Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Seacare Authority Code of Practice 1/2000

Authoritative Version
Codes & Codes of Practice as made
This Code of Practice provides guidance to employers and seafarers etc to assist them to carry out their roles and meet their obligations under the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993.
Administered by: Employment
General Comments: This Code of Practice was approved by the Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business on 10 May 2000: see Supporting Material.
Registered 28 Feb 2007
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled Senate07-Jun-2000
Date of repeal 01 Apr 2017
Repealed by Sunsetting

SEACARE AUTHORITY

CODE OF PRACTICE 1/2000

INCORPORATING

THE AUSTRALIAN OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSEL CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE

THE CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR AUSTRALIAN SEAFARERS

Issued by the Seacare Authority on approval by the Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business pursuant to Section 109 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993

April 2000


 

CODE OF PRACTICE 1/2000

The Seacare Authority Code of Practice 1/2000 adopts in identical terms The Australian Offshore Support Vessel Code Of Safe Working Practice and The Code Of Safe Working Practice For Australian Seafarers issued by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) in 1997 and 2000 respectively. The AMSA Codes were issued in the form of Part 59 of Marine Order No 10 of 28 November 1997, with a datre of effect of 15 December 1997 and Part 61 of Marine Order No 20 of 3 December 1999, with a date of effect of 3 February 2000.

Code of Practice 1/2000 has been issued to comply with the provisions of Section 109 of the OH&S(MI) Act 1993 for which AMSA performs the Inspectorate function.

The issuing of Code of Practice 1/2000 does not impose any new requirements on employers, operators or other parties, over an above those contained in the existing AMSA Codes.

However, parties to which the OH&S(MI) Act applies should be aware of the provisions of Section 110 of the OH&S(MI) Act. This Sections states:

S 110      If, in any proceedings for an offence against this Act or the regulations, it is alleged that a person contravened a provision of this Act or the regulations in relation to which a code of practice was in effect at the time of the alleged contravention:

(a)           the code of practice is admissible in evidence in those proceedings; and

(b)           if the court thinks, in relation to any matter which it is necessary for the prosecution to prove, in order to establish the alleged contravention, that:

(i)            any provision of the code of practice is relevant to that matter; and

(ii)           the person failed at any material time to comply with that provision of the code of practice;

that matter is treated as proved unless the court thinks that, in respect of that matter, the person complied with that provision of this Act or the regulations otherwise than by complying with the code of practice.

Inquires about Seacare Authority Code of Practice 1/2000 should be directed to:

Seacare Authority

Phone:

02-61217120

Fax:

02-61217907

E-mail:

seacare@dewrsb.gov.au

Address:

GPO Box 9879 CANBERRA ACT 2601

Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)

Phone:

02-62795044

Fax:

02-62795966

Address:

GPO Box 2181 CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601

 


 

 

 


THE AUSTRALIAN

 

OFFSHORE SUPPORT

 

VESSEL

 

CODE OF SAFE WORKING

 

PRACTICE

 

 


 

© Australian Maritime Safety Authority

Published by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority 1997

ISBN

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 and as stated below, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA). Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager. Public Relations, AMSA, PO Box 1108, Belconnen 2616.

In the interests of safety, permission is given to unlimited photocopying or other reproduction for use in training persons involved in the offshore industry.

 


FOREWORD

The Offshore Industry is one where danger lurks at every turn, where, in addition to the normal hazards of the sea, operations are carried out which would not be contemplated on the normal merchant ship.

I thank those in the industry who have played some part in preparing this Code, and believe that their hopes and expectations of reduced injury to persons and vessels, through the adoption and diligent compliance with the requirements of this code, will be fully justified.

P M McGRATH

Chief Executive

Australian Maritime Safety Authority

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                         

 


 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND INTRODUCTION

This Code of Practice (hereinafter referred to as the 'Code') was developed initially by Australian Offshore Services. This development was undertaken after approaches from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), which had identified a need for such a Code to consider and address the hazards and risks associated with offshore support vessel operations, and to identify those areas where additional guidance would help to secure improvements in safety.

Responses were sought from other operators and interested parties to improve the coverage and effectiveness of the final document.

This Code is issued to provide guidance to operators, managers/superintendents of offshore installations, Masters and owners of offshore support vessels, so as to avoid or reduce to a minimum the hazards which affect offshore vessels in their daily interface with both offshore and onshore installations.

This document is not intended to conflict with or replace any existing legislation, contractual obligations or guidance notes issued by regulatory bodies or trade associations. Where installation operators issue their own safety or operating procedures, it is recommended that this Code be incorporated.

This Code will be kept under review and it is intended to issue amendments from time to time as circumstances dictate.

Various overseas codes of safe management and practice have been used as a guide in the compilation of this Code. This Code reflects the particular requirements of the Australian offshore industry.

DISCLAIMER

The use of this Code does not affect the responsibility of the ship operator to operate safely and to observe statutory requirements, or of any person to exercise the normal duty of care.


 

INTERPRETATION

The term "Offshore Manager" or "Offshore Installation Manager" (OIM) should be read as Manager, Superintendent, Person In Charge, Master or other title given to the person in charge of the offshore installation or rig.

The term "Operator" should be read as the representative of the Oil Company which holds the permit area or operates the field where the work is taking place.

Where Masters and/or Managers/Superintendents are specified, this includes their nominated representatives.

The term "Owner" should be read as the company that owns, manages or operates the support vessel concerned.

Where an Act is referred to, it is to be read as a Commonwealth Act unless specifically expressed to be a 'State' Act.

The term 'State' as used herein includes the Northern Territory, and other Commonwealth Territories as may be appropriate.

Unless expressed otherwise, the term Act includes the relevant regulations and orders made under the Act.

AMSA means the Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

OIM means Offshore Installation Manager.

PIC means Person In Charge.

SWL means Safe Working Load.

'must' means that the requirement is mandatory.

'should' means that the requirement is recommended.

'may' means that the requirement is optional.

Where a requirement is to comply with Marine Orders, it is to be understood that for vessels subject only to State jurisdiction, the reference is to the corresponding State requirements.


 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD............................................................................................................................................................................................................. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................... iv

INTERPRETATION................................................................................................................................................................................................. v

1. OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2. COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN CHARTERERS AND VESSEL OWNERS/MASTERS................................................................... 2

3. MANAGEMENT PLANS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1 SUPPORT VESSELS......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.1 SAFETY MANAGEMENT PLAN................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.1.2 OPERATIONS MANUAL............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.1.3 EMERGENCY RESPONSE MANUAL....................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.4 SHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLAN (SOPEP)......................................................................................................... 3

3.2 CHARTER PARTY........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4. APPLICATION..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5. COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTORY PROVISIONS.................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 RELEVANT STATUTORY PROVISIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 STATE AND COMMONWEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION..................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 GENERAL........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.2 THE PETROLEUM (SUBMERGED LANDS) ACT OHS PROVISIONS ALSO APPLY TO:........................................................... 6

6. ROLE OF RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY........................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 AUSTRALIAN MARITIME SAFETY AUTHORITY................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 STATE MARITIME SAFETY AUTHORITIES........................................................................................................................................... 8

7. RESPONSIBILITIES........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8. FATIGUE & REST............................................................................................................................................................................................. 10

9 EQUIPMENT....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1 SUPPORT VESSEL EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.1 HULL. MACHINERY & NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT....................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.2 CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT......................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.2.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

9.1.2.2 LIFTING GEAR........................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

9.1.2.3 FUEL HANDLING EQUIPMENT.......................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.2.4 DRY BULK AND CEMENT EQUIPMENT......................................................................................................................................... 12

9.1.2.5 GLYCOL. AND METHANOL SYSTEMS............................................................................................................................................ 12

9.1.2.6 LASHING AND SECURING EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................ 12

9.1.2.7 ELECTRICAL AND FREEZER CARGO EQUIPMENT................................................................................................................... 12

9.1.3 MOORING EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................................................... 12

9.1.4 DECK LIGHTING........................................................................................................................................................................................ 13


 

9.1.5 OIL SPILL EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1.6 TOWING EQUIPMENT.............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

9.1.6.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13

9.1.6.2 STRETCHERS AND SPRINGS.............................................................................................................................................................. 13

9.1.6.3 WIRES........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13

9.1.6.4 GOB FITTINGS......................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

9.1.6.5 TRUNNIONS AND TOW RESTRAINTS............................................................................................................................................. 14

9.1.6.6 SHACKLES................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

9.1.6.7 CHAFING GEAR...................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

9.1.6.8 SPARE GEAR............................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

9.3.7 ANCHOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 15

9.1.7.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

9.1.7.2 WIRES........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

9.1.7.3 SOCKETS AND EYES............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

9.1.7.4 SHACKLES................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16

9.1.7.5 ROLLER FAIRLEADS............................................................................................................................................................................ 16

9.1.7.6 PELICAN HOOKS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

9.1.7.7 HYDRAULIC OR MECHANICAL STOPPERS................................................................................................................................. 17

9.1.7.8 BUOY CATCHERS.................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.1.7.9 CHASERS.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18

9.1.7.10 CHAIN HOOKS, TUNING FORKS..................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.1.7.11 CHAIN SLINGS OR ENDLESS CHAIN SLINGS............................................................................................................................ 18

9.2 DRILLING RIG, PLATFORM OR INSTALLATION EQUIPMENT..................................................................................................... 18

9.2.1 GENERAL EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.2.1.1 CRANES..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.2.1.2 CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND CONTAINERS............................................................................................................... 18

9.2.1.3 STINGERS AND HOOKS........................................................................................................................................................................ 18

9.2.1.4 LIGHTING................................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

9.2.1.5 PERSONNEL BASKETS......................................................................................................................................................................... 19

9.2.1.6 MOORING LINES.................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

9.2.2 ANCHOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT..................................................................................................................................................... 19

9.2.2.1 PENDANTS................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19

9.2.2.2 BUOYS........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

9.2.2.3 SHACKLES................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

9.2.2.4 GRAPPLES, CHASERS AND 'J' HOOKS............................................................................................................................................. 20

9.2.3 TOWING EQUIPMENT.............................................................................................................................................................................. 20

9.2.3.1 MAIN TOWING EQUIPMENT.............................................................................................................................................................. 20

9.2.3.2 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR............................................................................................................................................................ 21

9.3 SHORE EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

9.3.1 CONTAINERS AND LIFTING GEAR..................................................................................................................................................... 22


 

9.3.1.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

9.3.1.2 CARGO HANDLING AND SHIPPING EQUIPMENT....................................................................................................................... 22

9.3.2 PORTABLE TANKS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 23

9.3.3 CONTRACTORS' EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY......................................................................................................................... 23

10. OPERATIONS.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24

10.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24

10.1.1 RESPONSIBILITIES................................................................................................................................................................................ 24

10.1.2 MASTER/OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS–MANAGER INFORMATION EXCHANGE AND COMMUNICATIONS........ 24

10.1.3 STABILITY................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24

10.1.4 DECK LIGHTING..................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

10.2 CARGO OPERATIONS................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

10.2.1 ORDER OF STOWAGE............................................................................................................................................................................ 25

10.2.2 DOCUMENTATION AND MARKING.................................................................................................................................................. 25

10.2.3 LASHING AND SECURING/RESTRAINING OF CARGO............................................................................................................... 26

10.2.4 DECK CARGO........................................................................................................................................................................................... 26

10.2.5 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................... 26

10.2.6 PRE-PLANNING........................................................................................................................................................................................ 27

10.2.7 DANGEROUS GOODS AND MARINE POLLUTANTS..................................................................................................................... 27

10.2.8 INSTALLATION OVERBOARD DISCHARGES................................................................................................................................ 28

10.2.9 INSTALLATION AND COLUMN LIGHTING.................................................................................................................................... 28

10.3 PROCEDURES AT THE INSTALLATION.............................................................................................................................................. 28

10.3.1 CARGO OPERATIONS............................................................................................................................................................................ 28

10.3.2 BACKLOADING OF CARGO OFFSHORE.......................................................................................................................................... 29

10.3.3 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS................................................................................................................................................................ 30

10.3.4 CRANE OPERATIONS............................................................................................................................................................................. 30

10.3.5 BULK TRANSFER PROCEDURES....................................................................................................................................................... 31

10.4 ANCHOR HANDLING AND RIG SHIFTS.............................................................................................................................................. 31

10.4.1 GENERAL................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

10.4.2 AGREED PROCEDURES, WRITTEN PROGRAM, BRIEFING OF MASTERS, RESPONSIBILITIES.................................. 32

10.4.3 COMMUNICATIONS............................................................................................................................................................................... 32

10.4.4 PIPELINES, SUB-SEA OBSTRUCTIONS/STRUCTURES............................................................................................................... 33

10.4.5 CLEAR DECKS.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

10.4.6 REMOVAL OF CLUTTER....................................................................................................................................................................... 33

10.4.7 CARRIAGE OF SPARE ANCHOR BUOY............................................................................................................................................ 33

10.4.8 WINCH DRUM VISIBILITY.................................................................................................................................................................. 33

10.4.9 PERSONNEL CLEAR OF DECK IN PROTECTED AREA................................................................................................................ 34

10.4.10 DEVIATION PROCEDURE.................................................................................................................................................................. 34

10.4.11 CREW BRIEFING................................................................................................................................................................................... 34

10.4.12 EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................................................................................ 34


 

10.4.13 WEATHER LIMITATIONS - RESPONSIBILITIES........................................................................................................................ 35

10.4.14 LOADING/UNLOADING RIGS WHILST UNDER WAY............................................................................................................... 35

10.4.15 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING, SAFETY EQUIPMENT................................................................................... 35

10.4.16 CHAIN CHASING.................................................................................................................................................................................. 36

10.4.17 GRAPPLING............................................................................................................................................................................................. 36

10.4.18 RECOVERING ANCHORS................................................................................................................................................................... 36

10.4.19 MULTIPLE PENDANTS........................................................................................................................................................................ 36

10.4.20 LENGTH OF PENDANT FROM RIG.................................................................................................................................................. 36

10.4.21 ANCHOR DEPLOYMENT.................................................................................................................................................................... 36

10.4.22 BUOY DEPLOYMENT........................................................................................................................................................................... 37

10.4.23 PASSING PENDANT TO RIG............................................................................................................................................................... 37

10.4.24 CLEARING FOULED ANCHORS....................................................................................................................................................... 37

10.5 TOWING OPERATIONS............................................................................................................................................................................. 37

10.5. GENERAL..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

10.5.2 AGREED PROCEDURES AND RESPONSIBILITIES....................................................................................................................... 37

10.5.3 EQUIPMENT.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 38

10.5.4 INSPECTION.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 38

10.5.5 CLEAR DECKS.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

10.5.6 RESERVE TOW EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................................................... 39

10.5.7 MANNED TOW.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

10.5.8 UNMANNED TOW.................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

10.6 BARGE WORK.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 40

10.6. TOWING IN NARROW/SHALLOW CHANNELS................................................................................................................................ 40

10.6.2 HIPPING UP............................................................................................................................................................................................... 40

10.6.3 HIGH WIRE HAZARD............................................................................................................................................................................ 40

10.7 WORK OVERSIDE OR ON BUOYS.......................................................................................................................................................... 41

10.7. WORK OVERSIDE...................................................................................................................................................................................... 41

10.7.2 WORK ON BUOYS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 41

11. STAND-BY VESSELS.................................................................................................................................................................................... 42

11.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42

11.2 SPECIAL EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................................................................... 42

11.3 FAST RESCUE CRAFT............................................................................................................................................................................... 42

11.4 RESCUE NETS.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 43

11.5 RESCUE BASKETS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

11.6 BLANKETS AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................................................... 43

11.7 MEDICAL EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................................................................ 43

13.8 ACCOMMODATION................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

11.9 TRAINING..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

11.10 COMMUNICATIONS................................................................................................................................................................................ 44

12. ASBESTOS....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

 

13. DANGEROUS MACHINERY AND APPARATUS................................................................................................................................... 46

14. NOISE................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 47

15. HAZARDOUS AND RESTRICTED AREAS.............................................................................................................................................. 48

15.1 HAZARDOUS AREAS................................................................................................................................................................................. 48

15.2 RESTRICTED AREAS................................................................................................................................................................................. 48

16. TRAINING........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 49

17. PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEM...................................................................................................................................................................... 50

17.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50

17.2 HOT WORK................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50

17.3 ENTRY INTO CONFINED SPACES......................................................................................................................................................... 50

17.4 ELECTRICAL WORK................................................................................................................................................................................. 50

17.5 WORK OVER WATER................................................................................................................................................................................ 50

17.6 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES.................................................................................................................................................................... 50

17.7 WORKING AT HEIGHT............................................................................................................................................................................. 50

17.8 WORK THAT COMPROMISES CRITICAL SAFETY SYSTEMS..................................................................................................... 51

18. TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL....................................................................................................................................................................... 52

18.1 TRANSFER BY PERSONNEL BASKET.................................................................................................................................................. 52

18.2 TRANSFER BY BOAT................................................................................................................................................................................. 52

18.3 TRANSFER BY HELICOPTER................................................................................................................................................................. 52

19. SAFETY OF THE ENVIRONMENT............................................................................................................................................................ 53

19.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 53

19.2 MARINE SUPPORT..................................................................................................................................................................................... 53

APPENDIX A: CHECKLIST FOR SUPPORT VESSEL/ INSTALLATION OPERATIONS..................................................................... 54

A1 SHIP................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54

A2 INSTALLATION.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 54

APPENDIX B: BULK TRANSFER PROCEDURES........................................................................................................................................ 55

APPENDIX C: WORK PERMIT GUIDELINES............................................................................................................................................... 58

APPENDIX D: TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL BY BASKET......................................................................................................................... 61

APPENDIX E: APPLICABLE REGULATIONS/ INSTRUMENTS/CODES............................................................................................... 65

APPENDIX F: GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................................................................................. 66

APPENDIX G: REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................................................. 67

 


1.              OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this Code are:

1.1                       To promote safe work practices on offshore support vessels.

1.2                       To increase awareness among vessel and installation crews of safe practice.

1.3                       To improve safety in the interface between support vessels and installations.

1.4                       To assist compliance with the content and the intention of the legislation and regulations affecting safety in the workplace.

1.5                       To provide a continually updated guide to safe work practices in the offshore support vessel industry.


 

2.              COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN CHARTERERS AND VESSEL OWNERS/MASTERS

2.1                       It is important that a direct line of communication is established between Owners and Charterers, to enable all safety matters to be raised and, where appropriate, action taken. Individuals should be nominated for this purpose. This direct line should not replace the first line of offshore communication between the Master of the vessel and the OIM but should complement it, where on-going safety issues cannot be resolved or where other issues need to be resolved by Owners and Charterers.

2.2                       Owners and Masters should be able to discuss any safety matter without fear of recrimination or adverse repercussion. The provisions of IMO Resolution A443 (XI) (quoted below) should be kept in mind. This Resolution, which is supported by the Commonwealth, seeks to ensure that the Master is not constrained by the owner, charterer or any other person, from taking any decision in respect of maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment which, in the professional judgement of the Master, is necessary.

2.3                       Masters should ensure that all hazards or incidents affecting safety involving their vessels are formally reported to the Charterer and Owner/Manager. Relevant Safety Meeting Minutes may be forwarded to the Charterer (in accordance with the Owner's/Master's in-house procedures and the requirements of the contract/charter party) for all items having an effect on the Charterer's operation.

IMO Resolution A443(XI):

CONSIDERING that Maritime Safety and the protection of the marine environment must be the ship master's prime concern in all situations which may arise and that economic and other pressures on the shipmaster shoud not at any time interfere with the decisions he must take in that regard,

CONSIDERING FURTHER that the decisions on maritime safety and marine environment protection by the shipmaster should not be unduly influenced by instructions given by shipowners, charterers or others concerned,

INVITES Governments to take necessary steps to safeguard the shipmaster in the proper discharge of his responsbilities in regard to maritime safety and the protection of the marine enviroment by ensuring that:

(a)           The shipmaster is not constrained by the shipowner, charterer or any other person from taking in this respect any decision which, in the professional judgement of the shipmaster, is necessary;

(b)           The shipmaster is protected by appropriate provisions, including the right of appeal, contained in, inter alia, national legislation, collective agreements or contracts of employment, from unjustifiable dismissal or other unjustifiable action by the shipowner, charterer or any other person as a consequence of the proper exercise of his professional judgement.


 

3.              MANAGEMENT PLANS

3.1                 SUPPORT VESSELS

3.1.1              SAFETY MANAGEMENT PLAN

Each Owner must have a Safety Management Plan which details the safety policy and objectives of the Owner. It must set out the means by which the owner intends to achieve the goals stated in the policy and objectives.

3.1.2              OPERATIONS MANUAL

The Safety Management Plan may provide for a separate company Operations Manual or similar document that sets out in detail the various procedures that the company expects to be followed as part of the safe operation of its vessels.

3.1.3              EMERGENCY RESPONSE MANUAL

3.1.3.1                The Safety Management Plan may provide for a separate company Emergency Response Manual specifying action to be taken in the event of an emergency on each vessel operated by the company.

3.1.3.2                All vessels working for an installation must have on board a copy of the installation Emergency Response Manual so that Masters and crews are aware of then-responsibilities and any actions that may be required of them in an emergency.

3.1.3.3                Examples of emergencies that may be specifically addressed by the Emergency Response Manual:

Fire or explosion

Failure of the structure of the vessel

Collision involving the vessel

An accident involving a helicopter

A death, serious injury or serious illness

Grounding or wreck

Cyclone, storm or severe weather affecting stability of the vessel.

Note: Vessels operating in WA are required to have a Cyclone Warning Contingency Plan.

3.1.4              SHIPBOARD OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLAN (SOPEP)

Each vessel must have a SOPEP approved by either AMSA or the relevant State marine authority.

3.2                 CHARTER PARTY

3.2.1                    Each vessel must have on board a copy of the charter party prior to commencing operations so that the Master and crew are aware of any special expectations that the charterer may have of the vessel, and of their obligations to the charterer.


 

3.2.2                    The Master must discuss with the owner and charterer any provisions of the charter party that, in his or her opinion, may exceed the limitations or capabilities of the vessel concerned to the extent that safety may be compromised.


 

4.              APPLICATION

4.1                       This Code applies to all vessels engaged in the carriage of cargo, in towing and in anchor handling operations related to offshore operations in the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, irrespective of flag or ownership.

4.2                       This Code also applies to all Australian vessels engaged in the carriage of cargo, in towing, and in anchor handling operations related to offshore operations irrespective of location.

4.3                       EQUIVALENT STANDARDS

It is recognized that from time to time a Charterer may require the use of a Code other than the Australian Code. In these circumstances, such a Code will be assessed by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority and may be deemed equivalent to the Australian Code. Where it is determined that the other Code is not equivalent, the Australian Code will prevail.


 

5.              COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTORY PROVISIONS

5.1                 RELEVANT STATUTORY PROVISIONS

Ships operating within Australian Waters must comply with:

Navigation Act 1912 and Marine Orders

Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993

Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Regulations

Seafarers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1992

State Acts and Regulations relating to State waters

International Convention on Standard of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW)

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78)

Marine Notices

Rigs/Offshore platforms operating within Australian waters must comply with:

Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967

Note   Not all of the above are applicable at all times, mariners must take care to ensure they comply at all times with the applicable statutory provisions. Rigs when on transit from one site to another are considered to be ships.

