Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Standards/Australian Design Rules for Vehicles as amended, taking into account amendments up to Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 - Passenger Car Tyres) 2006 Amendment 1
Administered by: Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities
Registered 03 Jan 2007
Start Date 14 Dec 2006

 

 

 

 

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 – Passenger Car Tyres) 2006

 

 

Compilation:                 1 (up to and including Amendment 1)

 

Compilation Date:         13/12/2006

 

Compiled by:                Vehicle Safety Standards, Department of Transport and Regional Services.

 

 


 

CONTENTS

 

23.0.      legislative provisions............................................................................ 3

Purpose and SCOPE.................................................................................................. 3

APPLICABILITY.............................................................................................................. 3

23.1.      DEFINITIONS.................................................................................................... 4

23.2.      REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................... 6

23.3.      TEST PROCEDURES......................................................................................... 8

23.4.      ALTERNATIVE STANDARDS........................................................................ 12

NOTES  .......................................................................................................................... 16

 


23.0.                                legislative provisions

23.0.1.                          NAME OF STANDARD

23.0.1.1.                    This Standard is the Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 – Passenger Car Tyres) 2006.

23.0.1.2.                    This Standard may also be cited as Australian Design Rule 23/00 — Passenger Car Tyres.

23.0.2.                          COMMENCEMENT

23.0.2.1.                    This Standard commences on the day after it is registered.

23.0.3.                          REPEAL

23.0.3.1.                    This Standard repeals each vehicle standard with the name Australian Design Rule 23/00 — Passenger Car Tyres that is:

                        (a)        made under section 7 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989; and

                        (b)        in force at the commencement of this Standard.

23.0.3.2.                    This Standard also repeals each instrument made under section 7 of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 that creates a vehicle standard with the name Australian Design Rule 23/00 — Passenger Car Tyres, if there are no other vehicle standards created by that instrument, or amendments to vehicle standards made by that instrument, that are still in force at the commencement of this Standard.

Purpose and SCOPE

This Australian Design Rule (ADR) is part of the Australian motor vehicle standards system and is a national standard for the purposes of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989.

The function of this Australian Design Rule is to specify requirements of strength, construction and standard pressure/load relationships for passenger car tyres of particular size designations.

APPLICABILITY

This ADR applies to tyres fitted to vehicles as set out in the table hereunder.

All vehicles specified below, except for vehicles of category other than passenger car (MA) which have tyres labelled as suitable for light trucks by the designation 'LT.' or similar, shall be fitted with tyres complying with the relevant requirements of this Rule.

 


 

Vehicle Category

ADR Category Code *

UNECE Category Code *

Manufactured on or After

Acceptable Prior Rules

Moped 2 wheels

LA

L1

Not Applicable

 

Moped 3 wheels

LB

L2

Not Applicable

 

Motor cycle

LC

L3

Not Applicable

 

Motor cycle and sidecar

LD

L4

Not Applicable

 

Motor tricycle

LE

L5

Not Applicable

 

Passenger car

MA

M1

1 July 1988

Nil

Forward-control passenger vehicle

MB

M1

1 July 1988

Nil

Off-road passenger vehicle

MC

M1

1 July 1988

Nil

Light omnibus

MD

M2

 

 

 

up to 3.5 tonnes ‘GVM’ and up to 12 seats

   MD1

 

1 July 1988

Nil

 

up to 3.5 tonnes ‘GVM’ and more than 12 seats

   MD2

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 3.5 tonnes and up to 4.5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   MD3

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 4.5 tonnes and up to 5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   MD4

 

Not Applicable

 

Heavy omnibus

ME

M3

Not Applicable

 

Light goods vehicle

NA

N1

Not Applicable

 

Medium goods vehicle

NB

N2

 

 

 

over 3.5 tonnes up to 4.5 tonnes ‘GVM’

   NB1

 

Not Applicable

 

 

over 4.5 tonnes up to 12 tonnes ‘GVM’

   NB2

 

Not Applicable

 

Heavy goods vehicle

NC

N3

Not Applicable

 

Very light trailer

TA

O1

Not Applicable

 

Light trailer

TB

O2

Not Applicable

 

Medium trailer

TC

O3

Not Applicable

 

Heavy trailer

TD

O4

Not Applicable

 

23.1.                                DEFINITIONS

23.1.1.                          Refer to Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule Definitions and Vehicle Categories) 2005.

