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ADR 33/00 Standards/Australian Design Rules for Vehicles as made
This is a Vehicle Standard determined under section 7 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 to ensure safe braking under normal and emergency conditions for motorcycles and mopeds.
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development, Communications and the Arts
General Comments: This standard was originally made under section 7 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 and from 1 July 2021 continues in force as if it were a national road vehicle standard determined under section 12 of the Road Vehicle Standards Act 2018 (see Schedule 3, Part 2, item 2 of the Road Vehicle Standards (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2018).
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 56C
Registered 04 Sep 2007
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled Senate10-Sep-2007
Tabled HR11-Sep-2007

 

 

 

 

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 33/00 – Brake Systems for Motorcycles and Mopeds) 2007

I, JAMES ERIC LLOYD, Minister for Local Government, Territories and Roads, determine this vehicle standard under subsection 7 (1) of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989.

 

 

 

 

Dated               16 August 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[SIGNED]

 

 

 

 

 

James Eric Lloyd

 

Minister for Local Government, Territories and Roads


 

CONTENTS

 

1.           legislative provisions............................................................................ 3

2.           function and SCOPE................................................................................. 3

3.           APPLICABILITY................................................................................................ 3

4.           DEFINITIONS.................................................................................................... 4

5.           REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................... 5

6.           Exemption and alternative procedures....................................... 5

7.           alternative standards.......................................................................... 5

Appendix A.................................................................................................................... 6

Appendix B.................................................................................................................. 46

 


1.                                          legislative provisions

1.1.                                    Name of Standard

1.1.1.                              This Standard is the Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 33/00 – Brake Systems for Motorcycles and Mopeds) 2007.

1.1.2.                              This Standard may also be cited as Australian Design Rule 33/00 – Brake Systems for Motorcycles and Mopeds.

1.2.                                    Commencement

1.2.1.                              This Standard commences on the day after it is registered.

1.3.                                    Repeal

1.3.1                                This Standard repeals and replaces Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 33/00 – Brake Systems for Motorcycles and Mopeds) 2006.

2.                                          function and SCOPE

The function of this vehicle standard is to ensure safe braking under normal and emergency conditions for motorcycles and mopeds.

3.                                          APPLICABILITY

This vehicle standard applies to brake systems designed for vehicles in categories set out in clause 3.2.

3.1.                                    All LEP and LEG category vehicles fitted with separate controls for front and rear service brakes are required to comply with this national standard.  Other LEP vehicles must comply with ADR 31/... and other LEG vehicles must comply with ADR 35/...


3.2.                                    Applicability Table

Vehicle Category

ADR Category Code *

UNECE Category Code *

Manufactured on or After

Acceptable Prior Rules

Moped 2 wheels

LA

L1

1 July 1988

Nil

Moped 3 wheels

LB

L2

1 March 1991

Nil

Motor cycle

LC

L3

1 July 1988

Nil

Motor cycle and sidecar

LD

L4

1 July 1988

Nil

Motor tricycle

LE

L5

 

 

 

   LEM

 

1 July 1992

Nil

 

   LEP

 

1 July 1992

Nil

 

   LEG

 

1 July 1992

Nil

Passenger car

MA

M1

Not Applicable

 

Forward-control passenger vehicle

MB

M1

Not Applicable

 

Off-road passenger vehicle

MC

M1

Not Applicable

 

Light omnibus

MD

M2

 

 

 

up to 3.5 tonnes ‘GVM’ and up to 12 seats

   MD1

 

Not Applicable

 

 

up to 3.5 tonnes ‘GVM’ and more than 12 seats

   MD2

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 3.5 tonnes and up to 4.5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   MD3

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 4.5 tonnes and up to 5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   MD4

 

Not Applicable

 

Heavy omnibus

ME

M3

Not Applicable

 

Light goods vehicle

NA

N1

Not Applicable

 

Medium goods vehicle

NB

N2

 

 

 

over 3.5 tonnes up to 4.5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   NB1

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 4.5 tonnes up to 12 tonnes ‘GVM’

   NB2

 

Not Applicable

 

Heavy goods vehicle

NC

N3

Not Applicable

 

Very light trailer

TA

O1

Not Applicable

 

Light trailer

TB

O2

Not Applicable

 

Medium trailer

TC

O3

Not Applicable

 

Heavy trailer

TD

O4

Not Applicable

 

 

4.                                          DEFINITIONS

4.1.                                    Refer to Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule Definitions and Vehicle Categories) 2005;

4.1.1.                              Part A, Subpart 4, Terms defined in the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989;

4.1.2.                              Part B, Subpart 3, Defined Terms for terms written in italics in clause 4.2;

4.1.3.                              Part C, Subpart 2, Vehicle Categories;

4.1.4.                              Definitions in Section 2 of Appendix A of this standard.

5.                                          REQUIREMENTS

5.1.                                    Vehicles of applicable categories listed in clause 3.2 must comply with this vehicle standard by meeting the requirements of either Appendix A as varied by Section 6 – Exception and Alternative Procedures below or Appendix B.

6.                                          Exemption and alternative procedures

6.1.                                    Compliance with the following parts, sections and annexes of Appendix A is not required for the purposes of this standard:

Section 3          Application for approval

Section 4          Approval

Section 7          Modifications of vehicle type or braking device and extension of approval

Section 8          Conformity of production

Section 9          Transitional provisions

Section 10        Penalties for non-conformity of production

Section 11        Production definitely discontinued

Section 12        Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval test and of administrative departments.

Annex 1           Communication

Annex 2           Arrangements of approval marks

7.                                          alternative standards

The technical requirements of any of the editions of United Nations – Economic Commission for Europe Regulation No 78 – UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L1, L2, L3, L4 AND L5 WITH REGARD TO BRAKING, incorporating 01 to 03 series of amendments are deemed to be equivalent to the technical requirements of this standard.


Appendix A

 

UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L1, L2, L3, L4 AND L5 WITH REGARD TO BRAKING


 


E/ECE/324

E/ECE/TRANS/505

Rev.1/Add.77/Rev.1

 

 

 

20 July 2007

 

 

AGREEMENT

 

CONCERNING THE ADOPTION OF UNIFORM TECHNICAL PRESCRIPTIONS
FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH CAN BE FITTED
AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES AND THE CONDITIONS FOR RECIPROCAL RECOGNITION OF APPROVALS GRANTED ON THE BASIS OF THESE PRESCRIPTIONS
*/

 

(Revision 2, including the amendments which entered into force on 16 October 1995)

_________

 

Addendum 77:   Regulation No. 78

 

Revision 1

 

Incorporating all valid text up to:

01 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  22 November 1990

Corrigendum 1 to the 01 series of amendments, subject of Depositary Notification C.N.115.1992.TREATIES-11 dated 1 July 1992

02 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  8 January 1995

Supplement 1 to the 02 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  21 March 1995

Supplement 2 to the 02 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  22 February 1997

Supplement 3 to the 02 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  7 December 2002

03 series of amendments - Date of entry into force:  18 June 2007

 

UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L1, L2, L3, L4 AND L5 WITH REGARD TO BRAKING

 

_________


UNITED NATIONS


Regulation No. 78

 

UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORIES L1, L2, L3, L4 AND L5 WITH REGARD TO BRAKING

 

CONTENTS

REGULATION                                                                                                                             

 

1.         Scope 

 

2.         Definitions 

 

3.         Application for approval 

 

4.         Approval 

 

5.         Specifications 

 

6.         Tests 

 

7.         Modifications of vehicle type or braking system
and extension of approval 

 

8.         Conformity of production 

 

9.         Transitional provisions 

 

10.       Penalties for non-conformity of production 

 

11.       Production definitely discontinued 

 

12.       Names and addresses of Technical Services

responsible for conducting approval tests

and of Administrative Departments 

 

ANNEXES

 

Annex 1   -    Communication concerning the approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued of a type of vehicle of category L with regard to braking pursuant to Regulation No. 78

 

                     Annex 1 - Appendix  -  List of vehicle data for the purpose of Regulation No. 90 approvals

 

Annex 2   -    Arrangements of approval marks

 

Annex 3   -    Test conditions, procedures and performance requirements


1.                SCOPE

 

                   This Regulation applies to vehicles of categories L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5. [1]/

 

                   These categories do not include:

 

                   (a)     Vehicles with a Vmax of < 25 km/h;

 

                   (b)     Vehicles equipped for disabled riders.

 

2.                DEFINITIONS

 

                   For the purposes of this Regulation:

 

2.1.             "Antilock brake system (ABS)" means a system which senses wheel slip and automatically modulates the pressure producing the braking forces at the wheel(s) to limit the degree of wheel slip.

 

2.2.             "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking.

 

2.3.             "Baseline test" means a stop or a series of stops carried out in order to confirm the performance of the brake prior to subjecting it to a further test such as the heating procedure or wet brake stop.

 

2.4.             "Brake" means those parts of the brake system where the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle are developed.

 

2.5.             "Brake system" means the combination of parts consisting of the control, transmission, and brake, but excluding the engine, whose function it is to progressively reduce the speed of a moving vehicle, bring it to a halt, and keep it stationary when halted.

 

2.6.             "Combined brake system (CBS)" means:

 

                   For vehicle categories L1 and L3:  a service brake system where at least two brakes on different wheels are operated by the actuation of a single control.

 

                   For vehicle categories L2 and L5:  a service brake system where the brakes on all wheels are operated by the actuation of a single control.

 

                   For vehicle category L4:  a service brake system where the brakes on at least the front and rear wheels are operated by the actuation of a single control.  (If the rear wheel and sidecar wheel are braked by the same brake system, this is regarded as the rear brake.)

 

2.7.             "Components of the braking system" means one of the individual parts which, when assembled, constitute the braking system.

 

2.8.             "Control" means the part actuated directly by the rider in order to supply or control the energy required for braking the vehicle to the transmission.

 

2.9.             "Different types of braking systems" means devices which differ in such essential respects as:

 

                   (a)     Components having different characteristics;

 

                   (b)     A component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component differing in shape or size;

 

                   (c)     A different assembly of the components.

