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — test or interview         31

                11.040      Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — provide more information       32

                11.045      Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — demonstrate a service or facility         32

                11.050      Material that CASA may or must take into account          32

                11.055      Grant of authorisation                                                    34

                11.060      Notice of decision                                                         36

                11.065      When authorisation comes into effect                             37

                11.070      Conditions of authorisations — notice to CASA of certain matters    37

                11.080      When authorisations cease                                            40

Subpart 11.C              Authorisation documents, certificates and related matters

                11.090      Authorisation document — authorisations to which Chicago Convention, Annex 1 applies      40

                11.095      Authorisation document — maintenance operation authorisations      40

                11.100      Registration certificate (Chicago Convention, Annex 7)    40

                11.105      Certificate of Airworthiness (Chicago Convention, Annex 8) 41

                11.110      Authorisation document — other authorisations              41

                11.115      Replacement documents                                               41

Subpart 11.D              Variation, suspension and cancellation of authorisations at holder’s request       

                11.120      Applicability of this Subpart                                           42

                11.125      Application of Subpart 11.B to variation of authorisation 42

                11.130      Suspension or cancellation of authorisation at holder’s request         42

Subpart 11.E              Time‑limited authorisations                                            

                11.135      Applicability of this Subpart                                           43

                11.140      Continuation of authorisation until application decided    43

                11.145      Application of Subpart 11.B                                           44

                11.150      Conditions on new authorisation                                     45

Subpart 11.F               Exemptions from provisions of CASR                            

Division 11.F.1             Grant of standard exemptions                                                           

                11.155      Applicability of this Division                                          45

                11.160      What exemptions can be granted under this Division       45

                11.165      Applications for exemptions                                          45

                11.170      Consideration of applications                                        46

                11.175      Renewal of exemptions under this Division                     46

Division 11.F.2             Grant of exemptions in exceptional circumstances                    

                11.180      Applicability of this Division                                          47

                11.185      Exemptions in exceptional circumstances                       47

                11.190      Application                                                                   48

                11.195      Consideration by CASA                                                 48

Division 11.F.3             Exemptions generally                                                                           

                11.200      Applicability of this Division                                          48

                11.205      Conditions                                                                    48

                11.210      Offence: failure to comply with condition                        48

                11.215      Exemptions to be disallowable                                      49

                11.220      Notice of grant of exemption                                         49

                11.225      Publication of exemption                                               49

                11.230      When exemptions cease                                                50

                11.235      Exemptions not transferable                                          50

Subpart 11.G              Directions                                                                       

                11.240      Applicability of this Subpart                                           50

                11.245      CASA may issue directions                                            51

                11.250      Period of effect of direction                                          51

                11.255      Contravention of direction                                              51

Subpart 11.H              Delegation of CASA’s powers                                         

                11.260      Delegation                                                                    52

Subpart 11.J               Manuals of Standards — procedures                              

                11.265      Applicability                                                                  52

                11.270      Definition — MOS                                                         53

                11.275      Notice of intention to issue Manuals of Standards not required in certain circumstances        53

                11.280      Notice of intention to issue Manuals of Standards          54

                11.285      Comments on draft Manuals of Standards                      54

                11.290      CASA to consider comments on draft Manuals of Standards            54

                11.295      Failure to comply with procedures not to affect validity of Manuals of Standards      54

Part 13                       Enforcement procedures                                       

Subpart 13.K              Voluntary reporting and demerit points schemes           

Division 13.K.1             Aviation Self Reporting Scheme                                                        

                13.320      Definitions                                                                    56

                13.325      Contraventions that are not reportable                            56

                13.330      Prescribed person (Act s 30DM)                                    57

                13.335      Establishment and purposes of scheme (Act s 30DN)     57

                13.340      Powers and functions of Executive Director                   57

                13.345      Manner in which reports to be made (Act s 30DN (2) (b)) 58

                13.350      Processing of reports                                                    58

                13.355      Reports relating to unlawful interference                         59

                13.360      Use of information contained in reports (Act s 30DN (2) (c))  60

                13.365      Delegation by Executive Director                                   60

Division 13.K.2             Demerit points scheme                                                                       

                13.370      Offences to which demerit points scheme applies (Act s 30DT)        60

                13.375      Classes of civil aviation authorisations                           61

                13.380      Effect of subsequent suspension or cancellation in certain situations (Act s 30DV)    62

Part 21                       Certification and airworthiness requirements for aircraft and parts

Subpart 21.A              General                                                                           

                21.001      Applicability                                                                  70

              21.001A      Definition for Subpart                                                    71

              21.002A      Requests for information                                               71

              21.002B      Applicants to be told about decisions                            71

              21.002C      Suspension or cancellation of an instrument                   71

              21.002D      Show cause notices                                                      72

              21.002E      Cancellation of certain certificates                                  73

                21.003      Reporting failures, malfunctions, and defects                 73

                21.005      Aeroplane or rotorcraft flight manual                              77

Subpart 21.B              Type certificates and type acceptance certificates           

                21.011      Applicability                                                                  78

                21.012      Recognised foreign countries                                        78

                21.013      Eligibility                                                                       78

              21.013A      Issue of type certificate                                                 78

                21.014      Recognition of foreign certification                                79

                21.015      Application for type certificate                                       79

                21.016      Special standards and other conditions on type certificates  79

                21.017      Designation of applicable airworthiness standards          80

                21.019      Changes requiring a new type certificate                         82

                21.021      Type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers            83

                21.024      Type certificate: primary category aircraft                       83

                21.025      Issue of type certificate: restricted category aircraft        85

                21.026      Type certificate: intermediate category aircraft                86

                21.027      Type certificate: surplus aircraft of the Armed Forces      88

                21.029      Type certificate for imported aircraft, aircraft engines or propellers not type certificated by NAA of recognised country                                                   91

              21.029A      Type acceptance certificate for imported aircraft certificated by NAA of recognised country  91

              21.029B      Issue of type acceptance certificates subject to conditions 92

              21.029C      Refusal to issue type acceptance certificate                   93

                21.031      Type design — meaning                                                94

                21.033      Inspection and tests                                                      96

                21.035      Flight tests                                                                    97

                21.037      Flight test pilot                                                              99

                21.039      Flight test instrument calibration and correction report     99

                21.041      Type certificate — meaning                                            99

                21.043      Location of manufacturing facilities                              100

                21.047      Transferability                                                              100

                21.049      Availability                                                                  101

                21.050      Instructions for continued airworthiness and manufacturer’s maintenance manuals having airworthiness limitations sections                                  101

                21.051      Type certificates and type acceptance certificates — duration and suspension or cancellation                                                                                  102

                21.053      Statement of conformity                                              103

Subpart 21.C              Provisional type certificates                                            

                21.071      Applicability                                                                104

                21.073      Eligibility                                                                     104

                21.075      Application                                                                  105

                21.076      Issue of provisional type certificate                              105

                21.077      Duration                                                                      106

                21.078      Suspension and cancellation                                        106

                21.079      Transferability                                                              107

                21.081      Requirements for issue and amendment of Class I provisional type certificates         107

                21.083      Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates        108

                21.085      Provisional amendments to type certificates                 110

Subpart 21.D              Changes to type certificates                                            

                21.091      Applicability                                                                111

                21.093      Classification of changes in type design                       112

                21.095      Approval of minor changes in type design                    112

                21.097      Eligibility for approval of major changes in type design 112

                21.098      Issue of approval of major change in type design         113

                21.099      Required design changes                                             113

                21.101      Designation of applicable regulations                           114

Subpart 21.E              Supplemental type certificates                                        

                21.111      Applicability                                                                116

                21.113      Eligibility for supplemental type certificate                    116

              21.113A      Issue of supplemental type certificate                           116