23.1.2.                          ‘Asymmetrical Tyre' - a tyre which, through 'Tread' pattern or construction, is requited to be fitted to a vehicle such that one particular ‘Sidewall’ faces outwards.

23.1.3.                          'Bead’ - that part of the tyre usually made of steel wires, wrapped or reinforced by 'Ply' 'Cords’, that is shaped to fit the ‘Rims'

23.1.4.                          ‘Bead Separation' - a breakdown of bond between components in the `Bead area.

23.1.5.                          ‘Belt' - a layer or layers of ‘Cord’ or other reinforcement under the 'Tread’ to stiffen the tyre structure.

23.1.6.                          'Belt Separation' - a parting of rubber compound between ‘Belt' layers or between ‘Belts' and `Plies'.

23.1.7.                          ‘Chunking’ - the breaking away of pieces of the `Tread'

23.1.8.                          `Cord Separation’ – ‘Cord’ parting away from adjacent rubber compounds.

23.1.9.                          ‘Measuring Rim' - any 'Rim' with a width as specified for the design or measuring rim for a particular tyre size designation, and with the `Bead’ seat and flange dimensions for that `Rim', as shown in one or more of the following documents or in case of obsolete sizes no longer listed, in any edition of the following documents prior to the dates listed

23.1.9.1.                    the Tyre and Rim Standards      Manual of the Tyre and Rim Association of Australia, 1985 Edition:

23.1.9.2.                    the 1985 Tyre and Rim Association Inc. Year Book

23.1.9.3.                    the Japan Automobile Tyre Manufacturers Association Year Book 1986 Edition

23.1.9.4.                    the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS - D4202) dated 1977 Dimension of Tyres, and (JIS - D4218) dated 1981 Contours of Rims.

23.1.9.5.                    the European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation (ETRTO) Data Book dated 1986.

23.1.10.                      'Overall Tyre Width' - the linear distance between the exteriors of the 'Sidewalls' of an inflated tyre, including elevations due to labelling, decorations, or protective bands or rib.

23.1.11.                      'Ply Separator' - a parting of rubber compound between adjacent 'Plies'.

23.1.12.                      'Section Width' - the linear distance between the exteriors of the 'Sidewalls' of an inflated tyre, excluding elevations due to labelling, decoration, or protective bands.

23.1.13.                      'Service Description' - the combination of 'Load Index' and 'Speed Category' symbol.

23.1.14.                      'Sidewall' - that portion of a tyre between the Tread’ and the 'Bead’.

23.1.15.                      'Size Factor' - the sum of the 'Section Width' and the outer diameter of a tyre determined on the ‘Measuring Rim'.

23.1.16.                      'Specified Design Section Width' - the width specified in the ‘Nominated Standard’ for a new tyre of that size designation and type when inflated on its ‘Measuring Rim'.

23.1.17.                      'Test Rim’ - any ‘Rim’ conforming to the dimensions of the 'Measuring Rim' for the particular tyre size designation and type.

23.1.18.                      ‘Test Wheel Speed’ - the peripheral speed of the steel test wheel

23.1.19.                      ‘Tread Separation' - pulling away of the Tread’ from the tyre 'Carcass'.

23.1.20.                      'Treadwear Indicator' an indicator incorporated into the 'Tread’ of a tyre which gives visual indication when the 'Tread' has worn down to leave a pie-determined minimum 'Groove' depth.

23.1.21.                      Tyre Carcass Construction Symbol' - relates to the type of ‘Carcass' construction used in the manufacture of the tyre, viz:

D - Diagonal Ply

B - Bias-Belted

R - Radial Ply.

23.2.                                REQUIREMENTS

23.2.1.                          Size and Construction

23.2.1.1.                    The tyre manufacturer shall specify the ‘Nominated Standard’ with which the tyre design complies in respect to ‘Maximum Load Rating', inflated dimensions, design or ‘Measuring Rim' and alternative 'Rim' fitments.

23.2.1.2.                    The ‘Administrator’ may accept a tyre, ‘Rim’ or tyre and 'Rim' combination incorporated in a 'Nominated Standard’ referred in Clause 23.1.16.

23.2.2.                          Performance Requirements

23.2.2.1.                    General

Each new tyre shall conform to each of the following:

23.2.2.1.1.              It shall meet the requirements specified in arm 23.2.2.2 for its size designation, type, ‘Maximum Load Rating', 'Speed Category' or 'Service Description'.