 

2.10.           "Driver mass" means the nominal mass of a driver that shall be 75 kg (subdivided into 68 kg occupant mass at the seat and 7 kg luggage mass).

 

2.11.           "Engine disconnected" means when the engine is no longer connected to the driving wheel(s).

 

2.12.           "Gross vehicle mass" or "maximum mass" means the technically permissible maximum laden mass as declared by the manufacturer.

 

2.13.           "Initial brake temperature" means the temperature of the hottest brake before any brake application.

 

2.14.           "Laden" means so loaded as to attain the gross vehicle mass as defined in paragraph 2.12.

 

2.15.           "Lightly loaded" means mass in running order plus 15 kg for test equipment, or the laden condition, whichever is less.  In the case of ABS tests on a low friction surface (Annex 3, paras. 9.4. to 9.7.), the mass for test equipment is increased to 30 kg to account for outriggers.

 

2.16.           "Mass in running order" means the sum of the unladen vehicle mass and driver mass.

 

2.17.           "Peak braking coefficient (PBC)" means the measure of tyre to road surface friction based on the maximum deceleration of a rolling tyre.

 

2.18.           "Power-assisted braking system" means a brake system in which the energy necessary to produce the braking force is supplied by the physical effort of the rider assisted by one or more energy supplying devices, for example vacuum assisted (with vacuum booster).

 

2.19.           "Secondary brake system" means the second service brake system on a vehicle equipped with a combined brake system.

 

2.20.           "Service brake system" means a brake system which is used for slowing the vehicle when in motion.

 

2.21.           "Single brake system" means a brake system which acts on only one axle.

 

2.22.           "Split service brake system (SSBS)" means a brake system that operates the brakes on all wheels, consisting of two or more subsystems actuated by a single control designed so that a single failure in any subsystem (such as a leakage type failure of a hydraulic subsystem) does not impair the operation of any other subsystem.

 

2.23.          "Stopping distance" means the distance travelled by the vehicle from the point the rider begins to actuate the brake control to the point at which the vehicle reaches a full stop.  For tests where the simultaneous actuation of two controls is specified, the distance travelled is taken from the point the first control is actuated.

 

2.24.          "Test speed" means the vehicle speed measured the moment the driver begins to actuate the brake control(s).  For tests where the simultaneous actuation of two controls is specified, the vehicle speed is taken from the point the first control is actuated.

 

2.25.           "Transmission" means the combination of components that provide the functional link between the control and the brake.

 

2.26.           "Unladen vehicle mass" means the nominal mass of the vehicle as indicated by the manufacturer(s) including all factory fitted equipment for normal operation of that vehicle (e.g. fire extinguisher, tools, spare wheel), plus coolant, oils, 90 per cent of fuel and 100 per cent of other gas or liquids, as specified by the manufacturer.

 

2.27.           "Vehicle type" means a sub-category of L-category vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as:

 

                   (a)     The vehicle category, as defined in the Consolidated Resolution (R.E.3);

 

                   (b)     The gross vehicle mass, as defined in paragraph 2.12.;

 

                   (c)     The distribution of the mass between the axles;

 

                   (d)     Vmax;

 

                   (e)     A different type of braking device;

 

                   (f)      The number and arrangement of the axles;

 

                   (g)     The engine type;

 

                   (h)     The number and ratios of gears;

 

                   (i)      The final drive ratios;

 

                   (j)      The tyre dimensions.

 

2.28.           "Vmax" means either the speed attainable by accelerating at a maximum rate from a standing start for a distance of 1.6 km on a level surface, with the vehicle lightly loaded, or the speed measured in accordance with ISO 7117:1995.

 

2.29.           "Wheel lock" means the condition that occurs when there is a slip ratio of 1.00.

 

3.                APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL

 

3.1.             The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative.

 

3.2.             It shall be accompanied by the under mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following particulars:

 

3.2.1.          A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in paragraph 2.27.  The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and the engine type shall be specified;

 

3.2.2.          A list of components, duly identified, constituting the braking device;

 

3.2.3.          A diagram of the assembled braking system and an indication of the position of its components on the vehicle;

 

3.2.4.          Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified.

 

3.3.             A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests.

 

4.                APPROVAL

 

4.1.             If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.

 

4.2.             An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved.  Its first two digits (at present 03 corresponding to the 03 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval.  The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to the same vehicle type equipped with another type of braking device, or to another vehicle type.

 

4.3.             Notice of approval or refusal or extension or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

 

4.4.             There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation an international approval mark consisting of:

 

4.4.1.          A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval;  [2]/

 

4.4.2.          The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.

 

4.5.             If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved, under one or more other Regulations annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. needs not be repeated; in such a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.

 

4.6.             The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.

 

4.7.             The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the manufacturer.

 

4.8.             Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks.

 

5.                SPECIFICATIONS

 

5.1.             Brake system requirements

 

5.1.1.          Each vehicle shall meet each of the tests specified for a vehicle of its category and for those brake features on the vehicle.

 

5.1.2.          Service brake system control operation

 

                   Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to actuate the service brake system control while seated in the normal driving position and with both hands on the steering control.

 

5.1.3.          Secondary brake system control operation

 

                   Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to actuate the secondary brake system control while seated in the normal driving position and with at least one hand on the steering control.

 

5.1.4.          Parking brake system

 

                   If a parking brake system is fitted, it shall hold the vehicle stationary on the slope prescribed in paragraph 8.2. of Annex 3.

 

                   The parking brake system shall:

 

(a)           Have a control which is separate from the service brake system controls; and

 

                   (b)     Be held in the locked position by solely mechanical means.

 

                   Vehicles shall have configurations that enable a rider to be able to actuate the parking brake system while seated in the normal driving position.

 

5.1.5.          Two-wheeled vehicles of categories L1 and L3 shall be equipped with either two separate service brake systems, or a split service brake system, with at least one brake operating on the front wheel and at least one brake operating on the rear wheel.

 

5.1.6.          Three-wheeled vehicles of vehicles category L4 shall comply with the brake system requirements set out in paragraph 5.1.5.  A brake on the sidecar wheel is not required if the vehicle meets the performance requirements prescribed in Annex 3, paragraph 4.

 

5.1.7.          Three-wheeled vehicles of category L2 shall be equipped with a parking brake system plus one of the following service brake systems:

 

                   (a)     Two separate service brake systems, except CBS, which, when applied together, operate the brakes on all wheels; or

 

                   (b)     A split service brake system; or

 

                   (c)     A CBS that operates the brakes on all wheels and a secondary brake system which may be the parking brake system.

 

5.1.8.          Category L5 vehicles shall be equipped with:

 

5.1.8.1.       A parking brake system; and

 

5.1.8.2.       A foot-actuated service brake system which operates on the brakes on all wheels, by way of either:

 

                   (a)     A split service brake system; or

 

                   (b)     A CBS that operates the brakes on all wheels and a secondary brake system, which may be the parking brake system.

 

5.1.9.          In cases where two separate service brake systems are installed, the systems may share a common brake, if a failure in one system does not affect the performance of the other.

 

5.1.10.        For vehicles that use hydraulic fluid for brake force transmission, the master cylinder shall:

 

(a)           Have a sealed, covered, separate reservoir for each brake system;

 

(b)           Have a minimum reservoir capacity equivalent to 1.5 times the total fluid displacement required to satisfy the new to fully worn lining condition with the worst case brake adjustment condition; and

 

                   (c)     Have a reservoir where the fluid level is visible for checking without removal of the cover.

 

5.1.11.        All warning lamps shall be mounted in the rider's view.

 

5.1.12.        Vehicles that are equipped with a split service brake system shall be fitted with a red warning lamp, which shall be activated:

 

                   (a)     When there is a hydraulic failure on the application of a force of ≤ 90 N on the control; or

 

                   (b)     Without actuation of the brake control, when the brake fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir falls below the greater of:

 

(i)            That which is specified by the manufacturer; and

 

                            (ii)      That which is less than or equal to half of the fluid reservoir capacity.

 

                   To permit function checking, the warning lamp shall be illuminated by the activation of the ignition switch and shall be extinguished when the check has been completed.  The warning lamp shall remain on while a failure condition exists whenever the ignition switch is in the "on" position.

 

5.1.13.        Vehicles that are equipped with an ABS system shall be fitted with a yellow warning lamp.  The lamp shall be activated whenever there is a malfunction that affects the generation or transmission of signals in the vehicle's ABS system.

 

                   To permit function checking, the warning lamp shall be illuminated by the activation of the ignition switch and extinguished when the check has been completed.

 

                   The warning lamp shall remain on while a failure condition exists whenever the ignition switch is in the "on" position.

 

5.2.             Durability

 

5.2.1.          Wear of the brakes shall be compensated for by means of a system of automatic or manual adjustment.

 

5.2.2.          The friction material thickness shall either be visible without disassembly, or where the friction material is not visible, wear shall be assessed by means of a device designed for that purpose.

 

5.2.3.          During all the tests in this Regulation and on their completion, there shall be no friction material detachment and no leakage of brake fluid.

 

5.3.             Measurement of dynamic performance

 

                   The method used to measure performance is as specified in the respective tests in Annex 3.  There are three ways in which the service brake system performance may be measured:

 

5.3.1.          MFDD (Mean Fully Developed Deceleration):

 

                   Calculation of MFDD:

 

in m/s2

                   where:

dm = mean fully developed deceleration

V1 = vehicle speed when rider actuates the control

Vb = vehicle speed at 0.8 V1 in km/h

Ve = vehicle speed at 0.1 V1 in km/h

Sb = distance travelled between V1 and Vb in metres

Se = distance travelled between V1 and Ve in metres

 

5.3.2.          Stopping distance:

 

                   Based on the basic equations of motion:

 

                            S = 0.1·V + (X) ·V2

 

                   where:

                  

                            S = stopping distance in metres

                            V = vehicle speed in km/h

                            X = a variable based on the requirement for each test

 

                   To calculate the corrected stopping distance using the actual vehicle test speed, the following formula is used:

 

                            Ss = 0.1·Vs + (Sa – 0.1·Va) · Vs2/Va2

 

                   where:

                  

                            Ss = corrected stopping distance in metres

                            Vs = specified vehicle test speed in km/h

                            Sa = actual stopping distance in metres

                            Va = actual vehicle test speed in km/h

 

                   Note:  This equation is only valid when the actual test speed (Va) is within ± 5 km/h of the specified test speed (Vs).