                21.114      Foreign supplemental type certificates                          117

                21.115      Applicable requirements                                               117

                21.117      Entitlement to supplemental type certificates                117

                21.118      Duration, suspension and cancellation of supplemental type certificates       118

                21.119      Duration, suspension and cancellation of foreign supplemental type certificates        118

Subpart 21.F               Production under type certificate only                            

                21.121      Applicability                                                                119

                21.123      Production under type certificate                                  120

                21.125      Production inspection system: Materials Review Board 121

                21.127      Tests: aircraft                                                              122

                21.128      Tests: aircraft engines                                                  123

                21.129      Tests: variable pitch propellers                                     124

                21.130      Statement of conformity                                              124

              21.130A      Records to be kept by manufacturer                             125

Subpart 21.G              Production certificates                                                    

                21.131      Applicability                                                                126

                21.132      Definitions for Subpart 21.G                                        126

              21.132A      Product design                                                            127

                21.133      Eligibility                                                                     128

                21.134      Issue of production certificate                                      129

                21.135      Requirements for entitlement                                        129

                21.137      Location of manufacturing facilities                              130

                21.139      Quality system                                                            130

                21.143      Quality system data requirements: prime manufacturer  130

                21.144      Production inspection system                                      132

                21.145      Materials Review Board                                                133

                21.147      Changes in quality system                                           134

                21.149      Multiple products                                                         134

                21.151      Production limitation record                                         134

                21.153      Amendment of production certificate                            135

                21.155      Transferability                                                              135

                21.157      Inspections and tests                                                   136

                21.159      Duration                                                                      136

                21.161      Display                                                                       137

                21.163      Privileges                                                                    137

                21.165      Responsibility of holder of production certificate          138

                21.166      Records to be kept by holder of production certificate  139

Subpart 21.H              Certificates of airworthiness (except provisional certificates of airworthiness) and special flight permits                                                                  

                21.171      Applicability                                                                140

                21.172      Definitions for Subpart                                                141

                21.173      Eligibility                                                                     141

                21.175      Certificates of airworthiness: classification                    142

                21.176      Issue of certain certificates of airworthiness                  142

                21.179      Transferability                                                              143

                21.181      Duration of certain certificates of airworthiness             143

                21.182      Aircraft manufacturer’s data plate                                 146

                21.183      Standard certificates of airworthiness                           146

                21.184      Special certificates of airworthiness for primary category aircraft      148

              21.184A      Special certificates of airworthiness for intermediate category aircraft           151

                21.185      Certificates of airworthiness for restricted category aircraft 152

                21.186      Special certificates of airworthiness for light sport aircraft 154

                21.187      Multiple‑category airworthiness certification                  155

                21.189      Special certificate of airworthiness for limited category aircraft         156

                21.190      Special certificates of airworthiness — amateur‑built category aircraft accepted under an ABAA                                                                                  158

                21.191      Experimental certificates                                              160

                21.192      Experimental certificates: eligibility                               161

                21.193      Experimental certificates: general                                 161

                21.195      Experimental certificates: aircraft to be used for market surveys, sales demonstrations, and customer crew training                                                 163

              21.195A      Issue of experimental certificates                                 163

              21.195B      Duration of experimental certificates                             164

                21.196      Special flight permits: eligibility                                    166

                21.197      Special flight permits                                                   166

                21.199      Applications for special flight permits                           167

                21.200      Issue of special flight permits                                      168

                21.201      Duration of special flight permits                                  169

Subpart 21.I                Provisional certificates of airworthiness                         

                21.211      Applicability                                                                170

                21.213      Eligibility                                                                     170

                21.215      Application                                                                  171

                21.216      Issue of provisional certificates of airworthiness           171

                21.217      Duration                                                                      171

                21.219      Transferability                                                              172

                21.221      Class I provisional certificates of airworthiness             172

                21.223      Class II provisional certificates of airworthiness             173

                21.225      Provisional certificates of airworthiness corresponding with provisional amendments to type certificates                                                                  174

Subpart 21.J               Delegation option authorisation procedures                   

                21.231      Applicability                                                                175

                21.235      Application                                                                  175

                21.239      Eligibility                                                                     176

                21.243      Duration                                                                      176

                21.245      Maintenance of eligibility                                              177

                21.247      Transferability                                                              177

                21.249      Inspections                                                                 177

                21.251      Use of delegation option authorisation                         178

                21.253      Type certificates: application                                        179

                21.257      Type certificates: issue                                                180

                21.261      Equivalent safety provisions                                        180

                21.267      Production certificates                                                 181

                21.269      Export airworthiness approvals                                    181

                21.271      Authorised release certificates — criteria for issue         181

                21.273      Certificates of airworthiness                                         182

                21.275      Experimental certificates                                              182

                21.277      Data review and service experience                              183

                21.289      Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration                          183

                21.293      Records to be kept by a manufacturer under a delegation option authorisation          184

Subpart 21.K              Approval of materials, parts, processes and appliances 

                21.301      Applicability                                                                185

                21.303      Replacement and modification parts                             185

                21.304      Conditions of an APMA                                               190

              21.304A      Changes to an APMA                                                  190

                21.305      Approval of materials, parts, processes and appliances 191

              21.305A      Approval of materials, parts, processes and appliances not covered by regulation 21.305     191

                21.306      Use of standard parts and materials                             191

Subpart 21.L               Export airworthiness approvals                                      

                21.321      Applicability                                                                192

                21.323      Eligibility                                                                     193

                21.324      Issue of export airworthiness approvals                        193

                21.325      Export airworthiness approvals                                    193

                21.327      Application                                                                  195

                21.329      Issue of export airworthiness approvals for Class I products            198

                21.331      Issue of airworthiness approvals for Class II products   199

                21.333      Issue of export airworthiness approvals for Class III products           199

                21.337      Performance of inspections and overhauls                   200

                21.339      Export airworthiness approval for aircraft                      200

Subpart 21.N              Approval of engines, propellers, materials, parts and appliances: imported         

                21.500      Approval of imported aircraft engines and propellers    201

              21.500A      Approval of other imported aircraft engines and propellers 202

                21.502      Approval of imported materials, parts and appliances   202

              21.502A      Approval of other imported materials, parts and appliances  203

Subpart 21.O              Australian Technical Standard Order Authorisations      

                21.601      Applicability                                                                204

                21.603      ATSO marking and privileges                                       205

                21.605      Application and issue                                                  205

                21.607      General rules governing holders of ATSO authorisations 206

                21.609      Approval for deviation                                                 207

                21.611      Design changes                                                          208

                21.613      Record keeping requirements                                       209

                21.615      CASA inspection                                                         210

                21.617      Issue of letters of ATSO design approval: import appliances            210

                21.619      Non‑compliance                                                          211

                21.621      Transferability and duration                                          211

Subpart 21.Q              Identification of aircraft and aeronautical products         

Division 21.Q.1             Preliminary                                                                                              

                21.805      Applicability of this Subpart                                         212

                21.810      Meaning of fireproof                                                     212

Division 21.Q.2             Aircraft, aircraft engines and aircraft propellers                          

                21.815      Applicability of this Division                                         212

                21.820      Manufacturer’s data plate must be attached to aircraft   213

                21.825      Manufacturer’s data plate must be attached to basket of manned free balloon          214

                21.830      Heater assembly of manned free balloon must carry identification mark        214

                21.835      Manufacturer’s data plate must be attached to aircraft engine           215

                21.840      Aircraft propellers, blades and hubs must carry identification marks  216

Division 21.Q.3             Critical parts                                                                                           

                21.845      Applicability of this Division                                         217

                21.850      Identification of critical parts                                        217

                21.855      Removal or alteration of identification on critical parts   218

Division 21.Q.4             Aircraft parts                                                                                          

                21.860      Applicability of this Division                                         218

                21.865      Identification of parts produced under an APMA           219

                21.870      Identification of parts produced under an APMA if marking is impracticable  219

                21.875      Identification of other aircraft parts                               220

                21.880      Identification of other aircraft parts — other than by marking            221

Part 22                       Airworthiness standards for sailplanes and powered sailplanes     

                22.001      Airworthiness standards                                               222

                22.002      Incidental provisions                                                    222

                22.003      Changes to EASA CS‑22                                             222

                22.004      Approvals under EASA CS‑22                                      222

Part 23                       Airworthiness standards for aeroplanes in the normal, utility, acrobatic or commuter category                                                  