5.2                 STATE AND COMMONWEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION

5.2.1              GENERAL

Offshore supply vessels are subject at all times to occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation as follows:

Vessels to which the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act apply are subject to the OHS provisions of that Act

Vessels to which Part II of the Navigation Act applies or which are declared under section 8A of that Act must comply with the OHS (Maritime Industry) Act when the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act does not apply to them

Other vessels are subject to the OHS legislation of the relevant State.

5.2.2              THE PETROLEUM (SUBMERGED LANDS) ACT OHS PROVISIONS ALSO APPLY TO:

Offshore installations and any activities on them;

Certain activities carried out in connection with offshore installations, whether carried out from the installation or from a vessel, including:

inspection

Alteration

 


 

testing

repair

loading

maintenance

unloading

cleaning

fuelling

demolition

construction

dismantling

reconstruction

diving operations

and any activities immediately preparatory to any of these activities. This applies regardless of the flag state of the vessel from which an activity is carried out.


 

6.              ROLE OF RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY

6.1                 AUSTRALIAN MARITIME SAFETY AUTHORITY

6.1.1                    AMSA is responsible for marine safety, including the seaworthiness of ships and matters concerning their construction and stability, equipment, carriage of dangerous goods, navigational safety, safe manning and certification, the prevention of pollution, and the health, safety and welfare of seafarers.

6.1.2                    Marine surveyors of AMSA enforce maritime and shipping legislation and administer international marine safety conventions, together with related codes of practice. They are responsible for:

the survey and certification of safety equipment on ships;

in some cases, the survey of ships' structures;

investigating shipping casualties and accidents to crew;

inspecting crew accommodation and related matters;

inspecting arrangements on ships for dealing with the prevention of pollution;

random general safety inspections of ships, both Australian and foreign;

random inspections of the condition, loading and storage on ships of packaged dangerous goods, including tank containers and motor tank vehicles;

inspecting ship board operational arrangements for the loading and unloading of oil/chemical/gas tankers and offshore support vessels;

inspecting arrangements relating to the occupational health and safety of seafarers;

safe manning and the certification of crews;

assessment of codes for equivalence.

6.2                 STATE MARITIME SAFETY AUTHORITIES

Where the areas of operation of offshore support vessels are totally intra-state, owners may choose to comply with either the Commonwealth or the relevant State Acts and Regulations for vessels associated with those State waters. Each State Maritime Authority fulfils a similar role and function within the State as AMSA does for the Commonwealth. Owners should verify the extent of the relevant State Authority's interest with that Authority when operating within that State jurisdiction.


 

7.              RESPONSIBILITIES

7.1                       Owners, operators and Masters of vessels are responsible for the safety of their crews and vessels at all times. The Master has the authority to decide whether any operation affecting the vessel should proceed or terminate, and should question any instructions from installation or quayside personnel which may create a hazard to the crew or vessel.

7.2                       In general, vessels are prohibited from entering the 500 metres zone around an installation. Support vessels are allowed to enter but should only do so after consultation with the installation, to ensure that they do not endanger any other operations being carried out. OIMs should demand the modification or termination of any support vessel activity which they regard as hazardous.

7.3                       It is the responsibility of all persons on a vessel working in the offshore industry:

not to do anything likely to endanger the safety, health or welfare of themselves or other persons on or near the vessel or to render unsafe any equipment used on or near the vessel;

to co-operate with the employer and any other persons on whom a duty or requirement is imposed so far as is necessary to enable that duty or requirement to be performed or complied with;

to report immediately to the appropriate responsible person any defect in any equipment which appears likely to endanger the safety, health or welfare of persons on or near the vessel or the safety of the vessel and any equipment used with it.


 

8.              FATIGUE & REST

8.1                       Fatigue is a hazard to personnel within the offshore industry and a threat to offshore safety. In view of this and to rninimize the possibility of fatigue the following should be taken into account:

the necessity for onboard relief for Master and crew in case of prolonged operations;

the effects of bad weather during offshore operations;

the level of onboard automation (bridge; E/R; deck machinery);

the need for proper onboard victualling arrangements;

voyage patterns and repairs/husbandry support;

crew training and competence;

the nature and extent of the work to be undertaken including special needs of the installation.

8.2                       The OIM and Master should discuss the intended operation, taking into consideration the expected period of work and the prevailing conditions so as to minimise, as far as possible, the problem of fatigue and to ensure the Master and crew have adequate rest periods.


 

9               EQUIPMENT

9.1                 SUPPORT VESSEL EQUIPMENT

9.1.1              HULL, MACHINERY & NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT

9.1.1.1                The hull and machinery should be maintained in good, serviceable condition with all statutory and classification surveys up to date.

9.1.1.2                Defects should be repaired as soon as possible to maintain the vessel in a safe and seaworthy state.

9.1.1.3                All navigation equipment shall be maintained in proper working order and checked for errors in accordance with good practice. Any equipment that is not functioning correctly or that has appreciable errors that may affect the safety of navigation shall be taken out of service and tagged 'Out of Service'.

9.1.1.4                All charts and publications in use shall be the latest editions properly corrected to the latest available 'Notices to Mariners'.

9.1.2              CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT

9.1.2.1                GENERAL

9.1.2.1.1             All cargo handling equipment must be maintained such that the condition of the equipment does not present a hazard to people operating it or those working in the area.

9.1.2.1.2             Remote stop controls should be provided in the wheelhouse for all bulk cargo discharges, i.e. fuel, water, dry bulk and liquid bulk, to enable the immediate shutdown of operations in the event of a problem.

9.1.2.1.3             Care must be taken to ensure that the pressure at which bulk cargo is delivered does not exceed the safe pressure of the receiving system. A serious hazard may be created if a modern support vessel pumps cement at 80 p.s.i. to an older drilling rig which has a system built for a pressure of 40 p.s.i.

9.1.2.2                LIFTING GEAR

9.1.2.2.1             Lifting gear must be maintained according to the relevant Marine Orders and good practice. Lifting gear must be tested, examined and inspected, and these acts documented according to the requirements of Marine Order Part 32.

9.1.2.2.2             A register of all cargo handling equipment must be kept. The record of tests, examinations and inspections should be included in, or attached to, the register.

9.1.2.3                FUEL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

9.1.2.3.1             Particular attention should be paid to the condition of hoses and connections to identify any chafed or worn areas. Connections should be inspected at each use and 'Dry Break' type couplings used where possible. In cases where ball valves are used in the end of fuel hoses arrangements should be made to avoid the possibility of the valve handle being damaged when the hose is landed on the support vessel deck.


 

9.1.2.3.2             Measures must be adopted to ensure that hoses passed to or from the vessel are empty and not under any pressure. All other precautions necessary should be taken to avoid the possibility of spillage of oil products and consequent pollution.

9.1.2.4                DRY BULK AND CEMENT EQUIPMENT

9.1.2.4.1             Particular attention must be paid to the condition of hoses and connections. Worn sections of hoses should be replaced prior to use as a blow-out creates a severe dust hazard as well as a hazard from hoses whipping around under pressure.

9.1.2.4.2             Bleed off/test cocks should be fitted near the hose connection point to enable crew to check that pressure is off the line prior to connecting/disconnecting. These cocks should be placed in the upper end of the pipe and regularly serviced to avoid blockage by product or rust.

9.1.2.5                GLYCOL AND METHANOL SYSTEMS

9.1.2.5.1             Glycol and methanol must only be carried in dedicated tanks and delivered through dedicated systems.

9.1.2.5.2             Methanol, with its particular hazards, when carried on deck, must only be carried in specialised portable tanks as a sole deck cargo. The tanks must be secured and adequate fire fighting equipment must be laid out and ready for instant use. All tools and connections used must be made of approved material that will not provide a source of ignition.

9.1.2.5.3             When methanol is carried in approved purpose built under deck tanks or above deck tanks, the operator should have written safety procedures covering the loading, carriage and discharge of these products. A copy of the procedures should be on board the vessel prior to loading the cargo.

9.1.2.6                LASHING AND SECURING EQUIPMENT

9.1.2.6.1             Lashing and securing gear must be in good condition and of adequate size for the job. Securing points must be provided that will not give way in a seaway on a vessel subject to heavy movement.

9.1.2.6.2             Deck pins for pipe cargoes should be straight and securely fit in the holes. Wooden wedges should be provided with a rope tail to avoid the need to have hands close to cargo that may move.

9.1.2.7                ELECTRICAL AND FREEZER CARGO EQUIPMENT

Electrical plugs and fuses/circuit breakers must have adequate protective covers to prevent the ingress of water.

9.1.3              MOORING EQUIPMENT

9.1.3.1                All mooring equipment must be maintained in serviceable condition so as not to present a hazard to deck crew when tying up and letting go.

9.1.3.2                Drums, bits and leads should be free of rust to avoid undue chafing of mooring ropes.

9.1.3.3                Mooring ropes, wires and tails should be inspected regularly and damaged sections cut out or the ropes replaced.


 

9.1.4              DECK LIGHTING

9.1.4.1                Lighting on the working decks must be of sufficient power and intensity to provide adequate illumination of the working area for night operations.

9.1.4.2                Lights must be placed as high as possible to avoid casting long shadows over the working area, and should be distributed to eliminate shadow areas. They must not impede the visibility of those on the bridge, or on winch controls.

9.1.4.3                The provision of reflective strips on crew working gear assists greatly with the visibility of the crew from the bridge, winch control and other work areas.

9.1.5              OIL SPILL EQUIPMENT

9.1.5.1                Oil spill equipment, if it is carried aboard and intended for use must be maintained in a serviceable condition.

9.1.5.2                If applicable, an operating manual or instructions must be carried on board.

9.1.5.3                Crew members should be trained in the use of the particular equipment carried aboard the vessel to avoid hazards associated with its use and to provide as efficient a response as possible to the pollution threat.

9.1.6              TO WING EQUIPMENT

9.1.6.1                GENERAL

9.1.6.1.1             Each vessel should keep up to date a tow-wire log detailing date of manufacture, hours of use, weather conditions, any damage, re-socketing information, cropping, identifying marks and any other relevant information including dates and type of any maintenance carried out. Stretchers should be included in a section of the tow-wire log so as to record periods of use and other relevant information.

9.1.6.1.2             All towing equipment should be closely inspected prior to use to ensure that it is appropriate for the task to be undertaken. All certificates should be current and on board the towing vessel. All equipment should be properly marked.

9.1.6.2                STRETCHERS AND SPRINGS

9.1.6.2.1             Soft stretchers should have protection against chafing and eyes or rings of an appropriate size for the shackles being used. They should be stowed so as to afford protection from exposure to sunlight and chemicals.

9.1.6.2.2             Chain stretchers should have end links of an appropriate size for the shackles being used.

9.1.6.3                WIRES

9.1.6.3.1             Chain chasers should be of one continuous length appropriate to the size and power of the anchor handling vessel as specified by the winch or ship builder.

9.1.6.3.2             Except in cases of emergency, tow-wires should have a properly constructed eye or socket terminal. Flemish eyes or bulldog grips are not recommended except where no alternative exists due to parted wires or other broken gear. Tow wire should be re-socketted on a regular basis and after every long tow in open water.


 

9.1.6.4                GOB FITTINGS

9.1.6.4.1             Where Gob fittings are bolted to the deck they should be securely fastened to ensure that they cannot work loose with vibration.

9.1.6.4.2             Personnel working on Gob wires should be made aware of the re-coiling hazard that is a feature of wires that have been used for this purpose over a period of time.

9.1.6.5                TRUNNIONS AND TOW RESTRAINTS

9.1.6.5.1             Many vessels have tow restraints of various types that are fitted close to the turning centre of the vessel or are arranged so that the vertical plane of the tow-wire passes approximately through the turning centre. These should be used according to the designer's instructions and drawings. They should be rigged so that load is applied in a straight line to the component parts. Shackles, links, swivels, lugs and blocks should not be subject to load at angles that may lead to distortion or bending stresses which may cause a reduction in strength or failure.

9.1.6.6                SHACKLES

9.1.6.6.1             Shackles must be appropriately matched to the bollard pull of the vessel and the task being undertaken and must be adequately secured to prevent the shackle from coming apart unexpectedly.

9.1.6.6.2             Securing should be by means of a correct size split pin, properly inserted, or other approved means appropriate to the shackle design that can not be inadvertently dislodged. Welding rods or other temporary securing devices should not be used on any shackle that is to go into the water.

9.1.6.6.3             Pin threads and nuts should be clean and free from burrs to enable efficient connection and disconnection.

9.1.6.6.4             Shackles must be inspected prior to use in a tow system and not used if damaged or distorted in any way.

9.1.6.7                CHAFING GEAR

9.1.6.7.1             Chafing gear appropriate to the vessel configuration should be used to reduce wire damage on long tows and thus reduce the hazards associated with changing tow-wires at sea.

9.1.6.7.2             Chafing gear should be inspected closely and often, while in use, to determine the extent of wear being suffered. It should be borne in mind that the wire may wear inside chafing gear and it is therefore advisable to move the gear along the wire at regular intervals to check the condition of the wire that has been enclosed by the chafing gear.

9.1.6.7.3             A safe means of restraining the tow-wire is essential to enable the vessel crew to perform maintenance on the chafing gear or the towing wire.

9.1.6.8                SPARE GEAR

Spare gear should be carried appropriate to the tow operation. A spare tow-wire is appropriate for a long tow, particularly for a single towing vessel. There should be enough spare gear at least to rig an emergency or secondary tow.


 

9.1.7              ANCHOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT

9.1.7.1                GENERAL

The proper maintenance of anchor handling equipment is of prime importance in the reduction and control of the hazards associated with this activity. Close inspection of the equipment is necessary and the speedy rectification of any faults will result in a safer and more efficient operation.

9.1.7.2                WIRES

9.1.7.2.1             Work wires must be of adequate size for the power of the vessel, the strength of the anchor handling winch, the size of anchors to be worked and the depth of water. They should be at least the same diameter as that specified for the tow wire of the vessel. They must be long enough to have at least one full wrap on the work drum when the wire is led out as far as it would normally be when working with anchors. If the work-wire needs to be fed over the stern then it must be long enough to have at least one full wrap on the drum at its greatest extension.

9.1.7.2.2             Due to the high incidence of wire damage, work wires must be inspected regularly to ensure that any damage is immediately noticed and rectified prior to working anchors.

9.1.7.23              The securing device for the 'bitter end' of the work wire must be the correct size for the wire in use to provide an adequate fixing to the winch drum.

9.1.7.2.4             Tugger wires should be of adequate size and strength with regard to the size and weight of the gear being handled, and the power of the tugger winches. The SWL must be at least equal to the maximum pulling power of the winch. They must be of sufficient length to always have at least one full wrap on the winch drum at the maximum extension. Tugger wires must also have an adequate means of securing the 'bitter end' to the winch drum.

9.1.7.2.5             Only 'Here-Alloy' type chain should be used in tugger wire chain tails. Chains must be of SWL at least that of the pulling power of the tugger winch.

9.1.7.2.6             'Latchlock' style hooks are preferred for use on tugger wires.

9.1.7.2.7             As these wires are also subject to heavy wear and consequent damage they should be inspected often and repaired/replaced immediately the condition renders them suspect.

9.1.7.3                SOCKETS AND EYES

9.1.7.3.1             Because the majority of breaks occur at or near the wire terminal, the condition of all sockets and eyes should be very closely monitored. The terminals of work wires, tuggers and pennants in particular are subject to damage (work hardening, kinking and overstress) due to being wound onto winch drums under load and compressed or distorted by other layers on top.

9.1.7.3.2             Similarly, the 'long stirrup' type of socket should not be used for anchor handling where it is to be wound around a winch drum. 'Short stirrup' type sockets should be used in this application.

9.1.7.3.3             Sockets should be inspected often with particular attention to the join between the lug and the body of the socket. Hard eyes should be closely monitored with particular attention to the wire at both ends of the swage and the condition of the thimble. Any apparent damage should be repaired immediately. Wires with badly crushed or


 

distorted thimbles should not be used. Care should be taken to ensure that the swage is large enough to have an effective grip in the stoppering device.

9.1.7.3.4             Sockets and eyes must be of an appropriate size to enable easy connection when used with the correct size shackle. The use of two shackles between pendants or work wires is discouraged due to the hazards created when winding excess gear onto work drums.

9.1.7.3.5             Current test certificates (preferably proof load or ultra sonic/magnetic particle test as a rninimum) must be available for sockets (with individual serial numbers rather than the previously used batch numbers) prior to use. Care must be taken that sockets are properly fixed to the wire by an experienced person using correct procedures and materials that are approved for the purpose.

9.1.7.4                SHACKLES

9.1.7.4.1             Only shackles of sufficient SWL must be used when handling anchors. Due regard should be had to the probability that the anchor may be deeply embedded in the seabed thus increasing the load to which the equipment is subjected.

9.1.7.4.2             Link type shackles ('Baldt' or 'Kenter' style) or hinge links are preferred for use between pennants or where multiple shackles must be wound onto the winch drum. The risk of fouling the pennant as it is unwound under load is much reduced when these links are used.

9.1.7.4.3             If 'Bow' type shackles are used for winding onto winch drums they should be placed such that the pin is toward the winch as this also reduces the incidence of fouling of the wire when it is unwound under load.

9.1.7.5                ROLLER FAIRLEADS

9.1.7.5.1             The use of roller fairleads mounted on the deck or crash barriers of vessels should be carefully monitored. Inspection and maintenance must be performed regularly as any uplift by external forces, such as a rugger wire, may dislodge roller fairleads from their seating. Careful reassembly of these leads after maintenance is important.

9.1.7.5.2             Personnel should never stand inside the bight of wire around a roller fairlead.

9.3.7.6                PELICAN HOOKS

9.1.7.6.1             So far as reasonably practicable, pelican hooks should not be used.

9.1.7.6.2             If it is necessary to use a pelican hook, the hazards associated with the use of this equipment should be fully explained to all involved crew members as it is probable that many will not have used this equipment before or at least for some years.

9.1.7.6.3             The SWL limitations of the 'Lightweight' variety of pelican hook should be taken into account when working with heavy anchors or in deep water.

9.1.7.6.4             Account should also be taken of the wire distortion and consequent possible weakening that occurs near the socket or hard eye when heavy loads are applied to a wire that is held in a pelican hook.

9.1.7.6.5             Due to the weight and size of the pelican hook, and its shackle and static wire, mechanical means should be used where possible to handle this equipment.

9.1.7.6.6             Pelican hooks under load must never be 'tripped' using a hammer. 'Tripping' using a tugger wire, with the deck clear of persons, is the preferred method.


 

9.1.7.7                HYDRAULIC OR MECHANICAL STOPPERS

9.1.7.7.I              These usually come in the form of 'Shark Jaws' (or Triplex gear), 'Ulstein Tong', and 'Karm Fork' designs or other similar proprietary mechanical/hydraulic securing devices. These devices should be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

9.1.7.7.2             'Ulstein Tongs', 'Karm Forks' and other types that utilise removable jaws for different applications are dangerous if the wrong jaws are used. For this reason it is important that the correct jaws be used for chain and wire applications.

9.1.7.7.3             Care must be taken to ensure that the device is 'Locked' either mechanically (by pins or bars) or hydraulically before crew members commence work on the connection. Visual inspection must be done on each occasion with the hydraulic locking type to ensure that the arms have reached the over-centre point where locking is effective as often the indicator light will show 'locked' when the device is still slightly apart and the arms are not quite over-centre.

9.1.7.8                BUOY CATCHERS

9.1.7.8.1             The vessel master should consider the following factors before deciding to use the 'Lightweight' type of buoy catchers:

Weather conditions

Depth of water

Weight of the buoy and pennant system

Size and movement of the vessel

Likelihood of the anchor being fouled

Current or other conditions that may lead to an excessive load being applied to the catcher.

9.1.7.8.2             If any of the above factors are unfavourable, an alternative should be used to reduce the potential hazard of failure of the buoy catcher. To this end. a heavier chain may be pulled around the pennant under the buoy or around the crucifix with a rugger wire or mooring line and shackled back to the work wire, thus providing a much more substantial buoy catcher which is less likely to fail under heavy load.

9.1.7.8.3             Care must be taken that the heavy chain buoy catcher is properly stoppered while connection is being made due to the likelihood of snatch loads being suddenly applied to the gear.

9.1.7.8.4             All anchor handling vessels must carry equipment that may be used as a heavy duty alternative to the 'Lightweight' buoy catchers.

9.1.7.8.5             Only 'Herc Alloy' type chain should be used in 'Lightweight' buoy catchers.

9.1.7.8.6             Regardless of the type of catcher used, it is essential for safety that all crew are 'Off the Deck' or behind the crash rail while heaving the buoy as excessive weight may suddenly come on the catcher, parting it. This may happen due to a fouled anchor making the pennant shorter than expected, the vessel drifting away from the line of the anchor in the swell or some other unforeseen circumstance.


 

9.1.7.9                CHASERS

9.1.7.9.1             It is preferable for chain chasing operations that the chaser wire be one continuous length. This reduces the hazards associated with numerous shackles and sockets on the winch drum while recovering anchors.

9.1.7.9.2             The chaser wire should be the same size as the work wire normally used on the vessel and long enough for there to be at least one full wrap on the drum when it is paid out to its full working length for the water depth.

9.1.7.10              CHAIN HOOKS, TUNING FORKS.

9.1.7.10.1           Care should be taken when using chain hooks that the SWL is not exceeded. As there is no means of locking in position, they may become distorted and fail if overloaded or twisted. Chain hooks should not be used to haul chain if there is any doubt as to the load that they may be required to bear.

9.1.7.10.2           'Tuning Forks' or other locking type chain handling devices are preferred over chain hooks as they present less hazards to crew working the deck or of damage to equipment.

9.1.7.11              CHAIN SLINGS OR ENDLESS CHAIN SLINGS

Only 'Herc Alloy' or similar should be used in endless chain slings.

9.2                 DRILLING RIG, PLATFORM OR INSTALLATION EQUIPMENT

9.2.1              GENERAL EQUIPMENT

9.2.1.1                CRANES

9.2.1.1.1             All cranes must be tested, maintained and certificated according to the relevant regulations. They must only be operated by a properly licensed crane operator who fulfils the requirements of Australian regulations and certification authorities.

9.2.1.1.2             Any limitation on crane performance or capability must be advised to the vessel Master prior to operations commencing.

9.2.1.1.3             Any limitation placed by an authority on crane operation (e.g. demobilisation of free-fall capability for personnel transfer) must be complied with.

9.2.1.2                CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND CONTAINERS

See lifting equipment and containers under "Shore Equipment".

9.2.1.3                STINGERS AND HOOKS

9.2.1.3.1             The main block on the crane or 'Headache Ball' should always have a 'Stinger' and hook hanging underneath when working support vessels either for cargo or anchor handling.

9.2.1.3.2             The 'Stinger' and hook must be painted a bright colour that is easily seen by deck crews at night.

9.2.1.3.3             The 'Stinger' and hook must be of an appropriate SWL for the lifts being worked. The installation should have a selection available for the type of cargo etc. that is normally handled so that they may be changed to suit the weight of the cargo being worked. The lighter the weight of the 'Stinger' and hook, the less hazardous it is for the deck crew on a moving ship to handle providing that it is of sufficient SWL.


 

9.2.1.3.4             Unless otherwise stipulated in the operator's Safety Management Plan, the hooks shall be of the 'Safety' type with a catch or other locking mechanism to ensure that they are not inadvertently dislodged.