 

5.3.3.          Continuous deceleration recording:

 

                   For the burnishing procedure and tests such as the wet brake and heat fade – heating procedure, there is a continuous recording of the vehicle's instantaneous deceleration from the moment a force is applied to the end of the stop.

 

5.4.             Brake lining materials:

 

                   Brake linings shall not contain asbestos.

 

6.                TESTS

 

                   The braking tests (test conditions and procedures) which vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the braking performance required, are prescribed in Annex 3 to this Regulation.

 

7.                MODIFICATIONS OF VEHICLE TYPE OR BRAKING SYSTEM AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL

 

7.1.             Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking system shall be communicated to the Administrative Department which approved the vehicle type.  That department may then either:

 

7.1.1.          Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that in any case the vehicle still complies with the requirements; or

 

7.1.2.          Require a further test report from the Technical Service responsible for conducting the tests.

 

7.2.             Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated, by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3., to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation.

 

7.3.             The Competent Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.

 

8.                CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

 

8.1.             Every vehicle (system) approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph 5.

 

8.2.             In order to verify that the requirements of paragraph 8.1. are met, suitable controls of the production shall be carried out.

 

8.3.             The holder of the approval shall in particular:

 

8.3.1.          Ensure existence of procedures for the effective control of the quality of products;

 

8.3.2.          Have access to the control equipment necessary for checking the conformity to each approved type;

 

8.3.3.          Ensure that data of test results are recorded and that annexed documents shall remain available for a period to be determined in accordance with the Administrative Service;

 

8.3.4.          Analyse the results of each type of test, in order to verify and ensure the stability of the product characteristics making allowance for variation of industrial production;

 

8.3.5.          Ensure that for each type of product at least the tests prescribed in Annex 3 to this Regulation are carried out;

 

8.3.6.          Ensure that any sampling of samples or test pieces giving evidence of non‑conformity with the type of test considered shall give rise to another sampling and another test.  All the necessary steps shall be taken to re‑establish the conformity of the corresponding production.

 

8.4.             The Competent Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.

 

8.4.1.          In every inspection, the test books and production survey records shall be presented to the visiting inspector.

 

8.4.2.          The inspector may take samples at random which will be tested in the manufacturer's laboratory.  The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer's own verification.

 

8.4.3.          When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests carried out in application of paragraph 8.4.2., the inspector shall select samples to be sent to the technical service which has conducted the type‑approval tests.

 

8.4.4.          The Competent Authority may carry out any test prescribed in this Regulation.

 

8.4.5.          The normal frequency of inspections authorized by the competent authority shall be once every two years.  In the case where negative results are recorded during one of these visits, the Competent Authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re‑establish the conformity of production as rapidly as possible.

 

9.                TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

9.1.             As from the official date of entry into force of the 03 series of amendments to this Regulation, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse an application for approval under this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.  At the request of the manufacturer, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation may agree to the application of these amendments before the official date of their entry into force.

 

9.2.             As from 24 months after the official date of entry into force mentioned in paragraph 9.1., Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals only if the type of vehicle corresponds to the requirements of the Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.

 

9.3.             Approvals granted before the end of the 24‑month period following the official date of entry into force shall cease to be valid 48 months after the date of entry into force mentioned in paragraph 9.1., unless the Contracting Party which granted the approval notifies the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation that the type‑approved vehicle meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 03 series of amendments.

 

9.4.             Notwithstanding the transitional provisions above, Contracting Parties whose application of this Regulation comes into force after the date of entry into force of the most recent series of amendments are not obliged to accept approvals which were granted in accordance with any of the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

 

10.              PENALTIES FOR NON-CONFORMITY OF PRODUCTION

 

10.1.           The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1. are not complied with or if a vehicle of this type has failed to pass the checks prescribed in paragraph 8.3.

 

10.2.           If a Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "APPROVAL WITHDRAWN".

 

11.              PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINUED

 

             If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the authority which granted the approval.  Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a copy of the approval form bearing at the end, in large letters, the signed and dated annotation "PRODUCTION DISCONTINUED".

 

12.              NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF TECHNICAL SERVICES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONDUCTING APPROVAL TESTS AND OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS

 

                   The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of Administrative Departments which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Annex 1 */

 

(maximum format:  A4 (210 x 297/mm)

 

COMMUNICATION

 

issued by:  Name of administration:

 

……………………………………….

 

……………………………………….

 

concerning: 2/

APPROVAL GRANTED

APPROVAL EXTENDED

APPROVAL REFUSED

APPROVAL WITHDRAWN

PRODUCTION DEFINITELY DISCONTINED

 

of a type of vehicle of category L with regard to braking pursuant to Regulation No. 78

 

Approval No. ...

Extension No. ...

 

 

1.           Trade name or mark of the vehicle: ...................................................................................

 

2.           Vehicle type designation by the manufacturer: ...................................................................

 

3.           Name and address of the manufacturer: ............................................................................

 

4.           Name and address of the manufacturer's representative

              (if applicable): ..................................................................................................................

 

5.           Summarized description: ..................................................................................................

 

5.1.        Vehicle:

 

                     Category of vehicle: ..................................................................................................

 

                     Gross vehicle mass of vehicle: ...................................................................................

 

5.2.        Engine: ............................................................................................................................

 

5.3.        Transmission:

 

                     Number and ratios of gears: ......................................................................................

 

                     Final drive ratio: ........................................................................................................

 

                     Tyre dimensions: .......................................................................................................

 

5.4.        Braking system: ...............................................................................................................

 

                     Make(s) and type(s) of linings: ..................................................................................

 

                     Service brake(s) (front, rear, combined) 2/

 

                     Secondary braking, parking brake (if applicable) 2/

 

                     Other systems (anti‑lock brakes, etc.)

 

6.           Technical service conducting approval tests: .....................................................................

 

7.           Date of test report: ...........................................................................................................

 

8.           Number of test report: .....................................................................................................

 

9.           Reason for extension of approval (if applicable): ...............................................................

 

10.         Other remarks (if applicable), (right or left hand driven): ....................................................

 

11.         Place: ..............................................................................................................................

 

12.         Date: ...............................................................................................................................

 

13.         Signature: ........................................................................................................................

 

14.         Annexed the list of parts constituting the approval documents, which can be obtained on request, submitted to the Administrative Service which has delivered the approval.

_____________________

 

*/      At the request of (an) applicant(s) for Regulation No. 90 approval, the information shall be provided by the Type Approval Authority, as contained in Appendix 1 to this annex.  However, this information shall not be provided for purposes other than Regulation No. 90 approvals.

 

1/      Distinguishing number of the country which has granted/extended/refused/withdrawn approval (see approval provisions in the Regulation).

 

2/       Strike out what does not apply.


Annex 1 - Appendix

 

LIST OF VEHICLE DATA FOR THE PURPOSE OF REGULATION No. 90 APPROVALS */

 

1.         Description of the vehicle type: ...........................................................................................

 

1.1.      Trade name or mark of the vehicle, if available: ...................................................................

 

1.2.      Vehicle category: ................................................................................................................

 

1.3.      Vehicle type according to Regulation No. 78 approval: .......................................................

 

1.4.      Models or trade names of vehicles constituting the vehicle type, if

            available: ............................................................................................................................

 

1.5.      Manufacturer's name and address: ......................................................................................

 

2.         Make and type of brake linings: ..........................................................................................

 

3.         Minimum mass of vehicle: ...................................................................................................

 

3.1.      Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): ..............................................................

 

4.         Gross vehicle mass of vehicle: .............................................................................................

 

4.1.      Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): ..............................................................

 

5.         Vmax ..................................  km/h

 

6.         Tyre and wheel dimensions: ................................................................................................

 

7.         Configuration of the independent braking systems: ...............................................................

 

8.         Specifications of brake valves (if applicable): .......................................................................

 

8.1.      Adjustment specifications of the load sensing valve: .............................................................

 

8.2.      Setting of pressure valve: ....................................................................................................

 

9.         Specification of brake: ........................................................................................................

 

9.1.      Disc brake type (e.g. number of pistons with diameter(s), ventilated or solid disc): ...............

                                                                                                                                                      

9.2.      Drum brake type (e.g. simplex, with piston size and drum dimensions):.................................

 

10.       Master cylinder type and size (if applicable):........................................................................


Annex 2

 

ARRANGEMENTS OF APPROVAL MARKS

 

Model A

 

 (See paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation)

 

a = 8 mm min.

 

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulation No. 78 under approval number 032439.  The first two digits of the approval number indicate that Regulation No. 78 already included the 03 series of amendments when the approval was granted.

 

Model B

 

(See paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation)

 

a = 8 mm min.

 

 

The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E11) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 78 and 40. */  The first two digits of the approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when the respective approvals were granted, Regulation No. 78 included the 03 series of amendments but Regulation No. 40 was still in its original form.

_____________________

 

*/      This latter number is given merely as an example.


Annex 3

 

TEST CONDITIONS, PROCEDURES AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

 

1.                General

 

1.1.             Test surfaces

 

1.1.1.          High friction surface:

 

                   a)      Applicable to all dynamic brake tests excluding the ABS tests where a low-friction surface is specified;

 

                   b)      The test area is a clean and level surface, with a gradient ≤  1 per cent;

 

                   c)      The surface has a nominal peak braking coefficient (PBC) of 0.9, unless otherwise specified.

 

1.1.2.          Low friction surface:

 

                   a)      Applicable to all dynamic brake tests where a low-friction surface is specified;

 

                   b)      The test area is a clean, dry and level surface, with a gradient ≤  1 per cent;

 

                   c)      The surface has a PBC of    0.45.

 

1.1.3.                  Measurement of PBC:

 

                  The PBC is measured as determined by the approval authority using either:

 

(a)  The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1136 standard reference test tyre, in accordance with ASTM Method E1337‑90, at a speed of 40 mph without water delivery; or

 

(b)  The method specified in the Appendix to Annex 4 of UNECE Regulation No. 78, 01 series of amendments.

