Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Plans/Management of Sites & Species as made
This Plan provides for the management of Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden.
Administered by: Environment and Energy
Registered 12 Feb 2008
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled HR14-Feb-2008
Tabled Senate14-Feb-2008
Date ceased to have effect 13 Feb 2018
Ceased by Self Ceasing
Date of repeal 01 Apr 2018
Repealed by Sunsetting


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Management Plan 2008-2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Foreword

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden protect over 655 hectares of the remote Territory of Norfolk Island. Set in the south-west Pacific Ocean, the Territory provides a link between tropical and temperate oceanic island environments and is home to unique assemblages of flora and fauna.

The Park and Garden provide habitat and breeding areas for endemic species, migratory birds and large colonies of breeding seabirds.  They protect remnant areas of subtropical rainforest and viney hardwood forest which once covered much of the Island.

Management of the National Park and Botanic Garden has a strong focus on the protection of existing native flora and fauna and habitat restoration through the control of invasive species, planting of native vegetation and implementation of erosion control measures.

The National Park and Botanic Garden provide educational, scientific, cultural and recreational opportunities for Norfolk Island residents and visitors and a valuable resource for the Norfolk Island tourism industry.

The Management Plan for the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden has been prepared under provisions of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and meets all the statutory requirements for a management plan under that Act.

Given the close proximity of the Park and Botanic Garden, the similar nature of the threats they face, and the management goals and strategies required, a combined management plan for the two Commonwealth reserves has been prepared for the first time.

A draft Management Plan was gazetted for public comment on 1 August 2007 and the period of public comment closed on 3 September 2007.The Plan was revised in light of comments received, in consultation with the Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee and the Administration of Norfolk Island.

This Management Plan will provide a firm foundation for the management of the Norfolk Island National Park and the Norfolk Island Botanic Garden for the next ten years.

 

Peter Cochrane

Director of National Parks

 

 

Acknowledgments

The Director of National Parks gratefully acknowledges the assistance and advice of members of the Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee, the Administration of Norfolk Island and the many individuals and organisations who contributed to the Management Plan.


 



Contents

 

Foreword                                                                                                                                         i

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                           i

A description of Norfolk Island National Park                                                                   1
and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Territory of Norfolk Island                                                                                                                 2

Norfolk Island’s protected areas                                                                                                       2

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden                                                  2

Public reserves                                                                                                                       2

The values of the Park and Botanic Garden                                                                                       2

Heritage significance                                                                                                                       3

Conservation significance                                                                                                                3

Management Plan for Norfolk Island National Park                                                         7
and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Part 1  Introduction                                                                                                                         7

1.          Background                                                                                                                            7

1.1.        Previous management plans                                                                                           7

1.2.        Structure of this Management Plan                                                                                   7

1.3.        Planning process                                                                                                           7

2.          Introductory provisions                                                                                                           8

2.1.        Short title                                                                                                                        8

2.2.        Commencement and termination                                                                                     8

2.3.        Interpretation (including acronyms)                                                                                   8

2.4.        Legislative context                                                                                                        10

2.5.        Purpose, content and matters to be taken into account in a management plan                  14

2.6.        IUCN category and zoning                                                                                             15

2.7.        International agreements                                                                                               16

2.8.        Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee (NINPAC)                                             16

Part 2  How the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island
Botanic Garden will be managed                                                                                                  17

3.          IUCN category and zoning                                                                                                     17

3.1.        Assigning the National Park and Botanic Garden to an IUCN category                              17


 

4.          Natural heritage management                                                                                                18

4.1.        Landscapes, soils and water                                                                                         18

4.2.        Native plants and animals                                                                                              20

4.3.        Managing adverse impacts of plants, animals and pathogens                                         23

4.4.        Rehabilitation                                                                                                                26

4.5.        Climate change                                                                                                             27

4.6.        Bioprospecting (access to biological resources)                                                            28

4.7.        Botanic Garden—management of the living collection and herbarium                               30

4.8.        Forestry Area                                                                                                               32

5.          Cultural heritage management                                                                                              37

5.1.        Conservation of cultural heritage values                                                                         37

6.          Visitor management and use of the Park and Botanic Garden                                               39

6.1.        Visitor use                                                                                                                    39

6.2.        Roads and tracks                                                                                                          41

6.3.        Visitor safety                                                                                                                 46

6.4.        Commercial tourism and other commercial activities                                                       48

6.5.        Visitor information, education and interpretation                                                              50

6.6.        Community use of natural resources                                                                              51

6.7.        Other activities                                                                                                              53

7.          Stakeholders and partnerships                                                                                              55

7.1.        Neighbours, stakeholders and partnerships                                                                   55

8.          Business management                                                                                                          58

8.1.        Capital works and infrastructure                                                                                      58

8.2.        Compliance and enforcement                                                                                        60

8.3.        Assessment of proposals                                                                                             61

8.4.        Incident management                                                                                                    65

8.5.        Research and monitoring                                                                                              66

8.6.        Resource use in Park and Botanic Garden operations                                                    69

8.7.        New activities not otherwise specified in this Plan                                                           70

8.8.        Management Plan implementation and evaluation                                                           71


Appendices

A.         Key result area outcomes relevant to Norfolk Island National Park                                             73
and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

B.         EPBC Act listed threatened species occurring in Norfolk Island National                                   74
Park and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden (at November 2006)

C.         EPBC Act listed migratory species occurring in Norfolk Island National                                     77
Park and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden (at November 2006)

D.         EPBC Act listed marine species occurring in Norfolk Island National Park                                 80
and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden (at November 2006)

E.         Management principles in Schedule 8 to the EPBC Regulations relevant to                               81
Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

 

Maps

1.          Location of Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden                                 5

2.          Forestry Area                                                                                                                         36

3.          Access to Norfolk Island National Park (Mount Pitt Section)                                                       43

4.          Access to Norfolk Island Botanic Garden                                                                                 44

5.          Access to Norfolk Island National Park (Phillip Island Section)                                                  45

 

Tables

1.          Decision-making process and impact assessment procedures                                                 63

2.          Environmental impact assessment matters and considerations                                                 64

 

Bibliography                                                                                                                                 84

Index                                                                                                                                            87



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


A description of

Norfolk Island National Park and

Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

 

 


Territory of Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island is located in the South Pacific Ocean at latitude 29°02’ S and longitude 167° 57’ E. The Territory of Norfolk Island includes Nepean and Phillip Islands—small, uninhabited islands that lie to the south of Norfolk Island—as well as several rocky islets near Norfolk Island’s coastline. Norfolk Island covers an area of 3455 hectares. It is approximately 1700 kilometres from Sydney, Australia, and 1100 kilometres from Auckland, New Zealand (Map 1).

Norfolk Island’s protected areas

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Norfolk Island National Park covers 650 hectares in two sections. The Mount Pitt Section on Norfolk Island itself covers 460 hectares. The other section comprises 190 hectares on neighbouring Phillip Island. The Norfolk Island Botanic Garden covers 5.5 hectares and is located near the Mount Pitt Section of the Park.

The Mount Pitt Section of the Park and the Botanic Garden were first established by the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Act 1984 (NI) when it came into force on 12 February 1985. These areas were subsequently declared a national park and botanic garden under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975 (Cwlth) by proclamation under that Act on 31 January 1986 following a request of the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly. The Phillip Island Section of the Park was proclaimed under the Commonwealth Act on 24 January 1996.

In July 2000 the (Commonwealth) Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) came into force and replaced a number of Acts relevant to the management of the Park and Garden including the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. Since 16 July 2000, the Park and the Botanic Garden have been managed under the EPBC Act.

Public reserves

A number of public reserves are established in other areas of Norfolk Island under the Public Reserves Act 1997 (NI) and managed by the Conservator of Public Reserves, Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service. They include the 10 hectare Nepean Island, located approximately one kilometre off the coast of Norfolk Island.

The values of the Park and Botanic Garden

The natural values of the Park and Botanic Garden come from being part of the Territory of Norfolk Island. Set in the south-west Pacific Ocean, the Territory provides a link between tropical and temperate oceanic island environments. The remote location, coupled with colonisation by plants and animals dispersed over vast distances of ocean, means that the Territory of Norfolk Island is important for its values as habitat for endemic species, habitat and breeding areas for


species with limited distribution and migratory species including large colonies of breeding seabirds, and for its unique vegetation assemblages.

In addition to their natural values, the Park and Botanic Garden demonstrate dramatic landscape values, including the unique physical features of Phillip Island, spectacular cliffs on the main island and skylines featuring the Norfolk Island pine.

The Park and Botanic Garden values include historic cultural heritage values. The area which is now the Mount Pitt Section of the Park has been the site of a number of significant events in the human history of the island, including its discovery and settlement by Europeans and its defence during the Second World War. Both the Park and Botanic Garden include artefacts relating to the Second World War.

The Park and Botanic Garden provide educational, scientific, cultural and recreational opportunities for Norfolk Island residents and visitors and a valuable source of income for the Norfolk Island tourism economy.

Heritage significance

At the time of preparing this Plan, the Park and Botanic Garden are a ‘nominated place’ for the purpose of potential inclusion in the National Heritage List under the EPBC Act. The Mount Pitt Section of the National Park is an ‘indicative place’ for the purpose of inclusion in the Commonwealth Heritage List under the Act. Phillip Island is a listed place on the Commonwealth Heritage List.

Conservation significance

Oceanic islands are of particular biological significance as their flora and fauna are usually derived from the chance dispersal of plants and animals over vast distances of ocean. In isolation from other populations, and subject to different evolutionary pressures, many species evolve into endemic island forms.

Plants and animals which have evolved in an island ecosystem can be more vulnerable than those which have evolved in a more competitive environment. When new species are introduced to islands, local populations may suffer and extinctions occur. This has occurred on Norfolk Island.

As well as the impact that introduced species have on island populations, Norfolk Island has been subject to extensive land clearing for agriculture and housing. Much of Norfolk Island’s landscape has been transformed from that of a densely vegetated subtropical oceanic island to a highly modified pastoral landscape characterised by grazed kikuyu pastures bordered by remnant woodland. While these changes to the landscape may have favoured some species, they have disadvantaged others.

Of the 15 species and subspecies of birds endemic to Norfolk Island only seven definitely remain. The Island Thrush or Grey-headed Blackbird (Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus) has not been sighted for some time and may be extinct. Although listed as extinct at the time of preparing


this Plan, the White-breasted White-eye (Zosterops albogularis) has been sighted several times on Norfolk Island and its status under the EPBC Act may be reviewed. Four of the remaining endemic birds are listed threatened species under the EPBC Act, namely the Norfolk Island Morepork or Boobook Owl (Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata), the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii), the Golden Whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis xanthoprocta) and the Scarlet Robin (Petroica multicolor multicolor). Appendix B to this Plan provides details of the listed threatened species under the EPBC Act that occur in Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden.

The Norfolk Island Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba norfolciensis) is presumed to have become extinct in about 1800, due to over hunting and predation by introduced cats and rats.

There are two native reptiles—the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) skink (Oligosoma lichenigera) and the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) gecko (Christinus guentheri)—that are endemic to the Norfolk and Lord Howe Island groups. Neither is found on the main island but both species occur on Phillip Island and the gecko also occurs on Nepean Island and the small rocky islets of Moo’oo Stone and Bird Rock (Cogger 2004). Both are listed threatened species under the EPBC Act.

Of the 182 plant species native to Norfolk Island 46 are listed threatened species under the EPBC Act. The National Park and Botanic Garden are the refuge for many endemic species listed as threatened under the Act, including the entire populations of many of the 15 flora species that are listed in the critically endangered category. There are also 13 plant species endemic to Norfolk Island and Phillip Island which are not listed as threatened. The endemic Phillip Island glory pea (Streblorrhiza speciosa) is considered to be extinct. Appendix B provides details of the listed threatened species occurring in the National Park and Botanic Garden.

Norfolk, Nepean and Phillip Islands and other smaller islets are important as nesting or roosting habitats for seabirds, such as the Whale Bird or Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata). The Japan–Australia Migratory Birds Agreement (JAMBA), the Republic of Korea–Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (ROKAMBA), the Bonn Convention, and the China–Australia Migratory Birds Agreement (CAMBA) provide for the protection of migratory birds and their habitats. Bird species listed under these agreements are protected under Part 13 of the EPBC Act as listed migratory species. Appendix C to this Plan sets out the listed migratory species that occur in the Park and Botanic Garden.


Map 1:         Location of Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

 



 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management Plan for
Norfolk Island National Park and
Norfolk Island Botanic Garden


Part 1        Introduction

1.                      Background

Part 1 of the document sets out the context in which the Management Plan for the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden was prepared. It describes previous plans and the network of legislative requirements and international agreements which underpin the content of the plans.

This is the first time a single management plan for the National Park and Botanic Garden has been prepared.

 

1.1                  Previous management plans

The previous management plans for Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden were in operation for seven years and ceased to have effect on 28 June 2007.

 

1.2                  Structure of this Management Plan

The structure of this Plan reflects the Parks Australia Strategic Planning and Performance Assessment Framework, a set of priorities based on Australian Government policy and legislative requirements for the protected area estate that is the responsibility of the Director of National Parks.

The outcomes in the Plan have been developed against the following key result areas (KRAs) set out in the Strategic Planning and Performance Assessment Framework:

KRA 1: Natural heritage management (see Section 4 of the Plan)

KRA 2: Cultural heritage management (see Section 5)

KRA 4: Visitor management and park use (see Section 6)

KRA 5: Stakeholders and partnerships (see Section 7)

KRA 6: Business management (see Section 8).

Not all KRAs apply to all reserves; KRA 3, Joint management and KRA 7, Biodiversity knowledge management, do not apply to Norfolk Island National Park or Norfolk Island Botanic Garden. Appendix A details outcomes for the KRAs, which are also used to structure the State of the Parks report in the Director of National Parks’ Annual Report to the Australian Parliament.

 

1.3                  Planning process

Section 366 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) requires that the Director of National Parks prepare management plans for each Commonwealth reserve. Section 368 requires the Director to seek comments from members of the public and the relevant state or territory government.

Other stakeholder groups and individuals that were consulted during the preparation of this Management Plan include tourism industry representatives, scientists, fishing and photography interest groups, representatives from the Australian Government and Norfolk Island Assembly, government agencies, and community organisations.


 

2.                      Introductory provisions

2.1                  Short title

This Management Plan may be cited as the Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden Management Plan.

 

2.2                  Commencement and termination

This Management Plan will come into operation following approval by the Minister under s.370 of the EPBC Act, on a date specified by the Minister or the date it is registered under the Legislative Instruments Act 2003, whichever is later, and will cease to have effect ten years after commencement, unless revoked sooner by a new plan.

 

2.3                  Interpretation (including acronyms)

In this Plan:

Australian Government means the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia

Bonn means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)

Botanic Garden means the Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

CAMBA means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment

Commonwealth reserve means a reserve established under Division 4 of Part 15 of the EPBC Act

CSIRO means the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

Department means the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts or such other department or agency that succeeds to the functions of the Department

Director means the Director of National Parks under s.514A of the EPBC Act, and includes Parks Australia and any person to whom the Director has delegated powers and functions under the EPBC Act in relation to Norfolk Island National Park and/or Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

EPBC Act means the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, including Regulations under the Act, and includes reference to any Act amending, repealing or replacing the EPBC Act

EPBC Regulations means the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000 and includes reference to any Regulations amending, repealing or replacing the EPBC Regulations

Forestry operations means operations or activities connected with, or incidental to, planting, maintenance and harvesting of trees or other plants (as defined in the EPBC Act) including clearing, planting, felling, burning, sawing or other value adding, the use of fertilisers and chemicals, the use of pathogens or other biological controls, the construction and maintenance of tracks and roads, and the erection and maintenance of buildings such as a plant nursery


IUCN means the World Conservation Union

JAMBA means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment

KRA means key result area. The seven KRAs developed by the Director of National Parks are set out in the Parks Australia Strategic Planning and Performance Assessment Framework

Management Plan or Plan means this Management Plan for the National Park and Botanic Garden, unless otherwise stated

Management principles means the Australian IUCN reserve management principles set out in Schedule 8 of the EPBC Regulations (see Appendix E)

Minister means the Minister administering the EPBC Act

NINPAC means the Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee

Norfolk Island Botanic Garden means the area declared as a reserve by that name under the NPWC Act and continued under the EPBC Act by the Environmental Reform (Consequential Provisions) Act 1999

Norfolk Island National Park means the areas declared as a national park by that name under the NPWC Act and continued under the EPBC Act by the Environmental Reform (Consequential Provisions) Act 1999

NPWC Act means the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975 and the Regulations under that Act

Park or National Park means Norfolk Island National Park

Parks Australia means that part of the Department that assists the Director in performing the Director’s functions under the EPBC Act

Parks Australia staff means staff who are employees of the Department assigned to assist the Director of National Parks

ROKAMBA means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of Korea for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment

Territory means the Territory of Norfolk Island

 

2.4                  Legislative context

2.4.1              EPBC Act

Objects of the Act

The objects of the EPBC Act as set out in Part 1 are:

(a)        to provide for the protection of the environment, especially those aspects of the environment that are matters of national environmental significance; and

(b)        to promote ecologically sustainable development through the conservation and ecologically sustainable use of natural resources; and

(c)        to promote the conservation of biodiversity; and


(ca)    to provide for the protection and conservation of heritage; and

(d)        to promote a co-operate approach to the protection and management of the environment involving governments, the community, land-holders and indigenous peoples; and

(e)        to assist in the co-operative implementation of Australia’s international environmental responsibilities; and

(f)          to recognise the role of indigenous people in the conservation and ecologically sustainable use of Australia’s biodiversity; and

(g)        to promote the use of indigenous people’s knowledge of biodiversity with the involvement of, and in cooperation with, the owners of the knowledge.

Establishment of the National Park and Botanic Garden

The Mount Pitt Section of the Park and the Botanic Garden were proclaimed under the NPWC Act on 31 January 1986. The Phillip Island Section of the Park was proclaimed under the NPWC Act on 24 January 1996. The NPWC Act was replaced by the EPBC Act in July 2000. The Park and the Botanic Garden continue as Commonwealth reserves under the EPBC Act pursuant to the Environmental Reform (Consequential Provisions) Act 1999, which deems the Park to have been declared for the following purposes:

·       the preservation of the area in its natural condition

·       the encouragement and regulation of the appropriate use, appreciation and enjoyment of the area by the public

and deems the Botanic Garden to have been declared for the purpose of:

·       increasing knowledge, appreciation and enjoyment of Australia’s plant heritage by establishing, as an integrated resource, a collection of living and herbarium specimens of Australian and related plants for study, interpretation, conservation and display.

Director of National Parks

The Director is a corporation under the EPBC Act (s.514A) and a Commonwealth authority for the purposes of the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997. The corporation is controlled by the person appointed by the Governor-General to the office that is also called the Director of National Parks (s.514F of the EPBC Act).

The functions of the Director (s.514B) include the administration, management and control of the Park and Botanic Garden. The Director generally has power to do all things necessary or convenient for performing the Director’s functions (s.514C). The Director has a number of specified powers under the EPBC Act and EPBC Regulations, including the power to prohibit or control some activities and to issue permits for activities that are otherwise prohibited. The Director performs functions and exercises powers in accordance with this Management Plan.

Management plans

The EPBC Act requires the Director to prepare management plans for the Park and the Botanic Garden. When prepared, a plan is given to the Minister for approval. A management plan is a ‘legislative instrument’ for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 and must be registered under that Act. Following registration the plan is tabled in each House of the Commonwealth Parliament and may be disallowed by either House on a motion moved within 15 sitting days of the House after tabling.


A management plan for a Commonwealth reserve has effect for ten years, subject to being revoked or amended earlier by another management plan for the reserve.

See Section 2.5 in relation to EPBC Act requirements for a management plan.

Control of actions in Commonwealth reserves

The EPBC Act (ss.354 and 354A) prohibits certain actions being taken in Commonwealth reserves except in accordance with a management plan. These actions are:

·       kill, injure, take, trade, keep or move a member of a native species; or

·       damage heritage; or

·       carry on an excavation; or

·       erect a building or other structure; or

·       carry out works; or

·       take an action for commercial purposes.

The EPBC Act (ss.355 and 355A) also prohibits mining operations being taken in Commonwealth reserves except in accordance with a management plan.

The EPBC Regulations control, or allow the Director to control, a range of activities in Commonwealth reserves, such as camping, use of vehicles and vessels, littering, commercial activities and research. The Director of National Parks applies the Regulations subject to and in accordance with the EPBC Act and management plans. The Regulations do not apply to the Director of National Parks or to wardens or rangers appointed under the EPBC Act. Activities that are prohibited or restricted by the EPBC Regulations may be carried on if they are authorised by a permit issued by the Director and/or they are carried on in accordance with a management plan or if another exception prescribed by r.12.06(1) of the Regulations applies.

As noted earlier, the Park and the Botanic Garden were declared under the NPWC Act, which was replaced by the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. The EPBC Act has also replaced a number of other Commonwealth Acts, namely the:

·       Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975

·       Endangered Species Protection Act 1992

·       Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974

·       Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982

·       Whale Protection Act 1980

·       World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983.

The following parts of the EPBC Act may also be relevant to the management of the Park and Botanic Garden and the taking of actions in, and in relation to, the Park and Botanic Garden.

Environmental impact assessment

Actions that are likely to have a significant impact on matters of ‘national environmental significance’ are subject to the referral, assessment and approval provisions of Chapters 2 to 4 of the EPBC Act (irrespective of where the action is taken).

At the time of preparing this Plan, the matters of national environmental significance identified in the EPBC Act are:


·       World Heritage properties

·       National Heritage places

·       Ramsar wetlands of international importance

·       nationally listed threatened species and ecological communities

·       listed migratory species

·       Commonwealth marine areas

·       nuclear actions (including uranium mining).

The referral, assessment and approval provisions also apply to actions on Commonwealth land that are likely to have a significant impact on the environment and actions taken outside Commonwealth land that are likely to have a significant impact on the environment on Commonwealth land. The National Park and Botanic Garden are Commonwealth land for the purposes of the EPBC Act.

Responsibility for compliance with the assessment and approval provisions of the EPBC Act lies with persons taking relevant ‘controlled’ actions. A person proposing to take an action that the person thinks may be or is a controlled action should refer the proposal to the Minister for the Minister’s decision whether or not the action is a controlled action. The Director of National Parks may also refer proposed actions to the Minister.