9.2.1.4                LIGHTING

9.2.1.4.1             Lighting shall be such that the vessel Master and crew have a clear view of the installation legs and any gear that may be hanging over the side.

9.2.1.4.2             Lighting should be installed in such a way that it does not dazzle vessel Masters or crews.

9.2.1.5                PERSONNEL BASKETS

Personnel baskets must be of an approved type properly certified and maintained to a high standard. See 'Personnel Basket Transfers'.

9.2.1.6                MOORING LINES

9.2.1.6.1             Mooring lines should be long enough and of adequate size to effectively hold the support vessels alongside in varying weather conditions without being so large as to pose handling hazards for a small deck crew. Some very large ropes pose significant hazards due to the inability of the crew to effectively make them fast to the vessel's capstans and bollards. The size and weight of these lines also pose hazards for manual handling in confined areas by a small number of people.

9.2.1.6.2             Some installations have 'set length' mooring lines which usually have a wire strop on the vessel end that is placed over the bollards. These avoid many of the manual handling hazards associated with ordinary mooring lines but they are usually too heavy to be let go by the vessel crew unassisted and may thus present a potential hazard in an emergency. Installations using this system should incorporate a means of letting go these lines from the vessel that does not require crane assistance and can be done under load.

9.2.2              ANCHOR HANDLING EQUIPMENT

9.2.2.1                PENDANTS

9.2.2.1.1             Pendants must always be of adequate size and properly certified and marked. Certificates should be kept on the installation and records kept in a gear register.

9.2.2.1.2             Damaged pendants must be discarded or properly repaired and recertified. Damaged gear must never be sent back to the vessel for use until it has been retested and recertified.

9.2.2.1.3             The number of pendants in the string should be kept to a minimum as this reduces the number of joining shackles and eyes handled on the vessel winch drum and the hazards associated with excessive 'jewellery' on the drum. Damage and failure of pendant wires is much reduced with less joins in the string.

9.2.2.1.4             Hard eye pendants that must be stoppered in the support vessel's mechanical stopper should have 3 links of chain attached to the end to avoid the need to grip the ferrule in the stopper. (BMT Cortec Ltd. Report to the U.K. Dept of Transport March 1992)

9.2.2.1.5             As pendants are required to be wound onto winch drums under load the sockets used should not be of the 'long stirrup' variety. Sockets should be of the same type as that


 

specified for support vessel work wires (preferably 'Gold nose' type or similar or 'Crosby 417' pattern short stirrup as a minimum).

9.2.2.2                BUOYS

9.2.2.2.1             Buoys with flat sides are less likely to roll around the deck of an anchor handling vessel. They are preferred to cylindrical buoys. Should cylindrical buoys be in use, they must be adequately secured on the deck. Due to the difficulties and hazards associated with securing cylindrical buoys against movement on the deck of support vessels which are moving in the seaway, cylindrical buoys should be phased out as replacement of existing equipment becomes necessary.

9.2.2.2.2             All buoys must be fitted with points to enable the deck crew to effectively secure them against movement on deck.

9.2.2.2.3             All buoys should be filled with a foam substance that resists the ingress of water in case of damage with the consequent increase in weight. Steel foam-filled buoys must be marked 'Foam Filled' so that precautions against fire and gases may be taken in the event of welding repairs being required.

9.2.2.3                SHACKLES

9.2.2.3.1             Shackles must all have current certification and the certificates should be on board the installation. They must be properly marked according to the regulations and the details must be recorded in the gear register.

9.2.2.3.2             Regular maintenance and inspection should be carried out on shackles to ensure that they operate efficiently. Threads and joining surfaces should be clean and lubricated to enable efficient connection and disconnection.

9.2.2.3.3             There should be an ample supply of spare parts (split pins, spile pins, lead plugs etc.) carried on the installation.

9.2.2.3.4             Link type shackles are preferred in multiple pennant strings as these are less likely to cause damage to the pennant wires than 'Bow7 type anchor shackles.

9.2.2.4                GRAPPLES, CHASERS AND 'J' HOOKS

9.2.2.4.1             Grapples, chasers and 'J' hooks must all carry current certification and be properly marked.

9.2.2.4.2             Grapples and 'J' hooks should be closely inspected after each use for any apparent damage or distortion. Any damage must be repaired and the item recertified before being used again.

9.2.3              TOWING EQUIPMENT

9.2.3.1                MAIN TOWING EQUIPMENT

9.2.3.1.1             Main towing equipment must be of sufficient size and construction as recommended by the rig/barge builder. The power of the towing vessel should be taken into account with regard to size of the towed vessel gear. As a guide, the towed vessel bridle and forerunner should be larger and stronger than the towing vessel tow-wire. (See draft guidelines for safe international towing operation, in IMO document DE40/11).


 

9.2.3.1.2             The bridle and fore-runner should be long enough to allow the towing vessel room to manoeuvre while connecting and disconnecting and there should be an effective and safe means of passing/recovering the gear to/from the towing vessel.

9.2.3.1.3             The securing points on the installation should be of a type that allow slipping of the towing gear in an emergency. ('Smit' brackets or similar)

9.2.3.1.4             As the towing gear often lies idle in the weather for considerable periods of time between uses it should be closely inspected prior to use and any suspect pieces of equipment replaced.

9.2.3.1.5             All towing equipment should carry current certification.

9.2.3.2                EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR

9.2.3.2.1             There should always be a secondary set of towing gear rigged and ready for use during any towing operation.

9.2.3.2.2             The emergency towing gear should have similar specifications to the main towing gear.

9.2.3.2.3             As emergency towing equipment is often required to be deployed in very poor weather conditions, each installation should have a plan for connecting the emergency towing gear safely in heavy weather, and the equipment necessary to carry out the plan. Such equipment should be checked as to location and condition prior to a tow.


 

9.3                 SHORE EQUIPMENT

9.3.1              CONTAINERS AND LIFTING GEAR

9.3.1.1                GENERAL

9.3.1.1.1             Owners and operators of installations are responsible for ensuring that all containers and lifting gear are correctly chosen for the purpose, in terms of type, size and load carrying capacity. Operators should have in place a testing and inspection procedure which meets the relevant regulations. This should include a visual inspection before each usage.

9.3.1.1.2             Every lifting appliance or piece of lifting gear used in an offshore application must be plainly marked with its SWL as shown on the latest record of thorough examination. Lifting appliances or pieces of lifting gear must not be used by any person for any load exceeding the SWL marked thereon.

9.3.1.1.3             All certification must be fully in date at the time of use, with sufficient test period remaining, so as to prevent the container/lifting gear from being but of test offshore. See also 'Cargo Operations'.

9.3.1.1.4             In the case of goods within a container, the shipper is responsible for ensuring that the load is properly secured, and the operator should have a system whereby this can be verified.

9.3.1.2                CARGO HANDLING AND SHIPPING EQUIPMENT

9.3.1.2.1             As a minimum all containers and cargo handling equipment (slings, strops, shackles, hooks etc.) must be tested, marked and examined in accordance with the relevant regulations. Current certificates for all equipment must be available.

9.3.1.2.2             Bulldog grips must not be used in the manufacture or length adjustment of strops or slings, but they may be used for locking purposes on pipe slings.

9.3.1.2.3             All containers, baskets, etc. should be pre-slung with a four leg ring arrangement terminating in a single ring with pennant line.

9.3.1.2.4             All shackles used should have a means for preventing inadvertent unscrewing, for example, due to vibration.

9.3.1.2.5             Container doors must be adequately secured and a means to prevent dislodging of the door securing mechanism provided.

9.3.1.2.6             The use of boat shaped skips is strongly discouraged and should be phased out as soon as possible.

9.3.1.2.7             In the interim where boat shaped skips are used they should always be stowed with the sloping side forward. Where open boat shaped skips are used, they should not be used for the carriage of cargo.

9.3.1.2.8             All open skips must have large drain holes or gratings to prevent water collecting from rain or seas.

9.3.1.2.9             Open cargo baskets containing loose equipment or rubbish should be provided with safety nets or covers to retain the contents. Care should be taken to prevent them being overloaded, particularly when scrap metal or shot blasting materials are stowed within.


 

9.3.1.2.10           Palletized cargo must be strapped and/or wrapped securely so that bags cannot fall from the pallet.

9.3.1.2.11           The practice of multiple stacking as one unit is discouraged except where articles, such as folding open containers or intermediate bulk containers, are specifically designed for this purpose.

9.3.1.2.12           To avoid the need for ship's crew to climb into a skip/open basket or on top of containers, the lifting gear must be of sufficient length to enable easy connection/disconnection at deck level.

9.3.1.2.13           The vessel's owner must have in place a system for testing, inspection and recording of cargo lashing equipment. This should include frequent visual inspection and annual sample batch testing of the equipment by a competent person.

9.3.1.2.14           The Master has the authority to carry out random inspections and if such an inspection of any container reveals inadequate stowing, lashing or securing arrangements, inadequate marking/labelling of dangerous goods or marine pollutants, or the Master is in any doubt as to the safety status of the container, then the Master has a right to refuse it.

9.3.1.2.15           Operators should ensure that as much cargo as practicable is containerized to allow safer stowage and securing on deck.

9.3.1.2.16           Refrigerated containers should be inspected regularly to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly and that its condition does not present a hazard (electrical or otherwise) to ships' crews.

9.3.2              PORTABLE TANKS

9.3.2.1                Portable tanks must be properly tested and certified for the material that they are to carry and be provided with adequate securing points to enable the crew to properly lash the tanks.

9.3.2.2                Slings (with current certification) should be of the four leg type, shackled into the frame at the top and long enough to reach the deck of the vessel to avoid the crew climbing atop the tank to disconnect/connect from the crane.

9.3.3              CONTRACTORS' EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY

9.3.3.1                Contractors' equipment is often of an irregular size, shape and weight. It is important that this cargo is slung so that it is lifted horizontally and lands flat on the deck.

9.3.3.2                Current certification must be provided to the shipper by the contractor for slings and lifting gear that is permanently attached to the equipment or is otherwise provided by the contractor who owns the equipment.

9.3.3.3                Slings must also be long enough to easily reach the deck for connection/disconnection.

9.3.3.4                Machinery oil drip trays must be emptied and cleaned prior to loading on a vessel to prevent pollution and the hazards associated with slippery decks from overflowing drip trays.


 

10.            OPERATIONS

10.1               GENERAL

10.1.1            RESPONSIBILITIES

10.1.1                 The Master is responsible for the safety of the vessel, its equipment and crew. He is also responsible for the safe operation of the vessel and should question any instructions or directions that he feels may compromise safety.

10.1.1.2              The OIM is responsible for the installation and operations within the 500 metre zone.

10.1.2            MASTER/OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS–MANAGER INFORMATION EXCHANGE AND COMMUNICATIONS

10.1.2.1              Prior to commencing cargo operations offshore, the program should be discussed and agreed by radio between the OIM and Master, or their appointed deputies, to ensure that the installation and vessel are ready in all respects. The Master must be advised of any anticipated helicopter movements during the expected duration of the cargo operations.

10.1.2.2              Any factors limiting the vessel's expected performance before or during operations should be indicated to the installation, and the vessel's Master should, in turn, be given information on limitations of the installation which may affect the operation.

10.1.2.3              Installations and vessels should have in place operating procedures designed to assist operations. A suggested checklist for vessel/installation is contained in Appendix A.

10.1.2.4              Effective communications between the Master, the installation staff, particularly the crane operator, the deck officer in charge on the vessel and the deck crew are vital for safety. Communications should be conducted only in the English language and for this reason adequate numbers of key personnel should be proficient in English. An effective radio communication link on a dedicated channel must be maintained at all times whilst the vessel is engaged in cargo operations.

10.1.3            STABILITY

10.1.3.1              It is the responsibility of the Master to ensure that the vessel always has adequate stability and at least complies with the minimum requirements of the international conventions at all stages of operations.

10.1.3.2              Regard shall be taken of the possible reduction of stability due to the retention of water in pipe cargoes, heeling effects of a tow-wire under load, discharge of bottom weight at sea or any other factor that may impinge on the stability of the vessel.

10.1.3.3              The Master has the authority to cease or modify an operation if he is of the opinion that it may compromise the stability of the vessel to the extent that the minimum requirements cannot be met at all times.

10.1.4            DECK LIGHTING

Deck lighting should always be adequate to conduct operations in a safe and efficient manner.


 

10.2               CARGO OPERATIONS

10.2.1            ORDER OF STOWAGE

10.2.1.1              Where practicable the order of loading, discharging and stowage arrangements should be pre-planned in order to avoid the "slotting in of containers" and the necessity for any person to climb on top of cargo.

10.2.1.2              The Master should be provided with details of any unusual items of cargo, cargoes requiring special securing arrangements, or heavy lifts, before loading.

10.2.1.3              During backloading at an installation, the deck crew should stand well clear and allow the crane driver to place the cargo on deck before approaching the lift to disconnect the crane. In special circumstances, and with special items of cargo, the deck crew may assist with the placing of lifts, after all relevant factors have been taken into account and safe procedures established and with the agreement of the Master and crew members concerned.

10.2.2            DOCUMENTATION AND MARKING

10.2.2.1              All cargo should be accompanied by a cargo manifest clearly identifying the goods and giving details regarding the contents,- destination, general dimensions and weight. If the Master of the vessel is unable to obtain full details of cargo on the ship prior to loading at any port or backloading at an installation, an outline list giving brief details must be drawn up to the Master's satisfaction, before loading is permitted to commence.

10.2.2.2              All dangerous cargoes must be declared to the Master and AMSA in accordance with Marine Orders Part 41, whether bound from shore to installation or vice versa.

10.2.2.3              Where shipment of dangerous cargoes are routine, special arrangements may be agreed with AMSA, but Masters must be fully informed of the cargoes to be carried.

10.2.2.4              All cargo must be marked so as to be readily identifiable from the manifest or outline list.

10 2.2.5              Containers should have their identification numbers clearly marked on the top so that the crane driver and bridge officer can easily identify each container.

10.2.2.6              The Master has the authority to refuse cargo if insufficient information is given, the cargo is incorrectly manifested, or if he has reason to believe that dangerous goods are contained in unmarked cargo.

10.2.2.7              The description and mass of loaded containers must be individually declared on the manifest. Operators should provide facilities at the shore base to verify masses during loading operations. Where weighing facilities are not available, offshore installation personnel should be careful not to underestimate the mass of individual lifts.

10.2.3            LASHING AND SECURING/RESTRAINING OF CARGO

10.2.3.1              Cargo must always be secured.            Restraints should be in position before the vessel sails, and should remain in position until immediately before each item is offloaded.

10.2.3.2              Restraining bonds/lashings should be rigged so as to prevent initial movement.


 

10.2.3.3              When determining the type and extent of restraining arrangements required, the Master should take into account the following:

the motion characteristics of the ship

the anticipated weather

the freeboard

the nature of cargo

the number of installations to be worked

10.2.4            DECK CARGO

10.2.4.1              All deck cargo must be stowed to the satisfaction of the Master. The Master is responsible for ensuring it is correctly stowed and adequately secured for the intended voyage.

10.2.4.2              Areas on the deck which are not to be used for cargo stowage must be clearly marked or otherwise indicated. An adequate area for handling mooring lines must be left clear of cargo at the stern of the vessel if the vessel is securing to the installation.

10.2.4.3              Where fitted, pipe posts to restrain the movement of tubulars should be used. A supply of large soft wood wedges is also useful for temporarily restraining tubulars between lifts or while installing lashings.

10.2.4.4              All cargo operations, on and off shore, must be supervised at all times by the deck officer in charge on the vessel.

10.2.4.5              The Master has the authority to decide the sequence of cargo discharge to, and backloading from, the installation.

10.2.4.6              In bad weather and under certain conditions of trim, considerable amounts of water may be shipped over the after deck when a vessel is approaching a rig stern-on under power. Crew members should be aware of, and alert to. this possibility and seek positions of shelter and safety.

10.2.5            PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

10.2.5.1              The appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn during cargo handling operations by the crew of a support vessel and by the quayside and installation personnel. This should include but need not be limited to:

Coveralls

Safety boots

Gloves

Safety helmets complete with chinstraps

High visibility work vest

Safety glasses (including sun glasses for high glare conditions)

Sun cream (high UV protection)

10.2.5.2              In addition, approved buoyancy aids along with suitable wet and cold weather clothing must be available.


 

10.2.6            PRE-PLANNING

10.2.6.1              Cargo pre-planning should be conducted both at the shore terminals and offshore. Pre-planning aids effective cargo securing practices. The objective of pre-planning is the safe and practical restraint of cargo carried on the deck of offshore support vessels whereby personnel, ship and cargo may be reasonably protected at all stages of carriage, and during cargo operations offshore.

10.2.6.2              It is essential therefore that liaison is established between the installation and the Master prior to unloading or backloading of cargo.

10.2.6.3              The Master of the vessel must be advised of expected delays to operations so that the vessel's work programme may be synchronized with that of the installation.

10.2.6.4              Excessive close standby/waiting time alongside the installation should be avoided.

10.2.7            DANGEROUS GOODS AND MARINE POLLUTANTS

10.2.7.1              The carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants is governed by Marine Orders (Parts 41, 91, 92, 93, 94), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) and the provisions of various other State and Commonwealth Acts concerning pollution and the protection of the environment as well as health and safety.

10.2.7.2              Masters of vessels, and operators and owners of offshore installations must have available appropriate extracts of IMDG volumes for reference. All requirements laid down in the IMDG Code must be followed, where applicable.

10.2.7.3              Operators and owners of offshore installations, in their capacity as shippers, must ensure that all dangerous goods and marine pollutants are properly declared, packaged and marked in accordance with the IMDG Code. Masters of vessels must ensure that all such goods and pollutants are properly stowed, secured and segregated in accordance with the IMDG Code.

10.2.7.4              Masters must be given advance notification prior to the loading or backloading of dangerous goods. A written declaration in the form of a Dangerous Goods Note must be delivered to the Master before the goods are taken on board.

10.2.7.5              A dangerous goods packing certificate is required for all dangerous cargo or marine pollutants packed into containers, and cargo of this nature must be stowed and segregated in accordance with the IMDG Code. This is equally applicable to offshore backloading.

10.2.7.6              All portable tanks used to carry dangerous and polluting substances must be approved for use by a competent authority, and tested and marked in accordance with the IMDG Code. Prior to being placed on board a vessel, all tanks must be carefully checked for damage and leakage.

10.2.7.7              The Master should consult with the shipper/operator when in any doubt regarding shipping of dangerous goods and marine pollutants, and he has the authority to refuse to load these cargoes if the regulations are not being correctly observed.

10.2.8            INSTALLATION OVERBOARD DISCHARGES

All non-essential overboard discharges that could hamper safe vessel operations alongside should be shut down prior to commencing cargo operations. Should the


 

Master consider that an overboard discharge may cause distress or danger to personnel or to the vessel, he has the authority to cease operations and stand off, until the discharge has ceased or prevailing conditions keep the discharge clear of the vessel.

10.2.9            INSTALLATION AND COLUMN LIGHTING

In some cases, lighting below platforms and around columns is of a low standard. Where the Master of the vessel does not have a clear view of the overall operation or the installation structure, operations should be restricted to daylight hours or until full visibility has been restored. In certain circumstances, the vessel's own searchlight may be utilised.

10.3               PROCEDURES AT THE INSTALLATION

10.3.1            CARGO OPERATIONS

10.3.1.1              Cargo operations while discharging all liquids, cargo and bulk to offshore installations, must be undertaken in a safe and efficient manner. In recognising this fact, the following points must be considered:

10.3.1.2              Pre-arrival considerations;

that the ship can approach the installation safely;

that there are no divers, ROVs etc in the water;

that the weather/tide/current/sea and swell conditions are suitable;

the type, weight and number of units to load or discharge;

the existing cargo on deck;

if there is sufficient space on deck to allow safe access to and from the area of work;

that all engine/steering/thrusters/joystick controls have been checked and are fully operational and the main engine pitch control is fully operational;

redundancy of essential machinery;

vessel's electrical load must be carried by auxiliary alternators and is not totally reliant on shaft alternators; and

hose connection points on the vessel are in good order.

10.3.1.3              Before proceeding with the cargo operation the Master must satisfy himself that:

all emergency pump stops are operational;

the vessel is able to remain on location in the prevailing weather and sea conditions;

consideration has been given to the trim of the vessel during progressive loading/discharging.

the hoses and cargo lifting arrangements are in good order; and

constant communication is maintained with the person on the platform responsible for supervising the transfer of hoses and receiving of bulk/liquids or cargo.

10.3.1.4              The vessel must advise the offshore installation of the following:


 

maximum pumping rate;

emergency stop procedure;

notice required to stop bulk transfer under normal conditions; and

draining back procedure.

10.3.1.5              The platform must advise the vessel of the following:

size of hose connection;

length of hose available;

maximum rate at which bulk/liquids can be received;

order of receiving bulk/liquids; and

maximum back pressure that the platform pipe system can withstand.

10.3.1.6              The platform should ensure that a crane driver is available at all times to lift disconnected hoses at short notice.

10.3.1.7              LIVE BOATING

While live boating at the offshore installation:

an engineer is to be available at all times;

two seafarers are to be available on deck at all times while pumping bulk/liquids, so that disconnection of hoses can take place at short notice.

10.3.1.8              SECURING TO THE INSTALLATION

10.3.1.8.1           Crews should be made aware of the hazards involved with handling large mooring lines in the confined spaces normally available at the stem of a support vessel.

10.3.1.8.2           Cargo should not encroach on the area that is needed for the crew to operate the mooring capstans and to make the vessel fast safely. If it is necessary for a particular reason to carry deck cargo in the area that the crew require for mooring activities, such cargo should be discharged to the installation before the vessel is moored.

10.3.2            BACKLOADING OF CARGO OFFSHORE

10.3.2.1              All backloading operations should be pre-planned to assist safe operations. Offloading from, and backloading into, slots should be strongly discouraged unless the Master deems it to be safe.

10.3.2.2              All tubular backloads should be indicated to the vessel in good time to allow for planning of stowage. Tubular cargoes should be pre-slung in bundles or singly and secured by bulldog grips or other equivalent methods to prevent slippage. All pipe lifts should be slung so as to be level. Varying lengths of sling in one lift should not be used. Taglines should be provided as required to increase overall safety when landing cargo on the vessel's deck.

10.3.2.3              All cargo to be backloaded should be inspected by a responsible person on the installation to ensure that it is in a safe and secure condition and will not create a hazard to the crew or vessel, i.e:

that there are no loose items on top of or inside the cargo

that the cargo is properly slung

that all doors, lids etc. are properly secured


 

that open skips or cargo baskets are fitted with nets or covers.

10.3.2.4              Open skips/baskets should be drained of loose water prior to offloading from or backloading to the vessel.

10.3.2.5              Machinery oil drip trays shall be emptied and cleaned prior to backloading onto a vessel.

10.3.2.6              Installation personnel must remove dangerous cargo labels on empty cleaned containers prior to backloading to the vessel. Dangerous cargo labels must not be removed from empty uncleaned containers.

10.3.3            HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

The Master must be notified well in advance of all expected helicopter operations on the installation, so that cargo work may be safely suspended.

10.3.4            CRANE OPERATIONS

10.3.4.1              In all cargo work involving crane operations, whether in port or offshore, the crane driver should have a clear view of the vessel's deck, and should be stationed in a safe place. In exceptional situations, where the crane driver cannot see the vessel's deck, then a 'dogman' who does have a clear view of the deck should be appointed.