 

1.1.4.          Parking brake system tests:

 

                   The specified test slope has a clean and dry surface that does not deform under the mass of the vehicle.

 

1.1.5.          Test lane width:

 

                   For two-wheeled vehicles (vehicle categories L1 and L3) the test lane width is 2.5 m.

 

                   For three-wheeled vehicles (vehicle categories L2, L5 and L4) the test lane width is 2.5 m plus the vehicle width.

 

1.2.             Ambient temperature

 

                   The ambient temperature is between 4 °C and 45 °C.

 

1.3.             Wind speed

 

                   The wind speed is not more than 5 m/s.

 

1.4.             Test speed tolerance

 

                   The test speed tolerance is ± 5 km/h.

 

                   In the event of the actual test speed deviating from the specified test speed, the actual stopping distance is corrected using the formula in paragraph 5.3.2. of this Regulation.

 

1.5.             Automatic transmission

 

                   Vehicles with automatic transmission shall complete all tests - whether they are for "engine connected" or "engine disconnected".

 

                   If an automatic transmission has a neutral position, the neutral position is selected for tests where "engine disconnected" is specified.

 

1.6.             Vehicle position and wheel lock:

 

                   (a)     The vehicle is positioned in the centre of the test lane for the beginning of each stop;

 

                   (b)     Stops are made without the vehicle wheels passing outside the applicable test lane and without wheel lock.

 

1.7.             Test sequence

 

Test order

Paragraph

1.      Dry stop - single brake control actuated

2.      Dry stop - all service brake controls actuated

3.      High speed

4.      Wet brake

5.      Heat fade 1/

6.      If fitted:

6.1.   Parking brake system

6.2.   ABS

6.3.   Partial failure, for split service brake systems

6.4.   Power-assisted braking system failure

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

 

8.

9.

10.

11.

 

                   Note 1/:  Heat fade is always the last test to be carried out.

 

2.                Preparation

 

2.1.             Engine idle speed

 

                   The engine idle speed is set to the manufacturer's specification.

 

2.2.             Tyre pressures

 

                   The tyres are inflated to the manufacturer's specification for the vehicle loading condition for the test.

 

2.3.             Control application points and direction

 

                   For a hand control lever, the input force (F) is applied on the control lever's forward surface perpendicular to the axis of the lever fulcrum and its outermost point on the plane along which the control lever rotates (see figure below).

 

                   The input force is applied to a point located 50 mm from the outermost point of the control lever, measured along the axis between the central axis of the fulcrum of the lever and its outermost point.

                   For a foot control pedal, the input force is applied to the centre of, and at right angles to, the control pedal.

 

2.4.             Brake temperature measurement

 

                   As determined by the approval authority, the brake temperature is measured on the approximate centre of the braking path of the disc or drum using:

 

                   (a)     A rubbing thermocouple that is in contact with the surface of the disc or drum;           or

 

                   (b)     A thermocouple that is embedded in the friction material.

 

2.5.             Burnishing procedure

 

                   The vehicle brakes are burnished prior to evaluating performance.  This procedure may be completed by the manufacturer:

 

                   (a)     Vehicle lightly loaded;

 

                   (b)     Engine disconnected;

 

                   (c)     Test speed:

 

                            (i)     Initial speed:     50 km/h or 0.8 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                            (ii)    Final speed = 5 to 10 km/h;

 

                   (d)     Brake application:

 

                            (i)     Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                   (e)     Vehicle deceleration:

 

                            (i)     Single front brake system only:

 

                                    3.0-3.5 m/s2 for vehicle categories L3 and L4;

                                    1.5-2.0 m/s2 for vehicle categories L1 and L2;

 

                            (ii)    Single rear brake system only: 1.5-2.0 m/s2;

 

                            (iii)   CBS or split service brake system: 3.5-4.0 m/s2;

 

                   (f)      Number of decelerations: 100 per brake system;

 

                   (g)     Initial brake temperature before each brake application ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (h)     For the first stop, accelerate the vehicle to the initial speed and then actuate the brake control under the conditions specified until the final speed is reached.  Then reaccelerate to the initial speed and maintain that speed until the brake temperature falls to the specified initial value.  When these conditions are met, reapply the brake as specified.  Repeat this procedure for the number of specified decelerations.  After burnishing, adjust the brakes in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

 

3.                Dry stop test - single brake control actuated

 

3.1.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to all vehicle categories;

 

                   (b)     Laden:

 

                            For vehicles fitted with CBS and split service brake systems: the vehicle is tested in the lightly loaded condition in addition to the laden condition;

 

                   (c)     Engine disconnected.

 

3.2.             Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature:      ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speed:

 

(i)    Vehicle categories L1 and L2: 40 km/h or 0.9 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

(ii)    Vehicle categories L3, L5 and L4: 60 km/h or 0.9 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            (i)     Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            (i)     Hand control:    ≤  200 N;

 

                            (ii)    Foot control:     ≤  350 N for vehicle categories L1, L2, L3 and L4;

                                                            ≤  500 N for vehicle category L5;

 

                   (e)     Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops;

 

                   (f)      For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this paragraph.

 

3.3.             Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 3.2., the stopping distance shall be as specified in column 2 or the MFDD shall be as specified in column 3 of the following table:


 

Column 1

Column 2

 

Column 3

Vehicle

Category

STOPPING DISTANCE (S)

(Where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres)

 

MFDD

Single brake system, front wheel(s) braking only:

L1

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0111 V2

 

≥  3.4 m/s2

L2

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0143 V2

≥  2.7 m/s2

L3

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0087 V2

≥  4.4 m/s2

L5

Not applicable

Not applicable

L4

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0105 V2

 

≥  3.6 m/s2

Single brake system, rear wheel(s) braking only:

L1

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0143 V2

 

≥  2.7 m/s2

L2

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0143 V2

≥  2.7 m/s2

L3

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0133 V2

≥  2.9 m/s2

L5

Not applicable

Not applicable

L4

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0105 V2

 

≥  3.6 m/s2

Vehicles with CBS or split service brake systems: for laden and lightly loaded conditions:

L1 and L2

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0087 V2

 

≥  4.4 m/s2

L3

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0076 V2

≥  5.1 m/s2

L5

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0077 V2

≥  5.0 m/s2

L4

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0071 V2

 

≥  5.4 m/s2

Vehicles with CBS – secondary service brake systems:

ALL

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0154 V2

 

≥  2.5 m/s2

 

4.                Dry stop test – all service brake controls actuated

 

4.1.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to vehicle categories L3, L5 and L4;

 

                   (b)     Lightly loaded;

 

                   (c)     Engine disconnected.

 

4.2.             Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature: ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speed: 100 km/h or 0.9 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            Simultaneous actuation of both service brake system controls, if so equipped, or of the single service brake system control in the case of a service brake system that operates on all wheels;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            Hand control:           ≤  250 N;

 

                            Foot control:            ≤  400 N for vehicle categories L3 and L4;

                                                            ≤  500 N for vehicle category L5;

 

                   (e)     Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops;

 

                   (f)      For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake controls under the conditions specified in this paragraph.

 

4.3.             Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 4.2., the stopping distance (S) shall be S ≤  0.0060 V2 (where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres).

 

5.                High speed test

 

5.1.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to vehicle categories L3, L5 and L4;

 

                   (b)     Test is not required for vehicles with Vmax ≤  125 km/h;

 

                   (c)     Lightly loaded;

 

                   (d)     Engine connected with the transmission in the highest gear.

 

5.2.             Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

(b)    Test speed:   0.8 Vmax for vehicles with Vmax >  125 km/h and <  200 km/h;

                                                160 km/h for vehicles with Vmax ≥  200 km/h;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            Simultaneous actuation of both service brake system controls, if so equipped, or of the single service brake system control in the case of a service brake system that operates on all wheels;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            Hand control:           ≤  200 N;

 

                            Foot control:            ≤  350 N for vehicle categories L3 and L4;

                                                            ≤  500 N for vehicle category L5;

 

                   (e)     Number of stops:  until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops;

 

                   (f)      For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control(s) under the conditions specified in this paragraph.

 

5.3.             Performance requirements:

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 5.2.:

 

                   (a)     The stopping distance (S) shall be ≤  0.1 V + 0.0067 V2

                            (where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres); or

 

                   (b)     The MFDD shall be ≥  5.8 m/s2.

 

6.                Wet brake test

 

6.1.             General:

 

                   (a)     The test is comprised of two parts that are carried out consecutively for each brake system:

                            (i)      A baseline test based on the dry stop test - single brake control actuated (section 3. of this annex);

 

                            (ii)      A single wet brake stop using the same test parameters as in (i), but with the brake(s) being continuously sprayed with water while the test is conducted in order to measure the brakes' performance in wet conditions;

 

                   (b)     The test is not applicable to a parking brake system, unless it is the secondary brake;

 

                   (c)     Drum brakes or fully enclosed disc brakes are exempt from this test unless ventilation or open inspection ports are present;

 

                   (d)     This test requires the vehicle to be fitted with instrumentation that gives a continuous recording of brake control force and vehicle deceleration.  The MFDD and the stopping distance measurements are not appropriate in this case.

 

6.2.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to all vehicle categories;

 

                   (b)     Laden:

 

                            For vehicles fitted with CBS and split service brake systems: the vehicle is tested in the lightly loaded condition in addition to the laden condition;

 

                   (c)     Engine disconnected;

 

                   (d)     Each brake is fitted with water spray equipment:

 

                            (i)     Disc brakes: Sketch of water spray equipment:

 

                                    The disc brake water spray equipment is installed as follows:

 

                                      a.       Water is sprayed onto each brake with a flow rate of 15 litres/hr.  The water is equally distributed on each side of the rotor;

 

                                      b.       If the surface of the rotor has any shielding, the spray is applied 45° prior to the shield;

 

                                      c.       If it is not possible to locate the spray in the position shown on the sketch, or if the spray coincides with a brake ventilation hole or similar, the spray nozzle may be advanced by an additional 90° maximum from the edge of the pad, using the same radius;

 

                            (ii)       Drum brakes with ventilation and open inspection ports:

 

                                    The water spray equipment is installed as follows:

 

                                      a.       Water is sprayed equally onto both sides of the drum brake assembly (on the stationary back plate and on the rotating drum) with a flow rate of 15 litres/hr;

 

                                      b.       The spray nozzles are positioned two thirds of the distance from the outer circumference of the rotating drum to the wheel hub centre;

 

                                      c.       The nozzle position is > 15° from the edge of any opening in the drum back plate.