Wildlife protection

The EPBC Act also contains provisions (Part 13) that prohibit and regulate actions in relation to listed threatened species and ecological communities, listed migratory species, cetaceans (whales and dolphins) and listed marine species. Appendices B, C and D to this Plan list species that occur in the Park and Botanic Garden that are listed threatened species, listed migratory species and listed marine species under the EPBC Act.

Actions taken in accordance with a Commonwealth reserve management plan that is in operation under the EPBC Act are exempt from Part 13.

Heritage protection

As noted above, the EPBC Act has replaced the Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975. The Register of the National Estate established under that Act continues under the Australian Heritage Council Act 2003. The National Park (including Phillip Island) is listed in the Register of the National Estate and the Botanic Garden is in the indicative list for possible inclusion in the register. Section 319A of the EPBC Act requires the Minister to have regard to information in the Register of the National Estate in making any decisions under the EPBC Act to which the information is relevant.

At the time of preparing this Plan, the Park and Botanic Garden are ‘nominated places’ for possible inclusion in the National Heritage List under the EPBC Act. The Mount Pitt Section of the National Park is an ‘indicative place’ for possible inclusion in the Commonwealth Heritage List under the Act. Phillip Island is listed on the Commonwealth Heritage List.

The EPBC Act National and Commonwealth Heritage protection provisions (ss.324A to 324ZC and ss.341A to 341ZH) relevantly provide:

·       for the establishment and maintenance of a National Heritage List and a Commonwealth Heritage List, criteria and values for inclusion of places in either list and management principles for places that are included in the two lists


·       that Commonwealth agencies must not take an action that is likely to have an adverse impact on the heritage values of a place included in either list unless there is no feasible and prudent alternative to taking the action, and all measures that can reasonably be taken to mitigate the impact of the action on those values are taken; and

·       that Commonwealth agencies that own or control places must:

i.       prepare a written heritage strategy for managing those places to protect and conserve their Commonwealth Heritage values, addressing any matters required by the EPBC Regulations, and consistent with the Commonwealth Heritage management principles; and

ii.      identify Commonwealth Heritage values for each place, and produce a register that sets out the Commonwealth Heritage values (if any) for each place (and do so within the time frame set out in their heritage strategies).

Penalties

Civil and criminal penalties may be imposed for breaches of the EPBC Act.

2.4.2              Norfolk Island legislation

The Park and Garden are also established under the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Act 1984 (NI), which operates subject to the EPBC Act.

Under the Norfolk Island legislation, the senior officer responsible for the Park and the Botanic Garden is designated as the Park Superintendent. This position is currently filled by the senior Parks Australia officer on Norfolk Island who is generally known as the Park Manager.

 

2.5                  Purpose, content and matters to be taken into account in a management plan

The purpose of this Management Plan is to describe the philosophy and direction of management for the National Park and Botanic Garden for the next ten years in accordance with the EPBC Act. The Plan enables management to proceed in an orderly way; it helps reconcile competing interests and identifies priorities for the allocation of available resources.

Under s.367(1) of the EPBC Act, a management plan for a Commonwealth reserve (in this case, the Park and the Botanic Garden) must provide for the protection and conservation of the reserve. In particular, each plan must:

(a)        assign the reserve to an IUCN protected area category (whether or not a proclamation has assigned the reserve or a zone of the reserve to that IUCN category); and

(b)        state how the reserve, or each zone of the reserve, is to be managed; and

(c)        state how the natural features of the reserve, or of each zone of the reserve, are to be protected and conserved; and

(d)        if the Director holds land or seabed included in the reserve under lease—be consistent with the Director’s obligations under the lease; and

(e)        specify any limitation or prohibition on the exercise of a power, or performance of a function, under the EPBC Act in or in relation to the reserve; and

(f)          specify any mining operation, major excavation or other works that may be carried on in the reserve, and the conditions under which it may be carried on; and


(g)        specify any other operation or activity that may be carried on in the reserve; and

(h)        indicate generally the activities that are to be prohibited or regulated in the reserve, and the means of prohibiting or regulating them; and

(i)          indicate how the Plan takes account of Australia’s obligations under each agreement with one or more other countries that is relevant to the reserve (including the World Heritage Convention and the Ramsar Convention, if appropriate); and

(j)          if the reserve includes a National Heritage place:

i.      not be inconsistent with the National Heritage management principles; and

ii.     address the matters prescribed by regulations made for the purposes of paragraph 324S(4)(a); and

(k)        if the reserve includes a Commonwealth Heritage place:

i.      not be inconsistent with the Commonwealth Heritage management principles; and

ii.     address the matters prescribed by regulations made for the purposes of paragraph 341S(4)(a).

In preparing a management plan the EPBC Act (s.368) also requires account to be taken of various matters. In respect to the National Park and Botanic Garden these matters include:

·       the regulation of the use of the Park and Botanic Garden for the purpose for which they were declared

·       the protection of the special features of the Park and Botanic Garden, including objects and sites of biological, historical, palaeontological, archaeological, geological and geographical interest

·       the protection, conservation and management of biodiversity and heritage within the Park and the Botanic Garden

·       the protection of the Park and Botanic Garden against damage

·       Australia’s obligations under agreements between Australia and one or more other countries relevant to the protection and conservation of biodiversity and heritage.

2.6                  IUCN category and zoning

As noted above, a management plan must assign a Commonwealth reserve to an IUCN protected area category. The categories are prescribed by the EPBC Regulations and correspond to the protected area categories identified by the IUCN:

 

IUCN category number

Protected area category

Ia

Strict nature reserve

Ib

Wilderness area

II

National park

III

Natural monument

IV

Habitat/species management area

V

Protected landscape/seascape

VI

Managed resource protected area


A management plan may divide a Commonwealth reserve into zones and assign each zone to an IUCN category. The category to which a zone is assigned may differ from the category to which the reserve is assigned (s.367(2)).

The provisions of a management plan must not be inconsistent with the management principles for the IUCN category to which the reserve or zone of the reserve is assigned (s.367(3)). See Section 3 for information on the National Park and Botanic Garden’s IUCN categories.

 

2.7                  International agreements

This Management Plan must take account of Australia’s obligations under relevant international agreements. The following agreements are relevant to the Park and Botanic Garden and are taken into account in this Management Plan.

CAMBA

CAMBA provides for China and Australia to cooperate in the protection of migratory birds listed in the annex to the agreement and their environment, and requires each country to take appropriate measures to preserve and enhance the environment of migratory birds. Thirty species listed under this agreement occur in the Park and Botanic Garden.

JAMBA

JAMBA provides for Japan and Australia to cooperate in taking measures for the management and protection of migratory birds, birds in danger of extinction, and the management and protection of their environments, and requires each country to take appropriate measures to preserve and enhance the environment of birds protected under the provisions of the agreement. Thirty-five species listed under this agreement occur in the Park and Botanic Garden.

ROKAMBA

ROKAMBA provides for the Republic of Korea and Australia to cooperate in taking measures for the management and protection of migratory birds and their habitat by providing a forum for the exchange of information, support for training activities and collaboration on migratory bord research and monitoring activities. Twenty-eight species listed under this agreement occur in the Park and Botanic Garden.

Bonn Convention

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. Parties to this convention work together to conserve migratory species and their habitats. Twenty-two species listed under this convention occur in the Park and Botanic Garden.

Species that are listed under the above agreements and conventions are listed species under Part 13 of the EPBC Act. Appendix C to this Management Plan describes listed migratory species found in the Park and Botanic Garden.

2.8                  Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee (NINPAC)

The first management plan established NINPAC to advise the Norfolk Island Government and the Director of National Parks on the effective implementation of the management plan and on other matters relevant to the National Park and Botanic Garden. NINPAC members are appointed by the Director of National Parks.


Part 2    How the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden will be managed

3.                      IUCN category and zoning

3.1                  Assigning the Park and Botanic Garden to an IUCN category

Our aim

·       The Park and Botanic Garden are managed in accordance with an IUCN protected area category and relevant management principles to protect their values while providing for appropriate use

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Degree of management compliance with the relevant Australian IUCN reserve management principles

Background

As noted in Section 2.6, the EPBC Act requires this Management Plan to assign both the National Park and the Botanic Garden to IUCN categories. A management plan can also divide a Commonwealth reserve into zones and must assign each zone to an IUCN category (which may differ from the overall category assigned to the reserve). The EPBC Regulations (Schedule 8) prescribe the management principles for each IUCN category. The principles relevant to this Plan are set out in Appendix E.

The categories to which the Park and Botanic Garden are assigned are guided by the purposes for which they were declared (see Section 2.4, Legislative context). The purposes for which the Park was declared are consistent with the characteristics for IUCN protected area category II, national park. The purpose for which the Botanic Garden was declared is consistent with the characteristics for IUCN protected area category IV, habitat/species management area.

The Park is divided by this Plan into two zones—the Forestry Area (see Section 4.8) to be managed as IUCN category VI, managed resource protected area, reflecting the purposes for which the area is used; and the balance of the Mount Pitt Section of the Park and Phillip Island to be managed as IUCN category II, national park.

What we are going to do

Policies

3.1.1              The National Park is assigned to IUCN protected area category II, national park.

3.1.2              The Park is divided into two zones:

(a)        the Forestry Area (Map 2) assigned to IUCN category VI, managed resource protected area

(b)       the balance of the Mount Pitt Section of the Park and Phillip Island assigned to IUCN category II, national park.

3.1.3              The Botanic Garden is assigned to IUCN protected area category IV, habitat/species management area.


 

4.                      Natural heritage management

The Mount Pitt Section of the Park consists of a small remnant (less than 10 per cent) of the subtropical rainforest which originally covered Norfolk Island. The remnant is subdivided into smaller communities: palm and tree fern forest; hardwood forest; and Araucaria-dominated forest.

The Botanic Garden contains a small remnant of the subtropical viney hardwood forest which once covered much of the island foothills. The small size of the remnants render the natural heritage values of the Park and Botanic Garden very sensitive to further disturbance.

The Botanic Garden and Park headquarters also house the living collection, aviaries, a display room and the herbarium.

As a result of vegetation destruction by introduced animals there is severe erosion on Phillip Island. Large areas are bare and the very small areas of surviving native vegetation are being added to by rehabilitation. The introduced weed African olive (Olea europaea cuspidate) is taking over large parts of Phillip Island.

The Park and Botanic Garden are the refuge of many endemic species including substantial proportions of many of the 15 flora species listed under the EPBC Act as critically endangered.

The Forestry Area of the Park contains timber production plantations, which were established and managed many years before the proclamation of the Park, and areas of remnant native vegetation.

Climate change has the potential to threaten Park and Botanic Garden values.

Introduced weeds, predators, competitors and pathogens are major threats to Park and Botanic Garden values.

Areas of the Park and Botanic Garden are either completely denuded of vegetation or are heavily infested with weeds.

Some ecological processes, such as nutrient cycles, have been severely damaged.

 

4.1                  Landscapes, soils and water

Our aim

·       Protect the landscape, soil and water values of the Park and Botanic Garden.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which the landscape, soil and water values of the Park and Botanic Garden have been maintained and/or restored

·       Number of significant erosion events in the Park and Botanic Garden

·       Extent to which water in run-off and recharge areas is free of persistent chemicals as a result of management actions


Background

Landscapes

Mount Pitt and Mount Bates, both in the Park, are the highest peaks on Norfolk Island. Together with their extensive stands of Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla), they form a dominant visual element of the Norfolk Island landscape.

Popular summit viewing areas provide panoramic views of much of the island, the surrounding sea, Nepean Island and Phillip Island. Views of the spectacular coastal scenery can be enjoyed from the Captain Cook Monument.

Viewing areas, including in particular the summits of Mount Pitt and Mount Bates and the Captain Cook Monument area, are major assets for the tourism industry.

There is critical community infrastructure including communication aerials and associated infrastructure on the summit of Mount Pitt. Most of the utilities in the Park, including electricity and telephone lines, are underground.

The degraded Phillip Island landscape is being rehabilitated to establish a cover of native vegetation.

Soils

Norfolk Island’s volcanic soils are nutrient rich, friable and porous. They do not hold moisture well, so native vegetation is susceptible to stress during long dry periods. This applies not only to species such as the little filmy fern (Crepidomanes saxifragoides) that require moist, shaded areas, but also to some trees on Norfolk Island. Large amounts of soil have been lost from Phillip Island through erosion. The nature of Phillip Island’s soils makes revegetation a difficult task.

Water

Precipitation on Norfolk Island occurs mainly through rainfall with some fog-drip. The Park and Botanic Garden are thought to be major recharge areas for Norfolk Island’s aquifers and hence for the community’s water supplies. The Park and Botanic Garden are also catchments for surface run-off.

There is no natural surface water on Phillip Island.

Sections 354 and 354A of the EPBC Act prohibit certain actions being taken in the Park and Botanic Garden except in accordance with this Plan, including actions affecting members of native species, damaging heritage, excavation, construction and other works. Sections 355 and 355A of the Act prohibit mining operations except in accordance with this Plan.

The EPBC Regulations prohibit certain activities relevant to protecting the landscapes, soils and water in the Park and Botanic Garden, including release of harmful and polluting substances (r.12.14(3)), and use of poisonous substances (r.12.15), unless done in accordance with this Plan or a permit issued by the Director under the EPBC Regulations.

Issues

·       Maintaining landscape values while allowing for the functioning of critical community infrastructure on the summit of Mount Pitt as well as for viewing the island’s landscapes.

·       Visitor and tourist industry access to viewing areas.

·       Managing erosion.

·       Maintaining water quality in aquifer recharge and surface run-off areas.


What we are going to do

Policies

4.1.1              Actions taken under this Plan must be taken in a manner that will minimise impact on Park and Botanic Garden values.

4.1.2              Consultation will take place with the Norfolk Island Government with respect to critical community infrastructure on the summit of Mount Pitt.

4.1.3              The tourism industry will be consulted on access to viewing areas.

4.1.4              Actions taken under this Plan must be taken in a manner that will minimise soil erosion, control sediment and reduce the impact on aquifer recharge and surface water run-off.

4.1.5              Persistent chemicals which may adversely affect the quality of surface water and/or water in aquifer recharge areas must not be used.

4.1.6              Water will be managed to minimise adverse impacts on, and enhance, Park and Botanic Garden values.

4.1.7              Actions covered by ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act may be taken for the purposes of managing water, landscapes and soils.

4.1.8              Mining operations must not be carried on in the Park or Botanic Garden.

Actions

4.1.9              Place utilities underground in the Park and Botanic Garden where practicable or screen with native plantings.

4.1.10           Manage vegetation, including clearing, to maintain significant views.

4.1.11           Maintain and regularly update the existing pictorial record of changes to Phillip Island landscapes.

4.1.12           Assess chemical use for any potential adverse impact on values, aquifer recharge and surface run-off prior to their use.

4.1.13           Where practicable collect and store water in the Park and/or Botanic Garden including for species propagation, revegetation, and safety.

4.2                  Native plants and animals

Our aim

·       Maintain or improve the distribution and abundance of species native to Norfolk Island, and the ecosystems and processes upon which they depend.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which the distribution and abundance of EPBC listed plants and animals are maintained at current levels or improved

·       Extent to which the distribution and abundance of non-listed native species are maintained or improved

Background

Norfolk Island has many naturally occurring (native) species which are listed threatened species under Part 13 of the EPBC Act (in the critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable category).


Other species that occur are listed migratory and marine species under Part 13.

The Park and Botanic Garden also contain species which, while not listed, are significant for other reasons. For example the Norfolk Island pine is significant because of its contribution to landscape values, its role in island ecosystems and the cultural value placed on it by the Norfolk Island community. The white oak (Lagunaria patersonia) is significant because of its role as a food source for listed species such as the Norfolk Island Green Parrot and the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) gecko.

Species listed under Part 13 of the EPBC Act at the time of preparing this Plan are at Appendices B, C and D to this Plan.

Given the small size of the Park and Botanic Garden and the distribution of many species beyond the Park boundary, achieving our aim depends on both on- and off-Park actions. Therefore cooperation with the Norfolk Island Government and community is vital. Two important processes under way at the time of preparation of this Plan are development of the Norfolk Island Multi-species Recovery Plan under the EPBC Act for listed threatened species, and the Regional Natural Resource Management Plan.

The Multi-species Recovery Plan will identify many of the priorities for species-directed management actions on and off the Park. It will incorporate existing recovery plans for the Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin, Norfolk Island Golden Whistler and Norfolk Island Green Parrot.

It is a normal ecological process of islands that self-introductions occur over time.

In order to achieve the aims of this Management Plan, the Director may need to move native species, including species listed under Part 13 of the EPBC Act, within the Park and Botanic Garden, out of the Park and Botanic Garden and/or into the Park and Botanic Garden.

The achievement of our aim also depends fundamentally on reducing or managing adverse impacts of plants, animals and pathogens including native species (see Section 4.3), rehabilitating natural ecosystems (see Section 4.4) and rigorous quarantine measures.

Under ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act a person may not kill, injure, take, trade, keep or move a member of a native species except in accordance with a management plan. The EPBC Regulations also prohibit taking animals and plants into the Park or Botanic Garden, and cultivating plants in the Park or Botanic Garden.

Actions taken in accordance with this Plan in relation to members of species listed under Part 13 of the Act are exempt from prohibitions that would otherwise apply under Part 13.

Flora

182 plant species are native to Norfolk Island. The National Park and the Botanic Garden are the refuge for about 40 endemic species, including substantial proportions of the populations of many of the 15 flora species considered to be critically endangered.

Fauna

Of the 15 species and subspecies of birds endemic to Norfolk Island, only seven definitely remain.

Nest maintenance, and predator and competitor control have been successful in increasing Green Parrot and Norfolk Island Morepork numbers in the wild.


The two native mammals recorded from Norfolk Island—Gould’s wattled bat (Chalinolobus gouldii) and the Eastern free-tail bat (Mormopterus norfolkensis)—are thought to be locally extinct.

The two native reptile species found in the Norfolk Group—the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) gecko (Christinus guentheri) and the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) skink (Oligosoma lichenigera)—are considered extinct on Norfolk Island but still occur on Phillip Island. The introduced Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) has recently been recorded at three sites on Norfolk Island and has been implicated in the decline of some native gecko species in other parts of its range.

The Park and Botanic Garden have a rich diversity of terrestrial molluscs but it is thought that the introduction of rats and feral fowl Gallus gallus may have had a severe impact on this group of species.

Issues

·       A high proportion of the Park and Botanic Garden species are listed threatened species under the EPBC Act.

·       The Park and Botanic Garden provide habitat for listed threatened, migratory and marine species.

·       Many of the native species in the Park and Botanic Garden have very small populations, and/or have only a single population.

·       There is insufficient knowledge for management of some species.

·       Monitoring trends in the status of many species is challenging, particularly on Phillip Island where access is difficult.

·       The viability of many native species will depend upon actions taken inside and outside the Park and Botanic Garden.

What we are going to do

Policies

4.2.1              Priority will be given to actions under this Plan aimed at improving the conservation status of listed threatened species.

4.2.2              Priority will be given to actions under this Plan that have systemic benefits for more than one species.

4.2.3              Research and monitoring will be managed in accordance with Section 8.5 of this Plan (Research and monitoring).

4.2.4              The Director may take actions concerning native species, including species listed under Part 13 of the EPBC Act, that are otherwise prohibited by the Act where they are necessary to implement this Plan, or where they are otherwise necessary for preserving or protecting the Park and the Botanic Garden values, protecting or conserving biodiversity, or protecting persons or property in the Park and Botanic Garden.

4.2.5              Native plant material may be taken in and from the Park in accordance with a permit issued under the EPBC Regulations.

4.2.6              Taking of native plant and animal species that involves access to biological resources will be managed in accordance with Section 4.6, Bioprospecting.


Actions

4.2.7              Contribute to regional natural resource planning and multi-species recovery planning and associated implementation processes.

4.2.8              So far as practicable implement multi-species recovery plans, and relevant threat abatement plans for listed threatened species.

4.2.9              So far as practicable take other actions that may improve or maintain the conservation status of species native to Norfolk Island.

4.2.10           Collaborate with other agencies to establish additional populations of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot, and of other species where necessary, consistent with this Management Plan.

4.3       Managing adverse impacts of plants, animals and pathogens

Our aim

·       Control or eradicate weeds, feral animals and destructive pathogens.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Changes in the extent of weed coverage in the Park and Botanic Garden

·       Number and coverage of new weed species

·       Changes in the status of introduced predators and competitors

·       Changes in the impact of pathogens and competitors

Background

The prescriptions in this Section support the aims of Section 4.2 ie maintaining or improving the distribution and abundance of species native to Norfolk Island, and the ecosystems and processes upon which they depend.

Native species may on occasions impact negatively impact on other native species and in extreme circumstance may require control action.

Many plants and animals have been introduced to Norfolk Island by humans, including some native species within the meaning of the EPBC Act. Several pose a major threat to the native species of Norfolk Island.

Some introduced predators, in particular rats and cats, have not become established on Phillip Island which has allowed populations of some native species which have become locally extinct on Norfolk Island to survive on Phillip Island. Examples include the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) gecko (Christinus guentheri) and the Lord Howe Island (Norfolk Island) skink (Oligosoma lichenigera).

Quarantine to prevent new weeds, predators, competitors and pathogens from entering Norfolk Island, or from crossing to Phillip Island, is critical to maintaining Park and Botanic Garden values.

Weeds and other problem plants

Without action weeds (introduced plants) would destroy most Park and Botanic Garden values.

 

The main Norfolk Island weed species are red guava (Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum); African olive (Olea europaea africana); Hawaiian holly (Schinus terebinthifolius); lantana (Lantana camara); William Taylor (Ageratina riparia); kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum); wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum); Formosan lily (Lilium formosanum); bleeding heart (Homolanthus populifolius); and morning glory (Ipomoeia cairica).

Weeds suppress or eliminate native plants and the animals that depend on them. They can alter the structure as well as the species composition of vegetation. Impacts on animals can include the loss of food and nest hollows. Woody weeds (guava, African olive and Hawaiian holly) dominate significant areas of the Park.

Weed management is the major demand on resources for management of the Park and Botanic Garden.

Overabundance of a native plant species at a particular location may have the potential to impact on other native species.