                23.001      Airworthiness standards                                               224

                23.002      Incidental provisions                                                    225

                23.003      Changes to Part 23 of the FARs                                   225

                23.004      Changes to EASA CS‑VLA                                           225

                23.005      Changes to EASA CS‑23                                             225

                23.006      Approvals under Part 23 of the FARs                           225

                23.007      Approvals under EASA CS‑VLA                                   226

                23.008      Approvals under EASA CS‑23                                      226

Part 25                       Airworthiness standards for aeroplanes in the transport category 

Subpart 25.A              General                                                                           

                25.001      Airworthiness standards                                               228

                25.002      Incidental provisions                                                    229

Subpart 25.B              Changes to FARs and EASA CS‑25                                 

                25.003      Changes to Part 25 of the FARs                                   229

                25.004      Changes to EASA CS‑25                                             229

                25.005      Approvals under Part 25 of the FARs                           229

                25.006      Approvals under EASA CS‑25                                      230

Subpart 25.C              Airworthiness standards directed by ICAO                      

                25.011      What this Subpart does                                               230

                25.013      Least‑risk bomb location                                              230

Part 26                       Airworthiness standards for aircraft in the primary category or intermediate category                                                                      

                26.001      Airworthiness standards                                               231

                26.002      Incidental provisions                                                    231

Part 27                       Airworthiness standards for rotorcraft in the normal category         

                27.001      Airworthiness standards                                               232

                27.002      Incidental provisions                                                    232

                27.003      Changes to Part 27 of the FARs                                   233

              27.003A      Changes to EASA CS‑27                                             233

                27.004      Approvals under Part 27 of the FARs                           233

                27.005      Approvals under EASA CS‑27                                      233

Part 29                       Airworthiness standards for rotorcraft in the transport category     

                29.001      Airworthiness standards                                               235

                29.002      Incidental provisions                                                    235

                29.003      Changes to Part 29 of the FARs                                   236

              29.003A      Changes to EASA CS‑29                                             236

                29.004      Approvals under Part 29 of the FARs                           236

                29.005      Approvals under EASA CS‑29                                      236

Part 31                       Airworthiness standards for manned free balloons     

                31.001      Airworthiness standards                                               238

                31.002      Incidental provisions                                                    238

Part 32                       Airworthiness standards for engines for very light aeroplanes        

                32.001      Airworthiness standards                                               239

                32.002      Incidental provisions                                                    239

                32.003      Changes to EASA CS‑22                                             239

                32.004      Approvals under EASA CS‑22                                      239

Part 33                       Airworthiness standards for aircraft engines   

                33.001      Airworthiness standards                                               241

                33.002      Incidental provisions                                                    241

                33.003      Changes to Part 33 of the FARs                                   242

              33.003A      Changes to EASA CS‑E                                               242

                33.004      Approvals under Part 33 of the FARs                           242

                33.005      Approvals under EASA CS‑E                                       242

Part 35                       Airworthiness standards for aircraft propellers 

                35.001      Airworthiness standards                                               244

                35.002      Incidental provisions                                                    244

                35.003      Changes to Part 35 of the FARs                                   245

              35.003A      Changes to EASA CS‑P                                               245

                35.004      Approvals under Part 35 of the FARs                           245

                35.005      Approvals under EASA CS‑P                                       245

Part 39                       Airworthiness directives                                         

              39.001A      Definitions                                                                  247

                39.001      CASA may issue Australian airworthiness directives      248

                39.002      Aircraft or aeronautical products covered by airworthiness directive  248

              39.002A      Aircraft that become Australian aircraft — compliance with Australian airworthiness directives                                                                                  249

                39.003      Australian aircraft covered by airworthiness directive not to be operated       249

                39.004      Approvals and exclusions in relation to airworthiness directives        251

                39.005      Documents or things to be sent to CASA                     252

                39.006      Request for review of operation of Australian airworthiness directive 252

                39.007      Action to be taken by CASA on receiving request under regulation 39.006     253

Part 43                       Maintainers’ responsibilities                                  


How to use the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998

What this Guide is intended to do

1.         This Guide is intended only to help you use the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 effectively. It is not part of those Regulations and is not intended to take the place of reading them.

What are the Regulations?

2.         The Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (‘CASR’), together with the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (‘CAR’), are the detailed legislation of the Commonwealth regarding aviation safety. Both of those sets of regulations are made under the Civil Aviation Act 1988. There are also Civil Aviation Orders made under CAR and that Act.

3.         CAR were made in 1988 and have been amended many times since. They are being progressively reviewed as CASA brings its requirements into line with international standards and best regulatory practice. Major new policies are generally incorporated into CASR.

4.         The intention is that the matter in CAR and the Civil Aviation Orders will be progressively brought into CASR. As part of that process, CASR is to be written in modern, easy‑to‑understand language.

5.         CASR and CAR, and the Orders, are parts of Australian law. They are delegated legislation, made by the Governor‑General (for the Regulations) or CASA itself (for the Orders) under authority given by the Commonwealth Parliament. The authority for the Governor‑General to make the Regulations is in section 98 of the Civil Aviation Act 1988, and the authority for CASA to make the Orders is in subsection 98 (4A) of that Act and regulation 5 of the 1988 Regulations.

6.         The Civil Aviation Act, CASR and CAR give effect to some of Australia’s obligations under the Convention on International Civil Aviation (usually called the Chicago Convention) entered into at Chicago on 7 December 1944. The English texts of the Chicago Convention, and several Protocols amending it, are set out as Schedules to the Commonwealth Air Navigation Act 1920.

7.         The Chicago Convention sets up the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as the regulatory body for international civil aviation. The Council of ICAO adopts Annexes (18 so far) to the Chicago Convention setting out ‘international standards and recommended practices’ (Chicago Convention, Art. 54 (l)). The Annexes provide the basis for aviation safety regulation throughout the world. The Annexes vary in length from a few pages to hundreds of pages, and are not set out in the Air Navigation Act.

8.         The Civil Aviation Act, CASR and CAR are not the whole of the Commonwealth legislation regarding aviation. Aspects of aviation other than safety are regulated under (for example):

·           the Air Navigation Act 1920

·           the Air Navigation Regulations 1947

·           the Air Services Act 1995

·           the Air Services Regulations 1995

·           the Airspace Act 2007

·           the Airspace Regulations 2007

·           the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004

·           the Civil Aviation (Carriers’ Liability) Act 1959.

How to read the Regulations

9.         From this point on, in this Guide, unless the contrary is stated the Regulations means the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

How the Regulations are organised

10.       First, note that ‘the Regulations’ contains many ‘regulations’ within it. In other words, Regulations means the whole statutory document; a regulation is a particular kind of part of it.

11.       The Regulations are divided into Parts, each Part dealing with a particular topic. A Part may be divided into Subparts, and a Subpart into Divisions. Divisions are divided into regulations, but a Part or Subpart can also be divided directly into regulations (that is, a Part need not have Subparts, and a Subpart need not have Divisions). An individual regulation may be divided into subregulations, a subregulation into paragraphs and a paragraph into subparagraphs. A regulation that is not divided into subregulations can be directly divided into paragraphs. (For how these levels of the structure are numbered and referred to, see paragraphs 16 to 24 below.)

12.       All these levels of structure are made visible on the printed page by typographic devices such as variations in type size, bold type and indentation. This is how it looks in print (Acts look somewhat different but the principles are the same):

Part 1                Part heading

Subpart 1.A          Subpart heading

Division 1.A.1             Division heading

1.000     Regulation headings look like this

                This is the text of a regulation that is not divided into subregulations.

1.005     Another regulation heading

         (1)   This is a subregulation.

         (2)   This subregulation is divided into:

                (a)    a paragraph; and

               (b)    another paragraph that is itself divided into:

                          (i)    a subparagraph; and

                         (ii)    another subparagraph.

13.       Incidentally, no other Commonwealth legislation contains Subparts. Generally, the levels of division are called Part, Division, Subdivision, and then section or regulation. Occasionally there is a level above Part called Chapter.