10.3.4.2              For offshore crane operations a safety pendant ('Stinger') of sufficient length should be provided between either the headache ball or floating block and the hook, all of which should be of high visibility colour.

10.3.4.3              For routine cargo operations offshore, only swivel self-locking safety hooks should be used. For non-routine cargo, alternative hooks or lifting gear as agreed between the Master and OIM may be used, providing that such equipment is fit for the purpose.

10.3.4.4              The crane driver offshore should have direct radio communication to the bridge of the vessel.

10.3.4.5              Directions given to the crane driver by the deck crew on the vessel must only be given by one person who has been designated to perform that function.

10.3.4.6              The working limitations of the crane should be formally passed to the Master of the vessel prior to operations commencing, using a check list system as outlined in Appendix A.

10.3.4.7              All heavy lift cargo should be indicated to the installation/vessel, using a checklist system as outlined in Appendix A.

10.3.4.8              All operations involving heavy lifts require suitable weather criteria which should be discussed and agreed prior to commencement. Other operations, bulk handling etc., may have to be suspended whilst heavy lifts are handled. Subject to agreement with the Master, taglines should be attached to heavy or large lifts, when considered necessary to aid handling.

10.3.4.9              Due account must be taken of impact loadings caused by the vertical movement of the craft in the swell when the weight of the cargo is taken by the crane.

10.3.4.10            When planning the loading ashore, containers and pre-slinging arrangements should be suitably de-rated to take account of the expected sea conditions during discharge at the offshore terminal.


 

10.3.4.11            As far as is practicable, all crane lifts made from or onto a supply vessel should not be lifted directly over the vessel if the height of the lift above the vessel exceeds 3 metres inclusive of any swell which may be in existence. Once the height of the lift exceeds 3 metres, the remainder of the lift should be made over water.

10.3.5            BULK TRANSFER PROCEDURES

10.3.5.1              Agreed procedures covering the transfer of all bulk products should be followed. See Appendix B for guidelines and sample procedures.

10.3.5.2              It is recommended that a checklist procedure be adopted for transfer of fuel or oil products to or from the vessel that is consistent with the provisions of MARPOL and the legislation covering prevention of pollution. See Appendix B for a sample checklist format.

10.4               ANCHOR HANDLING AND RIG SHIFTS

10.4.1            GENERAL

10.4.1.1              Handling rig anchors at sea can be a particularly hazardous and arduous task. No formal hard and fast rules can be laid down for anchor handling/towing operations, as so many variable factors apply. Offshore personnel should be aware of the operational limitations of the various vessels utilised, including their power and freeboard, with the safety of crews being of paramount importance. Detailed procedures for each operation are to be found in the ship's Operations Manual.

10.4.1.2              Vessel owners have the responsibility for ensuring that vessels involved in anchor handling operations, together with their equipment, are fit for the purpose and adequately manned.

10.4.1.3              Offshore installation personnel should ensure that, whenever pendants are passed to vessels close alongside, crane drivers are competent to undertake this operation. The operation should be adequately supervised.

10.4.1.4              Any equipment returned to the installation as suspect or unserviceable must not be used or sent back to a vessel for use until it has been repaired, retested and recertified by a proper authority.

10.4.3.5              As anchor handling is almost invariably performed over the stem, crew members must be made aware of the hazards associated with seas corning aboard during operations. All precautions possible should be taken to avoid injury from crew members being washed across the deck by seas coming aboard. The Master has the authority to cease operations if the weather is such that there is a significant risk of injury due to boarding seas.

10.4.1.6              If in attendance, the standby vessel should be informed of all operations in progress.

10.4.2            AGREED PROCEDURES, WRITTEN PROGRAM, BRIEFING OF MASTERS, RESPONSIBILITIES

10.4.2.1              Full procedures for rig move operations must be agreed by operators and their Mobile Installation Contractors and clear instructions laid down in writing. Where particular installations have detailed procedures for anchor-handling and towing, these must be


 

passed to the relevant vessels via the operator as required, so that Masters are fully briefed on the operation to be conducted. If possible, Masters should be briefed prior to leaving port or, failing that, on location prior to rig move operations.

10.4.2.2              The procedures must identify the responsibilities of key personnel and identify who is the person in charge of the move.

10.4.2.3              The Master of each vessel is responsible for the maintenance and use of the ship's own equipment.

10.4.2.4              The owner and operator of the installation is responsible for all installation equipment, including equipment hired specifically for the move.

10.4.2.5              There should be agreement as to responsibility for providing mooring equipment for the move and as to the amount and specification of such equipment, taking account of the anticipated holding ground on location.

10.4.2.6              Sufficient piggy back anchors, buoys, associated pendant systems, shackles and other spare gear should be available in the field as required.

10.4.3            COMMUNICATIONS

10.4.3.1              Effective communications between the Master, the installation staff and the deck crew are vital for safety. For this reason adequate numbers of key personnel should be proficient in the English language. Only the English language should be used on the radio during operations to avoid hazardous confusion.

10.4.3.2              An effective radio communication link between the vessel and the installation on a nominated channel should be maintained at all times whilst the vessel is engaged in anchor handling and/or towing operations. The channel chosen should be clear of other operations to avoid congestion and delay in issuing instructions.

10.4.3.3              The Master of a vessel engaged in anchor handling operations must be notified of any expected helicopter movements to or from the installation during such operations.

10.4.3.4              The Master should question any instructions or procedures that he feels are not consistent with the capabilities of the vessel, good practice or that may compromise the safety of the vessel, installation or crew.

10.4.4            PIPELINES, SUB-SEA OBSTRUCTIONS/STRUCTURES

10.4.4.1              All personnel involved must have full details regarding the location of pipelines and sub-sea obstructions/structures relating to the whole operation.

10.4.4.2              Where it is known that anchor handling and/or towing operations will be conducted near to pipelines or sub-sea obstructions/structures, then full written procedures should be agreed by all parties.

10.4.5            CLEAR DECKS

10.4.5.1              Anchor handling vessels should have clear decks prior to commencing anchor handling operations. All cargo and equipment not needed for use during the move should be discharged back to the rig prior to commencing operations.


 

10.4.5.2              Installation deck loads should be pre-planned to ensure that it is not necessary for support vessels to carry cargo or equipment that is not needed for the anchor handling operation.

10.4.6            REMOVAL OF CLUTTER

10.4.6.1              Equipment, such as buoys, anchors, pennants etc. accumulated on the deck during operations should be discharged back to the installation at regular intervals to avoid the hazards associated with an accumulation of clutter on the working deck of the vessel.

10.4.6.2              Installation deck loads should be pre-planned to ensure that there is sufficient space and capacity to allow this excess gear to be returned to the rig.

10.4.7            CARRIAGE OF SPARE ANCHOR BUOY

Each vessel engaged in anchor handling operations should carry a spare anchor buoy on deck throughout the work in order that the vessel's work wire can be buoyed off should the need arise, e.g. if the weather deteriorates during anchor running operations and it is not considered prudent to bring the vessel back alongside to recover the chasing pendant, or if the vessel suffers a mechanical breakdown which restricts its ability to manoeuvre safely alongside the rig/installation.

10.4.8            WINCH DRUM VISIBILITY

10.4.8.1              On all anchor handling vessels it is imperative for safety that the winch driver have a clear view of the winch drum that is being operated. It is preferable that the Master also has a clear view of the drum. Both the Master and winch driver should have a clear view of the working deck.

10.4.8.2              On vessels where there are video cameras installed to provide a view of the winch drum, these and the associated lighting must be so positioned so as to give the best view possible. The video system should be maintained so that the winch driver always has a clear view of the drum.

10.4.8.3              In an emergency or due to system breakdown it may be necessary to operate the winches using a crew member as an observer at the drum using a radio or hand signals to communicate direct to the winch driver. If this is necessary the observer should be so placed that he is not in any danger from the winch or the equipment being wound on/off. Hand signals should be agreed prior to the operation and all personnel fully briefed as to requirements.

10.4.9            PERSONNEL CLEAR OF DECK IN PROTECTED AREA

10.4.9.1              All personnel should be clear of the deck, and in a protected place at all times, except when they are actually working on the anchor handling equipment.

10.4.9.2              The anchor-handling winch should not normally be operated until all personnel are clear of the deck.


 

10.4.10          DEVIATION PROCEDURE

Written procedures must be established detailing responsibilities and authorities if it becomes necessary to deviate from the planning during the operation. Any deviation from the plan must be agreed by all parties.

10.4.11          CREW BRIEFING

The Master must brief the crew on the planned operation prior to work commencing. The briefing must be as detailed as necessary to fully inform crew members of the proposed work program together with any unusual aspects of the job and hazards that may be encountered. Particular attention should be paid to briefing new or inexperienced crew members as to the hazards associated with anchor handling work. A Job Safety Analysis covering the proposed work program during this 'Toolbox Meeting' must be reviewed and any necessary procedural changes made.

10.4.12          EQUIPMENT

10.4.12.1            In order to maintain a safe working environment for all personnel on board the following points should be addressed:

10.4.12.2            There should be in place a safe and effective method of stoppering wire pendants.

10.4.12.3            The operation and maintenance of all equipment should be in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and good practice.

10.4.12.4            A suitable system should be in place for the testing, inspection, maintenance and recording of anchor handling equipment retained onboard vessels and installations. A means for recording the results and frequency of such work should be used.

10.4.12.5            Particular attention should be paid when using soft eye pendants as they wear more quickly than hard eye pendants and require frequent inspection. Hard eye pendants are also subject to distortion in the thimbles which may render them unusable or unsafe. If doubts exists as to the suitability of the pendant it should be returned to the rig and replaced.

10.4.12.6            Hard eye or soft eye wires with a 'Tellurit' or sleeve (ferrule) type termination should not be used in a mechanical stopper where the sleeve bears the weight against the stopper jaws or inserts. Wire pendants may be supported in mechanical stoppers by attaching five links of anchor chain to the pendant or forming three links of anchor chain with the thimble and using a chain link in the mechanical stopper (BMT Cortec Ltd. report to the U.K. Dept. of Transport March 1992).

10.4.12.7            All equipment used in anchor handling operations should be secured until required.

10.4.12.8            Care should be taken when opening up wire coils, in particular pendant wires, as injuries have occurred by the springing open of the coils following release of the securing bands.

10.4.12.9 When running anchors, the anchor-handling vessel Master should be advised where the installation winches have payout limitations so that speed can be controlled. Effective communication should be established between the Master and the winch driver.


 

10.4.12.10         It is preferable to have a length of chain installed between the crown of the anchor and the pendant and this chain should be long enough to reach the vessel securing device and thus allow crews to change pendants without the necessity to deck the anchor.

10.4.13          WEATHER LIMITATIONS - RESPONSIBILITIES

Weather forecasts are to be available during all rigmove operations, and operations planned accordingly. In marginal weather conditions the Master of each vessel and the person in charge of the move should agree to terminate/commence operations. Ultimately, the Master of each vessel has the responsibility to decide whether or not conditions allow his vessel to operate safely.

10.4.14          LOADING/UNLOADING RIGS WHILST UNDER WAY

Due to the effects of interaction between two moving vessels, all forms of cargo work/transferring of equipment between mobile offshore units/vessels when both are under way should be avoided.

10.4.15          PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING, SAFETY EQUIPMENT

10.4.15.1            Full safety equipment should be readily available on deck during all anchor handling operations.

10.4.15.2            Protective clothing worn during anchor handling operations should include, but need not be limited to:

Coveralls

Safety boots

Gloves

Safety helmets complete with chinstrap

High visibility workvests

Approved buoyancy aids

Safety glasses (including sun glasses for high glare conditions)

Sun cream

10.4.15.3            In addition, suitable wet and cold weather clothing must be available.

10.4.15.4            Lifebuoys with lines should be readily available.

10.4.16          CHAIN CHASING

10.4.16.1            This operation should be performed using the recommended amount of wire for the depth of water and using the methods recommended by the manufacturer.

10.4.16.2            To avoid picking up bights of chain/wire with consequent overloading of the gear, tension should be maintained by the installation on the anchor chain/wire until the vessel has run the full distance and is ready to commence heaving.

10.4.16.3            The vessel should be kept directly over the line of the anchor cable while chasing to avoid overloading of the equipment.


 

10.4.16.4            Care should be taken not to use excessive amounts of power on the vessel's propulsion as this may also overload the equipment.

10.4.16.5            In all cases the crew should be off the deck and in a protected location during chasing operations.

10.4.17          GRAPPLING

10.4.17.1            Care should be taken deploying grapples and 'J' hooks over the stern as if the weight suddenly comes on the pendant wire it may whip across the deck.

10.4.17.2            Excessive power or speed may cause sudden overloading on equipment when the grapple or 'J' hook encounters the cable.

10.4.18          RECOVERING ANCHORS

10.4.18.1            Care should be taken when lifting anchors, especially those that are deeply embedded in the seabed, to avoid as much as possible sudden heavy loads on the pendant string from the rise and fall of the vessel in the seaway.

10.4.18.2            If it is necessary to deck an anchor, it should be secured on deck such that it cannot move due to the movement of the vessel.

10.4.19          MULTIPLE PENDANTS

Care should be taken when stowing multiple pendants on the winch drum to avoid fouled pendants when the wire is unwound. If 'bow' type shackles are used they should be placed so that the pin is toward the winch as this reduces the possibility of fouling behind the pin when the wire is unwound under load.

10.4.20          LENGTH OF PENDANT FROM RIG

The length of pendant that is passed to the vessel from the installation should be sufficient to allow the vessel Master room to manoeuvre to keep the pendant slack while it is being connected to the work-wire/pendant by the deck crew.

10.4.21          ANCHOR DEPLOYMENT

10.4.21.1            The anchor handling vessel should be held in line with the anchor cable while the anchor is deployed and until the buoy is in the water so that the pendant is laid out in a straight line away from the anchor, reducing as much as possible the hazards associated with fouled anchors.

10.4.21.2            The installation should tension the cable as soon as possible after the anchor is on the bottom to 'set' the anchor below the seabed and thus avoid fouled anchors.

10.4.22          BUOY DEPLOYMENT

Buoys should be deployed from as close to the stern of the vessel as possible to avoid an uncontrolled and damaging progression along the length of the deck.


 

10.4.23          PASSING PENDANT TO RIG

Care should be taken that the pendant is not released from the securing device on deck until the crane has taken the weight as this can lead to unacceptable shock loads on the crane.

10.4.24          CLEARING FOULED ANCHORS

10.4.24.1            Crew members should be aware that coils of pendant wire fouling an anchor may move sharply as they are cleared. Clearing should be accomplished as much as possible using tuggers and other mechanical means.

10.4.24.2            Pendant wires that have been cleared from a fouled anchor should be closely inspected by an officer of the vessel for damage before a decision is made as to whether they are suitable for use. If there is damage to the wire sufficient to render it suspect, the wire should be marked 'unserviceable' and returned to the installation where it should be quarantined and marked 'Out of Service'.

10.5               TOWING OPERATIONS

10.5.1            GENERAL

10.5.1.1              Towing has the potential to be a hazardous operation. Offshore personnel should be aware of the operational limitations of the various vessels utilized, including their power and freeboard, with the safety of crews being of paramount importance.

10.5.1.2              Offshore installation personnel should ensure that, whenever tow-wires are passed to vessels by crane, crane drivers are competent to undertake this operation. The operation should be adequately supervised.

10.5.2            A GREED PROCEDURES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

10.5.2.1              Full procedures for towing operations must be agreed by operators and their Mobile Installation Contractors and clear instructions laid down in writing. Where particular installations have detailed procedures for towing, these must be passed to the relevant vessels via the operator as required, so that Masters are fully briefed on the operation to be conducted. If possible, Masters should be briefed prior to leaving port but most certainly on location prior to rig move operations.

10.5.2.2              The procedures must identify the responsibilities of key personnel.

10.5.2.3              It must be clearly established in writing who is in charge of the tow. Normally the person in charge will be one of the tug masters who should be appointed as tow-master by the operator in writing. If the operator requires the tow-master to be a person on the towed vessel or appoints a tow-master to sail on one of the tugs, that person should be stipulated in writing and his responsibilities clearly laid down. Any person designated as tow-master or person in charge should be a qualified Master Mariner with experience in the offshore towage industry relevant to the operation at hand.

10.5.2.4              The Master of each vessel is responsible for the maintenance and use of the ship's own equipment.


 

10.5.2.5              The owner and operator of the installation is responsible for all installation equipment, including equipment hired specifically for the move, and all towing gear on the installation.

10.5.2.6              Where vessels are engaged in towing operations, a system to prevent tow-line chafing should be adopted.

10.5.3            EQUIPMENT

10.5.3.1              Vessel owners are responsible for ensuring that vessels involved in towing operations, together with their equipment, are fit for the purpose and adequately manned by competent personnel with the relevant experience.

10.5.3.2              A safe method of passing the main towing pendant from the installation to the towing vessel should be established, with a clear understanding of the procedures to be used by all parties.

10.5.3.3              If a messenger is used to pass the tow-wire to the towing vessel, it should be of adequate strength to support the entire weight of the towing bridle and fore-runner or at least long enough to allow an adequate strength messenger to be on the winch of the towing vessel before the weight of the gear is taken. Recovery wires led to appropriate winches on board the installation may be used to relieve weight on the towing vessel's equipment during connection/disconnection but these should not be so taut as to hold the weight of the gear above the water level or in any other way pose a danger to the towing vessel crew. The installation crew must take instruction from the towing vessel master as to the use of these winches.

10.5.3.4              As soon as the towing vessel is connected and commences towing operations, winches on the vessel being towed (if used in the towing gear) must be continuously manned during the initial stages of the tow, and be under control of the towing vessel's Master.

10.5.3.5              Once the tow is safely connected, the crew should 'clear the deck' and stay clear until the tow is streamed to towing length and the Master authorizes fitting of chafing gear or other necessary maintenance.

10.5.4            INSPECTION

The towing equipment should be inspected by a competent officer of the vessel before connection to ensure that there are no apparent defects that may affect the safety of the tow.

10.5.5            CLEAR DECKS

10.5.5.1              Vessels involved in towing should have decks as clear as possible with no cargo or other equipment encroaching on the area of the deck covered by the tow wire between its extremes of possible movement.

10.5.5.2              Any equipment that is not necessary for the tow should be discharged back to the installation and anything carried on deck during the tow is to be only carried at the discretion of the towing vessel master. Such discretion should only be exercised when material that is proposed to be carried cannot impede the free movement of the tow-wire or the crew during work necessary for the conduct of the tow.


 

10.5.6            RESERVE TOW EQUIPMENT

10.5.6.1              The secondary towing system on an installation should be identified, a readily available method of retrieval of the main towing gear established, and a safe method of passing the secondary towing system agreed.

10.5.6.2              Towing vessels engaged in long tows or where there is only a single towing vessel should carry a complete set of spare gear to enable reconnection in the event of failure. This will normally be a requirement of the underwriters in any case.

10.5.6.3              Where possible, spare tow-wires should be stored permanently on powered drums as this greatly assists the crew should the spare tow-wire be required to be installed. Spare tow-wires should be stowed on the drums with the bitter end outward.

10.5.6.4              Towing vessels should ensure that the installation personnel are aware of the time that may be required to rig their spare towing wire. When an additional vessel is available as reserve tug whilst on passage, it should be rigged for towing.

10.5.6.5              All crew must be fully briefed on the procedure for installing the spare tow gear and reconnecting as this is normally required to be done in adverse conditions when hazards are greater than normal and mistakes can be made due to undue haste.

10.5.7            MANNED TOW

10.5.7.1              It is the responsibility of the personnel on board the towed vessel to maintain the proper navigation signals on a manned tow and to follow the instructions issued by the tow master.

10.5.7.2              It is the responsibility of the personnel on board the towed vessel to maintain the vessel properly ballasted and trimmed and not to make changes without the prior knowledge and agreement of the Master of the tug.

10.5.7.3              There should be a continuous communications link on a dedicated channel established and maintained between the tug and tow for the duration of the tow.

10.5.8            UNMANNED TOW

10.5.8.1              The Master or officer of the towing vessel must inspect the towing arrangements of unmanned tows to familiarise himself with the layout of both main and reserve towing gear on the vessel to be towed and to have any apparent defects corrected before connection.

10.5.8.2              The Master or officer of the towing vessel must also check that the navigation lights of the vessel to be towed are working and have sufficient capacity to last the entire length of the proposed tow.

10.5.8.3              A competent officer of the towing vessel should inspect any machinery that may be fitted to the vessel to be towed to ensure that side valves, watertight doors and any other hull openings are closed and that the towed vessel is in all respects ready for the proposed tow, properly ballasted and trimmed.

10.5.8.4              The reserve towing gear must be rigged so that it can be recovered by the tug crew without having to board the tow. This normally means a floating line streamed astern of the tow connected to the reserve towing gear.


 

10.5.8.5              The Master of the towing vessel should also satisfy himself that sea fastenings on any cargo that the towed vessel is carrying are adequate for the intended tow.

10.5.8.6              The operator, owner or charterer of the towed vessel or installation must make good any deficiencies noted by the Master prior to commencing the tow.

10.6               BARGE WORK

10.6.1            TOWING IN NARROW/SHALLOW CHANNELS

As this is done using a very short tow-wire and normally necessitates large alterations of course and variations in power applied, it is important that all crew remain off the work deck in an area clear of any possible hazard once the tow is connected.

10.6.2            HIPPING UP

10.6.2.1              Hipping up to the barge for close handling work requires considerable tension to be applied to the tug mooring lines if it is to be done effectively. The crew must be properly briefed prior to hipping up so that they are aware of the particular hazards associated with this operation.

10.6.2.2              Hipping up at sea presents additional hazards due to movement caused by sea and swell and deck crew should exercise great care when handling mooring lines to avoid injuries.

10.6.2.3              Consideration must be given to the limitations imposed by the shape of the vessel and the effect that any movement in the seaway will have on the safety of the operation. In most circumstances, support vessels are not designed with sufficiently straight sides and bow or with sufficient structural strength in this area to allow hipping up vessels in a situation where movement in the seaway between the vessels may occur.

10.6.3            HIGH WIRE HAZARD

Crews must be made aware of the hazard presented by a high wire when working close to a barge with a high bow and short bridle and fore-runner. This may cause the towing gear to rise and fall from the work deck if weight unexpectedly comes on the wire during connection/disconnection. No attempt should be made to work on the wire while it is off the deck or when there is any weight on the gear.


 

10.7               WORK OVERSIDE OR ON BUOYS

10.7.1            WORK OVERSIDE

10.7.1.1              Work to be carried out over the side of the vessel, or from an area where there are no handrails and there is a risk of crew falling into the water, should be the subject of a work permit.

10.7.1.2              Appropriate safety equipment such as lifelines, buoyancy vests or life jackets, safety helmets etc. must always be worn by crew members working over the side, whether at sea or in port.

10.7.1.3              Equipment used in this work must be in good condition and the rigging supervised by a competent person.

10.7.1.4              A means of escape, such as a ladder properly secured must be left rigged and accessible to those working over the side for the duration of the work.

10.7.2            WORK ON BUOYS

10.7.2.1              Weather conditions as well as other factors will dictate if it is safely possible to perform work on buoys in the water. The Master is responsible for the decision to proceed having taken due regard of the particular circumstances.

10.7.2.2              As with work over the side, buoyancy vests or lifejackets and lifelines as well as other standard safety clothing should be worn should it be necessary for crew members to work on buoys in the water.