 

6.3.             Baseline test

 

6.3.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     The test in section 3. of this annex (dry stop test - single brake control actuated) is carried out for each brake system but with the brake control force that results in a vehicle deceleration of 2.5 – 3.0 m/s2, and the following is determined:

 

                            (i)      The average brake control force measured when the vehicle is travelling between 80 per cent and 10 per cent of the specified test speed;

 

                            (ii)      The average vehicle deceleration in the period 0.5 to 1.0 seconds after the point of actuation of the brake control;

 

                            (iii)     The maximum vehicle deceleration during the complete stop but excluding the final 0.5 seconds;

 

                   (b)     Conduct 3 baseline stops and average the values obtained in (i), (ii), and (iii).

 

6.4.             Wet brake stop

 

6.4.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     The vehicle is ridden at the test speed used in the baseline test set out in paragraph 6.3. with the water spray equipment operating on the brake(s) to be tested and with no application of the brake system;

 

                   (b)     After a distance of ≥ 500 m, apply the averaged brake control force determined in the baseline test for the brake system being tested;

 

                   (c)     Measure the average vehicle deceleration in the period 0.5 to 1.0 seconds after the point of actuation of the brake control;

                   (d)     Measure the maximum vehicle deceleration during the complete stop but excluding the final 0.5 seconds.

 

6.5.             Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 6.4.1., the wet brake deceleration performance shall be:

 

                   (a)     The value measured in paragraph 6.4.1.(c) ≥  60 per cent of the averaged deceleration values recorded in the baseline test in paragraph 6.3.1.(a)(ii), i.e. in the period 0.5 to 1.0 seconds after the point of application of the brake control; and

 

                   (b)     The value measured in 6.4.1.(d) ≤  120 per cent of the averaged deceleration values recorded in the baseline test 6.3.1.(a)(iii), i.e. during the complete stop but excluding the final 0.5 seconds.

 

7.                Heat fade test

 

7.1.             General:

 

                   (a)     The test comprises three parts that are carried out consecutively for each brake system:

 

                            (i)      A baseline test using the dry stop test - single brake control actuated (section 3. of this annex);

 

                            (ii)      A heating procedure which consists of a series of repeated stops in order to heat the brake(s);

 

                            (iii)     A hot brake stop using the dry stop test - single brake control actuated (section 3 of this annex), to measure the brake's performance after the heating procedure;

 

                   (b)     The test is applicable to vehicle categories L3, L5 and L4;

 

                   (c)     The test is not applicable to parking brake systems and secondary service brake systems;

 

                   (d)     All stops are carried out with the vehicle laden;

 

                   (e)     The heating procedure requires the vehicle to be fitted with instrumentation that gives a continuous recording of brake control force and vehicle deceleration.  The MFDD and stopping distance measurements are not appropriate for the heating procedure.  The baseline test and the hot brake stop require the measurement of either MFDD or the stopping distance.

 

7.2.             Baseline test

 

7.2.1.          Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     Engine disconnected.

 

7.2.2.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speed: 60 km/h or 0.9 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            Hand control:           ≤  200 N;

 

                            Foot control:            ≤  350 N for vehicle categories L3 and L4;

                                                            ≤  500 N for vehicle category L5;

 

                   (e)     Accelerate the vehicle to the test speed, actuate the brake control under the conditions specified and record the control force required to achieve the vehicle braking performance specified in the table to paragraph 3.3. of this annex.

 

7.3.             Heating procedure

 

7.3.1.          Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     Engine transmission:

 

                            (i)      From the specified test speed to 50 per cent specified test speed: connected, with the highest appropriate gear selected such that the engine speed remains above the manufacturer's specified idle speed;

 

                            (ii)      From 50 per cent specified test speed to standstill: disconnected.

 

 

7.3.2.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature prior to first stop only: ≥ 55 °C and ≤ 100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speed:

 

                            Single brake system, front wheel braking only: 100 km/h or 0.7V max, whichever is lower;

 

                            Single brake system, rear wheel braking only: 80 km/h or 0.7V max, whichever is lower;

 

                            CBS or split service brake system:  100 km/h or 0.7V max, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            (i)      For the first stop:

 

                                      The constant control force that achieves a vehicle deceleration rate of 3.0 ‑ 3.5 m/s2 while the vehicle is decelerating between 80 per cent and 10 per cent of the specified speed;

 

                                      If the vehicle is unable to achieve the specified vehicle deceleration rate, this stop is carried out to meet the deceleration requirements in the table in paragraph 3.3. of this annex;

 

                            (ii)      For the remaining stops:

 

                                      a.       The same constant brake control force as used for the first stop;

 

                                      b.       Number of stops:  10;

 

                                      c.       Interval between stops:  1000 m;

 

                   (e)     Carry out a stop to the conditions specified in this paragraph and then immediately use maximum acceleration to reach the specified speed and maintain that speed until the next stop is made.

 

7.4.             Hot brake stop

 

7.4.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   Perform a single stop under the conditions used in the baseline test (paragraph 7.2.) for the brake system that has been heated during the procedure in accordance with paragraph 7.3.  This stop is carried out within one minute of the completion of the procedure set out in paragraph 7.3. with a brake control application  force less than or equal to the force used during the test set out in paragraph 7.2.

 

7.5.             Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 7.4.1.:

 

                   (a)     The stopping distance: S2 ≤  1.67 S1 – 0.67 x 0.1V

 

                            where:

 

                            S1 =   corrected stopping distance in metres achieved in the baseline test set out in paragraph 7.2.

                            S2 =   corrected stopping distance in metres achieved in the hot brake stop set out in paragraph 7.4.1.

                            V =  specified test speed in km/h; or

 

                   (b)     The MFDD ≥  60 per cent of the MFDD recorded in the test set out in paragraph 7.2.

 

8.                Parking brake system test – for vehicles equipped with parking brakes

 

8.1.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to vehicle categories L2, L5 and L4;

 

                   (b)     Laden;

 

                   (c)     Engine disconnected.

 

8.2.             Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature: ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test surface gradient = 18 per cent;

 

                   (c)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            Hand control:   ≤  400 N;

 

                            Foot control:    ≤  500 N;

 

                   (d)     For the first part of the test, park the vehicle on the test surface gradient facing up the slope by applying the parking brake system under the conditions specified in this paragraph.  If the vehicle remains stationary, start the measurement of the test period;

 

                   (e)     On completion of the test with vehicle facing up the gradient, repeat the same test procedure with the vehicle facing down the gradient.

 

8.3.             Performance requirements:

 

                   When tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 8.2., the parking brake system shall hold the vehicle stationary for 5 minutes when the vehicle is both facing up and facing down the gradient.

 

9.                ABS tests

 

9.1.             General:

 

                   (a)     The tests are only applicable to the ABS fitted on vehicle categories L1 and L3;

 

                   (b)     The tests are to confirm the performance of brake systems equipped with ABS and their performance in the event of ABS electrical failure;

 

                   (c)     "Fully cycling" means that the anti-lock system is repeatedly modulating the brake force to prevent the directly controlled wheels from locking;

 

                   (d)     Wheel-lock is allowed as long as the stability of the vehicle is not affected to the extent that it requires the operator to release the control or causes a vehicle wheel to pass outside the test lane.

 

                   The test series comprises the following individual tests, which may be carried out in any order:

ABS TESTS

PARAGRAPH

a. Stops on a high friction surface - as specified in paragraph 1.1.1.

b. Stops on a low friction surface - as specified in paragraph 1.1.2.

c. Wheel lock checks on high and low friction surfaces.

d. Wheel lock check - high to low friction surface transition.

e. Wheel lock check - low to high friction surface transition.

f. Stops with an ABS electrical failure.

9.3.

9.4.

9.5.

9.6.

9.7.

9.8.

 

9.2.             Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     Lightly loaded;

 

                   (b)     Engine disconnected.

 

9.3.             Stops on a high friction surface:

 

9.3.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speed: 60 km/h or 0.9 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake application:

 

                            Simultaneous actuation of both service brake system controls, if so equipped, or of the single service brake control in the case of a service brake system that operates on all wheels;

 

                   (d)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will cycle fully throughout each stop, down to 10 km/h;

 

                   (e)     If one wheel is not equipped with ABS, the control for the service brake on that wheel shall be actuated with a force that is lower than the force that will cause the wheel to lock;

 

                   (f)      Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops;

 

                   (g)     For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this paragraph;

 

9.3.2.          Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures referred to in paragraph 9.3.1.:

 

                   (a)     The stopping distance (S) shall be  ≤ 0.0063V2  (where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be  6.17 m/s2; and

 

                   (b)     There shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.

 

9.4.             Stops on a low friction surface:

 

9.4.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   As set out in paragraph 9.3.1., but using the low friction surface instead of the high friction one;

 

9.4.2.          Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in paragraph 9.4.1.:

 

                   (a)     The stopping distance (S) shall be  ≤  0.0056V2/P  (where V is the specified test speed in km/h, P is the peak braking coefficient and S is the required stopping distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be  ≥  6.87 x P, in m/s2; and

 

                   (b)     There shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.

 

9.5.             Wheel lock checks on high and low friction surfaces:

 

9.5.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Test surfaces:

 

                            (i)      High friction; and

 

                            (ii)      Low friction;

 

                   (b)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥ 55 °C and  ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (c)     Test speed:

 

                            (i)      On the high friction surface: 80 km/h or 0.8 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                            (ii)      On the low friction surface: 60 km/h or 0.8 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (d)     Brake application:

 

                            (i)      Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                            (ii)      Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous actuation of both brake controls in addition to (i);

 

                   (e)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will cycle fully throughout each stop, down to 10 km/h;

 

                   (f)      Brake application rate:

 

                            The brake control actuation force is applied in 0.2 - 0.5 seconds;

 

                   (g)     Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 3 stops;

 

                   (h)     For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this paragraph;

 

9.5.2.          Performance requirements:

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in paragraph 9.5.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.