Feral animals

Feral animals pose major threats to the native species of Norfolk Island. Major predators include the black rat (Rattus rattus), the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans), the house cat (Felis catus) and feral fowl (Gallus gallus). They are a major threat to listed threatened species under the EPBC Act. None are present on Phillip Island.

Predation by rodents

Rodents eat birds, bird eggs, nestlings, reptiles, invertebrates (including land snails) and fruit, seeds and flowers. The Polynesian rat was probably introduced about 800 years ago by Polynesian explorers. The black rat was introduced later, possibly as late as 1943, and is considered to be the most destructive predator on Norfolk Island today. Park management has implemented an extensive rat control program since 1992. In March 2006 predation by exotic rats on Australian offshore islands of less than 1000 square kilometres (100 000 hectares) was listed as a key threatening process under the EBPC Act.

Predation by feral cats

Feral cats (Felis catus) eat birds, nestlings and reptiles. They are a major threat to several listed species and many other native species. The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is listed in the Threat abatement plan for predation by feral cats (Environment Australia 1999) as one of the species for which feral cats are a known or perceived threat.

Cats are controlled through trapping and removal. Parks Australia also subsidises a cat desexing program. National priorities for cat control are defined in the Threat abatement plan for predation by feral cats.

Predation and competition by other introduced and native species

Introduced bird species such as the Common Starling (Sternus vulgaris) compete with the Green Parrot and the Morepork for nesting sites. Once filled with starlings’ nesting material the hollows will not be used by the Parrot or the Owl.

The Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), introduced to Norfolk Island and known locally as the Red Parrot, is a direct competitor of the endangered Green Parrot. It eats similar foods and has similar nesting requirements. It is also more aggressive than the native bird species.


Colonies of introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) frequently occupy tree hollows which might otherwise be used by nesting birds. Hives found in the Park are removed where practicable.

Feral fowl have increased their range and numbers on Norfolk Island. Anecdotal observations indicate that in the Park and Botanic Garden feral fowl are changing the soil moisture regime through extensive disturbance of litter, may be reducing numbers of some invertebrates (land snails in particular) and are possibly aiding the spread of the root rot fungus Phellinus noxius.

Native species may also impact adversely on one another from time to time or at particular locations.

Pathogens

In general, pathogens of native plants and animals in the Park and Botanic Garden are poorly known. Two pathogens are known to have had a significant impact on Park and Botanic Garden values—psittacine circovirus disease (PCD), commonly known as ‘parrot beak and feather disease’, and the root rot fungus Phellinus noxius.

PCD was listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act in 2001 and the Threat abatement plan for beak and feather disease affecting endangered psittacine species was released in 2005 (DEH 2005). The threat abatement plan identifies the Norfolk Island Green Parrot as being adversely affected by PCD.

The root rot fungus Phellinus noxius has been identified as being the principal pathogen causing dieback of Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla).

Issues

·       Weeds, introduced predators, competitors and pathogens are major threats to Park and Botanic Garden values.

·       Management of these threats is expensive.

·       Our understanding of some of the threats and their management is insufficient.

·       The introduction of the Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) and the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) in the past ten years raises concerns that current quarantine arrangements are insufficient to protect Park and Botanic Garden values.

What we are going to do

Policies

4.3.1              Reduce the weed threat to Park and Botanic Garden values.

4.3.2              Reduce the threat of introduced predators, competitors and pathogens to Park and Botanic Garden values.

4.3.3              Increase knowledge and adapt management responses.

4.3.4              Work with the Norfolk Island Government to improve quarantine outcomes.

4.3.5              Quarantine Phillip Island from Norfolk Island introductions.

4.3.6              The Director may take actions concerning native species, including species listed under Part 13 of the EPBC Act, that are otherwise prohibited by the EPBC Act where they are necessary to manage adverse impacts on other native species.


Actions

4.3.7              Remove weeds, giving priority to those that pose the greatest threat to species listed as threatened under the EPBC Act (in the critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable categories).

4.3.8              Poison and/or trap rats.

4.3.9              Trap cats and subsidise cat desexing clinics.

4.3.10           Take measures to mitigate the impacts of introduced predators, competitors and pathogens. Measures may include rat-proofing listed birds’ breeding sites and removing starling nesting material from Morepork nest boxes.

4.3.11           Seek the cooperation of the Norfolk Island Government to minimise the risk of further introductions of weeds and feral predators, competitors and pathogens to Norfolk Island.

4.3.12           Maintain and promote guidelines to inform visitors and tour operators about the risks of introducing weeds, feral animals, competitors or pathogens to Phillip Island.

4.3.13           Include quarantine requirements in permit conditions for tour operators taking tours to Phillip Island.

4.3.14           Provide information to the Norfolk Island community advising them of the threat of introductions and the actions they can take to protect their native plants and animals.

4.3.15           Assess vehicles and equipment entering the Botanic Garden to determine the likelihood of infection occurring and whether steam-cleaning is required.

4.4                  Rehabilitation

Our aims

·       Revegetate with native plants areas that have been denuded or which have been cleared as a result of weed management actions.

·       Repair, where appropriate, ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycles.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aims

·       Extent of additional native vegetation coverage

·       Progress in implementing, or in establishing preconditions for, translocations or reintroductions in the Park and Botanic Garden

Background

The Park and Botanic Garden have been subject to a long history of disturbance which has caused disruption of ecological processes, species extinctions and major reductions in the extent and quality of ecosystems.

Much vegetation in the Park and Botanic Garden has either been destroyed completely by introduced herbivores or has been displaced by weeds. Some specific ecological processes have been severely damaged or destroyed by past actions.

The extent of the historical damage means that it is not feasible to aim to restore the Park and Botanic Garden to the state which existed prior to the beginning of either Polynesian or European impacts. For example, it is not practical to recover the extinct species or to reclaim the huge amounts of soil and nutrients lost to sea from Phillip Island.


However, progress can be made towards significant improvements in the state of the remaining ecosystems, the status of species, preventing the further destruction of remaining ecological processes, and re-establishing native vegetation in areas that have been totally denuded of vegetation or overrun by weeds.

The removal of over 100 000 breeding Providence Petrels (Pterodroma solandri) over 100 years ago had a major impact on the nutrient status of the Park.

Translocation and/or reintroduction of species lost in some areas of the Park and Botanic Garden create options to improve rehabilitation outcomes.

Issues

·       Large areas of the Park and Botanic Garden are either completely denuded of vegetation or very heavily infested with weeds. The denuded areas and areas cleared of weeds require actions to aid revegetation.

·       Some ecological processes have been severely damaged by past policies and actions.

What we are going to do

Policies

4.4.1              Revegetate denuded areas, and areas cleared of weeds, with native vegetation.

4.4.2              Phillip Island rehabilitation priorities will include the denuded north-eastern slope above the dykes area.

4.4.3              Repair ecological processes.

Actions

4.4.4              Collect seed and propagate native plants for use in revegetation.

4.4.5              Take species-focused actions, such as aerial layering of the Phillip Island hibiscus (Hibiscus insularis), to promote recovery of species listed as vulnerable, threatened or critically endangered.

4.4.6              Establish and maintain a nursery in the Forestry Area, in cooperation with the Norfolk Island Government.

4.4.7              Maintain a nursery on Phillip Island.

4.4.8              Maintain water management works in the Park and Botanic Garden to provide water to propagate native plants or for other management purposes.

4.4.9              Where appropriate reintroduce or relocate species with a particular focus on those that play a major role in ecological processes.

4.5                  Climate change

Our aim

·       Adapt Park and Botanic Garden actions to climate change.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Progress in identifying the impact of climate change

·       Extent to which actions have been modified to take into account climate change impacts


Background

The impacts of human-induced climate change have the potential to require major adaptations to management actions in the Park and Botanic Garden.

Predictions about regional impacts of human-induced climate change are uncertain but may include changes to precipitation, changes to temperature, changes to the frequency of extreme events and changes to sea levels.

Certain aspects of the Park and Botanic Garden may require adaptive management. For example, increased incidences of prolonged dry hot periods as a result of climate change may have disproportionately high adverse impacts on Park and Botanic Garden values because of the soil’s poor moisture holding capacity.

An increased incidence of prolonged hot dry spells may increase the probability of wildfires in the Park and Botanic Garden. While wildfires have not happened up to now, there is very little doubt that the flora would be very fire sensitive and would not recover from a hot wildfire.

Changes to sea level may have a profound effect on seabird numbers as marine prey species either change behaviour or change in abundance.

Issues

·       Climate change impacts on the Park and Botanic Garden are not known with enough certainty to mandate specific actions at the time of preparing this Plan.

·       Adapting management actions to anticipate and respond to climate change impacts on Park and Botanic Garden values will be important.

·       There are likely to be changes in the probability of wildfire.

Policies

4.5.1              Adapt actions to address adverse impacts of climate change.

4.5.2              Seek to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases resulting from Park operations.

4.5.3              Support cross-agency fire response plans.

Actions

4.5.4              Monitor climate patterns and their impacts and adapt actions accordingly.

4.5.5              Examine ways to reduce emission of greenhouse gases.

4.5.6              Cooperate with Norfolk Island agencies to ensure that fire response plans are in place and effective.

4.5.7              Fire bans may be declared under the EPBC Regulations (r.12.30) in the Park and Botanic Garden during periods of high fire risk.

4.5.8              Fire-breaks and litter reduction in the Forestry Area will be used to reduce the likelihood of wildfire in the plantations.

4.6                  Bioprospecting (access to biological resources)

Our aim

·       Access is provided to biological resources while ensuring the Park and Botanic Garden values and the interests of the Director are protected.


Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which the Director is satisfied with benefit-sharing arrangements entered into for commercial access to biological resources.

Background

Access to biological resources (also known as bioprospecting) is the taking of biological resources of native species for research and development of any genetic resources, or biochemical compounds, comprising or contained in the biological resources.

Access to biological resources in Commonwealth areas, such as the Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden, is regulated under the EPBC Act. Section 301 of the Act authorises Regulations to be made to control the activity. ‘Biological resources’ are defined by the Act (s.528) as including genetic resources, organisms, parts of organisms, populations and any other biotic component of an ecosystem with actual or potential use or value for humanity. ‘Genetic resources’ are defined as any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin that contains functional units of heredity and that has actual or potential value for humanity.

Part 8A of the EPBC Regulations is made under s.301 to regulate access to biological resources. Key features of Part 8A in relation to Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden are as follows:

Any person who wants to access biological resources must obtain a permit from the Minister.

The ‘access provider’ must agree to the taking of biological resources. The access provider for Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden is the Director.

Where access is sought for commercial purposes or potential commercial purposes there must be a benefit-sharing agreement with the relevant access provider and the benefit-sharing agreement must provide for reasonable benefit-sharing arrangements.

Where access is sought for non-commercial purposes:

(a)         written permission must be obtained from the relevant access provider

(b)        a statutory declaration must be given to the access provider declaring, among other things, that any biological resources taken are not intended to be used for commercial purposes, that a written report will be given to the access provider on the results of any research into the biological resources, that samples will not be given to other people (other than a specified research institution) without permission of the access provider, and that the person(s) given access will not carry out, or allow others to carry out, commercial research or development unless a benefit-sharing agreement is in place with the access provider.

There must be an assessment of the environmental impact of the proposed access if it is likely to have more than a negligible environmental impact.

Access to biological resources is also covered by ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act if the resources are members of a native species and/or if access is for commercial purposes. Access is covered by r.12.10 of the EPBC Regulations if it is in the course of scientific research; in that case access must be in accordance with this Plan.


Issue

·       There is a need to facilitate appropriate access to biological resources and to avoid duplication of processes particularly in relation to the issuing of permits.

What we are going to do

Policy

4.6.1              Access may be had to biological resources in accordance with a permit issued by the Director under the EPBC Regulations, and:

(a)        where access is sought for non-commercial purposes the person has provided the Director with an undertaking that is consistent with the requirements of Part 8A of the EPBC Regulations

(b)       where access is sought for commercial purposes, or potential commercial purposes, the person has entered into a benefit-sharing agreement with the Director that is consistent with Part 8A of the Regulations. The benefit-sharing agreement must provide for reasonable benefit-sharing arrangements.

4.7                  Botanic Garden—management of the living collection and herbarium

Our aims

·       Establish and maintain a living collection representative of Norfolk Island’s vascular flora.

·       Maintain the Botanic Garden as a focus for education, interpretation and tourism activities.

·       Maintain the subtropical viney hardwood forest in the Botanic Garden.

·       Maintain a herbarium of Norfolk Island’s flora.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aims

·       Extent to which the living collection contains a representative sample of Norfolk Island’s vascular flora

·       Level of use of the Botanic Garden for education, interpretation and tourism-related activities

·       Extent to which the subtropical viney hardwood forest vegetation in the Botanic Garden is maintained

·       Level of maintenance of the herbarium collection and its availability for education and research

·       Degree to which the herbarium collection represents Norfolk Island’s native vascular terrestrial flora

Background

The Botanic Garden, which covers an area of 5.5 hectares and is adjacent to the Park, is located on Mission Road near the Mount Pitt Road entrance to the Park.

As noted in Section 3.1, IUCN category and zoning, the purposes for which the Botanic Garden was declared are consistent with the characteristics for IUCN protected area category IV, habitat/species management area, and the Botanic Garden will be managed in accordance with the management principles set down in Schedule 8 of the EPBC Regulations and listed in Appendix E.


Of particular relevance to the Botanic Garden is the final category IV principle which provides that:

If the reserve or zone is declared for the purpose of a botanic garden, it should also be managed for the increase of knowledge, appreciation and enjoyment of Australia’s plant heritage by establishing, as an integrated resource, a collection of living and herbarium specimens of Australian and related plants for study, interpretation, conservation and display.

The Botanic Garden fulfils varied functions as set out in the aims. The living collection, display and herbarium provide a rich source of horticultural and botanical information.

Its infrastructure, including the living collection, the display, the herbarium, the aviary and the tracks, provides a comprehensive picture of the Park for education, interpretation and tourism-related activities. A boardwalk has been established to provide wheelchair access to the top of the Botanic Garden, and its winding tracks and dense vegetation provide an excellent opportunity for visitors to experience the ‘jungle’ feel of the Botanic Garden.

Issues

·       There is a need to balance visitor access and safety against the conservation and maintenance of the living collection.

·       The Botanic Garden’s infrastructure must continue to support education, interpretation and tourism-related activities.

·       The subtropical viney hardwood forest remnant is ageing. There is concern for visitor safety as older trees become infested with native borers and are pulled down by the weight of native vines.

What we are going to do

Policies

4.7.1              The Botanic Garden will continue to place a strong focus on education, interpretation and tourism-related activities.

4.7.2              The Director may take actions covered by ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act for the purpose of managing the Botanic Garden’s living collection and herbarium.

4.7.3              As a priority, the subtropical viney hardwood forest will be maintained.

4.7.4              The living collection and the herbarium will give priority to vascular plants native to Norfolk Island but may include non-vascular plants and non-native plants for education purposes.

Actions

4.7.5              Maintain the living collection, the herbarium, the display, the aviaries, and the walking tracks.

4.7.6              Maintain the Botanic Garden’s infrastructure to reflect the focus on education, interpretation and tourism-related activities.

4.7.7              Supplement the herbarium with a collection of plant images.

4.7.8              Forward duplicates of specimens added to the herbarium to a reputable scientific institution(s).

4.7.9              Explore options for making seeds and/or germplasm available to the Millennium Seed Bank at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, or similar projects.

4.7.10           Manage vegetation in the Botanic Garden to ensure visitor safety.

4.8                  Forestry Area

Our aims

·       Provide an area for sustainable native species timber production for the Norfolk Island community.

·       Approved forestry operations generate resources, and profits derived from the sale of harvested timber and other forestry products benefit the Norfolk Island community.

·       Maintain and/or enhance native biodiversity.

·       Allow for compatible Park visitor use.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aims

·       Extent to which the Forestry Area is used for forestry operations

·       Level of success in maintaining or enhancing remnant native vegetation areas

·       Level of success in rehabilitating weed-infested areas unsuitable for forestry operations with native vegetation

·       Extent to which appropriate visitor use is made of the Forestry Area

Background

The Forestry Area (see Map 2) was originally cleared for banana plantations during the 1930s but after the collapse of the banana industry developed into a series of dense thickets of weeds, mainly African olive. The area was included in the then Mount Pitt Reserve as an area reserved for forestry purposes in 1955 and was later declared a public reserve under the Norfolk Island Commons and Public Reserves Ordinance 1936 (NI). Some sections adjacent to the western boundary of the Forestry Area were cleared of olive and eucalypt plantations were established.

The boundary of the Forestry Area, as defined in the first management plan for the Park (1984), was based on an assessment of the extent of heavily weed-infested forest using aerial photography. The boundary was surveyed and marked on the ground during 1992–93. The Forestry Area includes several small areas of remnant native vegetation. Because of steep gradients and/or unsatisfactory soils, biodiversity conservation, or for other reasons, some areas may be considered unsuitable for future plantation development.

At the time of preparing this Plan the primary purpose of the Forestry Area is to produce native species timber for the Norfolk Island community through forestry operations. The forestry operations incorporate a plant nursery. Previous management plans have provided for the operations to be conducted. The operations have been carried on by the Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service.

Previous management plans also provided for woody weed-infested areas to be cleared and planted with Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla) for the purpose of production forestry. Some parts of the Forestry Area that are infested with weeds may be unsuitable for forestry operations for reasons such as soil quality or steep slopes.

Remnant native vegetation areas in the Forestry Area were surveyed and recommended for preservation due to their high nature conservation values (Davidson, Anderson and Evans 1994). The last management plan provided that these areas were not to be cleared and that weed management be undertaken in and around them. These areas need to be remapped using global positioning system technology.

The conduct of forestry operations is subject to ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act and may only be carried on in accordance with this Plan.

Other activities, including biodiversity conservation management, recreational enjoyment, and commercial tourism activities, are also carried out in the Forestry Area. These activities are subject to the EPBC Act and Regulations and this Plan.

Issues

·       Forestry practices need to be sustainable.

·       There is a need to maintain cooperative working relationships with the Norfolk Island Government

·       Remnant areas of native vegetation need remapping and monitoring.

·       Remnant areas of native vegetation and habitat for species listed as vulnerable, threatened or critically endangered need maintaining and/or weeding.

·       Areas that will not be used for forestry operations need to be identified and marked out for rehabilitation with native vegetation.

·       Establishing buffer zones around remnant areas of native vegetation.

·       Forestry operations need to be carried out in a manner that will not have a significant impact on remnant native vegetation areas.

·       Appropriate use should be made of the Forestry Area by Park visitors, in a manner that does not have a significant impact on forestry operations.

·       Forestry operations should not have a significant impact on others uses and users of the Forestry Area.

·       Forestry operations can provide an opportunity for restoration of previously abundant native species

What we are going to do

Policies

4.8.1              Forestry operations (as defined in Section 2.3) may be carried on in the Forestry Area by the Administration of Norfolk Island through the Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service or other agency or agent of the government or other persons approved by the Director provided that the operations are conducted:

(a)        for the benefit of the Norfolk Island Community

(b)       in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 4.8.3

(c)        in accordance with written authorisation from the Director

(d)       subject to prohibitions, restrictions or determinations made by the Director under the EPBC Regulations

(e)       at the cost of the operator.

4.8.2              The authorised forestry operator will be the owner of all timber and other products obtained from the conduct of forestry operations.

4.8.3              Authorisation under Section 4.8.1 may be given under an agreement or permit issued in accordance with the EPBC Regulations (as determined by the Director) and will be given subject to conditions, including conditions regarding:

(a)        compliance with applicable laws, standards and practices

(b)       clearing weeds and replanting with species native to Norfolk Island

(c)        planting and sustainably harvesting species native to Norfolk Island

(d)       harvesting eucalypt plantations and replanting species native to Norfolk Island

(e)       salvaging native timber that would otherwise be destroyed, for the purposes of supplying Norfolk Island furniture, building and craft industries

(f)          maintaining roads in a safe condition

(g)       maintaining weed-free buffer zones adjacent to areas of remnant native vegetation, unless otherwise agreed with the Director

(h)        minimising soil erosion and controlling the spread of root pathogens

(i)          providing reasonable notice before commencing operations, particularly operations involving clearing, felling, use of chemicals or pathogens, or other significant operations

(j)          managing and minimising bushfire risk in conjunction with the Director

(k)        providing written reports to the Director, Park Manager and NINPAC regarding the forestry operations, and including such details as are requested by the Park Manager

(l)          minimising impacts of forestry operations on Park management and other users of the Forestry Area; and

(m)      compliance with occupational health and safety requirements (including plans and incident reporting) and public liability and insurance requirements.

4.8.4              Park visitors, commercial tour operators and other members of the public may conduct recreational and other activities in the Forestry Area in accordance with Section 6 of this Plan and provided that the activities do not unreasonably interfere with the conduct of forestry operations.

4.8.5              The Director may prohibit or restrict forestry operations or other activities in the Forestry Area where the Director is satisfied the operations or activities might:

(a)        endanger public safety

(b)       interfere with the protection or conservation of biodiversity or heritage

(c)        interfere with the protection of features or facilities in the Park; or

(d)       interfere with the appropriate management, use, appreciation and enjoyment of the Park by other persons in accordance with this Plan.

4.8.6              Proposals for new forestry operations (those not being carried on at the commencement of this Plan) will be subject to assessment in accordance with Section 8.3, Assessment of proposals.

4.8.7              Significant decisions about forestry operations, including construction of infrastructure such as new buildings and planning for new plantation coups, will be made in consultation between the Director and the forestry operator.

4.8.8              Remnant native vegetation areas inside the Forestry Area will be managed to enhance biodiversity conservation.


4.8.9              Native species only will be planted in the Forestry Area.

4.8.10           Buffer zones with a minimum width of 10 metres will be established and maintained to protect remnant native vegetation areas from new forestry operations. The width of buffer zones between existing plantation areas and areas of remnant native vegetation and areas of the Park contiguous with the Forestry Area will be identified following consultation between the Director and the forestry operator. Buffer zones are either to be maintained free of weeds or revegetated with native vegetation.