10.7.2.3              The particular hazards associated with this work must be fully explained to crew members prior to operations, and the objectives and means to achieve them fully discussed and understood.

10.7.2.4              The means of access for the crew to the buoy must be carefully considered prior to the operation taking place. In most cases a rescue boat or small boat transfer is considered to be the safest. Jumping in any form is to be avoided unless absolutely necessary.

10.7.2.5              Each crew member on the buoy must have a short length of rope that can be secured to the buoy and used as a holding point to steady against the movement of the buoy in the water or jolts from contact with the vessel or transfer boat.

10.7.2.6              Care must be taken to avoid violent contact between the vessel or its propeller wash and the buoy if it is necessary for operations to be conducted at close quarters while the buoy is manned.


 

11.            STAND-BY VESSELS

11.1               GENERAL

11.1.1                 The duties of stand-by vessels must be laid down in the operator's Safety Management Plan so as to avoid confusion as to what is expected of the stand-by vessel. Copies of the Safety Management Plan should be available on dedicated stand-by vessels as well as on any other support vessel that may be required to take over the duties of the stand-by vessel at particular times.

11.1.2                 The time of taking over and being relieved of stand-by duty should be noted in the log and the vessel last appointed as stand-by should remain in that capacity until officially relieved of the duty.

11.1.3                 Stand-by vessels on duty must have adequate clear deck space for any foreseeable emergency and to cope with the duties as laid down. Adequate clear deck space would normally mean that not more than one third of the deck space is taken up with cargo or material and that there is access for the full length of the deck. Both port and starboard rescue zones must be kept clear.

11.1.4                 Vessels required to perform other duties should be officially relieved of the stand-by duty by another vessel before conducting other operations. A vessel performing cargo operations, surveys, anchor handling or towing should not also be expected to be the stand-by vessel.

11.1.5                 The operator's Safety Management Plan should detail particular operations that require a vessel on close stand-by and all such operations should be suspended if a vessel is not available to perform the function.

11.2               SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

11.2.1                 The operator's Safety Management Plan should set out in detail any special equipment that is required to be carried by the stand-by vessel. Such equipment should also be available on board any other support vessel before it is engaged as the stand-by vessel.

11.2.2                 Any special equipment supplied to vessels for the stand-by role should have attached full operating instructions to enable vessel crews to operate the equipment safely and efficiently for its intended purpose.

11.2.3                 Training should be conducted on board or ashore with the crews to ensure that they are familiar with any special equipment that is supplied for use in the stand-by mode.

11.3               FAST RESCUE CRAFT

11.3.1                 Stand-by vessels should have a rescue craft and trained crew ready for immediate use at all times while the vessel is the designated stand-by vessel.

11.3.2                 The rescue craft must be of a type approved for the purpose and maintained in a fit condition for use.

11.3.3                 Crews assigned to rescue craft should be regularly exercised in a variety of conditions to ensure that the response time and efficiency is as good as possible. Records of various training and drills should be maintained on board.


 

11.4               RESCUE NETS

11.4.1                 Where carried, these should be ready for immediate use and the crew trained in their most effective deployment.

11.4.2                 Care should be taken with stowage to eliminate degradation of the nets due to exposure to sunlight or other harmful effects.

11.5               RESCUE BASKETS

11.5.1                 These must be of an appropriate type, carry current certification and be properly marked as to the SWL for the particular unit.

11.5.2                 The crane used for lifting the rescue basket shall be approved for the purpose.

11.5.3                 Synthetic webbing slings and a 'shock cord' style lifting arrangement are preferred over wire slings where these can be incorporated into the system.

11.5.4                 The crew should be trained in the use of the equipment.

11.6               BLANKETS AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

11.6.1                 Blankets and equipment should be stowed in an accessible place where they are protected from deterioration.

11.6.2                 The numbers required should be laid down in the operator's Safety Management Plan with regard to the numbers of potential rescued personnel, the climate where the installation is operating and the number of vessels operating in the field.

11.7               MEDICAL EQUIPMENT

11.7.1                 Additional medical equipment required above the medical scales for the vessel should be set out in the operator's Safety Management Plan.

11.7.2                 Any additional medical equipment stipulated should also be available on a vessel that may be required to relieve the designated stand-by vessel in the stand-by role.

11.8               ACCOMMODATION

Requirements for accommodation/safe refuge for rescued personnel should be stipulated in the operator's Safety Management Plan and be available on any vessel performing stand-by duty.

11.9               TRAINING

11.9.1                 Training requirements should be set out in the Safety Management Plan and Operations Manual.

11.9.2                 Training should be conducted with the crew in regard to the special requirements of the stand-by vessel. Areas where more than the normal amount of training would be considered good practice include:

Rescue boat operations.

Helicopters in the water

Recovering people from the water


 

First aid

Man overboard

Fire fighting on an installation if the vessel has the appropriate equipment.

11.10             COMMUNICATIONS

11.10.1               There should be a continuous communications link on a dedicated channel between the stand-by vessel and the control/operations room on the installation. There should be a person in attendance at all times both on board and on the installation.

11.10.2               Where the stand-by vessel is positioned for the protection of people undertaking a specific job (for instance, close stand-by for people working in the 'moonpool' of a drilling rig) there should be a continuous communications link with the person supervising the job on the installation in addition to the normal communications as above.

11.10.3               The stand-by vessel should also be informed of operations that will require specific attention well in advance to enable necessary preparations to be made. Helicopter schedules should be advised to the stand-by vessel in advance or as soon as they are known.


 

12.            ASBESTOS

Crew members must be instructed to comply with the vessel's Asbestos Management Plan and not disturb encapsulated asbestos.


 

13.            DANGEROUS MACHINERY AND APPARATUS

13.1                     Every dangerous part of any machinery or apparatus must, so far as is practicable, be effectively guarded.

13.1.1                 For the purpose of this Code "effectively guarded" means provided with:

(a)           in the case of any moving dangerous part:

(i)            an enclosure with movable parts which incorporate such safety devices as will prevent the dangerous part from moving until the movable part is in the 'safe' position and prevent any movable part of the enclosure from moving unless, by cutting off the power or otherwise, risk of injury from the dangerous part is prevented (a system of interlocks); or

(ii)           a fixed enclosure adequately secured in such a position as to prevent any person or his clothing from coming into contact with the moving dangerous part.

(b)           in the case of any other dangerous part, a fixed enclosure:

13.2                     All guards and safety devices provided for moving dangerous parts of machinery or apparatus must be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts for which they are provided are moving except when such parts require maintenance to be carried out while they are moving and all practicable arrangements are made to minimize the risk of injury to all persons.

13.3                     Where it is necessary, in accordance with the above, to remove or render inoperative safety guards or devices in order to perform an examination, adjustment or lubrication that operation must only be performed by a responsible person. Another person instructed in the steps to be taken in case of emergency must be immediately available within sight or hearing of the responsible person performing the operation.

13.4                     The removal or rendering inoperative of safety guards should normally come under the requirements of the work permit system.


 

14.            NOISE

14.1                     The problem of noise on vessels has gained recognition as a hazard as great as other hazards associated with offshore work. Owners should have in place, as part of the safety management system, procedures to reduce or eliminate the effect of noise on the health of crew members.

14.2                     Where possible, the hazard of noise must be addressed at source by reducing the emitted noise. Where this is not possible, other action must be taken to minimize the hazard.

14.3                     Personnel required to work in areas where the noise levels are high, as a matter of general policy must be required to use hearing protection in the form of ear-muffs or ear-plugs that meet the required standards for noise reduction.

14.4                     For areas where noise levels are high, suitable warning signs must be displayed at the accesses, with the requirement that anyone entering the space must only do so while wearing the approved hearing protection.

14.5                     The noise hazard should be regularly addressed at safety meetings and at inductions to ensure that awareness of the problem is maintained.


 

15.            HAZARDOUS AND RESTRICTED AREAS

15.1               HAZARDOUS AREAS

15.1.1                 Any areas on a vessel that may present particular hazards should be adequately signposted as a Hazardous Area and have appropriate signage detailing any safety precautions or clothing that must be worn for entry to the area.

15.1.2                 Some examples of areas that may be Hazardous Areas:

High noise areas

Machinery and electrical spaces

Cranes

Refrigeration spaces

Work deck areas on some vessels performing specific functions such as construction, pipe-laying, diving support, underwater operations or other work of a specialized nature.

15.2               RESTRICTED AREAS

15.2.1                 Certain hazardous areas should also have restrictions placed on them as to who may enter. These shall be declared Restricted Areas and have signs on the entrances warning people that the area is a Restricted Area. The signs should also detail who is permitted to enter the Restricted Area.

15.2.2                 The delineation of Hazardous Areas and Restricted Areas may need to be more comprehensive on specialized vessels, particularly those with a large and diverse crew. In these circumstances, hazardous areas need to be restricted to crew members who are familiar with the hazards by virtue of their training or position.

15.2.3                 Some examples of areas that may need to be Restricted:

High voltage electricity areas

High noise areas

Sensitive control rooms on specialized vessels

Hazardous material storage areas

Machinery spaces

Wheelhouse and control rooms


 

16.            TRAINING

16.1                     Vessel owners/managers and operators of installations have the responsibility to ensure that their employees are adequately trained. It is strongly recommended that vessel owners/Masters provide the necessary induction training with respect to cargo handling, anchor handling/towing operations and vessel/installation emergency response.

16-2                    Deck officers should be provided with 'in house' training at sea in relevant ship handling operations whenever circumstances permit.

16.3                     All new crew must receive on board induction training according to the company operations manual and safety management plan.

16.4                     On ships, full records of training given/received should be kept on board. The Master may issue appropriate documents recording such training where appropriate.

16.5                     The training procedures and policies must be spelt out fully in the Safety Management Plan or the 'Operations Manual'.


 

17.            PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEM

17.1               GENERAL

The owner's Safety Management System should incorporate a "Permit to Work" procedure that covers any non-routine potentially hazardous work to be performed. Examples of work that may be covered by a "Permit to Work" system are:

hot work

entry into confined spaces

electrical work

work over water

hazardous substances

working at height

work that compromises critical safety systems

17.2               HOT WORK

This encompasses any type of work which involves actual or potential sources of ignition and which is done in an area where there may be risks of explosion or fire, or which may involve the emission of toxic fumes from the application of heat. Welding, flame-cutting and grinding where a flammable atmosphere may exist, or the use of non-intrinsically safe electrical equipment in hazardous areas, should require a permit.

17.3               ENTRY INTO CONFINED SPACES

The permit shall comply with AS 2865.

17.4               ELECTRICAL WORK

A permit would normally be used to minimize the risk of electric shock to people carrying out any work on electrical equipment. Electrical work applies to work on low and high voltage systems.

17.5               WORK OVER WATER

This is work undertaken in a location where a person is liable to fall into the sea.

17.6               HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

This should cover all work involving hazardous substances which could be a danger to the vessel or personnel. These substances may be flammable, radioactive, toxic or corrosive.

17.7               WORKING AT HEIGHT

17.7.1                 Special consideration shall be given to the problems of working aloft in areas near the ship's whistle, funnel, radio aerials and radar scanners. Particular attention should be paid to the sea state and weather conditions prior to the commencement of this type of work.


 

17.7.2                 Personal protective equipment worn or used when working at height includes, but is not limited to:

Safety harness

Inertia reels

Safety footwear

Hard hat

Gloves

Overalls

Eye protection

17.7.3                 Safety lines or nets should be used or rigged as appropriate.

17.7.4                 Notices warning that men are working aloft should be displayed as appropriate on all controls or equipment whose operation could affect men working aloft.

17.7.5                 All equipment such as lizards, blocks and gantlines should be checked prior to use.

17.8               WORK THAT COMPROMISES CRITICAL SAFETY SYSTEMS

17.8.1                 A permit must be used for work that compromises Critical Safety Systems. These systems may require isolation, inhibition or taking out of service for maintenance. Potentially critical safety systems are fire and gas detection systems, alarms, public address systems, lifesaving equipment and fire-fighting equipment.

17.8.2                 See Appendix C for guidelines for an appropriate work permit system.

17.8.3                 A Critical Safety System (CSS) must not be taken out of service before the potential hazards that the system is intended to address have been examined, and appropriate precautions to reduce the risk that the CSS is intended to address have been put into operation. Consideration must be given to the redundancy of the system, the effectiveness of parallel safety systems, and the effect on the vessel of not carrying out the work on the Critical Safety System.


 

18.            TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL

18.1               TRANSFER BY PERSONNEL BASKET

18.1.1                 When using a 'personnel basket' to transfer personnel between installation and vessel, regard should be given to the experience of the personnel with the use of this device. All personnel should be briefed on the correct means of boarding, riding and disembarking the basket with particular attention being paid to those who may not have used it previously. An experienced person should accompany novices.

18.1.2                 Personnel baskets should not be used for cargo except for small items of luggage that are being carried by the passengers.

18.1.3                 The maximum number of four passengers should never be exceeded.

18.1.4                 See Appendix D for guidelines on procedures for transfer by basket that are used in the North Sea.

18.2               TRANSFER BY BOAT

18.2.1                 When transferring personnel by boat the principles set out in Chapter 24.9 of the ILO Code of Practice on Accident Prevention on Board Ship at Sea and in Port should always be applied.

18.2.2                 On all occasions lifejackets and any other necessary safety equipment shall be worn by all persons in the boat.

18.2.3                 It is the responsibility of the vessel master to decide whether such transfer is safe in the prevailing conditions. In making that decision he should take into account the following considerations:-

Wind and sea state

Movement of the vessel from which the boat is to be launched

Movement at the access point on the installation

Performance characteristics of the boat and launching/recovery equipment

Boat crew and transferee training and experience

Any other prevailing circumstance that may affect the safety of the transfer.

18.3               TRANSFER BY HELICOPTER

Transfers by helicopter should conform to the Australian Code of Safe Practice for Ship - Helicopter Transfers.


 

19.            SAFETY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

19.1               INTRODUCTION

19.1.1                 Any discussion regarding safety must include safety of the environment. Included here are excerpts from the Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association's Code of Environmental Practice that directly affect the operation of support vessels.

19.1.2                 As compliance with the above is becoming a frequent requirement of the contract or charter party that the support vessels work, under it is reasonable that this Code should reflect similar requirements.

19.2               MARINE SUPPORT

19.2.1                 Supply ships and other vessels supporting the offshore installation have the potential to cause significant environmental effects over a larger area than does the installation itself. Vessels plying between the installation and the shore may inadvertently transport adverse impacts into shallower coastal waters inherently more sensitive and subject to a wider range of uses. To avoid such impacts member companies should ensure that:

(a)           support vessels comply with all State and Commonwealth legislation for the control of pollution of the sea;

(b)           pumping of bilges, or discarding of spillage or other oil wastes does not occur unless the oil concentration of these wastes is within the statutory limit for direct discharge of such wastes;

(c)           particular care is taken to ensure goods and materials or refuse and other wastes are properly packaged for transportation and transfer;

(d)           blowing of dry waste from bulk tanks (e.g. residual drilling muds, cement etc.) whilst en route from offshore facilities to shore base is not done as it is in breach of sea dumping legislation;

(e)           refuelling and similar operations are conducted in accordance with port authority requirements and all hoses, fittings and fail safe devices are fully operational; and

(f)            provision is made for sewage treatment or retention on board for onshore disposal according to statutory requirements.

19.2.2                 Where supply vessels and associated equipment form part of the inventory of equipment for the company's oil spill contingency plan, the vessels and equipment must be maintained in good order and at the appropriate levels of availability. Where changes are made to the configuration of a vessel to carry special cargoes etc, and these changes materially affect its role in an oil spill situation, the relevant co-ordinating authorities must be advised;


 

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A: CHECKLIST FOR SUPPORT VESSEL/INSTALLATION OPERATIONS

A1                 SHIP

Weather conditions are suitable

Installation stopped in water or installation manager's agreement for operations under way obtained

All required propulsion, control, and back-up systems operational

Master and crew are sufficiently rested

Deck crew are briefed and correctly dressed

Vessel's program has been advised/agreed

Communications with the installation are working

Internal communications on vessel are working

Bulk transfer procedures have been agreed

Full details of cargo discussed/agreed

Notification has been given and received of any expected helicopter movements

Required equipment ready for use

A2                 INSTALLATION

The required working zone alongside is clear of other vessels

Way taken off vessel for cargo operations or master's agreement for operations underway received.

Non critical overside discharges in the working zone have been stopped

Standby vessel has been briefed on the operation

Installation personnel are sufficiently rested

Deck crew and crane driver are briefed

Weather limitations have been considered

Vessel's programme has been advised/agreed

Crane limitations have been advised to Master

Permission given to offload or load during diving operations

Bulk transfer procedures have been agreed

Details of any expected delays/interruptions advised to the Master

Full details of cargo discussed/agreed

Underwater/waterline obstructions which could cause a hazard to the vessel notified

Installation ready to commence operations

OIS/OIM/PIC (person in charge) identified by name to vessel master


 

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX B: BULK TRANSFER PROCEDURES

B1                       These procedures should be used prior to, during and after, any transfer offshore of bulk cargo to or from the vessel.

B2                       Prior to the start of operations, hoses should be visually inspected and doubtful lengths replaced. Slings and lifting points should also be visually checked and replaced if required. Hoses should only be lifted by a certified wire strop on a certified hook eye fitting. Hoses should be secured to the vessel by a rope lashing before disconnection from the crane. Further rope lashings at appropriate places will minimize 'kicking' of dry bulk hoses in particular.

B3                       The following information should be requested by the Installation (or by the Master if bulk is to be transferred from the Installation to the vessel).

(a)           Estimated pumping rate for each product.

(b)           Length of warning/estimate of time required to stop.

(c)           Emergency stop procedure.

(d)           Confirmation that the lines can be drained back to the vessel's tanks where necessary.

B4                       The Master should be provided with the following information:

(a)           size of hose

(b)           type of connection

(c)           length of hose available.

(d)           colour scheme in operation (hose and/or product).

(e)           maximum loading rate/pressure permitted.

(f)            quantities of each product required, the order in which they are required, and an estimate of the time at which they will be required.

B5                       When the hose is connected and installation lines are set, the support vessel should be directed to start pumping at a slow rate. For dry bulk transfers, purge air should be utilized prior to bulk transfer to clear lines and prove connections.

B6                       If all is well and no leaks are observed, the support vessel should be advised to increase pumping, up to the full delivery rate.

B7                       When pumping has finished, both the installation and the support vessel should set their lines to allow the hose to be drained back to the vessel's tank. If the installation has a vacuum breaker fitted to the line, this should be used to aid draining. Lines may also be blown through with air, if available, to ensure that they are properly cleared. In suitable conditions the crane should also be used to lift the hose to aid draining.

B8                       When the hose is disconnected, the end should be fitted with a suitable cap or blank.

B9                       Every bulk liquid hose should, as far as practicable, be drained back to the vessel's tank(s).


 

B10                     Hoses used for potable water should not be used for transferring other bulk liquids, including ordinary fresh water.

B11                     During periods of darkness, adequate illumination should be available over the hose and support vessel throughout the operation. To facilitate identification, hoses should be fitted with high visibility bands or high visibility tape.

B12                     Hoses are normally colour coded for manufacturer's identification and approval, frequently by use of spiral coloured bands within the hose structure. This colour scheme is optional. The hose terminations should be colour-coded by use of a coloured band to mark the product, and all support vessels and installations should adopt a universal colour and connection scheme as follows:

PRODUCT

COLOURED BAND

CONNECTION

Potable Water

Blue

4" Kamlock/Weeko or quick release self-sealing coupling

Drill Water

Green

4" Kamlock/Weeko or quick release self-sealing coupling

Fuel

Brown

3" or 4" Kamlock with shut-off valve or quick release self-sealing coupling

Dry Bulk

Cement:—Yellow

Baryte/Bentonite:—Orange

4" or 5" Kamlock or Weeko fitting

Brine

Optional

4" Kamlock with ball valve or air blow-down facility

Dedicated base oil/Oil based mud

Black

4" quick release self-sealing coupling

B13                     All bulk hoses used offshore must be type approved by the appropriate certifying authority.

B14                     All bulk hoses used offshore are to be of sufficient length for safe operation, and have internally swaged or other approved clamp fittings. Unapproved repairs should not be made.

B15                     Passing hoses to vessels is a hazardous operation and it should be supervised by a competent person on the installation with direct communication to the bridge officer of the watch of the vessel.

B16                     During the period a vessel is connected to bulk hoses, continuous radio communication should be maintained, and the crane driver should remain in his cab until agreed otherwise. In addition, relevant installation personnel should stand by appropriate valves so as to act quickly in event of an emergency.


 

B37                     A work permit system should be used if it becomes necessary for ship's crew or any other personnel to enter a bulk tank, and the relevant regulations must be complied with.


 

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX C: WORK PERMIT GUIDELINES

WORK PERMIT PROCEDURES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS/SUPPORT VESSELS

C1                       The intention of this Appendix is to identify those areas of work on an offshore support vessel which should be covered by a work permit system and the clarification of administrative procedures which should apply.

C2                       Regulations in force under the new 'Safety Case' legislation require that all work activities which may present a particular hazard be controlled by a work permit system. The aim of the system is to ensure the personal safety of those doing the work, to ensure that the safety of other persons is not endangered by the work being done and to ensure the overall safety and integrity of the installation or vessel.

C3                       The types of work activity which may require a work permit include, but are not necessarily limited to:

(a)           hot work of any type (where heat is used or generated, for example by welding, flame cutting, grinding, etc.);

(b)           work which may generate incendive sparks or other sources of ignition;

(c)           work which may cause an unintended or uncontrolled hydrocarbon release, including any disconnection or opening of any closed pipeline, vessel or equipment containing, or which has contained, flammable or toxic materials;

(d)           electrical work which may cause danger;

(e)           entry into confined spaces;

(f)            work at any place on the vessel from which any person will be liable to fall into the sea or a distance of more than two metres;

(g)           work involving the use of dangerous substances;

(h)           work, the safe performance of which requires the isolation of water, oil, steam, compressed air or other piping, or which requires the isolation of electrical circuits.

C4                       It should be noted that:

(i)            not all work of the above types necessarily requires a work permit; whether it does or not is a matter for the Master using the particular company Work Permit structure.

(ii)           conversely, the circumstances of some work of a different type might call for the issue of a work permit.

C5                       It is an essential element of any work permit system that an appropriate person should co-ordinate and control the issuing, return and close out of work permits. That person, on a support vessel, would normally be the Master as he is in a position to take an overview of all operations underway and planned for the vessel in order that potential hazards are not compounded by each other. It is the responsibility of the Master to ensure this co-ordination and control either by undertaking this function himself or by appointing an appropriate person to carry it out on his behalf.


 

C6                       Administrative responsibilities for operating the work permit system should be:

(a)           The owner of the vessel must provide written guidance specifying work permit procedures and must ensure that:

(i)            work permit procedures are established and maintained;

(ii)           work permit procedures are explained to all personnel involved in their operation;

(iii)          appropriate training in work permit procedures is given to all personnel with responsibilities for operating the procedures;

(iv)          day to day operation of the work permit procedures on the vessel is monitored regularly to ensure that the procedures are being correctly carried out;

(v)           work permit procedures are reviewed regularly to assess their effectiveness, and amended and updated as necessary;

(vi)          records of all work permits issued, suspended and executed are retained in a safe place on board for a period of at least twelve months from the date of issue;

(b)           The Master must ensure that:

(i)            all work requiring work permits is identified;

(ii)           work permits for work activities that may interact are cross-referenced effectively

(iii)          all other work, which if undertaken concurrently would adversely affect safety, is suspended;

(iv)          limitations on the timing and scope of the work are defined;

(v)           all personnel engaged in the preparation of work permits, supervision of, and performance of the work are identified;

(vi)          effectiveness of the operation of work permit procedures is not impaired by shift/watch handovers and information is communicated to the incoming shifts in a timely manner about work for which there is a work permit and which has not been completed before the shift ends.