23.2.2.1.2.              It shall incorporate at least 4 ‘Treadwear Indicators’ approximately equally spaced, each of which provides for a visual indication when the 'Tread’ in the vicinity of the indicator has a ‘Groove' depth of 1.60 + 0.40,- 0.25 mm.

23.2.2.2.                    Test requirements

23.2.2.2.1.              Test sample selection

Three new tyres having identical characteristics when described according to requirements of Clause 23.2.3 shall comprise a test sample:

23.2.2.2.1.1.        one tyre shall be used for physical dimensions, resistance to 'Bead’ unseating, and strength, in sequence;

23.2.2.2.1.2.        a second tyre shall be used for tyre endurance; and

23.2.2.2.1.3.        a third tyre for high speed performance

23.2.2.2.2.              In the tests, pressures shall be established within 10 kPa or one psi (as appropriate) of the values specified for each test

23.2.2.2.3.              Physical dimensions requirements

Each tyre shall conform to each of the following when measured in accordance with Clause 23.3.1:

23.2.2.2.3.1.        its actual 'Section Width' and 'Overall Tyre Width' shall not exceed by more than 7 percent the 'Section Width' specified in the ‘Nominated Standard’ for its size designation and type.

23.2.2.2.3.2.        its 'Size Factor' shall be at least as large as the minimum 'Size Factor' specified in the `Nominated Standard’ for its size designation and type. If the 'Nominated Standard does not specify a minimum ‘Size Factor', this shall be calculated as:

Minimum 'Size Factor' = 0.97 (SW + 2SH) + DR

where:

SW = specified 'Section Width' ##

SH = 1/2 of (specified outer diameter nominal rim diameter)

DR = nominal 'Rim' diameter

23.2.2.2.4.              Resistance to 'Bead' unseating requirements (for tubeless tyres only)

When tested in accordance with Clause 23.3.2 the applied force required to unseat the tyre 'Bead' at the point of contact shall not be less than:

23.2.2.2.4.1.        6,670 N for tyres with a 'Specified Design Section Width' of less than 6.3 inches, or 160 mm;

23.2.2.2.4.2.        8,890 N for tyres with a 'Specified Design Section Width' of 6.3 inches or 160 mm or more but less than 8 inches or 205 mm; or

23.2.2.2.4.3.        11,120 N for tyres with a 'Specified Design Section Width' of 8 inches or 205 mm or more.

23.2.2.2.5.              Tyre strength requirements

Each tyre shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking energy specified in Table 3 when tested in accordance with Clause 23.3.3.

23.2.2.2.6.              Tyre endurance requirements

After completion of the laboratory test wheel endurance test specified in Clause 23.3.4 no tyre shall have ‘Tread Separation', 'Ply Separation', 'Cord Separation', 'Belt Separation' or 'Bead Separation', 'Chunking', or 'Broken Cords'.

23.2.2.2.7.              High speed test requirements

After completion of the high speed test specified in Clause 23.3.5 no tyre shall have ‘Tread Separation', 'Ply Separation', 'Cord Separation', 'Belt Separation' or 'Bead Separation', 'Chunking' or 'Broken Cords'.

23.2.3.                          Labelling Requirements.

Each tyre shall be conspicuously labelled on both ‘Sidewalls’ in the case of symmetrical tyres and at least on the outer ‘Sidewalls’ in the case of ‘Asymmetrical Tyres' with each of the following permanently moulded in letters and figures at least 3.8 mm high and depth at least 0.25 mm if below the background surface or 0.4 mm if above the background

23.2.3.1.                    tyre size designation, which includes the 'Speed Category' symbol as determined from Table 4 either within the size designation or adjacent to the size designation as part of the 'Service Description', and 'Tyre Carcass Construction Symbol’ for 'Radial Ply Tyres' or 'Bias-belted Tyres' and optionally, in the case of 'Diagonal Ply’;;

23.2.3.2.                    the 'Maximum Load Rating' for the tyre expressed in kilograms followed by the word "kilograms" or the abbreviation 'kg' or the ‘Maximum Load Rating' for the tyre expressed in pounds followed by the word “pounds" or the abbreviation “lbs” or the 'Load Index' symbol (from Table 2) adjacent to the size designation as part of the 'Service Description'. Tyres shall be labelled unambiguously in respect to ‘Maximum Load Rating’ or ‘Load Index';

23.2.3.3.                    identification of manufacturer by:

23.2.3.3.1.              Name; or

23.2.3.3.2.              Brand Name and an 'Approved’ code mark;

23.2.3.4.                    the word "TUBELESS" if applicable;

23.2.3.5.                    the word "RADIAL" if applicable;

23.2.3.6.                    the words 'BIAS-BELTED' if applicable;

23.2.3.7.                    a date code consisting of 3 digit, the first 2 nominating the week of the year and the third digit the year of manufacture on at least one ‘Sidewall’ of the tyre; and

23.2.3.8.                    in the case of 'Asymmetrical Tyres’, a clear indication which side of the tyre is to face outwards when fitted to the vehicle.