14.       The division of the Regulations into Parts basically follows the framework of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) of the USA and Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs), although some Parts of the Regulations have no equivalent in either the FARs or JARs. (For more information about the FARs and the JARs, see below.) The division of a Part into Subparts, Divisions and regulations is basically a matter of convenience — a Subpart, Division or regulation must be unified enough in subject‑matter to be able to be accurately described by a reasonably short heading, in much the same way as a chapter or section in a book.

15.       As a rule of thumb, drafters generally do not allow a single subregulation to be more than 5 or 6 lines long, nor a single regulation to contain more than 6 subregulations.

16.       The Parts are numbered with numbers running from 1 to 202 (not continuously). Subparts are lettered with capital letters preceded by the Part number and a full stop, and Divisions are numbered, preceded by the Part number and letter. The sequence of Subpart letters in a Part, or Division numbers in a Subpart, is not necessarily continuous. Individual regulations are numbered with a number consisting of the number of the Part they are in followed by a 1, 2 or 3‑digit number (for example, 183.100 in Part 183). In most Parts only every fifth regulation number will be used at first, to allow later amending regulations to be inserted in a logical sequence. Again, the sequence of regulation numbers is not necessarily a continuous sequence of multiples of 5.

17.       The conventional numbering formats for subregulations, paragraphs and subparagraphs are as follows:

·            subregulations: numerals in brackets

·            paragraphs: lower‑case letters in brackets

·            subparagraphs: lower‑case roman numerals in brackets.

18.       A regulation not divided into subregulations is given only a regulation number and not a subregulation number as well.

19.       A provision at any level of subdivision is considered to contain all the lower‑level provisions that occur within it. For example, a reference to ‘Part 21’ includes every provision (Subpart, Division, regulation, paragraph and so on) in that Part.

20.       References to regulations, subregulations, paragraphs and subparagraphs in the Regulations are in accordance with those conventions. For example, a reference to another regulation would be in the form ‘regulation 21.204’. A reference to a subregulation of that regulation would be in the form ‘subregulation 21.204 (2)’. A reference to a paragraph in that subregulation might be ‘paragraph 21.204 (2) (b)’.

21.       Acts are divided into sections and subsections instead of regulations and subregulations, but otherwise work in exactly the same way. The number of a section of an Act is a number without brackets, and the number of a subsection is enclosed in brackets, as is the number of a subregulation.

22.       Some people find confusing the way in which legislative provisions refer to a series of other provisions — for example, ‘subregulation 21.204 (3) or (4)’ instead of ‘subregulation 21.204 (3) or subregulation 21.204 (4)’.

23.       The form ‘subregulation 21.204 (3) or (4)’ is the way that Commonwealth legislation sets out such strings of cross‑references. In Commonwealth practice there are standard ways of writing the references for the different levels of provision, as described above. For example, a reference like ‘(3)’ (that is, a numeral in brackets) is always to a subsection or subregulation, so to translate it you go back to the nearest previous occurrence of ‘subsection’ or ‘subregulation’. If that occurrence is immediately followed by a number without brackets, that number is the number of another section or regulation that contains the subsection or subregulation. If there is no section or regulation number, the reference is to another subsection or subregulation in the same section or regulation. For example:


A reference like:

refers to:

subsection (3)

another subsection in the same section

subregulation (3)

another subregulation in the same regulation

or (3)

another subsection or subregulation in the same section or regulation as was last mentioned

, (4),

yet another subsection or subregulation in the same section or regulation as was last mentioned

paragraph (b)

another paragraph in the same subsection or subregulation as the paragraph in which the reference occurs

or (b)

yet another paragraph in the same subsection or subregulation as was last mentioned

… and so on. References to different levels of provision are kept separate — for example, the form ‘subsection 60 (4) or paragraph 60 (5) (a)’ is used rather than ‘subsection 60 (4) or (5) (a)’.

24.       The gaps between regulations may be filled in later by adding new regulations. When a new regulation must be added, the drafter tries to put it into a place where it fits logically. If there is no gap in the numbers for the new regulation, the new regulation gets the number of the last regulation before the gap, but with a capital letter added. For example, regulation 21.305 might be followed by regulation 21.305A.

25.       Some regulations contain tables. A table in a regulation is numbered the same as the regulation. Thus, Table 101.250 will be found in regulation 101.250. In the case of there being 2 or more tables in 1 regulation, the tables would be numbered (say) Table 101.250‑1, 101.250‑2, 101.250‑3, and so on.

26.       Some regulations and other provisions have an Appendix. An appendix is numbered the same as the provision it belongs to, and follows either the regulation it belongs to, or (if the appendix belongs to a lower‑level provision) the regulation that contains the lower‑level provision. An appendix is part of the regulation it is connected with.

Use of ‘and’ and ‘or’ between paragraphs etc

27.       A regulation or subregulation may contain a series of paragraphs, and a paragraph may contain a series of subparagraphs. The series of paragraphs or subparagraphs will either be preceded by ‘the following’ (or some equivalent expression), or will be joined by and or or to show whether the series is to be read conjunctively or disjunctively. If a conjunction is used, the same conjunction will be either expressed or implied between each paragraph and the one that follows it. That is, the forms:

        ‘(1)   This is:

                (a)    a paragraph; and

               (b)    another paragraph; and

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’;


        ‘(2)   This is:

                (a)    a paragraph; or

               (b)    another paragraph; or

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’;

are legitimate, but the form:

        ‘(2)   This is:

                (a)    a paragraph; and

               (b)    another paragraph; or

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’;

is not used because the series is not clearly either conjunctive or disjunctive.

28.       If all the paragraphs or subparagraphs in a series are to be read as alternatives, the series is preceded by the following or a similar expression, and no conjunctions are used — for example:

        ‘(1)   The alternatives are the following:

                (a)    a paragraph;

               (b)    another paragraph;

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’.

29.       Up till a few years ago, it was Commonwealth drafting practice to put a conjunction after only the second last paragraph or subparagraph in a series, and that conjunction was read as governing the whole of the series. Many other jurisdictions still follow that rule. However, Commonwealth practice is now to insert the conjunction after every paragraph (except the last). No difference in meaning is intended between, for example:

        ‘(1)   This is:

                (a)    a paragraph;

               (b)    another paragraph; or

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’;

(the older form without or at the end of the first paragraph), and:

        ‘(2)   This is:

                (a)    a paragraph; or

               (b)    another paragraph; or

                (c)    yet another paragraph.’.

Definitions and meanings

30.       A piece of legislation often includes definitions of terms used within it. The terms defined are principally the ones that are specific to the legislation in some way — for example because they have been specially invented. Ordinary dictionary words are not normally defined; they are assumed to take their ordinary dictionary meanings. Terms defined in the Act take the same meanings in the Regulations unless redefined in the Regulations. Legal terms also are not normally defined; again, they are assumed to have their ordinary legal meanings.

31.       Naturally, the Regulations use many technical terms. A term of which the meaning is well known within aviation and generally accepted is usually not defined. If an unfamiliar word or term occurs in the Regulations, it may be defined in a general dictionary. For example, chord, empennage, fuselage, and longeron are all defined in the Macquarie Dictionary.

32.       Occasionally a term that is in general use may be defined because the general meaning of the term is not sufficiently precise. For example, although everybody knows what ‘take‑off’ means, it may be necessary, in a particular case, to treat taxiing as part of a take‑off. It is not certain whether the ordinary meaning of ‘take‑off’ includes taxiing or not. In cases like this there will be a definition in the Regulations.

33.       Definitions may be either in the Dictionary at the end or in the text of the Parts.

34.       A few terms that are used in the Regulations and that are not defined either in the Regulations or in standard dictionaries are discussed in the Note on Terms at the end of this Guide.

35.       Although the Dictionary is not called a Part of the Regulations, and is not numbered, it is as much part of the Regulations as any of the numbered Parts.

36.       If a definition that applies throughout the Regulations is in the Regulations but not in the Dictionary, there is a ‘signpost’ in the Dictionary to the regulation where the definition is. For example:

major change, for a type design — see regulation 21.093.