(c)                        The responsible person must ensure that:

(i)            the work site has been examined, and all precautions, including isolation, which should be taken before the work can commence, have been actioned and will remain effective during the period that the work permit remains in force;

(ii)           the work permit specifies if necessary how the work should be suspended and resumed;

(iii)          the work site, including any isolations specified in the permit, is examined at the time of suspension of the work and prior to its resumption and finally when the work is completed to ascertain that the work site is in a safe condition; and


 

(iv)          the Master or his named representative is notified of the suspension or completion of the work and any other fact relevant to safety.

(d)           The supervisor and those performing the work must:

(i)            start or recommence work only when given a work permit to do so;

(ii)           satisfy themselves that they fully understand the instructions they have been given and that all equipment necessary to carry out the work safely and in accordance with the work permit is available;

(iii)          comply with the instructions given;

(iv)          notify the responsible person immediately on suspension or completion of the work and of any fact relevant to safety.

C7                       There should be a requirement that work permit procedures should be used whenever the methods by which particular jobs are done are, or may be, critical to the safety of those directly involved, other personnel nearby, or the vessel itself.


 

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX D: TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL BY BASKET

GUIDANCE ON PROCEDURES FOR THE TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL BY BASKET

The following Guidance Note is based on Safety Letter No. 10/80, published by the Department of Energy, United Kingdom.

TRANSFER OF PERSONNEL BY BASKET: GUIDANCE ON PROCEDURES

D.1                      Personnel baskets should only be used in emergency, exceptional or other circumstances where the use of alternative means of transferring personnel is either impractical or unsafe.

D.2                      Although some companies make only infrequent use of personnel baskets, it is important for policy on their use to have been formulated before such situations arise. Persons on offshore installations and pipelaying vessels with responsibility for either sanctioning or supervising the use of personnel baskets require guidelines indicating the extent and circumstances in which their company considers such use desirable or necessary.

D.3                      To assist users of personnel baskets or carriers in formulating comprehensive procedures these guidelines are suggested on subject matter to be included and as a basis for further development.

D.4                      Consideration should be given to the subjects included in the following topics:

Purpose

Communications

Policy

Safety Equipment/Rescue Procedures

Authority

Instructions

Duties

Training

Suitability of Vessels

Cranes and Personnel Baskets

Weather Conditions

 

xxxxx

 


 

D5.1                    Purpose

To establish a uniform standard of safety governing the transfer of personnel by personnel basket between installations and vessels.

D5.2                    Policy

The transfer of personnel by personnel basket should only be authorized where no alternative means are available. Such transfers should only be made with the agreement of those persons transferring.

D5.3                    Authority

Persons who are permitted by the company to authorize the use of personnel baskets should be clearly identified. Who such persons are will largely depend on the individual organizational arrangements of each company.

For registered offshore installations it is recommended that the Offshore Installation Manager (OIM) is the Authority. For support vessels, the Master is the Authority.

D5.4                    Duties

The duties of persons in supervising or actually carrying out the personnel basket transfer should be clearly defined. Persons usually covered are the Offshore Installation Manager, the Crane Operator, the Master of the vessel and such other persons as are nominated by the OIM and the ship's Master to undertake specific responsibilities or tasks. Also, the duties of the individuals who are to be transferred by personnel basket should be indicated.

The procedure setting out the duties of those involved in the transfer operation should at least cover the following matters:

(a)           Offshore Installation Manager

the necessity for the transfer

the fitness and training of the persons to be transferred

the suitability of the vessel

the limitations as to visibility and sea state

the limitations on transfer by night

the suitability of the crane for personnel transfer

the windspeed limitations on crane operations

the briefing of participants to ensure that procedures are understood

the briefing of the Master of the vessel

the adequacy of the crane driver's experience

the notification of the stand-by vessel before commencement

the inspection and testing of the personnel basket

the establishing of satisfactory communication between the installation, the crane, the vessel and the stand-by vessel

(b)           Master of the vessel

Confirmation to the OIM that he accepts the transfer and understands the procedure

the vessel has a satisfactory station keeping capability


 

the deck crew is fully briefed

the persons to be transferred are adequately briefed and fit to be transferred

(c)           Crane Driver

To ensure that:

the crane is fully operational

the windspeed is satisfactory for safe operation

he has full understanding of requirements and procedures

he has full view of the 'Dogman' and the transfer areas

adequate communications are established.

(d)           Dogman and Deck Supervisor

To ensure that the transfer procedure is understood

they are clearly identifiable as 'Dogman' and 'Deck Supervisor'

the personnel basket is correctly used

the transferees are fit for transfer and understand procedures

proper communications have been established

respectively they have a full view of the transfer areas.

(e)           Individuals who are to be transferred

to ensure that the transfer procedure is understood

to confirm that they are agreeable to the transfer

to use correctly the safety equipment provided

to observe all instructions from those in charge of the operation.

D5.5                    Suitability of the vessel

A statement on the type of vessel which is considered suitable for personnel basket transfers is a useful guideline to those who may have to sanction such an operation. The suitability of the vessel to carry out a transfer should be determined by its ability to maintain station alongside the installation and have sufficient clear deck space to safely receive the basket.

D5.6                    Weather Conditions

Perhaps the most important factor influencing the safety of personnel basket transfers is the weather. Persons who may have to sanction the use of personnel basket transfer need a general indication from their company as to the general conditions in which personnel basket transfer is considered to be safe. Factors which should be taken into account include visibility, wind and sea state. Companies should specify guidelines in terms of wind and sea state beyond which basket transfer is not permissible. However, such guidelines should also be governed by the windspeed limitations on the crane operations and the stability and size of the vessel involved in the transfer.


 

D5.7                    Communications

Provision should be made to determine that both radio and visual communication is established and maintained between the principals concerned and by those persons actually conducting the operation.

D5.8                    Safety Equipment/Rescue Procedures

Procedures for personnel basket transfer should specify the type of equipment to be worn by persons, being transferred and also the rescue arrangements that are to be made. Individuals are required to wear lifejackets, suitable clothing and other specified safety equipment. All lifejackets should be equipped with a suitable means of illumination during night transfers. The stand-by vessel should be in close attendance during transfer with its rescue boat ready for immediate launching.

D5.9                    Instructions

All instructions given to persons involved in transfers e.g. OIM, Master of the vessel, Crane Operator, Dogman, Deck Supervisor and transferees should be included in the written procedures governing the operation.

In general, transfer operations should be conducted during daylight hours. However, the OIM may be permitted some discretion in this respect. Providing night transfer by basket is unavoidable, the transfer areas should be adequately illuminated and the operation should be conducted under the personal direction of the OIM.

D5.10                  Training

Personnel will be transferred by basket in greater safety and with less apprehension if they have had some training in the techniques involved; Company procedures should indicate the type of training required by all persons involved in personnel transfer. Such training should be included in installation and vessel drills.

It is recommended that if a person to be transferred is not sufficiently experienced or trained in the use of a personnel basket he should not be permitted to transfer unaccompanied.

D5.11                  Cranes and Personnel Baskets

All personnel baskets must possess a current certificate of test and examination issued by an independent inspection authority in accordance with current regulations regarding lifting gear.

Procedures should include the method of maintenance and storage together with instructions related to inspection before use.

The SWL should be clearly marked on all baskets, together with instructions for their use.

'Freefall' or non-powered lowering should not be adopted when personnel are carried in baskets.


 

APPENDIX E

APPENDIX E: APPLICABLE REGULATIONS/ INSTRUMENTS/CODES

Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981

ILO Code of Practice for Accident Prevention Onboard Ship at Sea and in Port, 2nd edition 1996

IMO Conventions ratified by the Australian Government including:

Prevention of Pollution of the Sea Convention

SOLAS Convention

STCW Convention

Marine Orders

Navigation Act 1912

Occupational Health & Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993

Occupational Safety and Health Act (W.A.) 1984

Occupational Safety and Health Regulations (W.A.) 1988

Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967

Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Act 1983

Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Act 1983

Seafarers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act.

The Schedule of General Requirements for Occupational Health and Safety 1993


 

APPENDIX F

APPENDIX F: GLOSSARY

Bulk Cargo

Cargo carried in a vessel without an intermediate form of containment between cargo and vessel e.g. fuel, water, mud, cement, barytes.

Chafing Gear

The protective sleeve or of the wire arrangement on the towing wire to stop undue wear from contact with the ship's structure.

Dogman

The person who directs the crane driver when the crane driver cannot see where the crane hook is working.

Stinger

A length of wire (usually 6-8 metres long) with a cargo hook at one end and an eye in the other. The eye of the stinger is attached to the main crane hook to keep the latter well above the deck of the support vessel and away from the heads of crew members.

Tuning Fork

A long 'D' type shackle made from plate steel.

Wrap of wire

One complete layer of wire on the drum.


 

APPENDIX G

APPENDIX G: REFERENCES

Anchor Handling .

in Oilfield Seamanship Volume 3, Michael Hancox, Oilfield Publications Ltd.

Australian Code of Safe Practice for Ship - Helicopter Transfers

AMSA

Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association Code of Environmental Practice 1991

APPEA Jan 1991

Bridge Procedures Guide

International Chamber of Shipping May 1990

Code of Practice, The Safe Management and Operation of Offshore Support Vessels

U.K. Offshore Consultation Group

Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen

U.K. Dept. of Transport H.M.S.O. 1991

ILO Code of Practice on Accident Prevention on Board Ship at Sea and in Port

International Labour Organization Geneva, 2nd edition 1996

IMO Draft Guidelines for Safe International Towing

IMO Document DE 40/11

Report of the Working Group on Occupational Health and Safety in the Maritime Industry, Australia

Rig Anchor Handling Practices on Offshore Supply Vessels

BMT Cortec Ltd (March 1992)

Supply Ship Operations

Vic Gibson (Butterworth-Heineman 1992)

 


 

 

 

 

CODE OF

SAFE WORKING PRACTICE

FOR

AUSTRALIAN SEAFARERS

 

 

 

 


 

© Australian Maritime Safety Authority

Published by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority 1999

ISBN

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 and as stated below, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA). Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, Public Relations, AMSA, GPO Box 2181, Canberra 2601.

In the interests of safety, permission is given to unlimited photocopying or other reproduction for use in training persons involved in the maritime industry.

 


SUGGESTIONS

AMSA would appreciate any suggestions/comments that you feel would enhance the use of this Code of Practice. Please contact AMSA on 1800 021 098 or write your suggestion on the page below and fax to (02) 6279 5966.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________


 


 

FOREWORD

Safety in the workplace is now one of the most important considerations of any organisation and particularly so in the maritime industry which operates in such an inhospitable environment.

Mariners work in remote locations, at all hours, with limited access to health services and support. In other words, they must protect themselves and must set out with a realistic approach to health and safety.

The need for a safety culture backed up by safe systems of work is absolutely imperative.

This first edition of The Code of Safe Working Practice for Australian Seafarers, a companion to The Australian Offshore Support Vessel Code of Safe Working Practice, released by AMSA in 1997, provides broad guidance for the minimum requirements for protecting seafarers' health and safety.

The code incorporates international standards with specific Australian occupational health and safety work practices. It covers seafarers, contractors and other persons on board ships to which the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act applies.

AMSA is indebted to the members of the industry working group which contributed their valuable time to producing this code.

I commend its use to the industry.

 

 

 

Clive Davidson

Chief Executive

Australian Maritime Safety Authority

 


 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND INTRODUCTION

This Code is an adaptation of the ILO code of practice entitled Accident prevention on board ship at sea and in port (copyright © 1996 International Labour Organisation) and is reproduced by permission.

A Committee established under the auspices of the Seacare Authority and chaired by AMSA adapted this code. AMSA wishes to acknowledge the hard work and dedication of those involved in its production.

This code of practice is approved pursuant to section 109 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, for the purposes of providing practical guidance to operators.

DISCLAIMER

Responsibility for the adaptation as well as any omissions or errors rests solely with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

The use of this Code does not affect the responsibility of the ship operator to operate safely and to observe statutory requirements, or of any person to exercise the normal duty of care.


 

1...... GENERAL PROVISIONS.......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1-1.... Objective.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2..... Application.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.3..... General definitions................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2...... GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES................................................................................................................................. 4

2.1..... General duties and responsibilities of the shipowner....................................................................................................................... 4

2.2..... General duties and responsibilities of the master............................................................................................................................. 7

2.3..... General duties and responsibilities of seafarers................................................................................................................................ 9

2.4..... General duties and responsibilities of the health and safety committee................................................................................... 10

2.5..... General duties and responsibilities of health and safety representatives.................................................................................. 11

3...... REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS.............................................................................................................................................................. 13

3.1..... General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 13

4...... PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEMS........................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.1..... General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 14

5...... GENERAL SHIPBOARD HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................................. 15

5.1..... Shipboard housekeeping and personal health and hygiene......................................................................................................... 15

5.2..... Use of chemicals.................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.3..... Fire prevention...................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

5.3.1. Smoking................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3.2. Electrical and other fittings................................................................................................................................................................ 17

5.3.3. Laundry and wet clothing.................................................................................................................................................................. 18

5.3.4. Spontaneous combustion................................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.3.5. Galleys................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.4..... Working clothes and personal protective equipment.................................................................................................................... 18

5.4.1. General................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.4.2. Head protection................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

5.4.3. Hearing protection............................................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.4. Face and eve protection..................................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.5. Sun protection...................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.6. Respiratory protective equipment.................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.4.7. Hand and foot protection.................................................................................................................................................................. 21

5.4.8. Protection from falls............................................................................................................................................................................ 21

5.5..... Signs, notices and colour codes......................................................................................................................................................... 21

6...... SHIPBOARD EMERGENCIES AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT........................................................................................... 23

6.1..... General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 23

6.2..... Fire-fighting equipment, drills and training...................................................................................................................................... 23

6.3..... Abandon ship drills and training....................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.4..... Man overboard and rescue at sea.................................................................................................................................................... 26

6.5..... Other drills............................................................................................................................................................................................. 27


 

7...... CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS.............................................................................................................................................. 28

7.1..... General Provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 28

7.2..... Special precautions.............................................................................................................................................................................. 29

7.3..... Additional sources of information.................................................................................................................................................... 30

8...... SAFE ACCESS TO SHIP.......................................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.1..... Means of access to ship...................................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.2..... Ship's accommodation ladders and gangways.............................................................................................................................. 33

8.3..... Pilot embarkation and disembarkation........................................................................................................................................... 33

8.4..... Transport of persons by water........................................................................................................................................................... 34

9......................... SAFE MOVEMENT ABOUT THE SHIP.......................................................................................................................... 35

9.1..... General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 35

9.2..... Passageways and walkways.............................................................................................................................................................. 35

9.3..... Watertight doors................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

9.4..... Lighting.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 36

9.5..... Protection around cargo hatches and other deck openings......................................................................................................... 36

9.6..... Access to holds and other deck spaces............................................................................................................................................ 37

9.7..... Drainage................................................................................................................................................................................................ 37

10.... ENTERING AND WORKING IN ENCLOSED OR CONFINED SPACES.................................................................................. 38

10.1.. General................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

10.2.. Precautions on entering confined spaces......................................................................................................................................... 39

10.3.. Duties and responsibilities of a competent person and of a responsible officer...................................................................... 39

10.4.. Preparing and securing the space for entry..................................................................................................................................... 40

10.5.. Testing the atmosphere of confined and enclosed spaces........................................................................................................... 40

10.6.. Use of a permit-to-work system........................................................................................................................................................ 41

10.7.. Procedures and arrangements before entry.................................................................................................................................... 41

10.8.. Procedures and arrangements during entry..................................................................................................................................... 42

10.9.. Additional requirements for entrv into a space where the atmosphere is suspect or known to be unsafe.......................... 42

10.10 Breathing apparatus and resuscitation equipment........................................................................................................................ 43

10.11 Maintenance of equipment and training......................................................................................................................................... 43

11.... MANUAL LIFTING AND CARRYING................................................................................................................................................ 45

11.1.. General provisions........................................................................................................................................................................... ....45

12.... TOOLS AND MATERIALS..................................................................................................................................................................... 47

12.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 47

12.2.. Hand tools............................................................................................................................................................................................. 47

12.3.. Portable electric, pneumatic and hydraulic tools........................................................................................................................... 47

12.4.. Workshop and bench machines (fixed installations).................................................................................................................... 48

12.5.. Abrasive wheels................................................................................................................................................................................ ....48

12.6.. Spirit lamps........................................................................................................................................................................................... 49

12.7.. Compressed air..................................................................................................................................................................................... 49

12.8.. Compressed gas cylinders.................................................................................................................................................................. 49


 

13.... WELDING FLAME-CUTTING AND OTHER HOT WORK......................................................................................................... 51

13.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 51

13.2.. Personal protective equipment.......................................................................................................................................................... 51

13.3.. Precautions against fire, explosions and non-life supporting environments............................................................................. 51

13.4.. Electric welding equipment................................................................................................................................................................ 52

13.5.. Precautions to be taken during electric-arc welding....................................................................................................................... 52

13.6.. Flame-cutting and brazing................................................................................................................................................................. 53

14.... PAINTING................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54

14.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 54

14.2.. Spray painting...................................................................................................................................................................................... 54

14.3.. Painting aloft and working over the side......................................................................................................................................... 54

15.... WORKING ALOFT AND OVER THE SIDE...................................................................................................................................... 55

15.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 55

15.2.. Cradles and stages............................................................................................................................................................................... 56

15.3.. Bosun's chairs (Swing chair)............................................................................................................................................................... 56

15.4.. Ropes............................................................................................................................................................................................ .........56

15.5.. Portable ladders and scaffolding...................................................................................................................................................... 56

15.6.. Rope ladders......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57

15.7.. Working over the side from punts..................................................................................................................................................... 57

16.... WORKING WITH ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT................................................................................... 58

16.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 58

16.2.. Wandering leads, portable lights, electric tools and other movable equipment....................................................................... 61

16.3.. High-voltage systems.......................................................................................................................................................................... 62

16.4.. Rectifiers and electronic equipment................................................................................................................................................. 62

16.5.. Radio communication equipment.................................................................................................................................................... 62

16.6.. Batteries and battery rooms.............................................................................................................................................................. 63

16.7.. Work with visual display units (VDUs) including microcomputers............................................................................................. 64

17.... WORKING WITH DANGEROUS AND IRRITATING SUBSTANCES AND RADIATIONS................................................. 65

17.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 65

17.2.. Work with unsaturated polyesters.................................................................................................................................................... 65

17.3.. Work with adhesives........................................................................................................................................................................... 65

17.4.. Removing insulation, paint and other coatings.............................................................................................................................. 65

17.5.. Work with asbestos.............................................................................................................................................................................. 66

17.6.. Work with man-made mineral fibres............................................................................................................................................... 66

17.7.. Radio and radar installations............................................................................................................................................................ 66

17.8.. Ionising radiation................................................................................................................................................................................. 66

18.... UPKEEP OF WIRE AND FIBRE ROPES........................................................................................................................................... 67

18.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 67

18.2.. Wire ropes.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 67

18.3.. Fibre ropes............................................................................................................................................................................................. 68


 

19.... ANCHORING, DOCKING AND MOORING....................................................................................................................................... 70

19.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 70

19.2.. Anchoring.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 70

19.3.. Characteristics of man-made fibre ropes used for mooring or towing....................................................................................... 70

19.4.. Mooring and unmooring..................................................................................................................................................................... 71

19.5.. Mooring to buoys................................................................................................................................................................................. 71

20.... WORKING ON DECK OR IN CARGO SPACES............................................................................................................................... 73

20.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 73

20.2.. Cargo operations.................................................................................................................................................................................. 73

20.3.. Lifting gear............................................................................................................................................................................................ 74

20.4.. Use of Slings.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 75

20.5.. Pulley blocks......................................................................................................................................................................................... 76

20.6.. Hooks..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76

20.7.. Shackles................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76

20.8.. Working on deck while ship is at sea................................................................................................................................................ 77

20.9.. Heavy weather..................................................................................................................................................................................... 77

20.10 Working in hatches and holds........................................................................................................................................................... 77

21.... WORKING IN MACHINERY SPACES................................................................................................................................................ 79

23.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 79

21.2.. Boilers, unfired pressure vessels and steam pipes.......................................................................................................................... 82

21.3.. Propulsion machinery......................................................................................................................................................................... 83

21.4.. Turbines................................................................................................................................................................................................. 83

21.5.. Internal combustion engines.............................................................................................................................................................. 84

21.6.. Air compressors and reservoirs.......................................................................................................................................................... 84

21.7.. Refrigeration systems.......................................................................................................................................................................... 84

21.8.. Oil-based systems................................................................................................................................................................................ 84

21.9.. Steering gear.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 85

21.10 Control-room operation and unattended machinery spaces....................................................................................................... 85

21.11 Hydraulic systems............................................................................................................................................................................... 85

22.... WORKING IN GALLEYS, PANTRIES AND OTHER FOOD HANDLING AREAS................................................................ 87

22.1.. Loading and storing provisions......................................................................................................................................................... 87

22.2.. Preparation of food............................................................................................................................................................................. 88

22.3.. Work in galleys, pantries and serving food..................................................................................................................................... 89

23.... SAFETY IN LIVING ACCOMMODATION........................................................................................................................................ 92

23.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 92

23.2.. Laundering appliances........................................................................................................................................................................ 93

23.3.. Rooms furnished with equipment to improve or maintain physical fitness............................................................................. 93

23.4.. Swimming pools................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

23.5.. Sewage systems.................................................................................................................................................................................... 93


 

24.... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES.................................................................................................................................................................... 95

24.1.. General provisions............................................................................................................................................................................... 95

24.2.. Bulk carriers and carriage of bulk cargoes...................................................................................................................................... 96

24.3.. Container ships..................................................................................................................................................................................... 98

24.4.. Ro-Ros and vehicle and passenger ferries....................................................................................................................................... 99

24.5.. Oil Tankers.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 102

24.6.. Bulk chemical tankers...................................................................................................................................................................... 103

24.7.. Liquefied natural and petroleum gas carriers............................................................................................................................... 104

24.8.. Passenger vessels............................................................................................................................................................................... 104

24.9.. Offshore support vessels.................................................................................................................................................................. 107

REFERENCE LIST.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 109

INDEX ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 111

 


 

 


1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1                 OBJECTIVE

1.1.1                    The objective of this code is to provide practical guidance on health and safety in shipboard work with a view to:

(a)        preventing accidents, diseases and other harmful effects on the health of seafarers arising from employment on board ships at sea and in port;

(b)        ensuring that the responsibility for health and safety is understood and remains a priority for all concerned with maritime transport, including governments, shipowners and seafarers; and

(c)        promoting consultation and cooperation among government agencies, shipowner organisations and maritime unions in the improvement of health and safety on board ships.