23.3.                                TEST PROCEDURES

23.3.1.                          Physical Dimensions Test

23.3.1.1.                    Determine tyre's physical dimensions under uniform ambient conditions as follows.

23.3.1.1.1.              Mount the tyre on a 'Test Rim' and inflate it to the pressure specified for measurement in the 'Nominated Standard’.

23.3.1.1.2.              If no pressure is specified for measurement, mount the tyre on a ‘Test Rim' and inflate it to the pressure designated for its 'Maximum Load Rating' in the 'Nominated Standard' reduced by 60 kPa (or 8 psi as appropriate).

23.3.1.2.                    Condition it at ambient room temperature for at least 24 hours.

23.3.1.3.                    Readjust pressure to that specified in Clauses 23.3.1.1.1 or 23.3.1.1.2 as appropriate.

23.3.1.4.                    Caliper the 'Section Width’ and 'Overall Tyre Width' at 6 points approximately equally spaced around the tyre circumference.

23.3.1.5.                    Record the average of these measurements as the 'Section Width' and 'Overall Tyre Width', respectively.

23.3.1.6.                    Determine tyre outer diameter by measuring the maximum circumference of the tyre and dividing this dimension by Pi.

23.3.2.                          Resistance to `Bead' Unseating Test (for tubeless tyres only)

23.3.2.1.                    Preparation of tyreTest Rim' assembly

23.3.2.1.1.1.        Wash the tyre, dry it at the 'Beads', and mount it without lubrication or adhesive on a clean painted test 'Rim'.

23.3.2.1.1.2.        Adjust the pressure to the applicable pressure specified in Clause 23.3.1.1.2 at ambient room temperature.

23.3.2.1.1.3.        Mount the tyre and ‘Test Rim’ in the fixture shown in Figure 1, and force: ether of the standard blocks shown in Figure 2 against the tyre ‘Sidewalls’ as required by the geometry of the fixture, or by any other ‘Approved’ test procedure.

23.3.2.2.                    Test procedure

23.3.2.2.1.              Apply a load through the block to the tyre’s outer ‘Sidewall’ at a distance no less than that specified in Figure 1 for the applicable ‘Rim' at a rate of 50 ± 10 mm per minute, with the load arm substantially parallel to the tyre and 'Rim' assembly at time of engagement

23.3.2.2.2.              Increase the load until the 'Bead’ unseats or the applicable value specified in Clause 23.2.2.2.4 is reached

23.3.2.2.3.              This test shall be repeated at least 4 times at locations approximately equally spaced around the tyre circumference.

23.3.3.                          Tyre Strength (Breaking Energy) Test

23.3.3.1.                    Preparation of tyre

23.3.3.1.1.              Mount the tyre on a ‘Test Rim' and inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Clause 23.3.1.1.2

23.3.3.1.2.              Condition it at test room temperance for at least 3 hours.

23.3.3.1.3.              Readjust its pressure to that specified Clause 23.3.1.1.2

23.3.3.2.                    Test procedure

23.3.3.2.1.              Force a cylindrical steel plunger with a hemispherical end and a diameter of 19 ± 1.6 mm perpendicularly into the ‘Tread’ as near to the centreline as possible, avoiding penetration into my 'Tread’ 'Groove', at the rate of 50 ± 10 mm per minute.

23.3.3.2.2.              Record the force and penetration at the moment of breaking at each of 5 test points approximately equally spaced around the circumference of the tyre. If the tyre fails to break before the plunger is stopped on reaching the ‘Rim’, and the required minimum breaking energy is not achieved, then the required minimum breaking energy is deemed to have been achieved at that point

23.3.3.2.3.              Compute the breaking energy for each test point by means of the following formula:

Where                       W = Energy, Joules

F = Force, Newtons

P = Penetration, mm

23.3.3.2.4.              Determine the breaking energy value for the tyre by computing the average of the 5 values obtained in accordance with Clause 23.3.3.2.3.