Actions

4.8.11           The Director will:

(a)        facilitate reasonable access to the Forestry Area, with or without vehicles or plant and equipment, for the purpose of conducting authorised forestry operations

(b)       maintain and/or replace boundary fencing as necessary

(c)        maintain remnant native vegetation areas and habitat for listed species, and undertake weed control and control of feral animals in remnant native vegetation areas and buffer zones that are not the responsibility of the authorised forestry operator

(d)       approve, as appropriate, those parts of the Forestry Area which may be used for plantations, identify areas which may not be used for plantations, and identify weedy areas unsuitable for forestry which are to be cleared of weeds and rehabilitated by the Director

(e)       identify buffer zones in consultation with the authorised forestry operator

(f)          map the Forestry Area in consultation with the authorised forestry operator setting out actual and planned plantation coups, remnant vegetation areas, buffer zones, areas unsuitable for potential forestry operations but suitable for rehabilitation, and forestry operations and other infrastructure such as pipes, buildings, roads and tracks.


Map 2:       Forestry Area

 


 

5.                      Cultural heritage management

Management of the National Park and Botanic Garden needs to take account of their historical and other cultural values.

5.1                  Conservation of cultural heritage values

Our aim

·       Identify, protect, conserve and interpret to the public the cultural heritage values of the Park and Botanic Garden.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which cultural heritage values are documented and interpretation material is available to the public

·       Extent to which sites of historic significance are maintained to an adequate standard

Background

The Park and Botanic Garden values include historic cultural heritage values. The area which is now the Mount Pitt Section of the Park has been the site of a number of significant events in the human history of the island, including its discovery and settlement by Europeans and its defence during the Second World War. Both the Park and Botanic Garden include artefacts relating to the Second World War.

At the time of preparing this Plan, the Park and Botanic Garden are ‘nominated places’ for the purpose of potential inclusion in the National Heritage List under the EPBC Act. The Mount Pitt Section of the National Park is an ‘indicative place’ for the purpose of inclusion in the Commonwealth Heritage List under the Act. Phillip Island is a listed place on the Commonwealth Heritage List.

As noted in Section 2.5, Purpose, content and matters to be taken into account in a management plan, where a Commonwealth reserve includes a National Heritage place or a Commonwealth Heritage place a management plan for the reserve must not be inconsistent with the National Heritage management principles or Commonwealth Heritage management principles prescribed by the EPBC Regulations (Schedules 5B and 7B).

In addition, as noted in Section 6.6 of this Plan, Norfolk Island community members use resources of the National Park and Botanic Garden on an ongoing basis.

Sections 354 and 354A of the EPBC Act prohibit actions that damage heritage unless done in accordance with a management plan.

Issues

·       Historical sites need to be identified and described.

·       There is a need to broaden knowledge about the historical features of the Park.

·       Appropriate ongoing use of resources by Norfolk Island community members needs to be managed.


What we are going to do

Policies

5.1.1              Where the values of places in the Park and Botanic Garden that are listed on the National or Commonwealth Heritage Lists include cultural heritage values, the places are to be managed in a manner consistent with relevant heritage management principles prescribed by the EPBC Regulations.

5.1.2              As far as practicable, historic sites will be identified, conserved and their significance interpreted.

5.1.3              Customary use of resources will be managed in accordance with Section 6.6.

Actions

5.1.4              Produce signs and written material to interpret aspects of historical and other cultural significance in the Park and Botanic Garden.

5.1.5              Consult with the Norfolk Island Historical Society, relevant Norfolk Island elders of knowledge and experience and other stakeholders in relation to management of cultural values.


 

6.                      Visitor management and use of the Park and Botanic Garden

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden are places for public education, enjoyment and recreation and also significant places for the conservation of wildlife and other natural resources. Local residents seek different experiences from visitors including historical and cultural activities. The challenge is to provide visitor access and facilities whilst protecting visitors’ safety and to raise their awareness without compromising Park and Botanic Garden values.

6.1                  Visitor use

Our aim

·       Visitors enjoy and appreciate the experience of visiting the Park and Botanic Garden. Visitor use of the Park and Botanic Garden is managed in ways that do not damage the Park and Botanic Garden values.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Level of satisfaction expressed in feedback from Park and Botanic Garden visitors

·       Impact of visitor use on the natural and cultural values of the Park and Botanic Garden

Background

The types of recreational opportunities appropriate to the Mount Pitt Section of the Park are very different from those for Phillip Island and the Botanic Garden. Furthermore, the range of recreational experiences sought by Norfolk Island residents is often very different from those sought by visitors to Norfolk Island.

Touring by vehicle, horse and pushbike riding, and walking are popular leisure activities which take place in the Park. The multi-purpose use of roads and walking tracks has safety implications and requires careful management. Visitors are advised to wear sensible footwear and to take water and food supplies on the longer walks. In extreme weather tracks may become slippery and extreme caution is advised.

The Norfolk Island Botanic Garden provides opportunities for passive recreation generally complementary to those in the Park.

Access to Phillip Island is by boat, apart from occasional helicopter access for management purposes. From the boat landing place, people ascend a cliff using a fixed rope.

The main uses of the Phillip Island Section of the National Park by Norfolk Island residents and visitors are fishing, camping, birdwatching, study, general recreation and harvesting Whale Bird eggs (discussed in more detail in Section 6.6). All activities on Phillip Island have associated risks concerning access, weather and surface conditions, and rescue capacity should an accident occur. Visitors to Phillip Island are advised to ensure that they have adequate clothing and supplies, and are advised that they should only attempt to visit the island accompanied by a professional permitted guide or an experienced Norfolk Island resident (see Section 6.3).


Other uses of the Park and Botanic Garden include siting of public utilities (see Section 8.1), research and monitoring (see Section 8.5), and Bioprospecting (see Section 4.6).

The EPBC Act and Regulations contain a number of provisions that are relevant to visitor use of the Park and Botanic Garden, and which operate subject to the policies and actions in this Plan:

(a)        r.12.18 prohibits the possession and use of firearms and certain other types of weapons and hunting equipment

(b)        r.12.19 prohibits animals being brought in, subject to certain exceptions such as seeing-eye dogs and other assistance animals

(c)        r.12.23 enables the Director to prohibit or restrict entry to all or part of the Park and Botanic Garden eg where it is necessary for public safety

(d)        r.12.28 prohibits camping other than in camping areas determined by the Director

(e)        r.12.41 prohibits use of vehicles (including bicycles) on roads and tracks that are not designated for public use

(f)          r.12.55 prohibits walking off designated walking tracks.

Issue

·       The management challenge is to strike a balance between providing opportunities for the appropriate use, appreciation and enjoyment of the Park and Botanic Garden by a diversity of visitors whilst protecting the natural and cultural values and public safety.

What we are going to do

Policies

6.1.1              Visitor use will be managed in accordance with this Section of the Plan and subject to relevant policies and actions in Sections 6.2, Roads and tracks, 6.3, Visitor safety and 6.4, Commercial tourism and other commercial activities.

6.1.2              Horse riding is allowed on public access roads and tracks in the Mount Pitt Section of the Park, and may be done on designated tracks in the Forestry Area in accordance with a permit issued under the EPBC Regulations (see Section 6.2 regarding designated roads and tracks).

6.1.3              Visitors must not take animals to Phillip Island.

6.1.4              Walking dogs on a leash is allowed in the Mount Pitt Section of the National Park.

6.1.5              Mountain bike riding will not normally be allowed on walking tracks due to safety and track maintenance issues; however, applications for permits for mountain bike riding and similar activities on walking tracks will be considered on a case by case basis for some tracks within the Park. Permits will only be issued in exceptional cases where the Director, on the advice of NINPAC and Park staff, considers there is sufficient merit. The capacity for, and likelihood of, rescue operations will be a primary consideration as will protection of Park values.

6.1.6              Mountain bike riding and similar activities will not be allowed off tracks and permits will not be issued.

6.1.7              Tourists who wish to visit Phillip Island will be encouraged to seek the assistance of, and be accompanied by, a permitted tour operator with knowledge of Phillip Island access and conditions.


6.1.8              The Botanic Garden is a venue for passive recreation.

6.1.9              Firearms and other equipment and devices covered by r.12.18 of the EPBC Regulations must not be brought into, or used in, the National Park or Botanic Garden except in accordance with a permit under the Regulations. Permits will only be issued in exceptional circumstances.

Action

6.1.10           Provide and maintain an appropriate network of roads, tracks, lookouts, infrastructure, and information appropriate to the nature, size and uniqueness of the National Park and Botanic Garden.

6.2                  Roads and tracks

Our aim

·       Park and Botanic Garden roads and tracks are provided in a manner that fulfils the reasonable requirements of Norfolk Island residents and visitors whilst protecting Park and Botanic Garden values.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Level of visitor satisfaction with the road and track infrastructure, and number of maintenance related visitor incidents

·       Condition of roads and tracks within the Park and Botanic Garden and their capacity to meet existing and forecast use

Background

Vehicle access roads and tracks

Pedestrian access only is provided for visitors in the Botanic Garden.

Apart from the sealed road to the summit of Mount Pitt, most vehicle roads and tracks in the Park are unsealed. Dirt roads are currently graded and resurfaced to maintain them at a standard suitable for two-wheel-drive vehicles in dry weather. During wet weather, some roads may be closed to avoid accidents and to prevent damage to the road surfaces.

Roads in the Park are required to provide safe carriageway for a range of purposes including walking, riding, and driving motor cars, buses, and heavy maintenance equipment.

Walking tracks

There are a number of signposted walking tracks in the Mount Pitt Section of the Park (Map 3). Grades vary from easy to steep and distances vary from 200 metres to five kilometres return. Tracks may be slippery when wet. Walks are signposted at the start of each walk and at junctions of major tracks. There are also a number of signposted walking tracks in the Botanic Garden (Map 4).

Tracks are also required to provide safe passage for a range of all-weather uses normally including horse riding, walking, maintenance, and rescue.

The sparse vegetation on Phillip Island provides easy access to the flatter parts of the island and trampling off designated tracks can hamper habitat rehabilitation efforts (Map 5).


The EPBC Regulations (r.12.41 to 12.44) prohibit use of vehicles other than on designated access roads, tracks and parking areas, and allow the Director to control the use of vehicles (or classes of vehicles) on public access roads and tracks, including setting speed limits.

The Regulations (r.12.55) prohibit walking or riding (eg a horse or bicycle) off designated vehicle access roads and tracks, or designated walking tracks.

As noted earlier in this Plan, the Director may prohibit or restrict access to all or part of a Commonwealth reserve (r.12.23).

Issues

·       Some sections of track may become slippery and difficult to negotiate during extreme weather.

·       There are many steep and rugged parts of the Park and Botanic Garden inaccessible to disabled people. There are some sections of track at Mount Pitt, Palm Glen and the Botanic Garden where ramps and grades provide limited access to assisted wheelchairs. The public toilets in the Botanic Garden have disabled access.

·       Most roads and tracks in the Park are multi-use passageways.

·       There is a need to consider appropriate access to various visitor sites for visitors with physical impairments where possible.

·       Phillip Island has specific safety issues.

·       Roads and tracks and their use are a disturbance to natural values.

 


Map 3:       Access to Norfolk Island National Park (Mount Pitt Section)

 


Map 4:      Access to Norfolk Island Botanic Garden


Map 5:      Access to Norfolk Island National Park (Phillip Island Section)

 


What we are going to do

Policies

6.2.1              Permits will not generally be issued to use vehicles on roads and tracks that are not designated for vehicle access by the public.

6.2.2              A limited number of commercial tour operators may be permitted to conduct four-wheel-drive tours on roads and tracks in the Forestry Area that are not designated for vehicle access by the public.

6.2.3              Permits may be issued for recreational use of motorcycles on roads and tracks in the Forestry Area that are not designated for vehicle access by the public, or off roads and tracks in the Forestry Area.

6.2.4              Access by Norfolk Island residents will generally be allowed to most of Phillip Island, with possible restrictions for the purpose of protecting flora and fauna, or for public safety.

6.2.5              The Director may prohibit or restrict use of vehicle access roads and tracks, including by class of vehicles specified by size or weight.

6.2.6              Roads and tracks will be maintained to a reasonable standard.

6.2.7              Roads and tracks will be mapped and appropriate information made available to visitors by way of brochures and signs.

6.2.8              Disabled access will be incorporated into road and track planning where practicable.

Actions

6.2.9              Maintain signs designating vehicle roads and tracks and walking tracks.

6.2.10           Monitor the condition of unsealed vehicle roads and tracks, particularly during wet weather.

6.2.11           Maintain and/or upgrade walking tracks to a reasonable standard with steps and handrails provided where considered necessary to ensure visitor safety.

6.2.12           Identify designated walking tracks and paths on Phillip Island. The map showing the track network (Map 5 in this Plan) will be kept under review and will be made available to Phillip Island visitors.

6.2.13           Provide visitors with on-site signs or other information systems advising location, direction, degree of difficulty, likely time to traverse, and any relevant safety issues.

6.3                  Visitor safety

Our aim

·       Visitors to the Park and Botanic Garden have a safe and rewarding experience.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Number and nature of visitor related incidents involving Park and Botanic Garden users

·       Results of annual risk assessments and infrastructure surveys for visitor destinations in the Park and Botanic Garden


Background

Normal enjoyment of the National Park and Botanic Garden may involve some risk. Injury can occur on slippery or ocean-swept rocks, wet boardwalks, bridges or tracks. Overhanging trees or branches can pose dangers, as can activities such as driving vehicles, horse riding and walking, especially for elderly or unfit users of the Park. Some viewing and walking areas of the Park are close to precipitous cliffs.

A range of measures are adopted in the Park and Botanic Garden to reduce risks to visitors, including:

·       maintaining roads, tracks and visitor facilities in a safe condition

·       providing educational materials and signs for visitors and tour operators on safety and safe behaviour

·       working with other agencies in emergency operations under the Norfolk Island Disaster and Emergency Management Plan

·       maintaining a radio system compatible with the emergency radio frequencies used by the Norfolk Island Volunteer Rescue Squad

·       maintaining an integrated lock system which enables emergency vehicles to gain access to all management tracks within the Park and Botanic Garden

·       documenting, investigating and reporting incidents.

The Phillip Island component of the National Park is isolated and potentially dangerous. In wet conditions the surfaces become slippery and treacherous. The difficulties of landing boats mean that access to Phillip Island can generally only be accomplished in calm seas. People can be stranded on Phillip Island for several days waiting for seas to abate enough to return to Norfolk Island. The Fishing Club hut provides emergency shelter. Currently, access to Phillip Island is gained by fixed ropes. The lack of soil structure has rendered some areas of the island unstable and there are numerous cliffs and gullies. Parks Australia works closely with the Norfolk Island Volunteer Rescue Squad to ensure there is adequate rescue capacity in place.

The track to the Chord area on Norfolk Island via the National Park has a fixed rope to assist for the lower three metres. The track is a difficult, strenuous climb and should be avoided during or after rain. A warning sign advises visitors to only attempt the descent in company with a permitted guide or an experienced Norfolk Island resident.

All visitor safety incidents are reported, recorded and reviewed regularly. Using this information the Director has compiled a Risk Watch List for the Park and Botanic Garden that identifies and rates a range of risks, including risks to visitor safety, and specifies risk management measures that are carried out as required. The list is reviewed and updated regularly.

The Director may also prohibit or restrict entry to areas of the Park and Botanic Garden under the EPBC Regulations (r.12.23), including where it is necessary for safety reasons.

Issues

·       Visiting national parks can involve a number of risks.

·       Many visitors come to the Park and Botanic Garden on commercial tours and tour operators play an important role in helping to provide visitors with a safe experience.


·       The increasing attraction of Norfolk Island as a possible adventure tour location increases the potential for incidents, especially on Phillip Island.

What we are going to do

Policies

6.3.1              Risks will be regularly assessed and management measures to address risks will be reviewed and amended as necessary.

6.3.2              Where reasonably necessary and practicable the Director may, subject to and in accordance with the EPBC Regulations, prohibit or restrict activities that present a risk to public safety, or may prohibit or restrict access to areas where necessary to prevent people engaging in unsafe activities.

6.3.3              Decision-making under this Plan, including issuing permits and managing activities, will take visitor safety and risks into account.

6.3.4              Tour operators will be briefed on risk issues involving their clients.

Actions

6.3.5              Regularly review and update the Risk Watch List or similar risk monitoring and management systems and prepare risk assessments of visitor sites and facilities. Implement management measures to reduce visitor risks to acceptable levels, and review them regularly based on the Risk Watch List and risk assessments.

6.3.6              Undertake regular safety inspections of Park and Botanic Garden facilities including roads, walking tracks and other visitor infrastructure.

6.3.7              Maintain roads, walking tracks and other visitor infrastructure at a reasonably safe standard.

6.3.8              Provide permanent staff with regular training in first aid and keep their qualifications current.

6.3.9              Conduct regular safety inspections of the fixed ropes on Phillip Island and at the Chord and replace them where necessary.

6.3.10           Store first aid equipment, water and food at the Parks Australia hut on Phillip Island.

6.3.11           Ensure the Director’s staff and contractors are able to communicate with Norfolk Island while on Phillip Island.

 

6.4                  Commercial tourism and other commercial activities

Our aim

·       Ensure that commercial activities in the Park and Botanic Garden promote Park and Botanic Garden values and enhance visitor experience without compromising management actions or the cultural and natural values of the Park and Botanic Garden.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Level of visitor satisfaction with commercial tour opportunities

·       Level of tourism industry satisfaction with Park management


Background

Parts of the Park and Botanic Garden are managed to provide opportunities for public recreation and enjoyment. This creates opportunities for local businesses to provide products and services to visitors to the Park and Botanic Garden.

Commercial activities which take place within the Mount Pitt Section of the Park include tours by bus, four-wheel-drive vehicles, mountain bikes, horse riding and walking as well as image capture and promotional activities. Commercial operators are also permitted to operate guided walking tours on Phillip Island. The only commercial activity which currently takes place in the Botanic Garden is walking tours. No retail activities are currently permitted in the Park or the Botanic Garden.

In addition to the economic values of tourism and recreation in the Park and Botanic Garden, there are resources present such as lemon fruit, guava wood and fruit, olive wood, palm fronds for weaving and biological/genetic resources which may have commercial value.

Sections 354 and 354A of the EPBC Act require that commercial tourism and other commercial activities may only be carried on in accordance with this Plan.

Regulation 12.36 of the EPBC Regulations deems commercial activities carried out in airspace up to 3 000 metres above sea level over a Commonwealth reserve to be carried out in the reserve, and prohibits such activities.

Issues

·       There is a need to facilitate and permit appropriate commercial tourism opportunities that present the unique characteristics of the Park without adversely impacting upon Park and Botanic Garden values.

·       Commercial tour activities must be managed to ensure visitor safety.

·       Management of commercial use of Park and Botanic Garden resources requires control and monitoring.

What we are going to do

Policies

6.4.1              Commercial tourism and other commercial activities may be carried on in accordance with a permit issued by the Director under the EPBC Regulations.

6.4.2              Permits will not be issued unless the Director is satisfied that the activity will not adversely impact upon the Park or Botanic Garden, is consistent with appropriate appreciation and enjoyment, will not interfere with other Park users, does not present an unreasonable risk to public and staff safety, and the operator has sufficient safety and rescue capacity available.

6.4.3              Relevant policies and actions in Sections 6.1, Visitor use, 6.2, (Roads and tracks and 6.3, Visitor safety, will apply to the conduct of commercial activities.

6.4.4              Commercial scenic flights over the Park and Botanic Garden may be carried on in accordance with a Fly Neighbourly Agreement or similar protocol developed with the civil aviation regulator, or in accordance with a permit issued by the Director under the EPBC Regulations.


Actions

6.4.5              Consult with NINPAC as appropriate in relation to applications to conduct commercial activities.

6.4.6              Consult the Norfolk Island Conservator of Public Reserves in relation to applications to conduct commercial activities in the Forestry Area.

6.4.7              Provide NINPAC with details of all permits issued and refused for commercial activities.

6.5                  Visitor information, education and interpretation

Our aim

·       Inform visitors and the community about Park and Botanic Garden values and their ongoing protection and conservation.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Range, type and quality of interpretive materials and activities provided

·       Number of hits on Parks Australia’s Norfolk Island web page

·       Visitor satisfaction with visits to the Park and Botanic Garden

Background

Well-prepared information about Park and Botanic Garden values and management can add to the quality of the visitor experience and is likely to benefit protection of the area. Visitors are able to obtain information about the Park and Botanic Garden from:

·       pre-visit tourism industry information

·       Parks Australia’s website

·       Parks Australia brochures and publications

·       interpretive and regulatory signage

·       commercial tour operators and local Norfolk Island tourism facilities.

Information is available on Norfolk Island from the Parks headquarters and from the tourism information centre in Burnt Pine. There is also a leaflet dispenser and notice board at the Botanic Garden.

The Norfolk Island Flora and Fauna Society have established a natural history display which is currently housed beneath the Park headquarters. The display provides visitors with a range of information about the environment of the Norfolk group of islands.

The Botanic Garden provides a valuable resource and supplement to the Park for teaching people about the natural history of Norfolk Island, particularly its flora. Education and interpretive services are critical to visitors’ ability to get the most from their visit to the Botanic Garden. Plant labels identify species in the Botanic Garden.

The aviary at the Botanic Garden displays Green Parrots bred under the captive breeding program. The aviary provides an attraction for the local tourism industry and an opportunity to explain the relationship between the habitat requirements of the Green Parrot and plant species which are present in the Park and Botanic Garden.


Issues

·       Interpretive signs are required at visitor sites and track heads to provide information eg about the values of sites, safety considerations, track surfaces, level of fitness required and time needed to walk a track.

·       Appropriate information about an area’s values and management can add to the quality of a visitor’s experience and is likely to benefit protection of the area.

·       The Green Parrot aviary is no longer breeding chicks but may be retained as an information and display facility.

What we are going to do

Policies

6.5.1              Provide interpretive services and materials that encourage an informed and positive attitude from visitors and the community towards the ongoing protection and conservation of the Park and Botanic Garden and their values.

6.5.2              Displays involving living animals will observe the highest standards of humane care and cleanliness.

Actions

6.5.3              Review and update all signs and information boards regularly to maintain information, safety, and presentation standards of a high order.

6.5.4              Supply brochures to inform visitors on key Park and Botanic Garden issues.

6.5.5              Review information regularly for appropriateness of content and style. Make information available at strategic points.