37.       The standard definitions of aviation terms are those laid down by ICAO and published by it in International Civil Aviation Vocabulary (ICAO Document 9713). Generally, terms defined by ICAO are used in the Regulations with the meaning given by ICAO. There may still be a definition in the Regulations, but the definition will usually be followed by a note to the effect that the source of the definition is the ICAO definition. (The ICAO definition will either be used unchanged, or rewritten in minor ways to be clearer and easier to read.) Often, where a term defined in the Regulations is used, there will be a note nearby saying where to look for the definition.

38.       See Subpart 1.A for general provisions about interpretation and definitions.


39.       In Commonwealth legislative usage, offence means conduct that is prohibited subject to a penalty (either a fine or imprisonment). If the sanction for conduct is the withdrawal of a privilege (for example, cancellation of a licence) that conduct is not an offence in this sense.

40.       Many offences created by the Regulations are offences of strict liability. This is given meaning by section 6.1 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code, which is the Schedule to the Commonwealth Criminal Code Act 1995.

41.       The following brief explanation of section 6.1 of the Code is not by any means the full story. The whole of Chapter 2 (General principles of criminal responsibility) of the Code should be read if you need a fuller understanding.

42.       For somebody to have committed an offence, he or she must at least have done (or not done) an act. He or she may also have had to have a particular mental state about the act — that is, he or she must have done the act intentionally, recklessly, or negligently. For some offences the mental state is part of the definition of the offence, as in ‘wilful murder’ — wilful in this case meaning intentional. In such cases the prosecution must prove that the accused person both did the act and had the necessary mental state. For offences of strict liability, however, no mental state forms part of the definition of the offence, and the prosecution need not prove that the act was done intentionally, negligently or recklessly, but only that it was done by the person accused.

43.       Strict liability has nothing to do with the seriousness of an offence — in fact, the less serious an offence is, the more likely it is to be one of strict liability.

44.       Strict liability also does not take away any defences that would otherwise be available — in fact, before it became necessary to state that an offence was strict liability, if the defence of ‘reasonable excuse’ was available for the offence, the courts regarded that fact as an indication that the offence was intended to be one of strict liability.

45.       Strict liability also does not mean that an assertion by the prosecutor is enough to get the defendant convicted. Strict liability or not, the prosecution must still put before the court evidence that establishes the defendant’s guilt beyond reasonable doubt.

46.       There are also provisions in the Commonwealth Crimes Act 1914 relevant to matters like the legal burden of proof.

47.       Fines for offences created by the Regulations are expressed in penalty units. The amount of the penalty unit is specified in section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914. Currently, 1 penalty unit is $110.

How the Parts relate to each other

48.       Many of the Parts deal or will deal with particular kinds of aviation activity — for example, Part 101 will deal with the operation of unmanned aircraft and rockets and Part 103 will deal with sport and recreational aviation operations. Each of those Parts is constructed to be as self‑contained as possible, so that if you want to know what rules apply to sport flying you will find them all together.

49.       However, there are other Parts dealing with particular issues such as aircraft registration or marking. These other parts may or may not apply to particular kinds of aircraft or a particular activity. For example, an unmanned aircraft usually does not need to be either registered or marked, so that neither Part 45 (dealing with marking) nor Part 47 (which deals with registration) apply to it. If an ancillary part such as Part 45 does not apply to a particular kind of aircraft or aviation operation, that fact will always be stated in the particular Part that applies to the aircraft or activity.

50.       Most Parts include a regulation headed ‘Applicability of this Part’ that sets out the activities to which the Part applies.

Notes and this Guide

51.       Notes in the text, like this Guide, are not part of the Regulations even though they appear with the text of the Regulations (see regulation 1.007). Like this Guide, notes are intended only to help you use the Regulations. However, if the text of the Regulations is ambiguous or unclear, Commonwealth law allows a Court to use the notes or this Guide to help it work out what the text means. (For more information, see the Commonwealth Acts Interpretation Act 1901, section 15AB.)

Incorporated manuals

52.       Many Parts of CASR are supported by a Manual of Standards that contains detailed technical material, such as technical specifications and standards. The text of a Manual is often incorporated in CASR by reference. There will usually be a definition of ‘Manual’, ‘Manual of Standards’ or ‘MOS’ (probably followed by a reference to a Part of CASR), which will say something like:

‘For this Part (that is, Part of the Regulations):

MOS Part 43 means the document called Manual of Standards — Part 43, published by CASA, as in force from time to time’.

Note that for a particular Part of CASR, only part of the Manual may be incorporated, and that part of the relevant Manual is what ‘Manual’ or ‘MOS’ will mean for that Part.

52A.    A Manual of Standards is a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 and must be registered, and made publicly available, as required by that Act. The Federal Register of Legislative Instruments established under that Act is accessible on the World Wide Web at http://www.comlaw.gov.au.

53.       A Manual may be amended from time to time, but the amendments will be done in a similar way to amendments to CASR or CAR (for the procedure, see paragraphs 79 to 91A of this Guide).

How to find things in the Regulations

54.       The Regulations and the notes contain many cross‑references. Cross‑references are always by provision number, and no page number references are given. This is because, when the text is printed from an on‑line service, there is no way to know what page a provision will appear on. Page numbers will of course also change as the text is amended.

55.       However, the Table of Contents (immediately before this Guide) lists provisions by number and gives page references. The page numbers in this Table will always be correct in an officially printed copy, and should also be correct in one that has been printed from a fully formatted on‑line version.

56.       The page headings in a copy printed in any of those ways give the Part number and Subpart letter, and the Part and Subpart titles, for the text on that page. The page header on a left‑hand page gives the number of the regulation that starts nearest the top of the page. The page header on a right hand page gives the number of the regulation that starts nearest the bottom of the page.

57.       Each Part also contains a table of the Subparts, Divisions and regulations in the Part. That table is in the form of a note immediately after the Part heading.

The FARs

58.       The FARs are the Federal Aviation Regulations, part of the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America. The FARs are the exact equivalent, in the context of the United States, of these Regulations. However, there are considerable differences between the legal systems of the United States and Australia, and US analogies and practices must be treated with caution in Australia. Also, the legal drafting style of the Code of Federal Regulations, and of US legislative drafting generally, is markedly different to that of Australia.

The JARs

59.       The Joint Aviation Requirements are a package of common aviation legislation now being developed by the Joint Aviation Authorities. The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) is an associated body of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) representing the civil aviation regulatory authorities of a number of European States who have agreed to cooperate in developing and implementing common safety regulatory standards and procedures.

60.       The JARs do not themselves have the force of law, but may be adopted into the law of member countries of the ECAC or European Union.

Other things that may be useful

61.       CASA publishes a wide range of information about aviation and its role as regulator of aviation safety. For example, CASA publishes material supplementary to the Regulations in the form of Advisory Circulars setting out recommended practices and suggesting ways of effectively meeting the requirements of the Regulations.

62.       CASA does not investigate aviation‑related accidents or incidents — this is the role of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, which is an operating arm of the Department of Transport and Regional Services. The Bureau publishes various reports relating to its investigations and material about aviation safety generally.

62A.    The Australian Transport Safety Bureau also operates the Aviation Self Reporting Scheme established under s 30DN of the Act. For further details, see Subpart 13.K of the Regulations.

63.       CASA does, however, investigate (in conjunction with type certificate holders and registered operators) defects reported to it under the Major Defect Reporting System. For more information on this system, contact CASA or visit its web site (for the URL, see paragraph 71 below).

How to obtain documents mentioned in this Guide or the Regulations

Websites mentioned in this Guide

65.       This section gives URLs for a number of websites that may be useful. If you are reading this Guide on line from the SCALEplus or CASA website mentioned below, you may be able to click on any of the embedded URLs in the text to go directly to the associated website. The URLs given were correct when this Guide was prepared, but cannot be guaranteed to remain so.

Sites for other Commonwealth law

66.       The Commonwealth Attorney‑General’s Department maintains a website called Australian Law Online (http://www.law.gov.au/) that includes a database called SCALEplus (http://scaleplus.law.gov.au) from which you can browse, search and download all Commonwealth Acts and Regulations, and many other statutory instruments. Those services are free. A number of other service providers also make texts available on line — some are noted below.