23.3.4.                          Tyre Endurance Test

23.3.4.1.                    Preparation of tyre

23.3.4.1.1.              Mount a new tyre on a ‘Test Rim' and inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Clause 23.3.1.1.2

23.3.4.1.2.              Condition the tyre assembly at a temperature not less than 35 degrees Celsius for at leas 3 hours.

23.3.4.1.3.              Readjust tyre pressure to that specified in Clause 23.3.1.1.2 immediately before testing.

23.3.4.2.                    Test procedure

23.3.4.2.1.              Mount the tyre and `Test Rim' assembly on a test axle and press it against a flat-faced steel test wheel of an outside diameter not greater than 1.71 metres and at least as wide as the `Section Width' of the tyre to be tested, or an `Approved' equivalent test wheel.

23.3.4.2.2.              During the test the ambient temperature at a distance of not less than 150 mm and not more than one metre from the tyre shall be at least 35 degrees Celsius. No provision shall be made for cooling the tyre during the test.

23.3.4.2.3.              Conduct the test at not less than 80 km/h test speed with loads and test periods not less than those shown in the following schedule:-

 


23.3.5.                          High Speed Test

23.3.5.1.                    Preparation of tyre

23.3.5.1.1.              Mount the tyre on a 'Test Rim' and inflate it to a pressure equal to the pressure specified in the 'Nominated Standard' for its ‘Maximum Load Rating' plus an increase no greater than that specified in Table 1 for its 'Speed Category’.

23.3.5.1.2.              Condition the tyre assembly at a temperature not less than 35 degrees Celsius for at least 3 hours.

23.3.5.1.3.              Readjust the tyre pressure to that specified in Clause 23.3.5.1.1 immediately before testing.

23.3.5.2.                    Test procedure

23.3.5.2.1.              Mount the tyre and 'Test Rim' assembly on a test axle and press it against a flat-faced, steel test wheel of an outside diameter not greater than           1.71 metres, and at least as wide as the 'Section Width' of the wheel to be tested (or an 'Approved’ equivalent test wheel) with a load not less than 80 percent of the ‘Maximum Load Rating' of the tyre,

23.3.5.2.2.              During the test the ambient temperance at a dunce of not less than 150 mm and not more than one metre from the tyre shall be at least 35 degrees Celsius. No provisions shall be made for cooling the tyre during the test.

23.3.5.2.3.              Operate the equipment to bring the 'Test Wheel Speed’ from zero up to the initial 'Test Wheel Speed’ in a period of at least 10 minutes.

23.3.5.2.4.              The initial ‘Test Wheel Speed' is equal to the maximum speed shown in Table 1 a corresponding to the tyre's 'Speed Category’ symbol, less 40 km/h.

23.3.5.2.5.              The initial 'Test Wheel Speed for tyres of 'Speed Category' “V”. is 170 km/h.

23.3.5.2.6.              Operate the equipment with the ‘Test Wheel Speed’ not les than the initial 'Test Wheel Speed for at least 10 minutia, then at not less than the initial ‘Test Wheel Speed’ plus 10 km/h for at least a further 10 minters, then at not less than the initial 'Test Wheel Speed’ plus 20 km/h for at least a further 10 minutes and finally at not less than the initial 'Test Wheel Speed' plus 33 km/h for at least a further 20 minutes.

23.4.                                ALTERNATIVE STANDARDS

23.4.1.                          The technical requirements specified in Annex 7 of ECE R 30/02 - "Tyres" - shall be deemed to be equivalent to the technical requirements of Clause 23.2.2.2.7 (High Speed Test) of this Rule.


 

 


 


 

 


NOTES

This compilation of Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 - Passenger Car Tyres) 2006 includes all the instruments set out in the Table of Instruments.  The Table of Amendments provides a history of clauses that have been amended, inserted or deleted.

 

Table of Instruments

Name of Instrument

Registration Date

Commencement Date

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 - Passenger Car Tyres) 2006

18/08/2006

19/08/2006

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 - Passenger Car Tyres) 2006 Amendment 1

13/12/2006

14/12/2006

 

Table of Amendments

Clause affected

How affected

Amending instrument

Purpose and Scope

am

Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 23/00 - Passenger Car Tyres) 2006 Amendment 1

 

ad = added or inserted

am = amended

del = deleted or removed

rr = removed and replaced

à = clause renumbered.  This takes the format of old no. à new no.

 

 

 



* The category code may also be in the format L1, LA etc.

## as given in the ‘Nominated Standard’.