6.5.6              Provide information about the Park and Botanic Garden to commercial tour operators, guides and other commercial stakeholders through methods such as notices and workshops.

6.5.7              Provide information for visitors on the natural values of the National Park including Phillip Island, and specify relevant safety and quarantine issues through instructions, brochures, signs, and briefings.

6.5.8              Maintain the Green Parrot aviary as a display facility for as long as it is feasible to do so, having regard to the birds’ welfare and the display facility’s role in furthering the protection of Park and Botanic Garden values.

6.5.9              Review the purpose and use of the Green Parrot aviary during the life of this Plan.

6.6                  Community use of natural resources

Our aim

·       Allow non-commercial harvesting of resources by the Norfolk Island community while ensuring the protection and conservation of the Park and Botanic Garden’s natural values.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which community harvesting of local resources satisfies community demand

·       Impacts of these activities on the Park’s natural values


Background

Natural resources such as pine knots and the leaves of the Norfolk Island palm (Rhopalostylis baueri), Cordyline obtecta, and mountain rush (Freycinetia baueriana) are taken by the Norfolk Island community from the Mount Pitt Section of the Park for craft, cultural and other purposes.

Fresh fruit is a limited and valued resource only available seasonally on the island. Island residents use the Park as a source of fruit such as guava (Psidium cattleianum cattleianum) and lemon (Citrus jambhiri). While guava is being poisoned and removed across the Park and Botanic Garden, an area has been set aside at Palm Glen where the guava is retained and the fruit can be collected. Guava stems from clearing operations are made available to the public for use as garden stakes or fencing. There are no restrictions on people collecting lemons from the Park.

Historically, the eggs of the Whale Bird (Sterna fuscata) have been harvested as a food resource from Phillip Island. This practice still continues. While the Whale Bird is not endangered worldwide, the annual harvest may be affecting the Phillip Island population. The Whale Bird is a listed marine species under Part 13 of the EPBC Act.

Apart from the number of eggs taken, studies indicate that the effect of Whale Bird egg harvesting on the overall population is linked to both the timing of the harvest and its duration. Since 1977, a set season for Whale Bird egg harvesting has been implemented. The implementation of a seabird monitoring program may provide better data on impacts of the egg harvest.

Under ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act native species may only be taken in the Park and Botanic Garden in accordance with this Plan.

Issues

·       Traditional use of natural resources needs to be done in an environmentally sustainable way.

·       Community participation is necessary in determining appropriate use, and level of use, of traditional resources.

What we are going to do

Policies

6.6.1              Non-commercial taking of guava and lemons from the Park will be allowed.

6.6.2              Non-commercial taking of other non-native species may be prohibited under r.12.23 of the EPBC Regulations (and will require a permit issued under the EPBC Regulations).

6.6.3              Non-commercial taking of native plant material may only be carried on in accordance with a permit issued under the Regulations.

6.6.4              Whale Bird eggs may be taken from Phillip Island during a harvesting season declared, in consultation with the Director, under the Birds Protection Act 1913 (NI).

6.6.5              The Whale Bird egg harvest will be monitored.

Actions

6.6.6              Maintain a permit system, including relevant guidelines, covering the collection of native plant materials from the Park for craft and cultural purposes.


6.6.7              Propagate where feasible, in the Forestry Area, native plants used in traditional crafts.

6.6.8              Make waste wood and excess woodchips from weed clearing operations available to the public where the material is not required for Park management purposes.

6.6.9              Encourage egg collectors to file returns on the timing and numbers of eggs collected and efforts made collecting.

6.7                  Other activities

Our aim

·       Opportunities for a range of other activities and public gatherings are provided in a manner that protects the values of the Park and Botanic Garden and visitor safety.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Level of visitor and tour operator satisfaction with the range of recreational activities available

·       Extent to which public gatherings and other activities impact on Park and Botanic Garden values

Background

Requests are occasionally received for approval to carry out recreational and other activities that are not specifically addressed elsewhere in this Plan. These include, but are not limited to:

·       large public gatherings such as weddings, theatrical performances, charity functions or barbecues and picnics at particular sites

·       burials, scattering of ashes and erection of monuments

·       sporting meetings for trail bike riding or other similar activities.

It is possible that demand may develop for adventure sports in the National Park. These land-based activities are discouraged, at the time of preparing this Plan, as rescue missions are dangerous, place the lives of other people at risk, and are extremely costly.

Regulation 12.26 prohibits a range of adventurous activities including rock-climbing, abseiling, base jumping and bungee jumping.

Regulation 12.31 of the EPBC Regulations prohibits public gatherings of more than 15 persons. Regulation 12.32 prohibits burials unless the Director has designated an area where the activity may be carried out. Regulation 12.33 prohibits the erection of commemorative markers and commemorative activities associated with a commemorative marker.

Requests may include proposed activities that are subject to other provisions of the Regulations, such as landing and taking-off of aircraft (r.12.58) and possession and use of firearms or other hunting equipment (r.12.18).

Issue

·       Some activities are considered inappropriate in the Park and Botanic Garden due to safety and environmental reasons.


What we are going to do

Policies

6.7.1              Permits may be issued for public gatherings of more than 15 persons in the Park.

6.7.2              Permits may be issued for the scattering of ashes or installation of plaques in the Park. Permit conditions will include:

(a)        timing to minimise impact on other Park users

(b)       only using areas accessible by public roads or tracks

(c)        a reasonable limit on the number of people attending, taking into account access, parking, environmental sensitivity and other features of the site and the needs of other Park users

(d)       generally not allowing media attendance.

6.7.3              Permits for activities prohibited by r.12.26 will not be issued unless the Director is satisfied that the activity will not adversely impact upon the Park or Botanic Garden, is consistent with appropriate appreciation and enjoyment, will not interfere with other Park users, does not present an unreasonable risk to public and staff safety, and the proponent has sufficient safety and rescue capacity available.

6.7.4              Permits may be issued for other recreational activities in the Park that are prohibited by the EPBC Regulations and not dealt with elsewhere in this Plan.

6.7.5              Permits will not be issued to carry on other recreational activities in the Botanic Garden that are prohibited by the EPBC Regulations.

6.7.6              The Director may prohibit or restrict activities that are not covered by a specific provision of the EPBC Regulations where it is considered necessary to do so to protect the values of the Park or Botanic Garden, biodiversity or heritage in the Park or Botanic Garden, use by other persons, or in the interests of public safety.


 

7.                      Stakeholders and partnerships

The National Park and Botanic Garden are integral to nature conservation on Norfolk Island, containing significant tourist attractions and sites and species which are important to the residents of Norfolk Island for recreation and traditional uses. Therefore there are many people and organisations with a strong interest in the management of the Park and Botanic Garden. It is important to have good working relations with these people and organisations for the effective management of the Park and Botanic Garden.

7.1                  Neighbours, stakeholders and partnerships

Our aim

·       Develop and maintain cooperative relations and partnerships with Park and Botanic Garden neighbours and stakeholders in a manner that focuses on promoting the most effective management of the Park and Botanic Garden and achieving common management aims.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Effectiveness of working relationships with partners

·       Effectiveness of stakeholder participation in Park and Botanic Garden management activities, including consultation and Plan implementation

Background

A broad range of stakeholders, including government and non-government organisations, community groups and the broader community have an interest in the management of the Park and Botanic Garden. Due to the size and location of the Park and Botanic Garden relative to Norfolk Island, conservation of the Park and Botanic Garden and their values depends on the joint commitment of all groups to work in partnership to ensure effective conservation and management outcomes.

As well as being important to nature conservation on Norfolk Island and to the Territory’s tourism industry, the Park and Botanic Garden are important to the residents of Norfolk Island who use the reserves to seek solitude and as a place for recreation and traditional activities.

On request, Parks Australia provides advice and assistance to the Administrator, the Norfolk Island Government, the Norfolk Island Administration and the public on conservation, wildlife management and environmental issues.

Parks Australia supports relevant activities undertaken by local non-government organisations, assists at the local school with talks, tree plantings and environmental references and works cooperatively with the local community to encourage appropriate environmental behaviour through activities such as cat desexing clinics. Weekly articles in the local paper educate and encourage a broader community focus on environmental issues, particularly those which impact on the Park and Botanic Garden values.


Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee (NINPAC)

NINPAC advises the Director on the effective implementation of the management plan and on other matters relevant to the Park and Botanic Garden. NINPAC members are appointed by the Director of National Parks.

NINPAC membership is reviewed by the Director every three years and at the time of preparing this Plan comprises:

·       two representatives of Norfolk Island conservation organisations

·       two representatives of the Norfolk Island tourism industry

·       the Conservator of Public Reserves

·       two representatives of the Norfolk Island community (one with interests in Phillip Island)

·       the Director.

The chair is elected by NINPAC and the Park Manager acts as committee secretary. The relevant Norfolk Island Government Minister or the Minister’s representative may attend meetings as an observer.

At the time of preparing this Plan NINPAC’s functions are to:

·       facilitate the development, implementation and revision of management plans for the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

·       monitor the management of the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

·       identify and recommend conservation priorities for the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

·       make recommendations on work programs required to implement the management plans

·       recommend studies as appropriate to assist the management of the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

·       provide a forum for members of the Norfolk Island community to raise issues relevant to the management of the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden.

Partnerships

Where appropriate, Park staff work in cooperation with other authorities to achieve desirable environmental outcomes. Examples include management of the Forestry Area of the Park with the Norfolk Island Government, facilitating off-Park work by marine and other scientists, and cooperation with bodies such as the CSIRO.

Issue

·       Developing and maintaining relationships and partnerships with neighbours and stakeholders can increase support for Park and Botanic Garden values, help to manage issues of common interest and optimise use of available resources.


What we are going to do

Policies

7.1.1              Park staff will further develop and maintain good working relationships with relevant stakeholders.

7.1.2              NINPAC will continue to perform its functions as the primary liaison mechanism with the local community for significant issues relating to the Park and Botanic Garden management.

7.1.3              Volunteers will be encouraged to support maintenance and improvements to Park and Botanic Garden values.

Actions

7.1.4              Convene a minimum of two NINPAC meetings each calendar year.

7.1.5              Cooperate with the Norfolk Island Government, the Norfolk Island Tourist Board and other relevant bodies to promote the Norfolk Island National Park and Botanic Garden as important visitor experiences.

7.1.6              In relation to significant Park and Botanic Garden management issues, consult, as appropriate, with relevant stakeholders including the Norfolk Island Assembly, NINPAC, relevant Australian and Norfolk Island government agencies, the local community and tour operators. To help do this the Director may:

(a)        contribute to regional programs and assist neighbours and stakeholders in a manner consistent with this Plan

(b)       promote a partnership approach when dealing with issues affecting the management of the Park and Botanic Garden.

7.1.7              Work with relevant stakeholders, including local agencies, organisations, tour operators and neighbouring landholders to increase their awareness of Park and Botanic Garden management issues and aims.


 

8.                      Business management

Management of the National Park and Botanic Garden needs to be done in ways to minimise impacts on values and in accordance with relevant legislation. Park staff need to be sufficiently trained to respond to incidents and to carry out law enforcement activities. It is important that new proposals for the Park and Botanic Garden are properly assessed to make sure they do not have unacceptable impacts on values and other issues like visitor safety and enjoyment. It is also important that Park and Botanic Garden management activities are monitored regularly to know whether they are succeeding. Financial management of the National Park and Botanic Garden must be within the accountability rules and limits of the Chief Executive Instructions.

8.1                  Capital works and infrastructure

Our aim

·       Capital works and infrastructure are appropriate, safe, functional and cost effective to construct and maintain, and are developed and maintained in a manner that protects Park and Botanic Garden values.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which capital works and infrastructure fulfil the needs of Park visitors and access requirements for maintenance purposes

·       Number and severity of incidents in relation to capital works and infrastructure operation and maintenance

·       Extent to which construction and maintenance of capital works and infrastructure are managed within procurement and tendering guidelines

Background

Capital works and infrastructure in the Park and Botanic Garden include visitor access facilities (such as public roads, tracks, boardwalks and bridges), management facilities (such as access roads and tracks, radio repeaters, storage sheds, workshops and Park headquarters) and visitor facilities (such as the Green Parrot aviary, viewing decks, seats, picnic facilities, landing areas, fixed ropes on steep sections of tracks, signs, public toilets and day use areas).

Additionally some public utilities are sited in, or go through, the National Park.

Other facilities are located at the nursery/Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service depot. These include storage sheds, herbicides, pesticides and associated equipment.

Most of the capital works and infrastructure developments during the life of the previous management plan (2000–2007) were associated with upgrading, maintaining or replacing these facilities. Major work was carried out on visitor infrastructure including construction of the boardwalk, stairs and public toilets in the Botanic Garden, the Captain Cook viewing deck and repair and upgrade of the Mount Pitt Road.

There are many parts of the Park and Botanic Garden which are inaccessible to disabled people, largely because of steep gradients. Some sections of track at Mount Pitt, Palm Glen and the Botanic Garden have ramps and grades that provide limited access to assisted wheelchairs. The public toilets in the Botanic Garden have disabled access.


Phillip Island is largely devoid of artificial structures with the exception of the Parks Australia hut, a private encampment, tracks and climbing ropes. The Fishing Club’s hut is sited on a small islet adjacent to Phillip Island and is used as accommodation by local visitors.

Under ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act the Director and other persons can only excavate, erect a building or other structure, or carry out works in the Park and Botanic Garden in accordance with this Plan.

Issues

·       The management challenge is to strike a balance between providing opportunities for the appropriate use, appreciation and enjoyment of the Park and Botanic Garden by visitors, protecting Park and Botanic Garden values, and allowing the construction of infrastructure necessary for approved activities.

·       It is important to ensure that staff and visitors are provided with safe, comfortable and functional facilities.

·       Management programs and maintenance schedules require safe and appropriate access to work sites, and need to be undertaken in a cost effective manner.

·       Capital works are governed by rules and regulations regarding correct tendering and accounting processes.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.1.1              The Director may carry out an excavation, erect a building or other structure, or carry out works in the Park or Botanic Garden, including in relation to capital works and infrastructure.

8.1.2              Third parties may carry out an excavation, erect a building or other structure, or carry out works in the Park or Botanic Garden to develop and maintain capital works and infrastructure in accordance with a permit issued under the EPBC Regulations or other approval issued by the Director.

8.1.3              New capital works and infrastructure, and alterations, renovations or significant repairs to existing capital works and infrastructure, must:

(a)        as far as practicable incorporate good, cost effective environmental design, including efficient resource use

(b)       as far as practicable, use low maintenance designs and materials

(c)        comply with all relevant laws, standards, and codes of practice

(d)       as far as practicable provide access for all members of the public, including the physically impaired.

8.1.4              As far as practicable, new capital works and infrastructure will use existing roads and tracks.

8.1.5              Third parties who undertake capital works and infrastructure development and other works must meet the cost of any rehabilitation required as a result of the works.

8.1.6              Timber, including preservative treated pine, may be brought into the Park and Botanic Garden and used for construction purposes.

8.1.7              Unless replaced by a more effective network, the Park’s VHF radio network will be maintained to a standard that provides reliable Park-wide radio coverage.

Actions

8.1.8              Construct and maintain capital works and infrastructure to a reasonable and safe standard in line with policies 8.1.1 to 8.1.7.

8.1.9              Ensure that all construction and maintenance planning and work is undertaken in a way which minimises the impact on Park and Botanic Garden values.

8.1.10           Maintain temporary facilities on Phillip Island to facilitate regeneration of native vegetation, to provide emergency relief facilities and to maintain Park values.

8.1.11           Review the condition of the existing temporary research camps on Phillip Island with a view to minimising the unintentional spread of degraded plastics and other materials, whilst retaining any desirable function associated with the camps eg scientific and historical research.

8.1.12           Maintain a radio communications network appropriate to the operational and emergency rescue needs of the National Park and Botanic Garden.

8.2                  Compliance and enforcement

Our aim

·       There is maximum compliance with relevant legislation by users of the National Park and Botanic Garden as a result of effective education and enforcement programs.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Trends in the number, severity and type of non-compliance incidents detected and reported

·       Number of staff appropriately trained in compliance and enforcement

Background

Compliance with relevant legislation is important for the protection of Park and Botanic Garden values, and for people’s safety. The Parks Australia Compliance and Enforcement Manual sets out the broad guidelines and procedures for managing compliance issues in Commonwealth reserves.

Staff may be appointed by the Minister under the EPBC Act as rangers or wardens, and exercise the powers and functions conferred on them by the Act and the Regulations. In addition, all members and special members of the Australian Federal Police and officers of the Australian Customs Service are ex officio wardens; and officers or employees of other Australian, state or territory government agencies may be appointed by the Minister as rangers or wardens. The Australian Government requires that investigating officers be trained to standards prescribed in the Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines. Rangers and wardens conduct monitoring and enforcement operations while on routine patrols and during specific, targeted programs. Park staff not appointed as wardens and rangers cannot exercise these powers but can encourage compliance with legislation through education to raise public awareness of appropriate behaviour.

Norfolk Island laws apply in the Park to the extent they can operate concurrently with the EPBC Act and Regulations and this Plan.


Issues

·       Effective compliance and enforcement requires appropriate resources and training, and a strategic approach based on risk management principles.

·       Exercise of enforcement powers by Park staff must comply with Australian Government policies, standards and guidelines.

·       Establishing and maintaining working relationships with other relevant compliance agencies can improve management of compliance issues that are of shared concern.

What we are going to do

Actions

8.2.1              Monitor the effectiveness of the EPBC Act and Regulations in relation to the National Park and Botanic Garden.

8.2.2              Provide ongoing compliance and law enforcement skills assessment and development for staff appointed, or likely to be appointed, as rangers and wardens.

8.2.3              Provide staff and stakeholders with appropriate information about compliance and enforcement issues.

8.2.4              Liaise and, where appropriate, work with other relevant agencies involved in compliance and enforcement.

8.2.5              Undertake compliance and enforcement activities within the National Park and Botanic Garden.

8.3                  Assessment of proposals

Our aim

·       The potential or likely impacts of proposed actions on Park and Botanic Garden values are properly considered before decisions are made.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Number of proposals assessed in line with Table 1

·       Level of proponent satisfaction with transparency and timeliness of the assessment process

Background

Activities proposed to be undertaken in the Park or Botanic Garden by the Director and external stakeholders such as the tourism industry and business people must be assessed for their potential impacts before a decision can be made on whether the activity should go ahead. Impacts that need to be considered include impacts on the Park and Botanic Garden values.

Some activities proposed to be undertaken in the Park or Botanic Garden may be ‘controlled actions’ (see Section 2.4, Legislative context) and require assessment and approval by the Minister under the EPBC Act because they are likely to have a significant impact on a matter of national environmental significance (such as nationally listed threatened species) or the environment generally. The EPBC Act defines the ‘environment’ as including:


(a)        ecosystems and their constituent parts, including people and communities; and

(b)        natural and physical resources; and

(c)        the qualities and characteristics of locations, places and areas; and

(d)        heritage values of places; and

(e)        the social, economic and cultural aspects of a thing mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Proposed actions that do not trigger the EPBC Act assessment and approval provisions may still have impacts that require assessment before a decision can be made on whether the action should go ahead. Proposed actions of a routine nature that are authorised by or under prescriptions (ie policies and actions) in this Plan generally do not require impact assessment.

The Director makes decisions on whether or not proposals should be approved using the Park’s environmental impact assessment process. In doing so he seeks the advice of NINPAC.

Issues

·       If not properly assessed and managed proposed actions may cause significant damage to Park and Botanic Garden values.

·       Up-to-date, clear and consistent guidelines and procedures are needed for assessing proposals.

·       Assessment of proposals may require significant resources.

·       Assessment of proposals needs to take account of NINPAC’s advice and any submissions or representations by other stakeholders.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.3.1              Proposed actions under this Plan will be considered and assessed in the light of their potential impacts and with regard to relevant legislation, Regulations, treaties, agreements, and partnerships.

8.3.2              Proposed actions will be assessed in accordance with Tables 1 and 2.

8.3.3              NINPAC and relevant stakeholders may be advised of the outcome of considerations and any assessments.

8.3.5              Proposed actions that are considered likely to have more than a negligible impact but are not controlled actions under the EPBC Act will be assessed in accordance with the Park and Botanic Garden’s impact assessment procedures summarised in Tables 1 and 2.

8.3.6              Assessment of proposed activities that are not controlled actions may be carried out by Park staff, proponents of the proposed activity, or independent experts.

8.3.7              Subject to the EPBC Act, the Director may recover from proponents the costs associated with administering, assessing and managing proposals.

Actions

8.3.8              Consider the potential impacts of all proposed actions in the National Park and Botanic Garden.

8.3.9              Assess proposed actions in accordance with policies 8.3.1 to 8.3.7 and the assessment matters outlined in Table 1, and considerations outlined in Table 2.


Table 1:    Decision-making process and impact assessment procedures

Category

Example

Decision-making process and impact assessment requirements

Category 1

 

 

Actions considered likely to have no impact, or no more than a negligible impact, on the Park or Botanic Garden’s environment and natural and cultural values.

 

Minor capital works eg maintenance, replacement, repairing or improving existing infrastructure in its present form.

Regular/routine ongoing operations to implement prescriptions in this Plan eg patrols/weed control.

Issuing permits for regular activities in accordance with this Plan eg land-based tours, research.

Process accords with management plan policies, prescriptions and procedures.

Consultation occurs with interested stakeholders.

Decision is made by an appropriate officer.

Category 2

 

 

Actions considered likely to have more than a negligible impact, but not a significant impact, on the Park or Botanic Garden’s environment and natural and cultural values.

Moderate capital works eg new infrastructure or moderate expansion/upgrade of existing infrastructure.

Rehabilitation of heavily eroded sites.

Developments for approved existing tourism activities that do not require major works.

Minor new operations or developments to implement prescriptions in this Plan.

Process accords with management plan policies, prescriptions and procedures.

Assessment by Park Manager, or after appropriate advice, including environmental impact assessment.

Assessment in accordance with Table 2 and procedures approved by Director.

Relevant stakeholders are informed and consulted.

Decision is made by appropriate delegate of the Director after evidence of consultation with all relevant stakeholders.

Category 3

 

 

Actions considered likely to have a significant impact on the Park or Botanic Garden’s environment and natural and cultural values.

 

Major capital works eg new major infrastructure or major expansion/upgrade of existing infrastructure.