 

9.6.             Wheel lock check - high to low friction surface transition:

 

9.6.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Test surfaces:

 

                            A high friction surface immediately followed by a low friction surface;

 

                   (b)     Initial brake temperature: ≥  55 °C and  ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (c)     Test speed:

 

                            The speed that will result in 50 km/h or 0.5V max, whichever is lower, at the point where the vehicle passes from the high friction to the low friction surface;

 

                   (d)     Brake application:

 

                            (i)      Each service brake system control actuated separately;

 

                            (ii)      Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous actuation of both brake controls in addition to (i);

 

                   (e)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will cycle fully throughout each stop, down to 10 km/h;

 

                   (f)      Number of stops:  until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 3 stops;

 

                   (g)     For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control before the vehicle reaches the transition from one friction surface to the other;

 

9.6.2.          Performance requirements:

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in paragraph 9.6.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane.

 

9.7.             Wheel lock check - low to high friction surface transition:

 

9.7.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Test surfaces:

 

                            A low friction surface immediately followed by a high friction surface with a PBC   0.8;

 

                   (b)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (c)     Test speed:

 

                            The speed that will result in 50 km/h or 0.5 Vmax, whichever is lower, at the point where the vehicle passes from the low friction to the high friction surface;

 

                   (d)     Brake application:

 

                            (i)      Each service brake system control applied separately;

 

                            (ii)      Where ABS is fitted to both brake systems, simultaneous application of both brake controls in addition to (i);

 

                   (e)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            The force applied is that which is necessary to ensure that the ABS will cycle fully throughout each stop, down to 10 km/h;

 

                   (f)      Number of stops:  until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 3 stops;

 

                   (g)     For each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control before the vehicle reaches the transition from one friction surface to the other;

 

                   (h)     Record the vehicle's continuous deceleration;

 

9.7.2.          Performance requirements:

 

                   (a)     When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedures set out in paragraph 9.7.1., there shall be no wheel lock and the vehicle wheels shall stay within the test lane;

 

                   (b)     Within 1 second of the rear wheel passing the transition point between the low and high friction surfaces, the vehicle deceleration shall increase.

 

9.8.             Stops with an ABS electrical failure:

 

9.8.1.          Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     With the ABS electrical system disabled, carry out the test set out in section 3. of this annex, (dry stop test – single brake control actuated) applying the conditions relevant to the brake system and vehicle being tested;

 

9.8.2.          Performance requirements:

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 9.8.1.:

 

                   (a)     The system shall comply with the failure warning requirements of paragraph 5.1.13. of this Regulation; and

 

                   (b)     The minimum requirements for stopping distance or MFDD shall be as specified in column 2 or 3, respectively, under the heading "Single brake system, rear wheel(s) braking only" in the table to paragraph 3.3. of this annex.

 

10.              Partial failure test - for split service brake systems

 

10.1.           General information:

 

                   (a)     The test is only applicable to vehicles that are equipped with split service brake systems;

 

                   (b)     The test is to confirm the performance of the remaining subsystem in the event of a hydraulic system leakage failure.

 

10.2.           Vehicle condition:

 

                   (a)     The test is applicable to vehicle categories L3, L5 and L4;

 

                   (b)     Lightly loaded;

 

                   (c)     Engine disconnected.

 

10.3.           Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Initial brake temperature:  ≥  55 °C and ≤  100 °C;

 

                   (b)     Test speeds: 50 km/h and 100 km/h or 0.8 Vmax, whichever is lower;

 

                   (c)     Brake actuation force:

 

                            Hand control:   ≤  250 N;

 

                            Foot control:     ≤  400 N;

 

                   (d)     Number of stops: until the vehicle meets the performance requirements, with a maximum of 6 stops for each test speed;

 

                   (e)     Alter the service brake system to induce a complete loss of braking in any one subsystem.  Then, for each stop, accelerate the vehicle to the test speed and then actuate the brake control under the conditions specified in this paragraph;

 

                   (f)      Repeat the test for each subsystem.

 

10.4.           Performance requirements:

 

                   (a)     When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 10.3.;

 

                   (b)     The system shall comply with the failure warning requirements set out in paragraph 5.1.11. of this Regulation; and

 

                   (c)     The stopping distance (S) shall be  ≤  0.1 V + 0.0117 V2  (where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping  distance in metres) or the MFDD shall be ≥  3.3 m/s2.

 

11.              Power-assisted braking system failure test

 

11.1.           General information:

 

                   (a)     The test is not conducted when the vehicle is equipped with another separate service brake system;

 

                   (b)     The test is to confirm the performance of the service brake system in the event of failure of the power assistance.

 

11.2.           Test conditions and procedure:

 

                   (a)     Carry out the test set out in section 3. of this annex, (dry stop test – single brake control actuated) for each service brake system with the power assistance disabled.

 

11.3.           Performance requirements

 

                   When the brakes are tested in accordance with the test procedure set out in paragraph 11.2., the stopping distance shall be as specified in column 2 or the MFDD shall be as specified in column 3 of the following table:

Column 1

Column 2

 

Column 3

Vehicle

Category

STOPPING DISTANCE(S)

(Where V is the specified test speed in km/h and S is the required stopping distance in metres)

 

MFDD

Single brake system

L1

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0143 V2

 

≥  2.7 m/s2

L2

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0143 V2

≥  2.7m/s2

L3

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0133 V2

≥  2.9m/s2

L4

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0105 V2

 

≥  3.6m/s2

Vehicles with CBS or SSBS

ALL

S ≤  0.1 V + 0.0154 V2

 

≥  2.5 m/s2

 

            Note that if the power assistance may be activated by more than one control, the above performance shall be achieved when each control is actuated separately.

-----


 

Appendix B

 

1.                                          DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

 

1.1                                      Service Brake System

 

1.1.1                                The vehicle must be equipped with either a ‘Split Service Brake System’ or independently actuated service brake systems.  Vehicles which have independently actuated service brake systems must have 2 independent brake systems, one capable of acting on the front wheel and the other on the rear wheel(s).

 

1.1.2                                Failure of any component in a mechanical service brake system must not result in a loss of braking ability in the other service brake system.

 

1.1.3                                A leakage type failure in a hydraulic service brake system must not result in a loss of braking ability in the other service brake system.  Each vehicle equipped with a ‘Hydraulic Brake System’ must meet the requirements of clause 1.5.

 

1.1.4                                The service brake system must be installed so that the lining thickness of drum brake shoes may be visually inspected, either directly or by the use of a mirror without removing the drums, and so that disc brake friction lining thickness may be visually inspected without removing the pads.

 

1.1.5                                Except where the requirements of clauses 1.2. and 4.13 apply, a Category LD vehicle is only required to meet the requirements of this rule with the side-car detached.

 

1.1.6                                The ‘Controls’ by which brakes are actuated must be located so that they are readily accessible to the driver in the normal driving position.

 

1.1.7                                The service brake system must incorporate devices which compensate for any increased movement of its components arising from wear.  Such devices must themselves contain provision for securing them throughout their working range in any position in which they may be adjusted to or to which they may themselves automatically adjust.

 

1.1.8                                Where separate methods of actuation are provided for any of the functions of the brake system, the actuation of one function must not cause the operation of another function.

 

1.2                                      Parking Brake System for LB, LD and LE Vehicles Only

 

The vehicle must be equipped with a parking brake system such that in the applied position retention is effected by a mechanical means, and the braking effect of which is effected by the frictional force developed between friction surfaces.

 

1.3                                      Service Brake Failure Indicator Lamps

 

1.3.1                                Vehicles equipped with a ‘Split Service Brake System’ must have one or more brake failure indicator lamps mounted in front of and in clear view of the driver.

 

1.3.2                                The indicator lamp must be activated whenever any of the following conditions occur whilst the ignition switch is in the “engine on” position:

 

1.3.2.1                          in the case of a service brake system not incorporating a ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’, when a pressure failure occurs in any part of the service brake system except for pressure failure caused by:

 

1.3.2.1.1                    a structural failure of a brake master cylinder body in a split integral body type master cylinder system;

 

1.3.2.1.2                    a structural failure of a service brake system failure indicator body; or

 

1.3.2.1.3                    failure of a vacuum component of a vacuum ‘Brake Power Assist Unit’.

 

1.3.2.1.4                    In the event of such failure, for the purpose of this clause the lamp activation requirement will be met if the lamp is activated before or upon application of line pressure of not more than 1.38 MPa measured at a master cylinder outlet or at a slave cylinder outlet if the master cylinder controls a slave cylinder at a booster unit, or before or upon application of a ‘Braking Effort’ of not more than 90 N;

 

1.3.2.2                          in the case of a service brake system with a single ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’, when the supply pressure in the unit drops to less than half the operating pressure;

 

1.3.2.3                          in the case of a service brake system with 2 or more independent ‘Brake Power Units 31/00’ when the supply pressure in any one unit is depleted;

 

1.3.2.4                          a drop in the level of brake fluid in a master cylinder reservoir, without application of ‘Braking Effort’, to less than the ‘Manufacturer’s’ recommended safe level or to less than one half of the fluid reservoir capacity in any reservoir compartment, whichever is the greater; or

 

1.3.2.5                          a total electrical failure in an ‘Antilock System’ or ‘Variable Proportioning Brake System’.

 

1.3.3                                The indicator lamp must be so designed that it is activated when the ignition switch is turned:

 

1.3.3.1                          from the “off” to the “on” position; or

 

1.3.3.2                          from the “off” to the “start” position.

 

1.3.4                                Unless a failure of the type described in clause 1.3.2 exists in the service brake system, the indicator lamp must be deactivated:

 

1.3.4.1                          in the case of a lamp designed in accordance with clause 1.3.3.1 when the lamp has been activated for a period of not less than 5 seconds and not more than 10 seconds; or

 

1.3.4.2                          in the case of a lamp designed in accordance with clause 1.3.3.2 when the ignition switch returns to the “on” position.