67.       Printed official copies of Regulations (both amending regulations and consolidated up‑to‑date versions of principal regulations) are available from:

  • CanPrint Communications
    16 Nyrang Street
    Fyshwick ACT 2609
  • Info Vic
    356 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000
    Tel: 1300 366 356 Fax: (03) 9603 9920
  • University Co‑operative Bookshop Ltd
    Law School, Shop 2, 153 Phillip Street, Sydney NSW 2000
    Tel: (02) 9232 2250

or by mail from:

  • CanPrint Information Services
    PO Box 7456
    Canberra Mail Centre ACT 2610
    Tel: 1300 656 863
    Fax: (02) 6293 8333.

Further details about sales of legislation are available at http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/legsales.htm.

68.       The electronic text of amendments to the Regulations is also available (normally within 24 hours of being gazetted) from the SCALEplus website mentioned above. An electronic text, an image of the Regulations as made, and some additional information are available from another website maintained by the Attorney‑General’s Department at http://frli.law.gov.au/.

69.       CASA also has an electronic text of the regulations on its website (URL below, paragraph 71), and sells a consolidated paper version of the Regulations. The paper version is available by mail from the Airservices Publication Centre at:

Airservices Australia Publication Centre
Locked Bag 8500



70.       All Commonwealth, State and Territory legislation is also available from a website maintained by the Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) at http://www.austlii.edu.au/. This facility is jointly maintained by the Law Faculties of the University of Technology, Sydney and the University of New South Wales. The texts can be downloaded free. However, the site is not an official government site and the texts are not guaranteed to be up to date.

71.       CASA itself has a website (http://www.casa.gov.au) which contains texts of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998, the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988, Civil Aviation Orders and CASA’s Advisory Circulars and Civil Aviation Advisory Publications. All of these documents can be downloaded free. CASA’s website also contains draft texts for public comment of proposals for amendments to these Regulations, and many other CASA publications. CASA’s mail address and telephone number are:

GPO Box 2005
Telephone 131 757.

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau

72.       The ATSB’s postal address is:

Australian Transport Safety Bureau
PO Box 967
Civic Square  ACT  2608
Telephone (Australia) 1800 621 372
Facsimile (Australia) 02 6247 6474.

73.       It has a website at http://www.atsb.gov.au/.

ICAO publications

74.       The Chicago Convention itself is available on‑line at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/19570005.html or from SCALEplus as part of the text of the Air Navigation Act 1920. The Annexes are not included, but are available from ICAO on paper or CD‑ROM or by on‑line subscription.

75.       ICAO’s home page is http://www.icao.int/. There is no ICAO office in Australia. ICAO publications are available from:

ICAO, Document Sales Unit
999 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3C 5H7
Telephone: (514) 954‑8022
Fax: (514) 954‑6769



76.       ICAO has some documents available free on‑line, but these do not include the Annexes. There is no free on‑line source for the Annexes.


77.       The Federal Aviation Regulations are available from a number of on‑line sources including the official US Government Printing Office site at http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr‑table‑search.html and from the FAA itself at http://www.faa.gov/. Printed copies can be ordered from commercial legal publishers in the USA.


78.       The JAA has a website at http://www.jaa.nl. The Joint Aviation Requirements are available from that site by Internet subscription or on CD‑ROM or paper. There is no free download service.

How to seek changes to the Regulations or Manuals of Standards

79.       This section sets out how you can ask CASA for a change to CASR or CAR or a Manual of Standards, and what CASA will do in processing your request.

80.       If you think that a change to the Regulations, a Manual of Standards or advisory information is necessary, you should set out your suggestion in writing, and send it to CASA’s Regulatory Development Management Branch at any of:

Freepost:     REPLY PAID 2005
Civil Aviation Safety Authority

email:          review@casa.gov.au; or

fax:             (freefax) 1 800 653 897;

or deliver it to CASA at:

                    CASA Building
Corner Barry Drive and Northbourne Avenue

81.       Your request should contain:

·      your name

·      the substance of the change you propose

·      your reason for being interested

·      a comprehensive justification of the proposal

·      any information you have that supports the change.

82.       CASA will register your request, acknowledge it, and submit it to an internal CASA regulatory development review committee for consideration. If that committee considers that the proposal should be pursued, CASA will submit the proposal to the Standards Consultative Committee (an industry consultative body). If that Committee supports the proposal, a CASA project for the proposed change will be set up.

83.       Before taking any action, CASA will consider any comments received about the subject of your request, and will tell you whether they propose to go ahead with a change or not, and the reasons for the decision.

84.       The next stage is formulation of the draft proposal and public consultation on it. CASA is required by section 16 of the Civil Aviation Act 1988 to consult with ‘government, commercial, industrial, consumer and other relevant bodies and organisations (including ICAO and bodies representing the aviation industry)’.

85.       The basic procedure for consultation on a proposed change to the Regulations is as follows:

·     CASA publishes a notice of its intention to make a rule, and the availability of the proposed rule, in a national newspaper and on its website

·     the actual rulemaking proposal is released publicly as a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM), which sets out the proposed change and supporting information

·     anybody interested has a reasonable time (normally 8 weeks) to comment.

The procedure for consultation on a change to a manual is similar except that the formal notice is called a Notice of Proposed Change (NPC).

86.       An NPRM will include the actual text of the proposed amending Regulations, as drafted by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing of the Commonwealth Attorney‑General’s Department. The NPRM will also include:

·     an introductory statement (‘Foreword’) extending an invitation to comment on the proposal

·     background information, including a description of the problem addressed and why rule‑making is necessary

·     the objectives of the proposed rule

·     the options that were considered and the constraints making them viable or not

·     an impact analysis setting out the advantages and disadvantages of those options, and a description of the subjects and issues involved

·     a Guide on how to comment (including addresses).

It may also include copies of proposed supporting material such as a draft Manual of Standards or guidance or advisory material. An NPC is similarly organised but the proposed change document is drafted by CASA technical specialists in cooperation with a CASA legislative drafter.

87.       The notice will also give the date by which comments must be submitted, and where to send comments. There will be a response sheet in the NPRM or NPC, and you are urged to use it in responding. There is also an online response system at http://rrp.casa.gov.au/ors.asp.

88.       Requests for extension of time to comment should be sent to CASA no later than 2 days before the announced expiry time. It may not be possible in a particular case to allow an extension of time to comment. However, extensions are normally granted if you have a substantive interest in the proposed change and a good reason for the extension. Bear in mind that extending the time for comment will delay the process.

89.       Anybody can make a comment on a proposed change. Comments must be in writing and should preferably be submitted on the response form.

90.       CASA will register all comments made. After the time for comments (or any extension of it) expires, CASA will evaluate all the comments received, and publish a summary of those comments, CASA’s response to them, the action taken, CASA’s policy, the action being taken, the finalised draft Regulations or manual change, and any associated guidance and supporting materials.

91.       Finally, for changes to the Regulations only, the Minister for Transport and Regional Services must decide whether to recommend to the Governor‑General that the proposed amending Regulations be made. If the Minister approves the proposed change, he or she submits the text of the proposed amending Regulations to the Governor‑General for making as Regulations. After the amending Regulations are made, they are registered in the Federal Register of Legislative Instruments maintained under the Legislative Instruments Act 2003, and copies of the official text are made available. The Regulations are also tabled in each House of the Parliament within 6 sitting days after making, and then within a further 15 sitting days any Member or Senator can move to disallow them.

91A.    Authority to issue a MOS rests with the Director of Aviation Safety. A MOS is also a legislative instrument and must be registered and tabled, and is subject to disallowance, in the same way as Regulations.

91B.    After an amendment to either the Regulations or a MOS, a ‘compilation’ (setting out the text of the Regulations or the MOS as amended) must be prepared and placed on the Federal Register of Legislative Instruments. A compilation of the Regulations as amended is prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing and is normally registered on the same day as the Regulations as amended commence. CASA is responsible for preparing compilations of a MOS as amended.

Note on terms

92.       As mentioned above, there are terms used in the Regulations that are well recognised in the aviation industry, but are not standard dictionary words, or that have a meaning that is not obvious from the meanings of the words that make them up. Because nobody who is expert in aviation needs to have such terms explained, there are no definitions of them in the Dictionary. However, some explanations are set out below for convenience.