Major new operations or developments to implement prescriptions in this Plan.

Major/long-term changes to existing visitor access arrangements.

New types of commercial activities.

Process accords with management plan policies, prescriptions and procedures.

Director will consider whether action should be referred for consideration as a ‘controlled action’ under the EPBC Act.

If action referred and Minister decides it is a controlled action no assessment required by Park staff.

If action not referred, or referred and Minister decides it is not a controlled action, assessment as for Category 2.


Table 2:    Environmental impact assessment matters and considerations

Matters for assessment

Considerations include, but not limited to

1.        Environmental context

 

(a)     What are the components or features of the environment in the area where the action will take place?

·       Species, ecological communities in the park-wide and regional context

·       Matters of national environmental significance

·       Cultural features

·       Heritage feature

·       Socio-economic values

·       Tourism and recreational values

·       Aesthetic/landscape values

·       Scientific reference areas

(b)     Which components or features of the environment are likely to be impacted?

·       Short and long-term impacts on- and off-site

(c)      Is the environment which is likely to be impacted, or are elements of it, sensitive or vulnerable to impacts?

·       Species, ecological communities

·       Matters of national environmental significance

·       Cultural values (including sacred sites)

·       Heritage values

·       Tourism and visitor experience

·       Cumulative impacts from a range of activities across the park on the environment or its elements

·       Uniqueness of elements within the park-wide and regional context

(d)     What is the history, current use and condition of the environment which is likely to be impacted?

·       Comparison with condition of similar sites elsewhere in the park

2.        Potential impacts

 

(a)     What are the components of the action?

·       Include associated infrastructure and stages

(b)     What are the predicted adverse impacts associated with the action including indirect consequences?

·       Include indirect and off-site impacts

(c)      How severe are the potential impacts?

·       Consider scale, intensity, timing, duration and frequency

(d)     What is the extent of uncertainty about potential impacts?

 

3.        Impact avoidance and mitigation

 

(a)     Will any measures to avoid or mitigate impacts ensure, with a high degree of certainty, that impacts are not significant?

·       Include whether any alternative sites for proposal

4.        Significance of impacts

 

(a)     Considering all the matters above, is the action likely to have a significant impact on the environment?

·       If yes, the Director will consider whether action should be referred for Ministerial consideration under the EPBC Act

Note: This is a guide only – the detailed environmental assessment process is set out in the Manual of Procedures.

8.4                  Incident management

Our aim

·       Incidents and emergencies in the Park and Botanic Garden are responded to promptly, effectively and safely.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Standard of incident documentation and response

Background

Incidents may occur in the Park and Botanic Garden that affect Park and Botanic Garden values, people and property.

As noted elsewhere in this Plan the Director has the function under the EPBC Act of administering, managing and controlling the Park. This gives the Director responsibility in relation to incidents in the Park and Botanic Garden. Also, the Director has a duty of care for Park and Botanic Garden visitors and staff, and a duty under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1991 (Cwlth) to take reasonably practicable steps to protect employees and Park visitors from risks to their health and safety.

Police do not have a statutory role in relation to incidents of the type referred to in this Section unless an incident is a disaster or emergency, requiring counter disaster measures, under the Disaster and Emergency Management Act 2001 (NI). However, police forces are generally responsible for marine search and rescue operations for persons or ships in waters within the limits of ports of a state/territory and in respect of pleasure craft and fishing vessels; provision and coordination of land searches for missing civil aircraft; and overall coordination of searches for hikers and land vehicles. In complex rescues the Police Officer-in-Charge controls the incident in liaison with representatives from each agency involved, including Parks Australia, fire and rescue and emergency services. The Police Officer-in-Charge has powers to draw on available resources, wherever they are and whoever controls them.

Australian Federal Police and Australian Customs Officers are ex officio wardens, and officers or employees of other Australian, state or territory government agencies may be appointed by the Minister as rangers or wardens and may be involved in compliance work where their assistance is requested by the Director.

An incident management facility has been set up at Park headquarters to facilitate incident management, and to facilitate Park staff’s involvement in disaster and emergency response.

Issues

·       There is a need for appropriate numbers of properly trained and resourced personnel to provide an effective incident response system.

·       There can be significant costs involved in providing incident response services.

·       The National Park and Botanic Garden are part of the wider Norfolk Island emergency/disaster response plan.

·       The Norfolk Island police and ambulance services play an important role in managing many of the compliance and accident incidents.


What we are going to do

Policies

8.4.1              An incident response and management capacity will be maintained within the Park.

8.4.2              Subject to legal requirements, the Director may seek reimbursement or contributions for the cost of responding to incidents, in particular search and rescue operations.

8.4.3              Liaison will take place between Park staff and relevant emergency services agencies and other relevant agencies about incident response procedures, responsibilities, personnel, training and resources.

Actions

8.4.4              Review and implement incident management procedures addressing:

(a)        the roles and responsibilities of the Director and other emergency response agencies

(b)       procedures for managing common potential incidents that may affect life, property and the environment, including hazardous spills

(c)        legislative, training, reporting, record keeping, debriefing and counselling requirements.

8.4.5              Provide incident training for Park staff, and for other stakeholders where appropriate.

8.4.6              Undertake incident debriefing and counselling as appropriate and/or when requested.

8.4.7              Maintain relationships and training appropriate to participation in island-wide emergency/disaster response capability.

8.5                  Research and monitoring

Our aim

·       Research and monitoring activities in the Park and Botanic Garden feed into better management of Park and Botanic Garden values.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Number and kind of research projects which are implemented

·       Extent to which research reports are considered in Park management actions

Background

Research and surveys provide information about Park and Botanic Garden values, visitor use and impact. Monitoring is an essential management tool for keeping track of changes to the environment and for measuring the success of management actions. Research and monitoring assist in developing effective management programs for conservation of Park and Botanic Garden values.

Research and monitoring assist the Director to make decisions about management of the Park and Botanic Garden. This work may be carried out by Park staff or consultants engaged by the Director. It may also be carried out in collaboration with other government agencies, organisations and individuals.


Other government agencies, organisations and individuals may also wish to carry out research and monitoring activities for their own purposes, independently of the Director, and may want to do so for either non-commercial or commercial purposes.

Where appropriate, research and monitoring projects undertaken in the Park and Botanic Garden may have an island-wide perspective, necessitating cooperation with relevant authorities and landholders outside the Park and Botanic Garden.

Under r.12.10 of the EPBC Regulations research may not be undertaken in the Park or Botanic Garden unless it is provided for by, and carried out in accordance with, a management plan in force for the Park and Botanic Garden; or is authorised by a permit, or under certain other conditions (r.12.06). Research which involves taking, keeping, moving, etc native species, or is undertaken for commercial purposes, is prohibited by ss.354 and 354A of the Act except where undertaken in accordance with this Plan.

Research which involves actions that affect members of species that are protected under Part 13 of the EPBC Act ie listed threatened species, ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, or cetaceans, must also comply with the provisions of Part 13 of the Act unless done in accordance with this Plan.

Research in the Park and Botanic Garden may involve access to biological resources ie taking biological resources of native species for research and development on any genetic resources, or biochemical compounds, comprising or contained in the biological resources. Part 8A of the EPBC Regulations (made under s.301 of the Act) controls access to biological resources in Commonwealth areas, including Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden (see Section 4.6, Bioprospecting).

Issues

·       Research and monitoring need to be prioritised and planned in order to be effective.

·       Research and monitoring activities should provide information that contributes to the effective management of the Park and Botanic Garden and this information needs to be clearly communicated to Park staff and relevant stakeholders.

·       Effective methods for storing and retrieving data are required.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.5.1              The Director will carry out, take part in, and contribute to research and monitoring that is consistent with this Plan, and helps to improve the management of the Park and Botanic Garden.

8.5.2              The Director may carry out research and monitoring that involves actions covered by ss.354 and 354A and Part 13 of the EPBC Act in relation to members of native species and listed species eg taking, keeping, moving.

8.5.3              Research and monitoring will focus primarily on listed species, related threats and management actions.


8.5.4              Organisations and individuals may carry out research and monitoring, including actions covered by ss.354 and 354A and Part 13 of the EPBC Act in collaboration with the Director, under an agreement or in accordance with a permit issued by the Director under the EPBC Regulations.

8.5.5              Permits authorising research and monitoring may be issued if the activity is consistent with a relevant recovery plan for a listed threatened species; will not, on balance, threaten the conservation status of a species or ecological community; and will not adversely impact upon National Park and Botanic Garden values. An additional consideration may be whether the research activity can reasonably be done outside the Park.

8.5.6              Research and monitoring that involves access to biological resources within the meaning of Part 8A of the EPBC Regulations must comply with those Regulations, in addition to the requirements of this Section of the Plan (see also Section 4.6, Bioprospecting).

8.5.7              Persons carrying out research and monitoring under agreement with, or a permit from, the Director will be required to provide reports to the Director (including progress reports for longer-term research and monitoring) in hard copy and electronic format and including plain English summaries.

8.5.8              Park management actions should as far as practicable be monitored regularly to assess effectiveness.

Actions

8.5.9              Prioritise the Director’s research and monitoring activities to assist in restoring or maintaining Park and Botanic Garden values.

8.5.10           Maintain monitoring programs including rehabilitation activities for invasive species, EPBC Act listed threatened species, and seabirds.

8.5.11           Maintain a research database and report upon research activities to NINPAC at least twice a year.

8.5.12           Maintain management records including a monitoring database.

8.5.13           Undertake at least one visitor survey during the life of this Plan.

8.5.14           Carry out research into the reproductive biology of threatened Norfolk Island plants and habitat needed to propagate them, giving priority to species which have so far proven difficult to propagate.

8.5.15           Implement a seabird monitoring program.

8.5.16           Encourage and support third parties to conduct research into fauna and flora, in particular invertebrate fauna and non-vascular flora.

8.5.17           Monitor trends in the distribution, breeding and numbers of listed threatened species.

8.5.18           Conduct regular surveys to identify and control new pests before they spread.

8.5.19           Monitor weed coverage, trends in the status of introduced predators, the impact of introduced competitors and the number of major incidents involving pathogens.

8.5.20           Provide NINPAC with six-monthly monitoring reports.

8.5.21           Consider funding or encourage research to improve understanding of the impact and management of feral fowl.

8.5.22           Undertake or support further research into the impact and control of problem species and pathogens.

 


8.6                  Resource use in Park and Botanic Garden operations

Our aim

·       Financial and environmental best practice governs the use and management of resources.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which all activities are properly funded and acquitted in line with Chief Executive Instructions and in line with appropriate financial legislation and regulations

·       Extent to which waste in the Park and Botanic Garden is sustainably managed

·       Number and type of safety incidents related to waste management practices

Background

The Director supports financial and environmental best practice principles in regard to the use of resources and management of waste products in the Park and Botanic Garden.

These principles are consistent with good governance and with the need for conserving the natural and cultural values of the Park and Botanic Garden.

Fresh water is a particularly limited commodity in the Park and Botanic Garden and water use will be given special attention.

Issues

·       Financial accountability is a critical component of proper resource management.

·       Mount Pitt forms a major water catchment to offset the community’s aquifer use.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.6.1              All Park and Botanic Garden activities will be funded and acquitted within an approved budget.

8.6.2              Where practicable all management activities will aim to reduce or minimise the use of energy or materials.

Actions

8.6.3              Maintain and acquit proper financial records in accordance with the Chief Executive Instructions.

8.6.4              Work with other organisations, suppliers, contractors and other relevant people to investigate, and where cost effective implement, strategies and technologies (such as energy reduction and alternative energy sources) for reducing the Park and Botanic Garden’s output of greenhouse gases.

8.6.5              Promote best practice environmental work practices and activities in the Park and Botanic Garden by example and through information distribution.

8.6.6              Promote best practice environmental standards relating to manufactured resource use in the Park and Botanic Garden.

 


8.7                  New activities not otherwise specified in this Plan

Our aim

·       The Director is able to respond to new issues and proposals consistent with this Plan and the EPBC Act and Regulations.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Extent to which new issues are dealt with effectively and consistent with the principles and policies set out in this Plan

Background

This Plan sets out how the Park and Botanic Garden will be managed for a period of ten years. During that time, circumstances may arise or proposals be brought forward for actions which are not known or anticipated at the time the Plan is being prepared and which will require the Director to take actions that are not covered by specific prescriptions in this Plan.

As noted in Section 2.4, Legislative context, under ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act certain types of actions can only be taken if they are authorised by this Plan (including acts in relation to native species, works, and actions for commercial purposes). Actions affecting members of species protected under Part 13 of the Act may be taken in accordance with this Plan.

Section 358(2) of the EPBC Act allows the Director to grant a lease, sublease, or licence relating to land in the Park provided it is in accordance with a management plan.

The Director is required by the Act (s.362) to exercise the Director’s powers eg to issue permits and to perform the Director’s functions so as to give effect to the Plan.

Issue

·       This Plan needs to enable appropriate actions to be taken and authorised that are not specified by other prescriptions in the Plan because they are not foreseen at the time of writing this Plan.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.7.1              The Director may take actions that are not covered by specific prescriptions in this Plan, including actions covered by ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act.

8.7.2              The Director may authorise (whether by permit, contract, lease or licence) actions by other persons that are not covered by specific prescriptions in this Plan, including actions covered by ss.354 and 354A of the EPBC Act or the EPBC Regulations.

8.7.3              The Director may grant leases, subleases and licences relating to land in the Park.

8.7.4              Except in cases of emergency, the impact assessment processes prescribed in Section 8.3 of this Plan apply to actions under this Section.

 


8.8                  Management Plan implementation and evaluation

Our aim

·       Manage the Park and Botanic Garden in an effective and efficient manner and in accordance with obligations under this Management Plan and relevant Australian Government and Departmental policies.

Measuring how well we are meeting our aim

·       Degree to which this Plan is implemented and meets its aims

·       Level of compliance with legal obligations

Background

Parks Australia’s Strategic Planning and Performance Assessment Framework is used to help monitor and improve the management of Commonwealth reserves. A full description of the framework and the key result areas (KRAs) and outcomes relevant to this Plan is in Section 1.2, Structure of this Management Plan, and in Appendix A.

The prescriptions contained in this Plan are based on achieving KRA outcomes and on government legislative requirements (including the EPBC Act) that deal with specific attributes and issues related to the management of the Park and Botanic Garden.

It is the responsibility of the Director under s.514B of the EPBC Act to administer, control, protect, conserve and manage biodiversity in Commonwealth reserves. Funds for the management of the Park and Botanic Garden are allocated from the Australian National Parks Fund under the EPBC Act. The principal sources of the fund’s money are prescribed by s.514S of the EPBC Act. Under s.356A of the EPBC Act the Director may collect charges for activities undertaken in Commonwealth reserves, subject to the approval of the Minister. As an authority for the purposes of the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997, the Director is also subject to the requirements of that Act as well as other relevant legislative requirements and government policies. These policies include the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts’ Risk Watch List, which is used to identify and help manage Departmental risk management issues.

Park staff are responsible for the management of the Park and Botanic Garden’s budget in accordance with the Chief Executive Instructions and policies of the Director. In accordance with Australian Government policy, accounts are maintained on an accrual accounting basis and decisions regarding capital works and infrastructure must consider total life cycle costings. Section 514T of the EPBC Act prescribes how the Director may apply the money from the Australian National Parks Fund. Principally, the money must be used in payment or discharge of the costs, expenses and other obligations incurred by the Director in the performance of the Director’s functions.

The Director is assisted in the performance of the Director’s functions by Parks Australia, whose staff are employees of the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts assigned to assist the Director. The Director has delegated functions and powers under the EPBC Act and the EPBC Regulations to Parks Australia staff.


The Department requires each staff member to have an individual performance and development plan that links their work output to agreed work plans. For Park staff, these relate directly to the implementation of the Management Plan. The Department is required to provide learning and development opportunities for staff related to their agreed work plans and career development.

Issues

·       To effectively and responsibly implement this Plan work policies, procedures and programs must be consistent with the Plan and with relevant government policies.

·       Near the Plan’s expiry date, there should be a review of how successfully the Plan has been implemented.

What we are going to do

Policies

8.8.1              Priorities for implementation of the actions in this Plan will be determined by the need to protect and promote Park and Botanic Garden values, ensure visitor safety, and ensure cost effectiveness.

8.8.2              The Park and Botanic Garden work program, expenditure, staff learning and development plans, staff training and activities will be linked to implementing this Plan and any other priorities as determined by the Director.

8.8.3              Park management activities will be carried out in accordance with best practice procedures.

8.8.4              An annual review of the implementation of the Plan will be provided through the Director’s Annual Report.

Actions

8.8.5              Report to the Director on the implementation of this Plan and Park and Botanic Garden expenditure in a manner requested by the Director and consistent with any government requirements.

8.8.6              Develop an implementation schedule for this Plan. Based on the schedule, develop and implement annual priorities and work plans.

8.8.7              Following consultation with relevant stakeholders, develop and/or review Park policies and operational procedures.

8.8.8              Undertake a technical audit of this Plan and present it to the Director prior to the preparation of the next management plan. The audit will include, but may not be limited to, the following terms of reference:

(a)        consideration of each prescribed management policy and action and whether or not it was successfully implemented

(b)       evaluation of the performance of each prescribed policy and action in relation to the Section aim(s) that it was intended to achieve

(c)        in the case of any prescribed policy or action that was not implemented, or which failed to achieve the desired aim(s), determination of the cause

(d)       recommendations to the Director regarding any changes to aims, policies and actions that should be considered during the preparation of the next plan.


Appendix A

Key result area outcomes relevant to Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

The following KRA outcomes developed by the Director of National Parks are relevant to Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden.

KRA 1: Natural heritage management

·       Natural values for which the Commonwealth reserves were declared and/or recognised have been maintained.

·       Populations of EPBC Act listed threatened species and their habitats have been conserved.

KRA 2: Cultural heritage management

·       Cultural heritage values, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, for which the parks were declared and are recognised have been protected and conserved.

·       Living cultural traditions are being maintained.

·       The impacts of threats to cultural values have been minimised.

·       Wide awareness and appreciation that parks are managed and presented as living cultural landscapes and seascapes has been achieved.

KRA 4: Visitor management and park use

·       Visitors to Commonwealth reserves enjoy inspirational, satisfying and safe experiences.

·       Visitor impacts (on reserve management, values, the environment and other visitors) are within acceptable levels.

·       Public awareness and appreciation of the values of Commonwealth reserves has been enhanced.

·       Commercial operators provide a high quality service to park visitors.

KRA 5: Stakeholders and partnerships

·       Volunteers contribute to area management based on clearly defined roles.

·       Stakeholders eg neighbours, state agencies and park user groups, are involved in, and contribute effectively to, park management activities.

·       Commercial and other partnership opportunities are encouraged and evaluated.

·       National Reserve System grants under the Natural Heritage Trust are delivered in accordance with agreed strategies and policies.

KRA 6: Business management

·       Planning and decision-making are based on best available information, legislative obligations, Parks Australia policy and social justice principles.

·       Financial and business management is based on better practice and government requirements.

·       High levels of staff expertise and performance are recognised and valued.

·       Obligations under the EPBC Act and Regulations relating to management of Commonwealth reserves are complied with.

·       Ministerial directions and other obligations are complied with.


Appendix B

EPBC Act listed threatened species occurring in Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden (at November 2006)

Birds

Common name

Scientific name

EPBC Act

Distribution

Norfolk Island Green Parrot, Red-crowned Parakeet (Norfolk Island)

Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii

EN

NP, BG,?

Norfolk Island Morepork (Boobook Owl), Southern Morepork (Boobook) (Norfolk Island)

Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata

EN

NP, BG,?

Golden Whistler (Norfolk Island)

Pachycephala pectoralis xanthoprocta

VU

NP, BG, NI

Scarlet Robin (Norfolk Island)

Petroica multicolor multicolor

VU

NP, BG, NI

Kermadec Petrel (western)

Pterodroma neglecta neglecta

VU

PI

Extinct birds

Common name

Scientific name

EPBC Act

Tasman Starling

Aplonis fusca

EX

New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk Island race)

Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea

EX

Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller

Lalage leucopyga leucopyga

EX

Norfolk Island Kaka

Nestor productus

EX

Grey-headed Blackbird, Norfolk Island Thrush

Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus

EX

White-chested White-eye, Norfolk Island Silvereye

Zosterops albogularis

EX

Reptiles

Common name

Scientific name

EPBC Act

Distribution

Lord Howe Island gecko
(
Norfolk Island gecko)

Christinus guentheri

VU

PI

Lord Howe Island skink
(
Norfolk Island skink)

Oligosoma lichenigera

 

VU

PI


Plants

Common name

Scientific name

EPBC Act

Distribution

Norfolk Island abutilon

Abutilon julianae

CE

PI,
planted on NI

Chaff tree, soft-wood

Achyranthes arborescens

CE

NI, NP

A shrub

Achyranthes margaretarum

CE

PI,
planted on NI

Norfolk Island water-fern

Blechnum norfolkianum

EN

NP

Tree nettle, nettletree

Boehmeria australis var. australis

CE

NP

A creeper

Calystegia affinis

CE

NP

A creeper, clematis

Clematis dubia

CE

NP

Coastal coprosma

Coprosma baueri

EN

PI, NI,
planted in NP

Mountain coprosma

Coprosma pilosa

EN

NP

Ti

Cordyline obtecta

VU

NI, NP

Middle filmy fern

Crepidomanes endlicherianum

EN

NI, NP

Norfolk Island orchid

Dendrobium brachypus (EPBC Act)

Thelychiton brachypus (current name)

EN

NP, BG

Sharkwood, a tree

Dysoxylum bijugum

VU

NP, NI

Mountain procris

Elatostema montanum

CE

NP

Phillip Island wheat-grass

Elymus multiflorus var. kingianus

CE

PI, NI

Norfolk Island euphorbia, a shrub

Euphorbia norfolkiana

CE

BG, NI

A herb

Euphorbia obliqua

VU

BG, NI

Phillip Island hibiscus

Hibiscus insularis

CE

PI, planted in BG

Downy ground-fern, brake fern, ground fern

Hypolepis dicksonioides

VU

NP, NI

Mistletoe

Ileostylus micranthus

VU

NP

Shield-fern

Lastreopsis calantha

EN

NP, NI

King fern, para, potato fern

Marattia salicina

EN

NP

Shade tree

Melicope littoralis

VU

NI, NP

Norfolk Island mahoe

Melicytus latifolius

CE

NP

Whiteywood, a tree

Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. oblongifolius

VU

NI, NP

A tree

Meryta angustifolia

VU

NI, NP, BG


Common name

Scientific name

EPBC Act

Distribution

Shade tree, broad-leaved meryta

Meryta latifolia

CE

NI, NP, BG

Shrubby creeper, pohuehue

Muehlenbeckia australis

EN

NI, PI, NP

Popwood, sandalwood, bastard ironwood

Myoporum obscurum

CE

NP, NI, ?