 

1.3.5                                The indicator lamp system must be so designed that once having been activated to signal a brake failure it must be activated whenever the ignition switch is in the “on” position and the fault remains uncorrected.  For the purpose of this clause an activated lamp may be steady-burning or flashing.

 

1.3.6                                Each indicator lamp must have a red lens labelled with the words “BRAKE FAILURE” on or adjacent to it in letters not less than 2.3 mm high which when illuminated is legible to the seated driver under daylight conditions.

 

1.4                                      Brake System Audible Indicator. 

 

In cases where the vehicle is fitted with a single ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ an audible device shall be provided.  Such device must emit a continuous or short period intermittent signal at all times when the service brake failure indicator lamp is activated by a failure as specified in clause 1.3.2.2.

 

1.5                                      Reservoirs

 

1.5.1                                Where the service brake system incorporates a master cylinder, separate reservoir compartment shall be provided for each service brake system serviced by the master cylinder and a loss of brake fluid from one compartment shall not result in a complete loss of fluid from another compartment.

 

1.5.2                                The capacity of each sub-system reservoir compartment must be not less than one and one half times the fluid displacement resulting when all the wheel cylinders or calliper pistons serviced by the reservoir move from a new lining, fully retracted position, to a fully-worn, fully-applied position.  For the purposes of this clause, “fully-worn, fully-applied” means that the lining is worn to whichever of the following conditions allows the greatest shoe or pad movement:

 

1.5.2.1                          level with rivet or bolt heads on riveted or bolted linings;

 

1.5.2.2                          within 0.8 mm of shoe or pad mounting surface on bonded linings or pads; or

 

1.5.2.3                          the limit recommended by the ‘Manufacturer’.

 

1.5.3                                A statement specifying the type of fluid to be used in the brake system, and the warning “Clean filler cap before removing” must be permanently affixed, stamped, engraved or embossed either on or within 100 mm of each brake fluid reservoir filler plug or cap, in lettering at least 2.3 mm high.  If not stamped, engraved or embossed, the lettering must be of a contrasting colour to that of the background.

 

1.5.4                                Each ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ must have a reservoir of capacity not less than the total capacity of the reservoirs required under the requirements of clause 1.5.2 plus the fluid displacement  necessary to charge the piston(s) or accumulator(s) provided for the purpose of storing energy.

 

1.6                                      Protection of System using ‘Stored Energy’

 

1.6.1                                Any device for storing energy for the operation or to assist in the operation of the brake system must be so protected that failure of the generating power unit of a ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ supplying the energy does not result in depletion of the ‘Stored Energy’.

 

1.6.2                                In cases where the generating power unit of a ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ supplies energy to other units the design shall be such that the ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ is preferentially charged.

 

1.6.3                                In the case of a service brake system with a single ‘Brake Power Unit 31/00’ the design must be such that the device for storing energy must preferentially service the brake system if such device also services other systems.  In the case of a service brake system with 2 or more independent ‘Brake Power Units 31/00’ the design must be such that at least one device for storing energy must preferentially service the brake system.

 

2.                                          PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

 

2.1                                      The vehicle must be capable of meeting the range of performance tests set out in the following Table 1, subject to the general test conditions of Part 3. and the particular test conditions of Part 4. except where the ‘Maximum Motor Cycle Speed’ is equal to or less than 50 km/h and in the case of mopeds, it is not necessary to test in accordance with the requirements of clauses 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9.  The sequence of testing must be in the order set out in Table 1 except that the Parking Brake Test may be conducted at any time within the sequence.

 


 

Series of Tests and Procedures

Initial Vehicle Speed

km/h

Minimum Average Deceleration m/s2

Instrumentation check

50 (max.)

N.A.

First effectiveness test

Max. Motor Cycle

5.45

‘LMCM’ - All service brake systems

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

5.45

 

95-100

5.45

Effectiveness test - independently

Max. Motor Cycle

2.40

actuated service brake systems

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

2.40

 

95-100

2.40

First burnish procedure

Max. Motor Cycle

N.A.

 

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

N.A.

Second effectiveness test

Max. Motor Cycle

6.85

- All service brake systems

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

6.85

 

95-100

6.35

 

125-130

6.05

 

See text

5.45

First base line check

45-50

See text

Fade test

95-100

See text

Fade recovery procedure

45-50

See text

Fade recovery test

45-50

See text

Second burnish procedure

Max. Motor Cycle

N.A.

 

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

N.A

Third effectiveness test

Max. Motor Cycle

6.85

- All service brake systems

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

6.85

 

95-100

6.35

 

125-130

6.05

 

See text

5.45

Partial failure

Max. Motor Cycle

3.0

 

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

3.0

 

95-100

3.0

Parking brake test

N.A.

N.A.

Second base line check

45-50

See text

Test with brakes subject to wetting

Max. Motor Cycle

 

 

Speed’##

 

 

45-50

See text

 

2.1.1                                In the above Table, the following comments apply:

 

2.1.1.1                          N.A. means no condition applicable

 

2.1.1.2                          ## Applicable only to motor cycles having a ‘Maximum Motor Cycle Speed’ equal to or less than 50 km/h and to mopeds.

 

2.2                                      No parts of a brake system shall be replaced during testing nor shall adjustments be made to a brake system unless otherwise stated.

 

2.3                                      A vehicle will be deemed to meet the range of performance tests if it meets the requirements of each particular test and completes the range of tests without component failure.  For the purpose of this rule, “component failure” means:

 

2.3.1                                detachment of brake linings from the shoes or pads;

 

2.3.2                                detachment or fracture of any components of the brake system; or

 

2.3.3                                visible evidence of leakage of brake fluid or lubricant at any wheel cylinder, master cylinder reservoir, cover, seal or retention device, or at fluid line junctions.

 

3.                                          GENERAL TEST CONDITIONS

 

3.1                                      The vehicle must be operated at the ‘Laden Motor Cycle Mass’.

 

3.2                                      The ambient temperature at the test site must be within the range of 0 to 40° Celsius.

 

3.3                                      The ignition timing, engine idle speed and adjustable speed governor, if fitted, must be set to the ‘Manufacturer’s’ recommendation.

 

3.4                                      If provision for manual disengagement is provided, all stops must be made with the engine disengaged from the transmission.

 

3.5                                      The tyres fitted to the vehicle must be inflated to the pressure recommended by the ‘Manufacturer’ for the ‘Laden Motor Cycle Mass’.

 

3.6                                      Decelerations must be conducted on a test track or roadway that meets the following requirements:

 

3.6.1                                in the case of Fade Tests, the surface must be substantially level and any effective upward gradient between the start and end of the test must not exceed one percent; and

 

3.6.2                                in the case of all other deceleration tests, the upward gradient must not exceed one percent.

 

3.7                                      For all effectiveness and partial failure tests:

 

3.7.1                                no part of the vehicle must move outside a straight lane 2.5 metres in width in the case of 2-wheeled vehicles, and ‘Overall Width’ plus 1.55 metres in the case of 3-wheeled vehicles.  The vehicle must be positioned at the centre of the lane at the commencement of the deceleration; and

 

3.7.2                                lockup must not occur on any wheel unless such lockup results from the proper functioning of an ‘Antilock System’.

 

3.8                                      Except when conducting Burnish Procedures decelerations must be conducted in a direction such that the component of wind velocity opposite to the direction of travel of the vehicle does not exceed 15 km/h.

 

3.9                                      If the vehicle is not capable of attaining the initial vehicle speed requirements specified for a particular deceleration test, then, unless otherwise specified, the initial vehicle speed must be a speed within 15 km/h of the ‘Maximum Motor Cycle Speed’.

 

3.10                                  Unless otherwise specified the ‘Braking Effort’ required for any deceleration mode must be within the limits of 20 N to 250 N in the case of hand-operated controls, and within the limits of 40 N to 405 N in the case of foot-operated controls.

 

3.10.1                            Application of ‘Braking Effort’ must be:

 

3.10.1.1                      in the case of hand-operated ‘Controls’ not less than 30 mm from the end of the brake lever.  The direction of the force must be perpendicular to the centreline of that portion of the handle grip on which the brake lever is mounted and must be parallel to the plane in which the brake lever rotates; and

 

3.10.1.2                      in the case of foot-operated ‘Controls’ in the centre of the foot contact pad of the brake pedal.  The direction of the force must be perpendicular to the surface of the foot contact pad and must be parallel to the plane in which the brake pedal rotates.

 

3.11                                  Except in the case of the Wet Brake Recovery Test each test procedure may be preceded by a series of not more than 10 decelerations from not more than 50 km/h during which the deceleration must not at any time exceed 3.1 m/s2.

 

4.                                          PARTICULAR TEST CONDITIONS

 

4.1                                      Instrumentation Check.  The number of decelerations for the purpose of instrumentation checks must not exceed 20.  Such decelerations must be made from a speed of not more than 50 km/h during which the deceleration must not exceed 3.1 m/s2.

 

4.2                                      First Effectiveness Test - All Service Brake Systems.

 

The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test if all the parameters specified for each set of conditions in clause 2.1 are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 6.

 

4.3                                      Effectiveness Test - Independently Actuated Service Brake Systems

The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test if, when each service brake system is tested individually, all the parameters for each set of conditions specified in clause 2.1 are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 6.

 

4.4                                      First Burnish Procedure

 

4.4.1                                This must be conducted by making not more than 200 decelerations under the conditions specified in clause 2.1 such that deceleration must not at any time exceed 3.7 m/s2.  The ‘Braking Interval’ between successive decelerations must be not more than 1.6 km.  The vehicle must be accelerated at the maximum rate to the specified initial vehicle speed after each deceleration mode and maintained at that speed until initiating the next deceleration mode.

 

4.4.2                                On completion of the First Burnish Procedure, the brakes may be adjusted in accordance with the ‘Manufacturer’s’ recommendation.