1.1.2                    The code also provides guidance in the implementation of the provisions of the Prevention of Occupational Accidents to Employees Convention, 1970 (No 134), and Recommendation, 1970 (No 142), as well as other relevant ILO Conventions and Recommendations.

1.2                 APPLICATION

1.2.1                    The code covers the health and safety of seafarers, contractors and other persons on board ships to which the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act applies.

1.2.2                    The provisions of this code should be considered as the basic minimum requirements for protecting seafarers' health and safety.

1.3                 GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1.3.1                    For the purposes of this code the following terms have been defined as follows:

accident: an incident that causes the death, serious injury or incapacity of a person;

AMSA: Australian Maritime Safety Authority;

approved health and safety representatives training course: the Maritime Industry Health and Safety representative Distance Learning Course, as approved by the Seacare Authority, or any other such course as approved by that Authority;

Bulk Cargoes Code: Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, as amended (published by IMO);

competent person: a person having the relevant training and skills and, if appropriate, qualifications, to perform particular tasks, e.g. an industrial chemist or an electrician. A ship's officer having the relevant training and skills may be considered a competent person;


 

crew members: seafarers, other than the master, working on the ship;

dangerous occurrence: has the same meaning as in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, i.e. an incident that could have caused the death, serious injury or incapacity of a person, but which did not have that outcome;

health and safety representative: a member of the crew so appointed in accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act;

health and safety committee: a committee comprising the master and certain other crew members appointed in accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act;

ILO: International Labour Organisation;

IMDG Code: International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code;

IMO: International Maritime Organisation;

incident: An incident is defined as an undesired event that causes or has the potential to cause:

•      harm to people

•      damage to property

•      loss to an operation;

MARPOL: International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 and subsequent resolutions;

Master: commander of a merchant ship, responsible for the navigation and management on behalf of the shipowner;

NOHSC: National Occupational Health and Safety Commission

personal protective equipment: includes, but is not limited to, protective clothing, safety helmets, eye and face protection, hearing protection, gloves, safety footwear, lifelines, safety harnesses, breathing apparatus and respirators, as appropriate;

safety policy: a written document produced by a shipowner indicating in broad terms its commitment, aims and objectives in relation to shipboard safety;

safety program: a detailed plan designed to implement the ideals and intentions expressed in the safety policy;

Seacare Authority: The Seafarers Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Authority;

seafarer: any person employed in any capacity on board the ship or unit. The term "seafarer" has the same meaning as "employee" in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act;


 

ship: a ship engaged in trade or commerce, including an offshore industry vessel and an offshore industry mobile unit. For the purposes of this code, the term "ship" embraces the terms "prescribed ship" and "prescribed unit" in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act;

shipboard management committee: a committee established by the shipowner with management responsibilities on the ship;

shipowner: any person or organisation that has the management or control of the ship. The term "shipowner" has the same meaning as the term "operator" in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act;

SOLAS Convention: International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea 1974, as amended by the Protocol of 1978, and the subsequent amendments and associated resolutions;

STCW Convention: International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping 1978, as amended.


 

2               GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

2.1                 GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SHIPOWNER

Note:     This section should be read in conjunction with section 11 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, which sets out the duties of shipowners in relation to their sea staff.

2.1.1                    The shipowner is primarily responsible for the health, safety and welfare of all seafarers on board the ship. However, the execution of the day-to-day responsibilities of the shipowner generally lies with the master.

2.1.2                    The development of the necessary degree of safety consciousness and the achievement of high standards of safety depend on the wholehearted support of management, good organisation and foresight.

2.1.3                    The shipowner should ensure that the design of new tonnage and any modifications to existing tonnage takes account of ergonomic principles and the relevant Australian and international standards and codes of practice.

2.1.4                    Consistent with the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, the shipowner must establish a suitable safety policy on the health and safety of seafarers in their employ. The safety policy must be developed in consultation with the maritime unions and such other persons as the shipowner considers appropriate and:

(a)        enable the shipowner and seafarers to cooperate effectively in promoting and developing measures to improve seafarers' health, safety and welfare at work;

(b)        provide adequate mechanisms for reviewing the effectiveness of the measures;

(c)        provide appropriate mechanisms for continuing consultations between the shipowner, maritime unions and seafarers on occupational health and safety matters; provide for such other matters as are agreed between the shipowner and the unions.

2.1.5                    The shipowner should also provide the necessary resources and organisation to implement a safety program based on the safety policy. The policy and program should set out the responsibilities of all relevant parties, including in relation to shore staff, contractors and any other persons on, or in the vicinity of, the ship.

2.1.6                    The shipowner should maintain their ships, provide and maintain equipment, tools, operating manuals and other documentation and organise all planning and operations, in such a manner that, as far as is reasonably practicable, there is no risk of accident or injury to seafarers. In particular, activities should be planned, prepared and undertaken so that:

(a)        dangers likely to arise on board ship are prevented;

(b)        excessively or unnecessarily strenuous work positions and movements are avoided;


 

(c)        the organisation of all work takes into account the health and safety of seafarers;

(d)        materials and products are used safely and in a manner that poses no danger to seafarers' health; and

(e)        working methods are employed which protect seafarers against the harmful effects of chemical, physical and biological agents.

2.1.7                    In this context, the shipowner must ensure that the systems of work aboard incorporate the need to conduct a risk assessment in accordance with Australian Standard AS 4360-1995 (Risk management), in the normal course of activities or duties.

2.1.8                    The shipowners should take into account the necessary standards of fitness, experience and competence to ensure the health and safety of seafarers in the performance of their duties and responsibilities when operating on board. In doing so the shipowner should:

(a)        take account of the links between shipboard safety and acceptable working and living conditions, including working hours and rest periods;

(b)        verify that the seafarer holds appropriate medical and competency certificates and endeavour to confirm their validity;

(c)        recognise fatigue as a potential hazard to health and safety and plan shipboard operations to take into account the expected period of work and the prevailing conditions on board in order to minimise fatigue; and

(d)        take account of reports and recommendations made by the master, shipboard management committee or health and safety committee regarding matters of health and safety on the ship.

2.1.9                    The shipowner should provide such supervision as will ensure that seafarers perform their work with due regard to their health and safety. The shipowner should direct the master, and the master should work closely with the health and safety committee and health and safety representatives, to ensure that the work of all on board is organised in such a way as to avoid unnecessary risks to health and safety. The shipowner should make the master and crew members fully aware of all activities on board that could affect their health and safety.

2.1.10                 The shipowner should arrange for a designated person in the shore organisation, preferably a person having access to the possible level within the management structure, to:

(a)        consult closely with the master and crew on all matters concerning health and safety;

(b)        review the reports of shipboard health and safety committees and consider any suggested improvements and other feedback information received from the ship; and


 

(c)        monitor the performance of equipment and personnel.

2.1.11                 As provided by the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, the shipowner must, if requested by a maritime union, enter into consultations with the union over the establishment or variation of designated work groups. The duties and responsibilities of a health and safety representative are described in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and summarised below in section 2.5.

2.1.12                 As provided by the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, the shipowner must, if requested by a health and safety representative or a maritime union, establish a health and safety committee on the ship. The Act also enables the shipowner, in consultation with the maritime unions or other persons, to establish such a committee covering health and safety matters across several ships. The duties and responsibilities of a health and safety committee are described in the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and summarised below in section 2.4.

2.1.13                 The shipowner should ensure the master fulfils the obligations imposed by the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act including, but not limited to:

(a)        complying with provisional improvement notices, to the extent that they relate to matters under the master's control;

(b)        consulting health and safety representatives on implementation of changes that affect safety in the workplace;

(c)        allowing health and safety representatives access to the workplace;

(d)        allowing health and safety representatives to be present at interviews relating to health and safety matters (if the person being interviewed agrees);

(e)        giving health and safety representatives access to health and safety related information, other than confidential medical information;

(f)         allowing health and safety representatives, who have not previously completed the approved health and safety representatives training course, time to complete the course during working hours as soon as is reasonably practicable;

(g)        allowing health and safety representatives such time off work as is reasonably necessary for them to exercise their powers;

(h) making available to health and safety committees any information possessed by the shipowner, other than confidential medical information, relating to the health and safety of seafarers; and

(i) allowing members of health and safety committees reasonable time during working hours, to ensure that the committee performs its functions.

2.1.14                 The shipowner should arrange for regular safety inspections of all parts of their ships at suitable intervals. The inspection should also include tools, equipment and machinery on which the safety of the crew members may depend.


 

2.1.15                 The shipowner should ensure that, as soon as practicable after joining the ship, crew members are suitably instructed in the hazards connected with their work and the shipboard environment and trained in the precautions which must be taken to avoid accidents and injury to health. The training should address day-to-day shipboard operations as well as contingency planning and emergency preparedness. A training manual containing information and instructions on life-saving appliances and survival methods should be kept in the mess room and recreation room or in each cabin. The manual should be written in easily understood terms and illustrated wherever possible.

2.1.16                 In accordance with the relevant provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and the Navigation Act 1912, the shipowner must notify AMSA of any accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences.

2.1.17                 The shipowner should also investigate all accidents and dangerous occurrences, analyse their underlying causes and take appropriate action to prevent a re-occurrence.

2.1.18                 The shipowner should encourage seafarers to report all unsafe and unhealthy conditions or operations.

2.1.19                 The shipowner should provide each ship with the necessary equipment, manuals and other information to ensure that all operations are carried out in such a manner as to reduce to a minimum any adverse effects on seafarers' health and safety.

2.1.20                 The shipowner should provide proper information to the seafarers regarding health and safety hazards and measures related to the work processes. This information should be presented in a form which crew members can easily understand.

2.2                 GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE MASTER

Note:   This section should be read in conjunction with the various sections of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, which relate to the health and safety functions and responsibilities of the person in command.

2.2.1                    The master is responsible for the implementation of the shipowners' health and safety policy and program on board the ship. The policy and program, including safety rules and instructions, should be clearly communicated to all members of the crew. The master should ensure that work carried out on, or from, the ship is performed in such a way as to avoid the possibility of accidents and the exposure of crew members or other persons to conditions which may lead to injury or damage their health.

2.2.2                    The master should ensure that any hazardous work requiring that crew members work together is properly supervised.

2.2.3                    The master should ensure that seafarers are assigned only to tasks to which they are physically fit and suitably skilled.

2.2.4                    The master should ensure that no person under the age of 18 is assigned to inappropriate duties.


 

2.2.5                    The master should issue appropriate notices and instructions in a clear and easily understood manner and verify, as appropriate, that such instructions have been understood.

2.2.6                    The master should ensure that all crew members have:

(a)        a reasonable workload;

(b)        reasonable hours of work;

(c)        reasonable rest periods during working hours, having special regard to work which is strenuous, hazardous or monotonous;

2.2.7                    The master should investigate all accidents or dangerous occurrences and record and report them in compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and Navigation Act 1912 and the shipowner's reporting procedures (see chapter 3).

2.2.8                    The master should ensure the availability of operating manuals, vessel plans, national laws and regulations, safety procedures and other such information to those seafarers who need such information to conduct their work safely. In particular, the master should ensure:

(a)        any necessary instructions and notices concerning the health and safety of the crew are posted in prominent and suitable places or brought to the crews' attention by other effective means; and

(b)        the industry occupational health and safety training material for seafarers and the distance learning course for health and safety representatives are readily accessible to all crew members.

2.2.9                    Where health and safety committee has been established on a ship, the master should hold regular meetings of the committee, say at intervals of 4–6 weeks or as otherwise appropriate, and ensure that the reports of the committee are given due consideration.

2.2.10                 The master should ensure that safety equipment, including all emergency and protective equipment, is maintained in good order and stowed properly.

2.2.11                 The master should ensure that all statutory drills and musters are carried out with realism, effectively and conscientiously at the required intervals and in compliance with Marine Orders, Part 29 (Emergency Procedures and Safety of Navigation).

2.2.12                 The master should ensure that crew members participate in practice and training in emergency procedures. The use of any special emergency equipment should be demonstrated to the crew at regular intervals.

2.2.13                 The master should ensure the "permit-to-work" system on board the ship is properly implemented (see chapter 4).


 

2.3                 GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SEAFARERS

2.3.1                    Section 27 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act sets out the duties of care of seafarers. In accordance with those requirements seafarers shall perform their work in a way that does not risk their own health and safety, or the health and safety of others. Seafarers are also required to help others, including the shipowner, to meet their responsibilities under the Act.

2.3.2                    In addition to complying with the basic requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, seafarers should be prepared to take an active role in promoting safe working conditions generally. An effective way to do this is by participation in safety meetings and expressing views on the health and safety aspects of working procedures on the ship.

2.3.3                    Seafarers have the right to remove themselves from dangerous situations or operations when they have good reason to believe that there is an imminent and serious danger to their health and safety. In such circumstances, the supervisor or responsible officer and the health and safety representative should be informed of the danger forthwith and, if safe and practicable to do so, the operation concerned should be stopped immediately in a safe manner.

2.3.4                    Seafarers should:

(a)        cooperate as closely as possible with the shipowner in the application of the prescribed safety and health measures;

(b)        take care of their own safety and health and of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work;

(c)        use and take care of personal protective equipment and clothing at their disposal and not misuse any means provided for their protection or the protection of others;

(d)        report forthwith to their immediate supervisor any situation which they believe could pose a hazard and which they cannot properly deal with themselves;

(e)        comply with the prescribed safety and health measures; and

(f)         participate in safety and health meetings.

2.3.5                    Except in an emergency, seafarers should not interfere with, remove, or displace any safety device or other equipment and appliances furnished for their protection or the protection of others, or interfere with any method or process adopted with a view to preventing accidents or risks to health.

2.3.6                    Seafarers should not operate or interfere with equipment which they have not been duly authorised to operate, maintain or use.

2.3.7                    A supervisor who gives an order or otherwise instructs a crew member should be certain that the order or instruction is understood.


 

2.3.8                    If a seafarer does not fully understand an order, instruction or any other communication, they should seek clarification from their supervisor.

2.3.9                    Seafarers have a duty to be particularly diligent during fire, lifeboat and other drills and emergency training.

2.3.10                 In summary, all crew members should implement the shipowner's health and safety policy and program as delegated to them by the master in a diligent and professional manner and should demonstrate their full support for shipboard safety. They should do everything in their power to maintain their own health and safety as well as the health and safety of other crew members and persons on board.

2.4                 GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE

2.4.1                    Section 74 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act sets out the functions of a health and safety committee. The Act requires the health and safety committee to:

(a)        assist the shipowner in developing and implementing measures to protect the health and safety of seafarers;

(b)        assist the shipowner in the review and update of those measures;

(c)        facilitate cooperation between the shipowner and seafarers in relation to health and safety matters; and

(d)        assist in the dissemination of health and safety information.

2.4.2                    In general terms, the health and safety committee should assist in the implementation of the shipowner's health and safety policy and program and provide seafarers with a forum to influence health and safety matters.

2.4.3                    The typical duties and responsibilities undertaken by the health and safety committee would generally include but not be limited to:

(a)        ensuring that seafarers comply with the relevant requirements of Marine Orders, relevant Australian Standards, or relevant International Standards, relevant codes of safe practice and the shipowner's health and safety requirements;

(b)        making representations and recommendations to the shipowner on behalf of the crew;

(c)        discussing and taking appropriate action in respect of any health and safety matters affecting the crew, and the evaluation of adequate protective and safety equipment, including life-saving equipment; and

(d)        studying accident reports.

2.4.4                    In accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, a record must be kept of all committee meetings and copies should be posted for


 

viewing by the entire crew. A copy should be sent to the person ashore designated by the shipowner as responsible for ship safety.

2.4.5                    The health and safety committee should be consulted during the planning or alteration of any shipboard work processes that may affect health and safety.

2.4.6                    The health and safety committee should have access to information on hazards or potential hazards on board which are known to the shipowner and master, including information on hazardous or dangerous cargoes. The committee members should have access to the Navigation Act 1912, Marine Orders, Australian or relevant International Standards and codes of practice, the IMDG Code, the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and other relevant IMO publications.

2.4.7                    In accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act, Committee members must be given reasonable time within working hours to exercise their safety functions, including attendance at health and safety committee meetings.

2.5                 GENERAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY REPRESENTATIVES

2.5.1                    Division 2 of Part 3 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act sets out the workplace arrangements in relation to health and safety representatives, including the selection, training and powers of representatives. In summary, Health and Safety Representatives (HSRs) have the power to:

(a)        inspect the workplace;

(b)        ask an AMSA inspector to conduct an investigation of the workplace;

(c)        accompany an inspector during an investigation;

(d)        investigate complaints by members of the representative's designated work group;

(e)        be present at certain interviews; and

(f)         issue provisional improvement notices.

2.5.2                    If at the time of selection as the health and safety representative of a designated work group, the person concerned has not previously completed the approved health and safety representatives training course, the representative should undertake that course as soon as is reasonably practicable.

2.5.3                    To assist the health and safety representative to properly exercise their duties and responsibilities, access to information, assistance and advice should be provided, as appropriate, by the shipboard management committee, the health and safety committee, the shipowner and professional bodies, including the appropriate maritime unions.

2.5.4                    The health and safety representative should:


 

(a)        participate in the investigation of accidents and dangerous occurrences relevant to the designated work group represented by the health and safety representative; and

(b)        have access to all the necessary documentation, including investigation reports, past minutes of health and safety committees etc.


 

3               REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS

3.1                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

3.1.1                    The principal purpose of accident investigation, reporting and analysis is to minimise the potential for a recurrence of such accidents.

3.1.2                    The cause or causes of any accident or dangerous occurrence should be investigated.

3.1.3                    A full report of the investigation should be made to the health and safety committee and the shipowner. Accidents and dangerous occurrences must also be reported to AMSA in the prescribed format in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act and the Navigation Act 1912.

3.1.4                    Reports of accidents and dangerous occurrences should be discussed at health and safety committee meetings on board ship and steps should be taken to minimise the possibility of recurrences. The shipowner's shore management should consider the reports and, if necessary, amend the company's health and safety policy to take account of the conclusions of the investigation.

 


 

4               PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEMS

4.1                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1.1                    The permit-to-work system is a method whereby safety procedures are specified in a written form issued to crew members who are entrusted with a task which may involve work of a hazardous nature.

4.1.2                    Permits should only be used for the more hazardous tasks and the system should not become over-complicated.

4.1.3                    The permit to work system should describe the work to be carried out and the necessary safety precautions. All foreseeable hazards should be considered, a predetermined safe procedure should be adopted and the appropriate precautions should be written down in a correct sequence.

4.1.4                    The permit should contain a carefully planned checklist to identify, control or eliminate hazards and should state the emergency procedure in the event of an accident.

4.1.5                    Only an officer with experience in the work operation should issue a permit. The officer should ensure that the checks have been properly carried out and sign the permit only when satisfied that it is safe for the work to proceed. Where considered appropriate, or in accordance with the shipowner's safety policy, the master should countersign the permit.

4.1.6                    Procedures for the cancellation of permits and "making live", and for signing and locking off at points of isolation should be covered.


 

5               GENERAL SHIPBOARD HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

5.1                 SHIPBOARD HOUSEKEEPING AND PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE

5.1.1                    The importance of good housekeeping in the prevention of accidents and conditions likely to be injurious to health should be given priority in the training of every member of the crew, until its acceptance becomes second nature.

5.1.2                    Minor deficiencies in the ship structure, equipment or furnishings (for example, protruding nails and screws, loose fittings and handles, uneven and damaged flooring, rough and splintered edges to woodwork and jamming doors) may cause cuts, bruises, trips and falls. They should be repaired as soon as they are noticed.

5.1.3                    Any spillage of oil or other substance likely to cause a hazard should be removed immediately.

5.1.4                    Accumulations of ice, snow or slush should be removed from working areas and passages on deck.

5.1.5                    Although all exposed asbestos and asbestos lagging was removed from Australian ships some years ago, some asbestos in sealed fittings or located behind bulkhead and deckhand linings could not be readily removed was left in place. Warning notices were affixed to the fittings concerned. Should any such fitting be damaged in the course of the voyage, a responsible officer must be informed immediately. Any exposed asbestos fibre or board should be covered and protected to prevent loose fibres escaping, pending proper repair or removal at the earliest opportunity by an authorised shore contractor (see also paragraph 17.5.5). These ships must maintain a register identifying the locations of asbestos.

5.1.6                    Instruction plates, notices and operating indicators should be kept clean and legible.

5.1.7                    Heavy objects, particularly if placed at a height above deck level, should be stowed securely against the movement of the ship. Similarly, furniture and other objects likely to fall or shift during heavy weather should be properly stowed or secured.

5.1.8                    Doors, whether open or closed, should be properly secured.

5.1.9                    Coils of rope and wires on deck should be located so as not to pose a tripping hazard.

5.1.10                 Under no circumstances whatsoever should seafarers stand in a bight of a rope or wire which is lying on deck. Seafarers should never stand or move across a rope or wire that is under tension.

5.1.11                 Ropes and wires are frequently under strain during mooring operations and seafarers should, as much as possible, always stand in a place of safety from whiplash should ropes or wires break.

5.1.12                 The stowage and dispersal of deck or machinery equipment should be well planned and organised so that each item has its proper place.


 

5.1.13                 Seafarers should always stand clear of any load being lifted and should not walk close of underneath any load being lifted, or while it is suspended.

5.1.14                 Litter presents a fire risk and may cause slips, falls or conceal other hazards. It should be disposed of in compliance with the appropriate MARPOL legislation.

5.1.15                 Tasks should be carried out with account being taken of possible risks to other persons; for example, water from hosing down the deck may enter other spaces and result in slips and falls.

5.1.16                 Aerosols having volatile and inflammable content should never be used or placed near naked flames or other heat sources or disposed of in the ship's incinerator, even when empty.

5.1.17                 Seafarers should ensure their own protection by ensuring:

(a)           they have appropriate and up-to-date vaccinations and inoculations;

(b)           small cuts and abrasions are treated immediately;

(c)           precautions are taken to avoid insect bites. In particular, anti-malaria precautions should be taken before, during and after the ship visits ports where malaria is known to exist.

5.1.18                 High standards of personal cleanliness and hygiene should be maintained at all times. Hands should always be thoroughly washed after using paints or after possible exposure to toxic substances.

5.1.19                 Working in conditions of high humidity and heat may cause heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Sensible precautions should be taken, including the drinking of sufficient water. Caution should be exercised when taking electrolyte replacements as internal organ damage may result.

5.2                 USE OF CHEMICALS

5.2.1                    Toxic and other hazardous substances and products should be used and stored in such a way that users and others are safeguarded against accidents, injuries or particular discomfort. The ship should keep a register of hazardous substances on board.

5.2.2                    There should be readily accessible to all users a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), containing sufficient information to determine the degree of the danger posed by the substances. Seafarers should be familiar with the content of the MSDS before using the chemical and ensure that all appropriate precautions are taken.

5.2.3                    If possible, the substance should be stored in the original packaging or in another correspondingly labelled packaging that cannot give rise to confusion. Such substances must be stored in a locked, well ventilated room.

5.2.4                    Chemicals should always be handled with extreme care, protection should be worn and the manufacturer's instructions closely followed. Particular attention should be paid to protecting eyes.


 

5.2.5                    Some cleaning agents, such as caustic soda and bleach, are chemicals and may burn the skin.

5.2.6                    A chemical from an unlabelled container should never be used.

5.2.7                    Exposure to certain substances such as mineral oils, natural solvents and chemicals, including domestic cleaning agents and detergents, may cause dermatitis. Suitable gloves should be worn when using such substances and the owner should provide suitable barrier creams that may help to protect the skin.