Avgas means aviation gasoline. Petrol (gasoline) is graded according to volatility and octane rating. Avgas is petrol within the volatility and octane ranges approved for aircraft piston engines. (Some engines are approved to run on ‘mogas’ — that is, ordinary car fuel.) For other terms relating to fuel, see Jet A‑1, JP‑1 and JP‑4.

CAS means calibrated airspeed — that is, indicated airspeed corrected for position error and instrument error.

Controlled airspace is airspace in which aircraft are subject to air traffic control. For more details, see the Airspace Regulations 2007 and the determinations made by CASA under regulation 5 of those Regulations.

Endorsement (of a licence) is used in connection with some kinds of licences to mean a subsidiary location‑specific qualification. For example, an air traffic control licence must be endorsed for a particular location or particular airspace.

Flight level (FL): Altitudes above a certain altitude called the transition altitude (currently 11 000 feet in Australia, possibly different in other countries) are often expressed as flight levels. A flight level is a pressure altitude expressed as a 3‑digit number that represents hundreds of feet. For example, FL 290 is equivalent to a pressure altitude of 29 000 feet, and FL 295 is equivalent to a pressure altitude of 29 500 feet. (Note that altitude is not the same as height. Both terms are defined in the Dictionary.)

Jet A‑1 is the usual term in Australia for the grade of hydrocarbon fuel approved for use in aircraft turbine engines. It is similar to power kerosene in terms of volatility. (Kerosene‑type fuels are not graded by octane number.) In US military usage, a similar fuel is called ‘JP‑1’.

JP‑4 is a wide‑cut hydrocarbon fuel used as a turbine engine fuel in some parts of the world, but not permitted for aviation use in Australia.

Pressure altitude is the altitude shown by a barometric altimeter on which the pressure subscale is set to 1 013.2 hectopascals. (This is the ‘sea level’ pressure in the International Standard Atmosphere.) Depending on what the actual barometric pressure at sea level is at the time and the actual pressure lapse rate with height, the pressure altitude shown on such an altimeter may or may not be its actual altitude.

Rating means an endorsement on a licence that confers specific privileges, or is evidence of the holder being permitted to do particular things. For example, a person who holds an aircraft maintenance engineer licence may hold 1 or more ratings, such as a rating for a particular aircraft type. Normally a licence must be endorsed with at least 1 rating before the licence actually authorises its holder to do anything.

TAS means true airspeed — that is, the actual speed of an aircraft through the air. It is worked out by correcting the aircraft’s indicated airspeed for altitude, temperature, position error and compressibility effects.

Part 1                 Preliminary


Note   This Part is made up as follows:

1.001            Name of Regulations

1.003            Harmonisation with FARs

1.004                Dictionary

1.005                Appendixes

1.006                Status of lists of contents of Parts

1.007                Status of notes

1.008                Inconsistency between MOS and Act or Regulations

1.001      Name of Regulations [see Note 1]

                These Regulations are the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.

1.003      Harmonisation with FARs

         (1)   These regulations contain provisions based on the FARs.

         (2)   An object of these regulations is to harmonise certain parts of Australia’s aviation safety law with the FARs.

         (3)   The words ‘Source   FARs’ below a regulation indicate that the regulation is based on the section of the FARs, as in force on 1 January 1997, stated after the words and, if the section number is followed by the word ‘modified’, the word indicates that the FARs section has been modified for the regulation.



21.013   Any person is eligible to apply to CASA for a type certificate or type acceptance certificate.

Source   FARs section 21.13 modified.

The words set out below the regulation in this example indicate that the regulation is based on section 21.13 of the FARs as in force on 1 January 1997 and that the FARs section has been modified for the regulation.

         (4)   If a word or expression is used in both a regulation and the FARs section on which the regulation is based, the meaning of the word or expression in the FARs section may be taken into account in interpreting the word or expression in the regulation, unless the contrary intention appears.

1.004      Dictionary

         (1)   The Dictionary at the end of these Regulations consists of 2 parts.

         (2)   Part 1 contains:

                (a)    definitions of certain expressions; and

               (b)    signpost references to expressions that are explained in Part 2 or elsewhere in these Regulations.

Note   A signpost reference to a definition or an explanation of an expression that is elsewhere than in the Dictionary (for example, ‘ATSO authorisation — see paragraph 21.601 (2) (b)’) is not included in the Dictionary unless the definition or explanation of the expression applies outside the regulation in which it occurs. Many expressions are defined for the purposes of a particular Part, Subpart or Division, and signpost references to such definitions are generally not included in the Dictionary.

         (3)   Part 2 consists of numbered clauses that explain certain other expressions otherwise than by means of definitions.

         (4)   Unless the contrary intention appears, the definition or explanation of an expression in these Regulations applies to each use of the expression in these Regulations.

         (5)   The Dictionary is part of these Regulations.

1.005      Appendixes

         (1)   Some provisions have an appendix.

         (2)   An appendix is not numbered separately from the provision to which it is an appendix, but is identified by a heading in the form ‘Appendix to [kind of provision] [number]’.


An appendix might be headed:

Appendix to subparagraph 139.095 (a) (i).

         (3)   A provision may have more than 1 appendix, and if a provision has 2 or more appendixes each is identified by a heading in the form ‘Appendix [number] to [kind of provision] [number]’.

         (4)   An appendix to a subregulation, paragraph or subparagraph appears at the end of the regulation that contains the subregulation, paragraph or subparagraph.

         (5)   An appendix may be divided into subsections, and a subsection of an appendix may be divided into paragraphs and subparagraphs, in the same way as a regulation.

         (6)   An appendix to a regulation, or a provision that is part of a regulation, is part of that regulation.

1.006      Status of lists of contents of Parts

         (1)   A Part of these Regulations may contain a list of the Subparts, Divisions and regulations in the Part, headed ‘Note   This Part is made up as follows:’.

         (2)   Such a list is not part of these Regulations, but is for convenience of reference only.

         (3)   Such a list may be added to or edited in any published version of these Regulations.

1.007      Status of notes

                A note in these regulations is explanatory, and is not part of the regulations.

1.008      Inconsistency between MOS and Act or Regulations

         (1)   In this regulation:

MOS has the same meaning as in Subpart 11.J.

         (2)   If there is an inconsistency between a MOS and a provision of the Act or these Regulations, the provision of the Act or these Regulations prevails to the extent of the inconsistency.

Note   A MOS (Manual of Standards) is a document that supports CASR by providing detailed technical material, such as technical specifications or standards. See generally ‘Incorporated Manuals’ (paragraphs 52 and 53) in the Guide.


Part 11               Regulatory administrative procedures


Note   This Part is made up as follows:

Subpart 11.A       Preliminary

11.005          Applicability of this Part

11.010          What is in this Part

11.015          Definitions for Part

Subpart 11.B       Applications

11.020          Effect of this Subpart

11.025          Application of this Subpart to authorised representatives

11.030          When application taken to be complete

11.035          Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — test or interview

11.040          Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — provide more information

11.045          Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — demonstrate a service or facility

11.050          Material that CASA may or must take into account

11.055          Grant of authorisation

11.060          Notice of decision

11.065          When authorisation comes into effect

11.070          Conditions of authorisations — notice to CASA of certain matters

11.080          When authorisations cease

Subpart 11.C       Authorisation documents, certificates and related matters

11.090          Authorisation document — authorisations to which Chicago Convention, Annex 1 applies

11.095          Authorisation document — maintenance operation authorisations

11.100          Registration certificate (Chicago Convention, Annex 7)

11.105          Certificate of Airworthiness (Chicago Convention, Annex 8)

11.110          Authorisation document — other authorisations

11.115          Replacement documents

Subpart 11.D       Variation, suspension and cancellation of authorisations at holder’s request