Pennantia

Pennantia endlicheri

EN

NI, NP

Norfolk Island phreatia

Phreatia limenophylax

CE

NI, NP

An orchid

Phreatia paleata

EN

NP

Oleander

Pittosporum bracteolatum

VU

NP, NI

Bastard ironwood

Pouteria costata

EN

NP, BG

King’s brakefern

Pteris kingiana

EN

NI, NP

Netted brakefern

Pteris zahlbruckneriana

EN

NP, NI

Beech

Rapanea ralstoniae

VU

NP, NI

A daisy

Senecio australis

VU

NI PI

A daisy

Senecio evansianus

EN

NI, NP

A daisy

Senecio hooglandii

VU

PI, NI

Siah’s backbone, Sia’s backbone, Isaac wood

Streblus pendulinus

EN

NP, NI, BG

Minute orchid, ribbon-root orchid

Taeniophyllum muelleri

VU

NP

Hanging fork-fern

Tmesipteris norfolkensis

VU

NP

Bastard oak

Ungeria floribunda

VU

NP

Kurrajong

Wikstroemia australis

CE

NP, NI

Native cucumber, giant cucumber

Zehneria baueriana

EN

NP, PI, NI

Note: This list may be amended during the life of the Plan as new information becomes available.

Key

CE              Listed under the EPBC Act as critically endangered

EN              Listed under the EPBC Act as endangered

VU              Listed under the EPBC Act as vulnerable

EX              Listed under the EPBC Act as extinct

?                 Indicates uncertainty about distribution

PI               Phillip Island

NP              National Park

NI               Norfolk Island

BG              Botanic Garden

 

Reference

Species Profile and Threats database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts website http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl


Appendix C

EPBC Act listed migratory species occurring in Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Birds

Common name

Scientific name

Local Status

CAMBA

JAMBA

ROKAMBA

Bonn

Common Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos
 =Tringa hypoleucos

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Common Noddy

Anous stolidus

Breeding Migrant

!

!

 

 

Fork-tailed Swift

Apus pacificus

Rare Vagrant

!

!

!

 

Great Egret, White Egret

Ardea alba = Egretta alba

Rare Vagrant

!

!

 

 

Cattle Egret

Ardea ibis = Ardeola ibis

Migrant

!

!

 

 

Ruddy Turnstone

Arenaria interpres

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper

Calidris acuminata

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Sanderling

Calidris alba

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Red Knot, Knot

Calidris canutus

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Curlew Sandpiper

Calidris ferruginea

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Pectoral Sandpiper

Calidris melanotos

Migrant

 

!

!

!

Red-necked Stint

Calidris ruficollis

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Double-banded Plover

Charadrius bicinctus

Regular Migrant

 

 

 

!

Mongolian Plover, Mongolian Sand-dotterel, Lesser Sand Plover

Charadrius mongolus

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Oriental Cuckoo

Cuculus saturatus

Rare Vagrant

!

!

!

 

Lesser Frigatebird, Least Frigatebird

Fregata ariel

Vagrant

!

!

!

 

Great Frigatebird, Greater Frigatebird

Fregata minor

Vagrant

!

!

 

 

Latham's Snipe, Japanese Snipe

Gallinago hardwickii
= Capella hardwickii

Vagrant

!

!

!

!

Pin-tailed Snipe

Gallinago stenura
 = Capella stenura

Vagrant

!

!

!

!


Common name

Scientific name

Local Status

CAMBA

JAMBA

ROKAMBA

Bonn

Grey-tailed Tattler

Heteroscelus brevipes
= Tringa brevipes

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Wandering Tattler

Heteroscelus incanus
= Tringa incana

Migrant

!

!

 

!

White-throated Needletail

Hirundapus caudacutus

Rare Vagrant

!

!

!

 

Bar-tailed Godwit

Limosa lapponica

Vagrant

!

!

!

!

Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa limosa

Vagrant

!

!

!

!

Eastern Curlew

Numenius madagascariensis

Rare Vagrant

!

!

!

!

Whimbrel

Numenius phaeopus

Migrant

!

!

!

!

White-tailed Tropicbird

Phaethon lepturus

Vagrant

!

!

 

 

Pacific Golden Plover

Pluvialis fulva

Rare Vagrant

!

!

!

!

Flesh-footed Shearwater, Fleshy-footed Shearwater

Puffinus carneipes

Breeding Migrant

 

!

!

 

Wedge-tailed Shearwater

Puffinus pacificus

Breeding Migrant

 

!

 

 

Short-tailed Shearwater

Puffinus tenuirostris

Rare Vagrant

 

!

!

 

Masked Booby

Sula dactylatra

Breeding Resident

 

!

!

 

Brown Booby

Sula leucogaster

Common Vagrant

!

!

!

 

Common Greenshank, Greenshank

Tringa nebularia

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Marsh Sandpiper, Little Greenshank

Tringa stagnatilis

Migrant

!

!

!

!

Terek Sandpiper

Xenus cinereus
= Tringa terek

Migrant

!

!

!

!

 

CAMBA        Listed under the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment

JAMBA         Listed under the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment

ROKAMBA   Listed under the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of Korea for the Protection of Migratory Birds

Bonn            Listed under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals


Review of migratory bird agreements
The above information was correct at the time of preparing this Plan.  A review of the lists of species covered by migratory bird agreements is being undertaken by the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts to rectify some inconsistencies with common and scientific names. As a consequence, this list may be varied during the life of this Plan.

Endangered birds listed under JAMBA
The following bird species occurring within the reserves are listed as Australian endangered birds under the Government of Australia and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction and their Environment (JAMBA). Although listed as extinct at the time of preparing this Plan, the White-breasted White-eye (Zosterops albogularis) has been sighted several times on Norfolk Island and its status under the EPBC Act may be reviewed.

Common name

Scientific name

Norfolk Island Green Parrot, Red-crowned parakeet (Norfolk Island)

Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii

Norfolk Island Morepork (Boobook Owl), Southern Morepork (Boobook) (Norfolk Island)

Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata

Providence Petrel

Pterodroma solandri

White-chested White-eye, Norfolk Island Silvereye

Zosterops albogularis

 

Reference

Species Profile and Threats database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts website http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl

Christian, M L (2005) Norfolk Island… the birds, Green Eyes Publications, Kingston, Norfolk Island.

 

 


Appendix D

EPBC Act listed marine species occurring in Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

Birds

Common name

Scientific name

Distribution

Black Noddy

Anous minutus

NP, PI

Common Noddy

Anous stolidus

PI

Nankeen Kestrel

Falco cenchroides

NP, BG, PI

White Tern

Gygis alba

NP, BG

Australasian Gannet

Morus serrator

PI

Red-tailed Tropicbird

Phaethon rubricauda

NP, PI

Eastern Swamphen

Porphyrio porphyrio

PI

Grey Ternlet

Procelsterna cerulea

PI, NP

White-necked Petrel

Pterodroma cervicalis

PI

Kermadec Petrel

Pterodroma neglecta

PI

Black-winged Petrel

Pterodroma nigripennis

PI

Providence Petrel

Pterodroma solandri

PI

Little Shearwater

Puffinus assimilis

PI, NP

Wedge-tailed Shearwater

Puffinus pacificus

NP, PI

Sooty Tern

Sterna fuscata

PI, NP

Masked Booby

Sula dactylatra

NP, PI

Fleshy-footed Shearwater, Flesh-footed Shearwater

Puffinus carneipes

PI

Southern Boobook

Ninox novaeseelandiae

NI, BG

Sacred Kingfisher

Todiramphus sanctus

NI

Silvereye

Zosterops lateralis

NP, BG, PI

Vagrant and migrant birds

Common name

Scientific name

Distribution

Long –tailed Cuckoo

Eudynamys taitensis

NP

Wandering Tattler

Heteroscelus incanus

PI

Spotless Crake

Porzana tabuensis

?

Swamp Harrier

Circus approximans

NP, PI

Key

NP        National Park

PI          Phillip Island

BG        Botanic Garden

?           Indicates uncertainty about distribution

Reference

Species Profile and Threats database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts website http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl


Appendix E

Management principles in Schedule 8 to the EPBC Regulations relevant to Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden

 

EPBC Regulation schedules and Management Principles

Sections of Management Plan that address principles

Australian IUCN reserve management principles

Part 1 - General administrative principles

1 Community participation

Management arrangements should, to the extent practicable, provide for broad and meaningful participation by the community, public organisations and private interests in designing and carrying out the functions of the reserve or zone.

 

 

 

 

2.8, 6.4, 6.6, Section 7

2 Effective and adaptive management

Management arrangements should be effective and appropriate to the biodiversity objectives and the socio-economic context of the reserve or zone. They should be adaptive in character to ensure a capacity to respond to uncertainty and change.

 

Section 4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 8.3

3 Precautionary principle

A lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent degradation of the natural and cultural heritage of a reserve or zone where there is a threat of serious or irreversible damage.

 

4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 8.3

4 Minimum impact

The integrity of a reserve or zone is best conserved by protecting it from disturbance and threatening processes. Potential adverse impacts on the natural, cultural and social environment and surrounding communities should be minimised as far as practicable.

 

4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.8,
Section 5, Section 6, 8.2, 8.3

5 Ecologically sustainable use

If resource use is consistent with the management principles that apply to a reserve or zone, it should (if it is carried out) be based on the principle (the principle of ecologically sustainable use) that:

(a)      natural resources should only be used within their capacity to sustain natural processes while maintaining the life-support systems of nature; and

(b)      the benefit of the use to the present generation should not diminish the potential of the reserve or zone to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.

 

4.7, 4.8, 6.1, 6.4, 6.6, 8.3

6 Transparency of decision-making

The framework and processes for decision-making for management of the reserve or zone should be transparent. The reasons for making decisions should be publicly available, except to the extent that information, including information that is culturally sensitive or commercial-in-confidence, needs to be treated as confidential.

 

2.8, 7.1, 8.3

 


 



EPBC Regulation schedules and Management Principles

Sections of Management Plan that address principles

Part 2 - Principles for each IUCN category

3 National park (category II)

 

(1)      The reserve or zone should be protected and managed to preserve its natural condition according to the following principles.

 

(2)      Natural and scenic areas of national and international significance should be protected for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational or tourist purposes.

4.1, 4.2, 6.1, 6.5, 8.3, 8.5

(3)      Representative examples of physiographic regions, biotic communities, genetic resources, and native species should be perpetuated in as natural a state as possible to provide ecological stability and diversity.

4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

(4)      Visitor use should be managed for inspirational, educational, cultural and recreational purposes at a level that will maintain the reserve or zone in a natural or near natural state.

Section 6

(5)      Management should seek to ensure that exploitation or occupation inconsistent with these principles does not occur.

4.6, Section 5, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5

(6)      Respect should be maintained for the ecological, geomorphologic, sacred and aesthetic attributes for which the reserve or zone was assigned to this category.

4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, Section 5, 6.1, 8.3

(7)      The needs of indigenous people should be taken into account, including subsistence resource use, to the extent that they do not conflict with these principles.

N/A

(8)      The aspirations of traditional owners of land within the reserve or zone, their continuing land management practices, the protection and maintenance of cultural heritage and the benefit the traditional owners derive from enterprises, established in the reserve or zone, consistent with these principles should be recognised and taken into account.

N/A

5 Habitat/species management area (category IV)

 

(1)      The reserve or zone should be managed primarily, including (if necessary) through active intervention, to ensure the maintenance of habitats or to meet the requirements of collections or specific species based on the following principles:

 

(2)      Habitat conditions necessary to protect significant species, groups or collections of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment should be secured and maintained, if necessary through specific human manipulation.

4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7

(3)      Scientific research and environmental monitoring that contribute to reserve management should be facilitated as primary activities associated with sustainable resource management.

4.6, 4.7, 8.3, 8.5

(4)      The reserve or zone may be developed for public education and appreciation of the characteristics of habitats, species or collections and of the work of wildlife management.

4.7, 6.5


 



EPBC Regulation schedules and Management Principles

Sections of Management Plan that address principles

(5)      Management should seek to ensure that exploitation or occupation inconsistent with these principles does not occur.

4.6, 4.7, Section 5, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 8.3, 8.5

(6)      People with rights or interests in the reserve or zone should be entitled to benefits derived from activities in the reserve or zone that are consistent with these principles.

4.6, 4.7, 6.4, 6.6, Section 7, 8.3, 8.5

(7)      If the reserve or zone is declared for the purpose of a botanic garden, it should also be managed for the increase of knowledge, appreciation and enjoyment of Australia’s plant heritage by establishing, as an integrated resource, a collection of living and herbarium specimens of Australian and related plants for study, interpretation, conservation and display.

4.7, 6.1, 6.5

7 Managed resource protected area (category VI)

 

(1)      The reserve or zone should be managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems based on the following principles:

 

(2)      The biological diversity and other natural values of the reserve or zone should be protected and maintained in the long term.

4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.8, 6.1, 8.3

(3)      Management practices should be applied to ensure ecologically sustainable use of the reserve or zone.

4.8, 6.1, 6.2, 6.6, 6.7

(4)      Management of the reserve or zone should contribute to regional and national development to the extent that this is consistent with these principles.

4.8, 6.6, Section 7

 


Bibliography

 

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Anderson, JG (1997) Establishing a weed control strategy for the preservation and protection of the endangered plants of Norfolk Island, Report to ANCA, Norfolk Island.

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Benson, ML (1985) Forest working plan for Norfolk Island, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra.

Benson, ML (1992) Report on the forest working plan for Norfolk Island, unpublished report to the Norfolk Island Government.

Butler, G (1990) Propagation manual produced for the ANPWS and forestry section of Norfolk Island, unpublished report to the ANPWS.

Christian, M L (2005) Norfolk Island… the birds, Green Eyes Publications, Kingston, Norfolk Island.

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Cogger, HG, Cameron, EE, Sadlier, RA, & P Eggler (1993) The action plan for Australian reptiles, ANCA, Canberra.


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Cogger, HG, Muir, G, & Shea, G (2005) A survey of the terrestrial reptiles of Norfolk Island March 2005, unpublished report to the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia (1997) Norfolk Island weed control manual (ed. P Ziesing) Environment Australia, Norfolk Island.

Crouchley, D (1989) Norfolk Island Green Parrot consultancy report, unpublished report to the ANPWS, Canberra.

Davidson, PM, Anderson, J, & O Evans (1994) Native vegetation within the forestry zone of the Norfolk Island National Park, unpublished report to the ANCA, Norfolk Island.

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Evans, O (1987) Rat index line trapping, unpublished report to the ANPWS, Norfolk Island.

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Fullagar, P (1978a) Report on the rabbits on Phillip Island, Norfolk Island, CSIRO, Canberra.

Fullagar, P (1978b) Norfolk Island birds, unpublished report released at RAOU Congress, Norfolk Island.

Garnett, S (1992) The action plan for Australian birds, ANPWS, Canberra.

Gilmour, P & C Helman (1989) The vegetation of Norfolk Island National Park, unpublished report to the ANPWS, Canberra.

Griffith University (1994) Norfolk Island National Park visitor survey, unpublished report to the ANCA, Canberra.

Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd. (1994) Asset management report, unpublished report to the ANCA, Canberra.

Hart, R (1994) Assessment of plant practices and equipment for propagation of Norfolk Island native plants, unpublished report to the ANCA, Norfolk Island.

Iredale, T (1945) ‘The land mollusca of Norfolk Island’, Australian Zoology 11: pp. 46–71.

Jurd, G (ed.) (1989) Norfolk Island environment book: a teachers handbook, ANPWS, Canberra.


Lane, BA, Bezuijen, MR, Greenwood, D, Carr, GW & Ward, R (1998) Recovery plan for Norfolk Island Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii), Ecology Australia, Fairfield (Vic).

Major, R (1989) Reproductive output and recruitment of the Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin (Petroica multicolor multicolor), unpublished report to the ANPWS, RAOU, Melbourne.

Mills, K. (2007). The Flora of Norfolk Island. 1. The Indigenous Flora. The Author, Jamberoo (NSW).

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Jamberoo (NSW).

Mills, K. (2007). The Flora of Norfolk Island. 3. The Coastal Species. The Author, Jamberoo, (NSW).

Mills, K. (2007). The Flora of Norfolk Island. 4. The Naturalised Species. The Author, Jamberoo, (NSW).

Naumann, ID (1990) ‘The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera) of Norfolk and Phillip Islands’, Australian Entomological Magazine, Vol. 17, no. 1: pp. 17–28.

Olsen, PD (1986) Status and conservation of the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata, unpublished report to the ANPWS.

Parks Australia (2000) Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden plans of management, Parks Australia, Canberra.

Parks Australia (2007) Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Draft Management Plan 2007, Parks Australia, Canberra.

Rooke, I (1985) Survey of the Norfolk Island Boobook Owl and White-breasted White-eye, unpublished report to the ANPWS, RAOU, Melbourne.

Schodde, R, Fullagar, P & Hermes, N (1983) A review of Norfolk Island birds: past and present, ANPWS Special Publication No. 8, ANPWS, Canberra.

Stevenson, P, Yorkston, H, & Greenwood, D (1995) Norfolk Island Green Parrot recovery program 1995–96 draft interim plan, unpublished ANCA report.

Strahan, R (ed.) (1983) The Australian Museum complete book of Australian mammals, Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Sykes, WR & Atkinson, IAE (1988) Rare and endangered plants of Norfolk Island, Botany Division, DSlR, New Zealand.

Taylor, RH (1985) Status, habits and conservation of Cyanoramphus parakeets in the New Zealand region, lCBP Technical Publication No 3, ed. Moors: pp. 195–211, Cambridge.


Index

 


A

abseiling, 53, 54

access, see vehicles; visitors

access to biological resources, 28–30

accidents, see safety

actions

adverse impacts of plants, animals and pathogens, 26

assessment of proposals, 62–4

Botanic Garden living collection and herbarium, 31

capital works and infrastructure, 60

climate change, 28

commercial activities, 50

community use of resources, 52–3

compliance and enforcement, 61

cultural heritage management, 38

Forestry Area, 35

incident management, 66

landscapes, soils and water, 20

Management Plan implementation and evaluation, 72

native plants and animals, 23

rehabilitation, 27

research and monitoring, 68

roads and tracks, 46

stakeholders and partnerships, 57

visitor information, education and interpretation, 51

visitor safety, 48

visitor use, 41

adventure tourism, 48, 53, 54

adverse impacts, management of, 23–8

see also revegetation

Advisory Committee, see Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee

aerial layering, 27

African olive, 18, 23, 24, 32

agreements

benefit-sharing, 29, 30

commercial scenic flights, 49

forestry operations, 33–4

international, 9, 10, 16, 77–9

aircraft, 39, 49

requests to land and take-off, 53, 54

ambulance service, 65

animals, 3–4, 20–7, 74

bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 28–30

entry into Park, 40

research and monitoring involving, 67–8

see also birds; feral animals


Annual Report, 8, 72

ants, 25

aquifer recharge areas, 19, 20

Araucaria, see Norfolk Island pine

area, 2

Argentine ant, 25

artefacts, 37

artificial structures, see capital works and infrastructure

ashes, scattering of, 53, 54

Asian house gecko, 22, 25

assessment of proposals, 12–13, 61–4

assistance animals, 40

audit of Management Plan, 72

Australian Customs Service, 60

Australian Federal Police, 60

'Australian Government', 9

Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975, 13

Australian Heritage Council Act 2003, 13

Australian IUCN reserve management principles, 10, 81–3

Australian National Parks Fund, 71

aviaries, 31

Green Parrot display, 50, 51

aviation, see aircraft

 

B

base jumping, 53, 54

bats, 22

beak and feather disease, 25

bees, 25

benefit-sharing agreements, 29, 30

best practice procedures, 72

environmental, 69

bike riding, 40, 49

biological significance, 3–4, 74–80

bioprospecting, 28–30

Bird Rock, 4

birds, 3–4, 21, 74

climate change impacts, 28

introduced species, 24, 25, 26, 68

listed marine species, 52, 80

research involving, 67–8

threats to, 21, 24–5, 26

Whale Bird egg harvesting, 52, 53

see also Green Parrot; migratory birds

Birds Protection Act 1913, 52

black rat, 24

bleeding heart, 24

boardwalk, 31, 44, 58

Bonn Convention, 16, 77–8

Boobook Owl (Morepork), 4, 21, 24, 26


'Botanic Garden', 9

living collection and herbarium, 30–1

boundaries, Forestry Area, 32

fencing, 35

breeding (nesting) sites, 21, 24–5, 26

breeding program, Green Parrot, 50, 51

brochures and publications, 50, 51

interpreting historical and other cultural significance, 38

about roads and tracks, 46

budget, see finance

buffer zones, Forestry Area, 34, 35, 36

building industry, 34

see also capital works and infrastructure

bungee jumping, 53, 54

burials, 53, 54

Burnt Pine, 50

business management, 58–72

 