 

4.5                                      Second Effectiveness Test - All Service Brake Systems

 

The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test:

 

4.5.1                                if all the parameters for each of the first 3 sets of conditions specified in clause 2.1 are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 6 for the first 2 sets of conditions and 4 for the third set of conditions; and

 

4.5.2                                in the case where the motor cycle has a ‘Maximum Motorcycle Speed’ equal to or greater than 150 km/h, if the parameters for the fourth set of conditions are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 4, when testing is carried out for an initial vehicle speed within 15 km/h of ‘Maximum Motorcycle Speed’.

 

4.6                                      First Base Line Check Procedure

 

Under the conditions specified in clause 2.1, 3 stops must be made during which the deceleration must be maintained within the range of 3.2 ±ÿ 0.2 m/s2.  The maximum force applied to each service brake ‘Control’ must be recorded for each stop.  The average of the maximum forces must be calculated for each service brake ‘Control’.

 

4.7                                      Fade Test

 

Ten stops must be conducted such that the sustained deceleration of each stop is not less than 4.55 m/s2.  The sustained deceleration must be attained in the minimum possible time and must be maintained for not less than three-quarters of the total ‘Stopping Distance 33/00’ for each stop.  The ‘Braking Interval’ must not be more than 650 metres.

 

The vehicle will be deemed to pass if the required deceleration can be achieved on all stops under the conditions specified in clause 2.1.

 

4.8                                      Fade Recovery Procedure

 

Immediately upon completion of the Fade Test, the vehicle must be conditioned by driving it at 45-50 km/h for not more than 1.6 km.

Immediately after this conditioning 4 stops must be made during which the deceleration must be maintained within the range of 3.2 ± 0.2 m/s2 under the conditions specified.  After each stop the vehicle must immediately be subjected to maximum acceleration to the specified initial vehicle speed and maintained at that speed until initiating the next stop.  The ‘Braking Interval’ must not be more than 1.6 km.

 

4.9                                      Fade Recovery Test

 

Immediately upon completion of the Fade Recovery Procedure, the vehicle must be subjected to maximum acceleration to the specified initial vehicle speed and within 1.6 km from the start of the test the vehicle must be decelerated such that the deceleration is maintained within the range of 3.2 ± 0.2 m/s2.  The vehicle will be deemed to pass if the maximum force applied to each service brake ‘Control’ is within + 90 N and - 45 N of the average of the maximum ‘Control’ force recorded for that ‘Control’ determined for First Base Line Check Procedure (clause 4.6).

 

4.10                                  Second Burnish Procedure

 

This must be a repeat of the First Burnish Procedure (clause 4.4), except that:

 

4.10.1                            the number of decelerations must be 35; and

 

4.10.2                            brakes may be adjusted at completion only if no tools are used.

 

4.11                                  Third Effectiveness Test - All Service Brake Systems

 

The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test:

 

4.11.1                            if all the parameters for each of the first 3 sets of conditions specified in clause 2.1 are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 6 for the first 2 sets of conditions and 4 for the third set of conditions; and

 

4.11.2                            in the case where the vehicle has a ‘Maximum Motorcycle Speed’ equal to or greater than 150 km/h, if the parameters for the fourth set of conditions are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes which must not exceed 4, when testing is carried out from an initial vehicle speed within 15 km/h of ‘Maximum Motorcycle Speed’.

 

4.12                                  Partial Failure Test

 

4.12.1                            The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test if all the parameters specified in clause 2.1 are met on at least one deceleration mode within a number of deceleration modes, which must not exceed 6 for each single type of potential failure including:

 

4.12.1.1                      each sub-system of the split system;

 

4.12.1.2                      inoperative ‘Antilock System’; and

 

4.12.1.3                      inoperative ‘Variable Proportioning Brake System’.

 

4.12.2                            One single failure must be induced prior to each set of deceleration modes and the vehicle restored at the completion of testing.

 

4.13                                  Parking Brake Test (for LB, LD and LE Vehicles Only)

 

4.13.1                            The parking brake must be tested by positioning the vehicle on a gradient of at least 30 per cent where the vertical rise is expressed as a percentage of the horizontal distance travelled to achieve this rise, such that the longitudinal axis of the vehicle is parallel to the direction of the gradient.  The parking brake must be applied, the transmission disengaged and the service brakes released, for a period of not less than 5 minutes.  The position of the vehicle on the gradient must then be reversed and the vehicle again parked for a period of not less than 5 minutes.

 

4.13.2                            The vehicle will be deemed to pass this test if:

 

4.13.2.1                      for each of the 5 minute periods it remains stationary on the gradient, or in the case where the test is carried out on a clean, dry, smooth Portland cement concrete surface there is no rotation of the wheel(s) to which the parking brake is applied; and

 

4.13.2.2                      the force required to apply the parking brake does not exceed 405 N in the case of a foot-operated system or 245 N in the case of a hand-operated system.

 

4.14                                  Second Base Line Check Procedure

 

This procedure is the same as that specified in clause 4.6 as the First Base Line Check Procedure except that:

 

4.14.1                            the deceleration must be maintained within the range of 3.0 ± 0.2 m/s2; and

 

4.14.2                            independent brake tests must be performed in the case of vehicles where the front and rear brakes can be applied separately.

 

4.15                                  Tests With Brakes Subject to Wetting

 

4.15.1                            The tests must be carried out under the same conditions as the tests with dry brakes.  There must be no adjustment or alterations of the brake system other than fitting the equipment to allow brake wetting.  In the case of vehicles where the front and rear brakes can be applied separately, the brakes must be tested independently.

 

4.15.2                            The test equipment must continuously wet the brakes for each test run at a flow rate of 15 litres/hour for each brake.  Two disc brakes on one wheel will be considered as 2 brakes.

 

4.15.3                            For exposed or partly exposed disc brakes the prescribed amount of water must be directed onto the rotating disc in such a manner that it is equally distributed on the surface or surfaces of the disc swept by the friction pad or pads.

 

4.15.3.1                      For fully exposed disc brakes the water must be directed onto the surfaces(s) of the disc one-quarter of a revolution in advance of the friction pad(s).

 

4.15.3.2                      For partly exposed disc brakes the water must be directed onto the surface(s) of the disc one quarter of a revolution in advance of the shield or baffle.

 

4.15.3.3                      The water must be directed onto the surface(s) of the disc(s) in a continuous jet, in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the disc, from single jet nozzles so positioned as to be between the inner extremity and a point two-thirds of the distance from the outer extremity of that part of the disc swept by the friction pad(s) (see Figure 1).

 

4.15.4                            For fully enclosed disc brakes the water must be directed onto both sides of the shield or baffle at a point in a manner corresponding with that described in clauses 4.15.3.1 and 4.15.3.3.  Where the nozzle would be coincident with a ventilation or inspection port, the water must be applied one-quarter of a revolution in advance of the said port.

 

4.15.5                            Where in the preceding clauses 4.15.3 and 4.15.4 it is not possible to apply the water in the position specified owing to the presence of some fixed part of the vehicle, the water must be applied at the first point, exceeding one-quarter of a revolution, where uninterrupted application is possible.

 

4.15.6                            To ensure correct wetting of the brakes, the vehicle must be driven with the wetting equipment operating for a distance of not less than 1.0 km at the test initial vehicle speed prior to the application of the brakes being tested.

 

4.15.7                            For drum brakes the prescribed amount of water must be distributed equally on either side of the braking device (that is, on the stationary back plate and the rotating drum) from nozzles so positioned as to be two-thirds of the distance from the outer circumference of the rotating drum to the wheel hub.

 

4.15.8                            Subject to the requirements of clause 4.15.7 and to the requirement that no nozzle must be within 15° of or coincident with a ventilation or inspection port on the stationary back plate, the test equipment for drum brakes must be so positioned as to obtain the optimum uninterrupted application of water.

 

4.15.9                            Performance Level Attained with Brake Subject to Wetting

4.15.9.1                      Each independently actuated service brake must be tested in accordance with the procedures laid down in clause 4.14 “Second Base Line Check Procedure”.

 

4.15.9.2                      The mean deceleration attained with wet brake(s) between 0.5 and 1.0 second after application must be at least 60 per cent of that attained with dry brake(s) during the Second Base Line Check when the same ‘Control’ force is applied.  The ‘Control’ force used, which must be applied as quickly as possible, must be equivalent to that required to attain an ‘Average Deceleration’ of 3.0  ±  0.2 m/s2 with dry brake(s).

 

4.15.9.3                      At no time during the wet brake test must the deceleration exceed 120 per cent of that attained with dry brakes.

 


FIGURE 1

 

 

 

 

 



* The category code may also be in the format L1, LA etc.

*/              Former title of the Agreement:

Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of Approval and Reciprocal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicle Equipment and Parts, done at Geneva on 20 March 1958.

[1]/             As defined in Annex 7 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), (document TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.1/Amend.2 as last amended by Amend.4).

[2]/             1 for Germany, 2 for France, 3 for Italy, 4 for the Netherlands, 5 for Sweden, 6 for Belgium, 7 for Hungary, 8 for the Czech Republic, 9 for Spain, 10 for Serbia, 11 for the United Kingdom, 12 for Austria, 13 for Luxembourg, 14 for Switzerland, 15 (vacant), 16 for Norway, 17 for Finland, 18 for Denmark, 19 for Romania, 20 for Poland, 21 for Portugal, 22 for the Russian Federation, 23 for Greece, 24 for Ireland, 25 for Croatia, 26 for Slovenia, 27 for Slovakia, 28 for Belarus, 29 for Estonia, 30 (vacant), 31 for Bosnia and Herzegovina, 32 for Latvia, 33 (vacant), 34 for Bulgaria, 35 (vacant), 36 for Lithuania, 37 for Turkey, 38 (vacant), 39 for Azerbaijan, 40 for The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 41 (vacant), 42 for the European Community (Approvals are granted by its Member States using their respective ECE symbol), 43 for Japan, 44 (vacant), 45 for Australia, 46 for Ukraine, 47 for South Africa, 48 for New Zealand, 49 for Cyprus, 50 for Malta, 51 for the Republic of Korea, 52 for Malaysia, 53 for Thailand, 54 and 55 (vacant) and 56 for Montenegro.  Subsequent numbers shall be assigned to other countries in the chronological order in which they ratify or accede to the Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions, and the numbers thus assigned shall be communicated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Contracting Parties to the Agreement.