11.120          Applicability of this Subpart

11.125          Application of Subpart 11.B to variation of authorisation

11.130          Suspension or cancellation of authorisation at holder’s request

Subpart 11.E       Time‑limited authorisations

11.135          Applicability of this Subpart

11.140          Continuation of authorisation until application decided

11.145          Application of Subpart 11.B

11.150          Conditions on new authorisation

Subpart 11.F        Exemptions from provisions of CASR

Division 11.F.1         Grant of standard exemptions

11.155          Applicability of this Division

11.160          What exemptions can be granted under this Division

11.165          Applications for exemptions

11.170          Consideration of applications

11.175          Renewal of exemptions under this Division

Division 11.F.2         Grant of exemptions in exceptional circumstances

11.180          Applicability of this Division

11.185          Exemptions in exceptional circumstances

11.190          Application

11.195          Consideration by CASA

Division 11.F.3         Exemptions generally

11.200          Applicability of this Division

11.205          Conditions

11.210          Offence: failure to comply with condition

11.215          Exemptions to be disallowable

11.220          Notice of grant of exemption

11.225          Publication of exemption

11.230          When exemptions cease

11.235          Exemptions not transferable

Subpart 11.G       Directions

11.240          Applicability of this Subpart

11.245          CASA may issue directions

11.250          Period of effect of direction

11.255          Contravention of direction

Subpart 11.H       Delegation of CASA’s powers

11.260          Delegation

Subpart 11.J        Manuals of Standards — procedures

11.265          Applicability

11.270          Definition — MOS

11.275          Notice of intention to issue Manual of Standards not required in certain circumstances

11.280          Notice of intention to issue Manual of Standards

11.285          Comments on draft Manual of Standards

11.290          CASA to consider comments on draft Manual of Standards

11.295          Failure to comply with procedures not to affect validity of Manual of Standards

Subpart 11.A        Preliminary

11.005    Applicability of this Part

                This Part applies:

                (a)    to CASA in its administration of authorisations, exemptions, directions, delegations and Manuals of Standards under CASR; and

               (b)    generally in relation to applications for authorisations and exemptions, and conditions of authorisations and exemptions under CASR.

11.010    What is in this Part

         (1)   Subpart 11.A contains preliminary matters and definitions.

         (2)   Subpart 11.B contains rules that apply to CASA in administering applications for certain authorisations, licences, ratings, certificates, endorsements and qualifications (collectively called authorisations) granted under CASR.

         (3)   In particular, Subpart 11.B sets out what CASA can or must do in the course of processing an application for such an authorisation, including what documents and matters CASA can or must take into account in making its decision.

         (4)   Subpart 11.C provides for the form of authorisation documents and other matters related to such documents.

         (5)   Subpart 11.D is about variation, suspension or cancellation of an authorisation at the holder’s request.

         (6)   Subpart 11.E is about renewal of a time‑limited authorisation.

         (7)   Subpart 11.F is about exemptions from the provisions of CASR.

         (8)   Subpart 11.G provides for the issue, by CASA, of temporary directions in relation to matters affecting the safety of air navigation.

         (9)   Subpart 11.H deals with delegation of CASA’s powers under CASR.

       (10)   Subpart 11.J sets out the procedure for issuing or amending Manuals of Standards.

11.015    Definitions for Part

                In this Part:

authorisation means:

                (a)    an authorisation, licence, certificate, rating, endorsement or qualification capable of being granted to a person by CASA under CASR; or

               (b)    an approval, capable of being granted to a person by CASA under CASR, to provide a service.

corporation means a legal person that is not an individual.

medical includes psychological and psychiatric.

officer, of a corporation, means:

                (a)    in the case of a corporation that is a company (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001), a director, secretary, executive officer or employee of the corporation; or

               (b)    in the case of a corporation of any other kind:

                          (i)    a person exercising responsibility, in relation to the corporation, as nearly as possible the same as that of a director, secretary or executive officer of a company (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001); or

                         (ii)    an employee or staff member of the corporation; or

                (c)    a receiver and manager, appointed under a power contained in an instrument, of property of the corporation.

time‑limited authorisation means:

                (a)    an authorisation that, under another provision of CASR, ceases after a particular period; or

               (b)    an authorisation granted by CASA for a specified period.

Subpart 11.B        Applications

11.020    Effect of this Subpart

                The requirements of this Subpart in relation to an application for a particular kind of authorisation are in addition to any requirements of the Part or Subpart that deals with the kind of authorisation.

11.025    Application of this Subpart to authorised representatives

                If CASR allows an application for an authorisation to be made to an authorised representative, a reference in this Subpart to CASA includes, in relation to such an application, an authorised representative to whom such an application is made.

11.030    When application taken to be complete

         (1)   An application for an authorisation is not taken to have been made unless:

                (a)    it is made in the manner approved by CASA for that purpose; and

               (b)    it includes all the information required by CASR; and

                (c)    it is accompanied by every document required by CASR; and

               (d)    if a fee is payable for the application — that fee has been paid.

Note   It is an offence to make a false statement in, or supply a false or misleading document with, an application — see the Criminal Code, sections 137.1 and 137.2.

         (2)   If another provision of CASR requires a holder of an authorisation to have an approved or accepted manual, an application for such an authorisation is not taken to have been made until the applicant gives to CASA a copy of a draft of an appropriate manual.

11.035    Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — test or interview

         (1)   In this regulation:

test includes a written, oral or on‑line examination and a practical assessment.

         (2)   If CASA reasonably needs to interview or test an applicant who is an individual (including a member of a partnership) for the purpose of satisfying itself about a matter or matters referred to in paragraph 11.055 (1) (a), (b), (c) or (d), CASA may by written notice ask the applicant to:

                (a)    undertake a test or tests of knowledge, skill or competence relevant to the application; or

               (b)    come to a specified CASA office at a specified time to be interviewed.

         (3)   The time of interview and the CASA office specified in a notice under paragraph (2) (b) must be reasonable in the circumstances.

         (4)   In the case of an applicant that is a corporation, CASA may by written notice ask the applicant to have a specified officer or officers of the applicant do anything mentioned in paragraph (2) (a) or (b).

         (5)   CASA must give to the applicant a copy of the record of any test (including the testing officer’s assessment of the competence of the person tested), or the record of any interview, conducted under subregulation (2) or (4).

         (6)   However, subregulation (5) does not require CASA to return marked examination papers or give copies of marked examination papers.

11.040    Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — provide more information

         (1)   If CASA reasonably needs more information or another document to allow it to consider an application, CASA may by written notice ask the applicant to give to it information, or a copy of a document, specified in the request.

         (2)   CASA may ask an applicant to provide evidence as to the applicant’s financial standing and financial capacity if there would be likely to be an adverse effect on the safety of air navigation if the applicant were granted the authorisation applied for and either did not have the resources to carry out the functions of the authorisation or were afterwards unable to continue trading.

11.045    Other things CASA can ask applicant to do — demonstrate a service or facility

                If another provision of CASR says that this regulation applies in relation to a particular kind of authorisation, CASA may by written notice require an applicant for an authorisation of that kind:

                (a)    to give a practical demonstration of its ability to provide the relevant service; or

               (b)    to demonstrate the operation of a facility to be used in the course of providing the service; or

                (c)    to allow CASA to inspect any relevant facility or equipment (whether or not it is operating).

11.050    Material that CASA may or must take into account

         (1)   In making a decision on an application, CASA may take into account:

                (a)    anything in the application or in any other document submitted by the applicant; and

               (b)    the record or results of any test or interview under regulation 11.035; and

                (c)    anything else in its records about the applicant; and

               (d)    the results of any demonstration or inspection under regulation 11.045.

         (2)   However, if CASA proposes to take into account anything adverse to an applicant in its records, CASA must, before making a decision adverse to the applicant (including a decision to grant the application sought but to do so subject to a condition not sought by the applicant):

                (a)    tell the applicant in writing that it intends to take the material into account, and the substance of what it intends to take into account; and

               (b)    invite the applicant in writing to make, within a specified reasonable time, a written submission about the matter.

         (3)   If the applicant makes such a submission within the specified time, CASA must take the submission into account.

         (4)   When deciding whether to grant a new authorisation to an applicant who or that held, or was otherwise connected with, an authorisation (or a right, licence or permission similar to an authorisation granted under CAR or the law of another country) that was cancelled otherwise than at the request of the holder, CASA must take into account:

                (a)    the fact of the cancellation; and

               (b)    the reasons for the cancellation, as given by the cancellin