C

camping, 39, 40

capital works and infrastructure, 58–60

assessment of proposals, 12–13, 61–4

Botanic Gardens, 31

Forestry Area, 34, 35

Norfolk Island community, 19, 20

see also roads and tracks

Captain Cook Monument viewing area, 19, 58

captive breeding program, 50, 51

cars, see vehicles

cats, 24, 26

chemicals, 20, 34

Chief Executive Instructions, 69

China–Migratory Birds Agreement (CAMBA), 9, 16, 77–8

Chord area track, 47, 48

climate change, 27–8

clothing, 39

commemorative markers, 53, 54

commencement of Management Plan, 9

commercial activities, 48–50

bioprospecting, 29, 30

research, 67

see also tourism and tourism industry

Common Starling, 24, 26

Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997, 71

Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines, 60

Commonwealth Heritage List, 13–14, 38

management plans and, 15

Commonwealth land, 13


Commonwealth reserves, 11–13, 71

commercial activities prohibited in, 49

interpretation of term, 9

management plans, 8, 11–12, 14–15

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 56

communication systems, 48

Mount Pitt summit infrastructure, 19, 20

radio, 47, 60

community infrastructure, 19, 20

community use of resources, 51–3

competitors, 21, 24–5, 26, 68

see also quarantine

compliance and enforcement, 14, 60–1

conservation of cultural heritage values, 13–14, 37–8

conservation significance, 3–4, 74–80

Forestry Area remnant vegetation, 32

Conservator of Public Reserves, 2, 50, 56

construction industry, 34

see also capital works and infrastructure

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention), 16, 77–8

Cordyline obtecta, 52

costs, see finance

counselling after incidents, 66

craft industry, 34, 52–3

Crimson Rosella, 24

critical community infrastructure, 19, 20

CSIRO, 9, 58

cultural heritage, 13–14, 37–8

Customs Service officers, 60

 

D

databases, 68

debriefing after incidents, 66

decision-making, 48

impact assessment procedures and, 63–4

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 71–2

Director of National Parks, 11–12, 71–2

Annual Report, 8, 72

assessment of proposals, 63; recovery of costs, 62

bioprospecting and, 28–30

capital works and infrastructure, 59

EPBC Act planning requirements, 8, 11

forestry operations authorisations, 33–4

incident management, 66

interpretation of term, 9

land leases, subleases and licences, 70

research and monitoring, 67, 68


Risk Watch List, 47, 48

safety responsibilities, 47, 65

vehicle access controls, 46

see also Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee; permits

disabled access, 31, 42, 46

Disaster and Emergency Management Act 2001, 65

Disaster and Emergency Management Plan, 47

distance, 2

dogs, 40

 

E

ecological process, repair of, 26–7

economic value, 3

education, see information, education and interpretation

egg collecting, 52, 53

emergencies, see safety

endangered species, see threatened species

endemic species, see native plants and animals

energy management, 69

enforcement and compliance, 14, 60–1

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999 (EPBC Act), 2, 10–15, 71

bioprospecting (access to biological resources) provisions, 29

compliance and enforcement, 14, 60–1

Director's powers to grant permits, leases and licences, 70

environmental impact assessment provisions, 12–13, 61–2

heritage protection requirements, 13–14

interpretation of term, 9

key threatening processes under, 24

listed marine species under, 52, 80; research involving, 67–8

planning process requirements, 8, 11–12, 14–15

threatened species under, see threatened species

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Regulations 2000 (EPBC Regulations), 12, 71

activities prohibited, 19, 40, 41, 49, 53, 54

bioprospecting (access to biological resources) provisions, 29

compliance and enforcement, 14, 60–1

fire ban declarations under, 28

interpretation of term, 9

management principles (Schedule 8), 10, 81–3

research provisions, 67

environmental impact assessment, 12–13, 61–2, 64

Environmental Reform (Consequential Provisions) Act 1999, 11

environmental work practices and activities, 69


equipment, 35, 41

firearms etc. covered by r.12.18, 40, 41

for first aid, 48

steam-cleaning, 26

erosion, 18, 20

Forestry Area, 34

establishment, 2, 11

Forestry Area, 32

NINPAC, 16

eucalypt plantations, 34

European discovery and settlement, 37–8

evaluation of Management Plan, 71–2

excavation, see capital works and infrastructure

exotic species, see introduced species

extinct birds, 3–4, 74

extinct plants, 4

 

F

fauna, see animals

Federal Police, 60

fencing, Forestry Area, 35

feral animals, 22, 24–5, 26, 68

Asian house gecko, 22

Forestry Area, 35

feral fowl, 24, 25, 68

finance, 3, 69, 71, 72

assessment of proposal costs, 62

bioprospecting benefit-sharing agreements, 29, 30

forestry operations costs, 33

incident response service costs, 65, 66

rehabilitation costs after capital works, 59

research funding, 68

fire protection, 28

firearms, 40, 41

first aid training, 48

Fishing Club hut, Phillip Island, 47, 59

fixed ropes, 47, 48

flora, see plants

Flora and Fauna Society, 50

Fly Neighbourly Agreement, 49

flying, see aircraft

food supplies, 39, 48

footwear, 39

Forestry Area (forestry operations), 32–6

commercial activity applications, 50

fire protection, 28

interpretation of term, 9

IUCN category, 17

nursery, 27, 32

plants used in traditional crafts, 53

visitor use, 34, 40, 46


Formosan lily, 24

four-wheel drive tours, 46, 49

fowl, feral, 24, 25, 68

Fraud Control Guidelines, 60

free-tail bat, 22

fruit, 52

funding, see finance

furniture industry, 34

 

G

geckos, 4, 21, 22, 25

genetic (biological) resources, access to, 28–30

germplasm, 31

global positioning system technology, 32

glory pea, 4

Golden Whistler, 4, 21

Gould's wattled bat, 22

Green Parrot, 4, 21, 23

in Botanic Garden aviary, 50, 51

threats to, 24, 25

greenhouse gas emissions, 28, 69

Grey-headed Blackbird, 3

guava, 23, 24, 49, 52

guide (seeing-eye) dogs, 40

guns, 40, 41

 

H

harvesting by community, 51–3

Hawaiian holly, 23, 24

herbarium collection, 30–1

heritage protection, 13–14, 18–38

hibiscus, 27

historic cultural heritage, 13–14, 37–8

honey bees, 25

horse riding, 40, 49

house cats, 24, 26

human history, 37–8

human-induced climate change, 27–8

hunting equipment, 40, 41

 

I

implementation of Management Plan, 71–2

incident management, 65–6

information, education and interpretation, 50–1

compliance and enforcement issues, 61

databases, 68

historical and other cultural significance, 38

introduced species and threats to native plants and animals, 26

roads and tracks, 46

safety, 47

infrastructure, see capital works and infrastructure

injuries, see safety


insects, 25

installations, see capital works and infrastructure

insurance, Forestry Area, 34

integrated lock system, 47

international agreements, 9, 10, 16, 77–9

interpretation activities, see information, education and interpretation

interpretation of terms, 9–10

introduced species, 23–6

entry into Park, 40

research and monitoring, 68

self-introductions, 21

see also feral animals; weeds and other problem plants

invasive species, see introduced species

invertebrates, 24, 25, 68

Island Thrush, 3

IUCN, 10

Australian IUCN reserve management principles, 10, 81–3

category and zoning, 15–16, 17

 

J

Japan–Australia Migratory Birds Agreement (JAMBA), 10, 16, 77–9

 

K

Kew, 31

key result areas (KRAs), 8, 73

kikuyu, 3, 24

 

L

land area, 2

land leases, subleases and licences, 70

land snails, 25

landscapes, 3, 18–20

lantana, 23

large public gatherings, 53, 54

law enforcement, 14, 60–1

leaflets, see brochures and publications

leases relating to land, 70

legislation, 2, 10–15, 65

see also Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999; Norfolk Island legislation

Legislative Assembly, 2, 8, 57

Legislative Instruments Act 2003, 11

lemons, 49, 52

licences relating to land, 70

listed marine species, 52, 80

research involving, 67–8

litter, 25, 28

living animal displays, 50, 51

living collection, Botanic Garden, 30–1


location, 2

see also maps

lock system, integrated, 47

Lord Howe Island gecko, 4, 21, 22

Lord Howe Island skink, 4

 

M

maintenance of capital works and infrastructure, 60

Botanic Gardens, 31

Forestry Area, 35

maintenance of roads and tracks, 46, 48

Forestry Area, 34

mammals, 22

'Management Plan', 10

implementation and evaluation, 71–2

see also previous management plans

management plans, legislative provisions covering, 8, 11–12, 14–15

management principles, 10, 81–3

manufactured resource use, 69

see also vehicles

mapping, 32, 35

roads and tracks, 46

maps, 5

Botanic Gardens, 44

Forestry Area, 36

Mount Pitt Section, 43

Phillip Island, 45, 46

marine species, listed, 52, 80

research involving, 67–8

media, 54

migratory birds, 4, 16, 77–9, 80

regulation of activities in relation to, 13; research and monitoring, 67–8

Millennium Seed Bank, 31

mining operations, prohibition of, 12, 20

Minister, 9, 11

appointment of rangers and wardens, 60

assessment of proposals, 13

bioprospecting (access to biological resources) permits, 29

interpretation of term, 10

molluscs, terrestrial, 22

monitoring, see research and monitoring

monuments, erection of, 53, 54

Moo'oo Stone, 4

Morepork, 4, 21, 24, 26

morning glory, 24

motor vehicles, see vehicles

motorcycles, 46

Mount Bates, 19, 43


Mount Pitt, 19, 20, 43, 69

Mount Pitt Road, 30, 41, 43, 58

Mount Pitt Section, 2, 5, 18, 32

commercial activities within, 49

community use of resources, 52

cultural heritage management, 13–14, 37–8

IUCN category, 17

roads and tracks, 40, 41, 42; map, 43

visitor use, 40

mountain bike riding, 40, 49

mountain rush, 52

multi-species recovery planning, 21, 23

 

N

National Heritage List, 13–14, 38

management plans and, 15

'National Park', 10

National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975, 2

native plants and animals, 3–4, 20–7, 74–80

bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 28–30

research and monitoring involving, 67–8

see also birds; plants

natural heritage management, 18–36

natural resource use, 69

bioprospecting, 28–30

by community, 51–3

natural values, 2–3

neighbours, see stakeholders and partnerships

Nepean Island, 2, 4, 5, 19

nesting sites, 4, 21, 24–5, 26

new issues and proposals, 70

NINPAC, see Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee

Norfolk Island, 2–5

Norfolk Island Assembly, 2, 8, 57

'Norfolk Island Botanic Garden', 10

living collection and herbarium, 30–1

Norfolk Island Commons and Public Reserves Ordinance 1936, 32

Norfolk Island Conservator of Public Reserves, 2, 50, 56

Norfolk Island Disaster and Emergency Management Plan, 47

Norfolk Island Flora and Fauna Society, 50

Norfolk Island free-tail bat, 22

Norfolk Island gecko, 4, 21, 22

Norfolk Island Golden Whistler, 4, 21

Norfolk Island Government, 16, 55, 56, 57

forestry operations, 33; nursery, 27

management of adverse impacts, 25, 26

Mount Pitt infrastructure consultation, 20


Norfolk Island Green Parrot, see Green Parrot

Norfolk Island Historical Society, 38

Norfolk Island legislation, 52, 60, 65

establishing Park and Botanic Gardens, 2, 14

public reserves, 2, 32

Norfolk Island Morepork, 4, 21, 24, 26

Norfolk Island Multi-species Recovery Plan, 21

'Norfolk Island National Park', 10

Norfolk Island National Park Advisory Committee (NINPAC), 16, 56, 57

assessment of proposals, 62

commercial activity permits, 50

forestry operation reports provided to, 34

mountain bike riding permits, 40

research activity and monitoring reports provided to, 68

Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Act 1984, 2, 14

Norfolk Island palm leaves, 52

Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service, 58

Conservator of Public Reserves, 2, 50, 56

forestry operations, 32, 33

Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla), 18, 19, 21

community use of resources, 52

dieback cause, 25

Forest Area plantings, 32

Norfolk Island residents, 55–7

access to Phillip Island, 46

information about introduced species and threats to native plants and animals, 26

use of resources, 51–3

Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin, 4, 21

Norfolk Island skink, 4

Norfolk Island Tourist Board, 57

Norfolk Island Volunteer Rescue Squad, 47

notice boards, 50, 51

nurseries, 27, 32

NWPC Act (National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975), 2

 

O

occupational health and safety, 65

Forestry Area, 34

Occupational Health and Safety Act 1991, 65

 

P

palm fronds, 49, 52

Palm Glen, 42, 52

'Park', 10

Park Manager, 14, 56

assessment of proposals, 63

forestry operation reports to, 34


Park Superintendent, 14

Parks and Forestry Service, see Norfolk Island Parks and Forestry Service

Parks Australia, 55

Compliance and Enforcement Manual, 60

information available from, 50

interpretation of term, 10

Strategic Planning and Performance Assessment Framework, 8

Parks Australia staff, 57, 71–2

appointment as rangers or wardens, 60

assessment of proposals, 62

first aid training, 48

health and safety, 65

incident response procedures, responsibilities etc., 66

interpretation of term, 10

parrot beak and feather disease, 25

parrots, 24

see also Green Parrot

partnerships, see stakeholders and partnerships

pathogens, 25, 26, 68

Forestry Area, 34

see also quarantine

PCD, 25

penalties, 14

permits, 48, 54, 70

bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 29, 30

capital works and infrastructure, 59

commercial activities, 46, 49, 50; quarantine requirements, 26

community use of resources, 52

firearms and hunting equipment, 41

forestry operations, 33–4

mountain bike riding, 40

native plant material movement, 22

research and monitoring, 67, 68

vehicles, 46

pests, 22, 23–6, 68

Forestry Area, 35

see also weeds and other problem plants

Phellinus noxius, 25

Phillip Island, 2, 56

artificial structures, 59, 60

commercial activities on, 49

cultural heritage management, 13–14, 37–8

Fishing Club hut, 47, 59

impacts of introduced species, 18

IUCN category, 17

landscapes, 19, 20


maps, 5, 45, 46

native plants and animals, 4, 27, 52, 74–6, 80; monitoring difficulties, 22

nursery, 27

Parks Australia hut, 48

quarantine, 23, 25, 26, 40

soils, 19, 26, 47

water, 19

Whale Bird eggs harvested from, 52, 53

Phillip Island, visitors to, 39, 40, 41

accommodation, 59

information provided to, 51

Norfolk Island residents, 46

safety, 47, 48

walking tours, 49

walking tracks, 45, 46

Phillip Island glory pea, 4

Phillip Island hibiscus, 27

photographic records

Phillip Island landscapes, 20

plants, 31

physical impairments, access for people with, 39, 42, 46

pine, preservative treated, 59

pine knots, 52

pines, see Norfolk Island pine

'Plan', see 'Management Plan'

planning process, 8

plant nurseries, 27, 32

plantations, see Forestry Area

plants, 20–7

bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 28–30

Botanic Garden living collection and herbarium, 30–1

community use, 52–3

conservation significance, 3, 4, 75–6

research and monitoring involving, 67–8

wildfire threat, 28

see also Forestry Area; Norfolk Island pine; remnant native vegetation; revegetation; soils; weeds and other problem plants

plaques and commemorative markers, 53, 54

police, 60, 65

policies, 54, 70

adverse impacts of plants, animals and pathogens, 25

assessment of proposals, 62

bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 30

Botanic Garden living collection and herbarium, 31

capital works and infrastructure, 59–60


climate change, 28

commercial activities, 49

community use of resources, 52

cultural heritage management, 38

Forestry Area, 33–4

incident management, 66

IUCN category and zoning, 17

landscapes, soils and water, 20

Management Plan implementation and evaluation, 72

native plants and animals, 22

rehabilitation, 27

research and monitoring, 67–8

roads and tracks, 46

stakeholders and partnerships, 57

visitor information, education and interpretation, 51

visitor safety, 48

visitor use, 40–1

Polynesian rat, 24

precipitation, 19, 28

predators, 21, 22, 24–5, 26, 68

see also quarantine

previous management plans, 8

capital works and infrastructure developments, 58

establishment of NINPAC, 16

Forestry Area, 32

proclamation, 2

propagation, 27

see also revegetation

proposals, assessment of, 12–13, 61–4

protected areas, 2

psittacine circovirus disease, 25

public gatherings, 53, 54

public liability insurance, Forestry Area, 34

public reserves, 2, 32

Public Reserves Act 1997, 2

public safety, see safety

public toilets, 58

publications, see brochures and publications

 

Q

quarantine, 23, 25, 51

native plant material movement, 22

timber, including preservative pine, 59

tour operator permits, 26

 

R

radio, 47, 60

Mount Pitt summit infrastructure, 19, 20

rainfall and precipitation, 19, 28

rangers, 12, 60, 61

rats, 24, 26


recovery planning, 21, 23

research and monitoring, 68

species-focused actions, 27

recreational activities, 39–50, 53–4

Forestry Area, 34

see also tourism

red guava, 23, 24, 49, 52

Red Parrot, 24

Regional Natural Resource Management Plan, 21

Register of the National Estate, 13

rehabilitation, 26–7

after new capital works, 59

Forestry Area, 35

see also revegetation

reintroduction of species, 21, 27

remnant native vegetation, 18

Botanic Gardens, 18, 31

Forestry Area, 32, 34, 35, 36

renovations, see capital works and infrastructure

repairs, see capital works and infrastructure

reptiles, 4, 21, 74

Asian house gecko, 22, 25

Republic of Korea–Australia Migratory Birds Agreement (ROKAMBA), 10, 16, 77–8

research and monitoring, 66–8

climate change, 28

involving bioprospecting (access to biological resources), 29

Phillip Island, 60

research reports, 68

reserves, 2, 32

see also Commonwealth reserves

resource use, see natural resource use

revegetation, 26–7

Forestry Area, 32, 34

Phillip Island, 19, 60

reviews

incident management procedures, 66

Management Plan, 72

Phillip Island track network map, 46

risk monitoring and management systems, 48

visitor information, education and interpretation, 51

risk management, 47–8

Risk Watch List, 47, 48

roads and tracks, 39, 41–6, 54, 59

activities permitted/prohibited on, 40

Botanic Gardens, 31

to Chord area, 47, 48

Forestry Area, 34, 40, 46

safety inspections, 48

rock-climbing, 53, 54

rodents, 22, 24, 26


root pathogens, 25, 34

ropes, fixed, 47, 48

rosellas, 24

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 31

run-off areas, 19, 20

 

S

safety, 40, 46–8, 53–4, 72

Botanic Gardens subtropical viney hardwood forest remnant, 31

Forestry Area, 34

incident management, 65–6

tour operator capacity, 49

visitor information about, 51

weather conditions, 41, 46; Phillip Island, 47

Scarlet Robin, 4, 21

scenic flights, 49

scientific research, see research and monitoring

sea levels, 28

airspace above, 49

seabirds, see migratory birds

Second World War, 37

seeds, 27, 31

seeing-eye dogs, 40

self-introductions, 21

short title, 9

signage, 51

interpreting historical and other cultural significance, 38

roads and tracks, 41, 46; to Chord area, 47

skinks, 4

snails, 25

soils, 18–20

climate change impacts, 28

feral fowl impacts, 25

Forestry Area, 32, 34

Phillip Island, 19, 26, 47

Sooty Tern, see Whale Bird

sporting meetings, 53, 54

staff, see Parks Australia staff

stakeholders and partnerships, 55–7

advising on outcomes of assessment of proposals, 62

consulted during planning process, 8

fire response plans, 28

incident management, 66

see also Norfolk Island Government

starlings, 24, 26

steam-cleaning, 26

structures, see capital works and infrastructure

subleases relating to land, 70

subtropical viney hardwood forest remnant, Botanic Gardens, 18, 31

surface run-off areas, 19, 20


T

technical audit of Management Plan, 72

temperature, 28

termination of Management Plan, 9

terns, see Whale Bird

terrestrial molluscs, 22

'Territory', 10

threat abatement plans, 23

beak and feather disease (PCD), 25

predation by feral cats, 24

threatened species, 3–4, 12, 74–6

recovery planning, 21, 23, 27

regulation of activities in relation to, 13; research and monitoring, 67–8

see also Green Parrot

timber, 34, 59

see also Forestry Area

toilets, public, 58

tourism and tourism industry, 3, 8, 48–50, 56, 57

Botanic Gardens, 31

Forestry Area, 34, 46

information provided to, 26, 50, 51; on safety, 47, 48

operator introduced species and quarantine requirements, 26

Phillip Island, 40

viewing areas, 19, 20, 47, 58

Tourist Board, 57

tracks, see roads and tracks

training, 72

in first aid, 48

incident management, 65, 66

rangers and wardens, 60, 61

translocation of species, 27

trees, see plants

 

U

use of Park and Botanic Gardens, 39–54, 69

bioprospecting, 28–30

by community, 51–3

see also Forestry Area

utilities, 19, 20

 

V

values, 2–3

cultural, 37–8

Forestry Area remnant vegetation, 32

vegetation, see plants

vehicles, 41, 42, 46, 49

all weather access, 43

emergency access, 47

Forestry Area, 35

steam-cleaning, 26


VHF radio network, 60

viewing areas, 19, 20, 47, 58

visitors, 34, 39–54

survey, 68

see also information, education and interpretation; quarantine; safety; tourism and tourism industry

Volunteer Rescue Squad, 47

volunteers, 57

vulnerable species, see threatened species

 

W

walking, 40, 49

walking tracks, see roads and tracks

wardens, 12, 60, 61

waste management, 69

Phillip Island, 60

wood and wood products, 34, 53

water, 18–20, 28, 69

visitor safety, 39, 48

weapons, 40, 41

weather conditions, 41, 46, 47

climate change, 27–8

weeds and other problem plants, 3, 23–4, 25, 26–7, 68

Forestry Area, 32, 34, 35

Phillip Island, 18

waste wood and woodchips from clearing operations, 53

see also quarantine

Whale Bird, 4

eggs, 52, 53

wheelchair access, 31, 42

White-breasted White-eye, 4

white oak, 21

wild tobacco, 24

wildfires, 28

wildlife, see native plants and animals

William Taylor, 24

wood waste and woodchips, 34, 53

World Conservation Union, see IUCN

World War II, 37


 

 

 


© Director of National Parks 2008

ISBN: 978 0 642 553 898

 

This work is copyright. Apart for any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Director of National Parks. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to:

The Assistant Secretary
Parks Australia South
GPO
Box 787
Canberra ACT 2601

 

Director of National Parks Australian business number: 13051 694 963

 

An electronic copy of the Plan is at http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/publications/index.html and additional hard copies are available free of charge from the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts Community Information Unit (phone 1800 803 772).

 

All images by Michael Nelson unless otherwise indicated

Front cover image of Morepork chick (Ninox novaeseelandiae) Photo: Joanna Raikes

Back cover image of community volunteers – Photo: Ron Ward

Maps – Environmental Resources Information Network

Designer – Design Direction

Editor – Elizabeth Hutchings Editing

Indexer – Michael Harrington