The Material Safety Data Sheet should be consulted for accidents involving chemicals. All persons required to use hazardous substances need to be trained in safe use, including the use and maintenance of P.P.E.

5.3                 FIRE PREVENTION

5.3.1              SMOKING

Note:           This section must be read in conjunction with the shipowner's policy and instructions in relation to smoking on board ship. See also chapter 24 for special provisions on tankers.

5.3.1.1                Smoking on board a ship should not be permitted except in authorised areas. Instructions and prohibition notices should be prominently displayed.

5.3.1.2                Careless disposal of burning matches and cigarette ends is dangerous. Ashtrays, or other suitable containers, should be provided and used in locations where smoking is permitted.

5.3.1.3                In no circumstances should a seafarer smoke in bed.

5.3.2              ELECTRICAL AND OTHER FITTINGS

5.3.2.1                Unauthorised persons should not interfere with electrical equipment and fittings.

5.3.2.2                All electrical faults in equipment, fittings or wiring, including flickering lights should be reported immediately to the responsible engineer officer.

5.3.2.3                Failed light globes should be replaced as soon as possible. Failed light globes in sealed waterproof or gas tight fittings must only be changed by or under supervision of the engineer officer.

5.3.2.4                The overloading of a circuit must not be permitted as it can cause fires.

5.3.2.5                Portable heaters carried as ship's equipment should not be used except in exceptional circumstances and with due warning of their accompanying dangers.

5.3.2.6                Personal heating appliances should not be used under any circumstances.

5.3.2.7                All portable electrical appliances should be isolated from the mains when not in use.

5.3.2.8                All personal electrical equipment in accommodation areas should be connected only by standard plugs fitting into the sockets provided.


 

5.3.2.9                Extension leads and multi-socket plugs should not be used in accommodation areas for connecting several items of electrical equipment to one plug or socket.

5.3.2.10              When seafarers use portable equipment or portable lamps, they should ensure that any flexible cables passing through doors, hatches, manholes etc., are protected and that their insulation is not damaged by the closing of doors, covers or lids.

5.3.2.11              Seafarers should not site private aerials in the vicinity of the vessel's aerials.

5.3.2.12              Seafarers should not attempt to work on or repair their personal mains-powered radios, compact disc players or other equipment without removing the mains plug, and should have the equipment checked by a qualified electrical technician before plugging it in again. Frayed or damaged leads must be replaced immediately. When cleaning, ensure that electrical appliances and equipment are separated from water.

5.3.2.13              Wall charts giving instructions on emergency first aid treatment to seafarers who have suffered electric shock should be displayed in appropriate places about the ship. All seafarers should ensure they understand and are able to follow the procedures shown on the notices.

5.3.3              LAUNDRY AND WET CLOTHING

5.3.3.1                Care should be taken when drying items of clothing. Clothing should not be hung directly on or close to heaters and should never be dried in the engine-room.

5.3.4              SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

5.3.4.1                Waste, rags, and other rubbish as well as clothes soaked with paint, oil, thinners etc. are dangerous if left lying around as they may spontaneously combust. All waste should be stored in designated bins until it can safely be disposed of in accordance with MARPOL requirements.

5.3.5              GALLEYS

5.3.5.1                Galleys present particular fire hazards. A means to smother fat or cooking oil fires, such as a fire blanket and appropriate fire extinguisher, must be readily available (see also chapter 22). Water must never be used in attempts to fight fires involving hot oil in cooking areas (see Marine Orders, Part 15 (Ship Fire Protection, Fire detection and Fire Extinction)).

5.4                 WORKING CLOTHES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

5.4.1              GENERAL

Note:           Section 27 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act provides that if the shipowner supplies safety or protective equipment then the seafarer must use that equipment in accordance with any instructions given by the shipowner, or Master, consistent with the safe and proper use of the equipment.

5.4.1.1                Working clothes should be close fitting with no loose flaps and should be appropriate for the work being carried out.


 

5.4.1.2                Suitable safety footwear should be worn at all times when on duty. Seafarers should not wear thongs or open type sandals.

5.4.1.3                The master should ensure that seafarers are supplied with suitable personal protective equipment, particularly when engaged in work involving a particular hazard that can be reduced by the provision of personal protective equipment.

5.4.1.4                Seafarers should be reminded that the provision of personal protective equipment does not mean that they can lower their own safety standards and that such equipment does not eliminate hazards but gives only limited protection in the case of accidents.

5.4.1.5                Personal protective equipment should be of a type and standard as approved by the Australian Standards Association or its equivalent. A wide variety of equipment is available and it is essential that no items are ordered, or received on board, unless they are suitable for the task for which they are required.

5.4.1.6                The manufacturer's instructions should be kept with the relevant equipment and consulted for use and maintenance purposes.

5.4.1.7                The effectiveness of personal protective equipment depends not only on its design but on its maintenance in good condition. Such items should be inspected at regular intervals.

5.4.1.8                All seafarers should be trained in the use of personal protective equipment and advised of its limitations. Persons using such items should check them each time before use.

5.4.1.9                Special personal protective equipment should be provided and worn by seafarers who may be exposed to particular corrosive or contaminating substances.

5.4.1.10              Clothing worn in galleys and machinery spaces where there is a risk of burning or scalding should adequately cover the body to minimise the hazard and should be made from a material of low flammability, such as cotton.

5.4.2              HEAD PROTECTION

5.4.2.1                Helmets may be designed for different purposes. A helmet designed to provide protection from objects falling from above may not be suitable for protecting seafarers from chemical splashes. The ship should be supplied with helmet types appropriate to the range of operations carried out on the ship. Australian Standard AS 1800-1998 (Occupational protective helmets), provides guidance on the selection, care and use of industrial safety helmets. Helmets supplied to the ship should comply with AS 1800–1998 or its equivalent.

5.4.2.2                In general, the shell of a helmet should be of one-piece construction, with an adjustable cradle inside to support the helmet on the wearer's head and a chinstrap to prevent the helmet from falling off.

5.4.2.3                The cradle and chinstrap should be properly adjusted as soon as the helmet is put on to ensure a snug fit.


 

5.4.2.4                A helmet that is visibly damaged should not be used and should be disposed of for scrap. A helmet which has been subjected to a knock or blow should also be scrapped.

5.4.3              HEARING PROTECTION

5.4.3.1                Seafarers who by the nature of their duties are exposed to high levels of noise, such as those working in machinery spaces, should be provided with and should wear ear protectors.

5.4.3.2                Various types of hearing protectors are available for shipboard use, including ear plugs and earmuffs, each of which may be of different design standards. Protectors should be of a type recommended as suitable for the particular circumstances and climatic conditions.

5.4.3.3                In general, earmuffs give the most effective protection and should be used in preference to ear plugs except in situations where the use of ear muffs is impracticable. Hearing protectors should comply with AS 1270–1998 (AcousticsHearing protectors), or its equivalent.

5.4.4              FACE AND EYE PROTECTION

5.4.4.1                Face and eye protectors are available in a wide variety of designs. Careful consideration should be given to the characteristics of the respective hazard to ensure the selection of the appropriate protector. Eye protectors should comply with AS 1337–1992 (Eye protectors for industrial applications) or its equivalent.

5.4.4.2                Ordinary prescription (corrective) spectacles, unless manufactured to a safety standard, do not afford protection. Certain box-type goggles are designed so that they can be worn over ordinary spectacles.

5.4.5              SUN PROTECTION

5.4.5.1                Strong sunlight can severely damage the eyes and sunglasses should be worn whenever appropriate. Sunglasses should comply with AS 1067.1-1990 (Sunglasses and fashion spectacles—Safety requirements) and AS 1067.2-1990 (Sunglasses and fashion spectaclesPerformance requirements).

5.4.5.2                A wide-brimmed hat should be worn and a sunscreen of SF 15+ used on exposed parts of the body when working in the sun.

5.4.6              RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

5.4.6.1                Appropriate respiratory protective equipment should be provided for work in conditions where there is a risk of oxygen deficiency or exposure to poisonous, dangerous or irritating fumes, dust, or gases. Respiratory devices should comply with AS 1716-1994 (Respiratory protective devices), or its equivalent.

5.4.6.2                The selection of correct equipment is essential. Since there is a wide variety of equipment available for shipboard use, advice should be sought on the appropriate equipment for use on particular ships and for particular purposes. Seafarers should be trained in the use and care of equipment. AS 1715-1994 (Selection, use and


 

maintenance of respiratory protective devices), provides guidance on the selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices.

5.4.6.3                The face-piece incorporated in respirators and breathing apparatus must be fitted correctly to prevent leakage. The wearing of spectacles unless adequately designed for the purpose, or beards and whiskers is likely to interfere with the face seal.

5.4.7              HAND AND FOOT PROTECTION

5.4.7.1                Gloves should give protection from the particular hazard of the work being carried out and must be appropriate to that type of work. For example, leather gloves are generally better for handling rough or sharp objects, heat resistant gloves for handling hot objects, and rubber, synthetic or PVC gloves for handling acids, alkalis, various types of oils, solvents and chemicals.

5.4.7.2                All seafarers at work should wear safety footwear that complies with AS 2210.1–1994 (Occupational Protective Footwear, Guide to Selection and Use), Sandals and similar footwear must not be worn when working.

5.4.8              PROTECTION FROM FALLS

5.4.8.1                Seafarers working aloft, outboard, or where there is a risk of falling, should wear an approved safety harness attached to a lifeline (see also chapter 15).

5.5                 SIGNS, NOTICES AND COLOUR CODES

5.5.1                    Signs and symbols are a very effective method for warning against hazards and for presenting information in a non-linguistic form. Safety signs and notices should conform in shape and colour to the requirements of SOLAS and IMO Resolution A.760 (18)

5.5.2                    Fire extinguishers must be coloured and marked in accordance with the relevant IMO Standards applicable to the fire extinguisher type. Each fire extinguisher should have a label affixed to it providing instructions for its use. Seafarers should familiarise themselves with the colour coding and markings on fire extinguishers to enable the appropriate extinguisher to be immediately selected in an emergency.

5.5.3                    International Standards include requirements for the colour coding of electrical wiring cores. Care should always be taken to ensure that personnel are aware of the meaning of the core colours on board the ship. If a replacement is required, it should be in accordance with the coding system on board, see AS 3000–1991 (SAA Wiring Rules).

5.5.4                    Gas cylinders should be clearly marked with the name of the gas, its chemical formula or symbol and the body should be coloured according to its contents. AS 4484–1997 (Industrial, medical and refrigerant gas cylinder identification), or its equivalent, sets out the requirements for the labelling of gas cylinders. A colour-coding card should be provided.

5.5.5                    Pipelines should be marked with a colour coding system which indicates their contents. Replacement lengths of pipe should be immediately marked consistent with the colour coding system. A colour coding card should be provided, see AS 3345–1995 (Identification of the contents of piping, conduits and ducts).


 

5.5.6               Packages containing dangerous goods should be appropriately marked in accordance with IMDG Code classifications (see also chapter 7).


 

6               SHIPBOARD EMERGENCIES AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

Note:     This chapter provides general guidance on shipboard emergency procedures and emergency equipment. For information about specific requirements, the reader should also study the relevant provisions in Marine Orders, Part 29 (Emergency Procedures and Safety of Navigation).

6.1                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

6.1.1                    The provisions of Marine Orders, Part 29 governing equipment, musters, drills and training must be strictly complied with.

6.1.2                    Shipboard emergency training plans should take account of the IMO/ILO Document for Guidance (an international maritime training guide).

6.1.3                    On first joining a ship, crew members must be informed of the location of the muster stations and the survival craft to which they have been assigned and of their duties in emergency situations in accordance with STCW95 Regulation VI/I.

6.1.4                    The master must ensure that a muster list is compiled and kept up to date in accordance with Marine Orders, Part 29.

6.1.5                    All crew members concerned should muster at a drill wearing the appropriate clothing and wearing life-jackets, properly secured

6.1.6                    Arrangements for drills should take account of prevailing weather conditions.

6.1.7                    Each crew member must participate in drills in accordance with the requirements of the master and Marine Orders, Part 29, Appendix 4, and the ship's safety management system, which sets out the procedure to be followed for an emergency stations practice muster.

6.1.8                    The timing of drills should be varied to ensure that seafarers (who because of their duties) have not taken part in a particular drill may participate in the next drill. Crew members should receive drill training as soon as possible. Crew may require specific training before joining the ship, to ensure that crew members are not incapable of carrying out safety related responsibilities.

6.1.9                    Drills should involve the whole crew but, in some circumstances, it might be preferable to confine certain drills to crew members with specific tasks.

6.1.10                 Although drills are an essential part of emergency training, a training scheme should consist of more than just drills. Information should be given to the entire crew on subjects such as hypothermia and instruction provided to certain crew members on the use of particular items of equipment.

6.2                 FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT, DRILLS AND TRAINING

6.2.1               In accordance with Marine Orders, Part 15 (Ship Fire Protection, Fire detection and Fire Extinction), a fire control plan must be permanently exhibited on the ship. The


 

plan must show the control stations for each deck and particulars of fire detection and fire alarm systems, sprinkler installation, fire-extinguishing appliances, means of access, details of the ventilation system and other relevant information for fire control.

6.2.2                    The fire fighting equipment must be maintained in good order in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and kept available for use at all times.

6.2.3                    Crew members should not interfere with or discharge any fire extinguisher without due cause, and should report any faults or cases of accidental discharge to a responsible officer.

6.2.4                    Immediately after joining a ship, seafarers should familiarise themselves with the location of the fire-fighting appliances on board, the operation of such appliances and their effectiveness on different types of fires. In accordance with STCW95 Regulation VI/1 section A VI/I of the Code, a responsible officer should verify this knowledge (for guidance with respect to passenger vessels, see chapter 24 of this code).

6.2.5                    Crew members should be trained in the use of the following fire-fighting appliances:

(a)           all types of portable fire extinguishers carried on board;

(b)           self-contained breathing apparatus;

(c)           hoses with jet and spray nozzles;

(d)           any fixed fire-fighting system such as foam or carbon dioxide;

(e)           fire blankets; and

(f)            firemen's outfits.

6.2.6                    When practicable, fire drills should be held in port as well as at sea,

6.2.7                    Although many fires occur in port it may prove difficult to arrange a drill with the local fire authorities. This problem can be partly resolved by instructing the crew on the nature of shore requirements using the contents of the fire wallet (the fire wallet should be positioned by the access arrangements and should outline information required by shore fire authorities who are required to fight a fire on board ship).

6.2.8                    Efficient fire-fighting requires the full cooperation of personnel in all departments of the vessel.

6.2.9                    For the purpose of a fire drill, an outbreak of fire should be assumed to have occurred in some part of the ship, the alarm should be activated and the requisite actions taken should be in accordance with the ship's health and safety policy.

6.2.10                 The type and position of the fire scenario should be varied in a well-conceived sequence that covers most parts of the ship and all types of fire-fighting. Locations could include:

(a)           holds, tanks and other spaces such as forepeak stores and paint lockers;

(b)           engine or boiler rooms:


 

(c)           accommodation spaces such as cabins and laundry rooms; and

(d)           galleys.

6.2.11                 Fire drills should be as realistic as circumstances permit. When possible, local fire-fighting equipment, such as extinguishers, should be activated and the visibility of self-contained breathing apparatus masks should be reduced to give the impression of operating within a smoke-filled atmosphere. Caution must be exercised with such drills to avoid trip and slip hazards.

6.2.12                 The fixed water fire-fighting system should be used and engine room staff should ensure that the fire pumps are operated and that full water pressure is on the fire mains. The emergency fire pump should also be used for fire drills. Personnel should be trained in the operation of other fixed systems such as foam and carbon dioxide.

6.2.13                 All equipment activated during fire drills should be immediately replaced with fully loaded appliances.

6.2.14                 Seafarers should be exercised in the closing of openings and the closing down of ventilation systems.

6.2.15                 A fire drill can be held as the first stage of an abandon ship drill.

6.3                 ABANDON SHIP DRILLS AND TRAINING

6.3.1                    Each abandon ship drill should include:

(a)           summoning personnel to muster stations by the general alarm and ensuring that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship. A check should be carried out to ensure that all personnel are at muster stations;

(b)           reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;

(c)           checking that personnel are suitably dressed to minimise cold shock if direct entry into the sea is necessary;

(d)           checking that life-jackets are correctly donned;

(e)           where possible, lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for launching;

(f)            starting and operating the lifeboat engine;

(g)           where fitted, operating of davits for launching life-rafts;

Note:      Seafarers should refer to the manual, Survival at Sea, for further guidance.

6.3.2                    If possible, abandon ship drills should be held when a life-raft is due to be sent for servicing. Invaluable experience can be obtained by actually inflating a life-raft in the water and exercising the crew in life-raft boarding techniques.

6.3.3                    Lowering or hoisting a boat should only be done with minimum crew on board.


 

6.3.4                    When turning out davits or bringing boats or rafts inboard under power, seafarers should always keep clear of any moving parts.

6.3.5                    The crank handle of a lifeboat winch is designed not to rotate except for manual hoisting action. Nevertheless, such handles should be removed from the winch as soon as manual hoisting is stopped. If, however, for some reason the handle cannot be removed and there is a chance of the handle rotating under the action of gravity or electricity, crew members should keep well away from the handle although it may seem stationary.

6.3.6                    Personnel in an open lifeboat being lowered should remain seated, holding their lines and should have their hands inside the gunwale to avoid them being crushed against the ship's side.

6.3.7                    Fingers should be kept clear of the long-link when unhooking or securing blocks on to lifting hooks while the boat is in the water.

6.3.8                    Before craft in gravity davits are recovered by power, the operation of the limit switches and similar devices should be checked.

Free fall lifeboats should at all times be boarded in an orderly manner. Personnel should immediately secure themselves into the seat with the restraining harness and carry out the instructions of the responsible officer. Refer to Marine Notice 10/1998 (Lifeboat Accidents).

6.3.9                    In accordance with Marine Orders, Part 57 (Helicopter Operations), the shipowner must provide such arrangements, equipment, instructions and training in the safe transfer of persons and goods between helicopter and ship as are

(a)           necessary and reasonable for emergency evacuations; and

(b)           appropriate and reasonable for the normal operation of the ship.

(c)           refer to Marine Notice 5/1998 (Ship-Helicopter Marine Personnel Transfers).

6.4                 MAN OVERBOARD AND RESCUE AT SEA

6.4.1               Each ship should have a contingency plan in the event that someone falls overboard. The plan should take into account the particular characteristics of the ship, the life-saving equipment available and the size of the crew. For example, a typical drill could test the action taken if the bridge watchkeeping officer observes someone falling from the main deck into the sea. This would include:

(a)           executing a Williamson turn or other ship's turn as appropriate;

(b)           dropping the bridge wing quick-release lifebuoy;

(c)           sounding the general or emergency squad alarm;

(d)           announcing the type of emergency over the public address system so that the rescue boat can be prepared;


 

(e)           assigning a person to the wheel and posting lookouts;

(f)            radar "marking" of the man overboard position;

(g)           initiating any communication such as a "Pan Pan Pan" message; and

(h)        positioning the ship to make a lee and launching the rescue boat.

6.4.2                    It should be remembered that it may take the master a few minutes to reach the bridge before he or she can take over the operation and that some decisions need to be taken before he or she reaches the bridge.

6.4.3                    The procedure for pulling a person from the sea into a boat should, when possible, be practised during periods when a ship is at anchor.

6.4.4                    Should a search be necessary the procedures described in the Merchant ship search and rescue manual (MERSAR), published by the IMO, should be adopted, especially if the search is carried out with other ships.

6.5                 OTHER DRILLS

6.5.1                    Emergency training should not be limited to abandoning ship, fire-fighting and man-overboard drills. Crew members should undergo continuous and refresher training in any emergency situations likely to occur aboard the ship.

6.5.2                    Drills in the rescue of seafarers in confined spaces are essential. Seafarers should be thoroughly trained in the procedures described in chapter 10 of this document.

6.5.3                    Special training in first aid should be provided as appropriate for particular types of cargoes and operations. Refresher training should be given on a regular basis. Posters, pamphlets and other means of reminding seafarers of first aid procedures should be posted or otherwise made available throughout the ship.


 

7               CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS

Note:           This chapter provides only general guidance on the safe handling and carriage of dangerous goods. For information about specific requirements, the reader should also study Marine Orders, Part 34 (Cargo and Cargo Handling—Solid Bulk Cargoes; Marine Orders, Part 41 (Cargo and Cargo Handling—Dangerous Cargoes); the IMDG Code; and the Bulk Cargoes Code.

NOHSC Exposure standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in the Occupational Environment should be consulted.

7.1                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

Note:           The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code {IMDG Code) should be consulted by the responsible officer before any known or suspected dangerous goods are loaded.

7.1.1                    The provisions of the IMDG Code, Marine Orders, Part 41 and any port rules and regulations must be observed.

7.1.2                    No dangerous goods should be loaded if not accompanied by appropriate documentation. The documentation should state the correct technical name of the goods (the manufacturer's trade name alone is not sufficient) and the United Nations number so that the relevant information can be found in the IMO codes. The goods are to be correctly described using the IMDG classification system.

7.1.3                    Dangerous substances should be loaded or unloaded only under the supervision of a responsible officer.

7.1.4                    Goods should not be loaded if the packaging does not comply with IMDG Code standards and any special packaging requirements specified in Marine Orders, Part 41.

7.1.5                    Packages are to be durably marked with the correct technical name and the contents are to be identified by the IMDG classification and labelling system.

7.1.6                    No containers or road vehicles containing dangerous goods should be loaded without the provision of a container packing certificate or vehicle packing certificate where required.

7.1.7                    Crew members should be advised beforehand of the dangerous nature of the goods and of any necessary precautions to be observed. Seafarers handling consignments containing dangerous substances are to be given adequate information about the nature of the substances and any special precautions that are to be taken. If accidental exposure to dangerous substances occurs, the IMO's Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods should be consulted.

Note:           The ILO code of practice, Safety and Health in Dock Work, also provides that port workers should be advised on the handling of dangerous goods.

7.1.8                    The shipper is responsible for informing the shipowner of any special hazard, and is required to forward instructions on. the dangers and the medical treatment of


 

accidental spillage or poisoning and, if necessary, should supply any special drugs required for medical treatment.

Note:           For information on any special drug requirements, the IMDG Code and the IMO's Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods should be consulted.

7.1.9                    Dangerous goods that are liable to interact dangerously are to be effectively segregated from one another in accordance with the IMDG Code and Marine Orders, Part 41 requirements.

7.1.10                 Explosives and other hazardous goods should be carried only in strict accordance with the IMDG Code and Marine Orders, Part 41 requirements.

7.1.11                 Each ship carrying hazardous goods should have a detailed stowage plan which shows the location of all hazardous goods on board and which identifies the goods by class. A copy shall be available before departure for the respective shore authorities and another copy shall be kept on the vessel's bridge. The stowage plan, or at least the location of dangerous cargoes, should be made available to the health and safety committee before the ship is loaded.

7.1.12                 Substances that are liable to spontaneous heating or combustion should only be carried in accordance with the provisions of the relevant Marine Orders or IMO codes. See Marine Orders, Part 34 or Marine Orders, Part 41; IMDG Code; Bulk Cargoes Code and any applicable additional precautions for specific cargo types as set out in IMO codes or resolutions.

7.1.13                 Correct measures should be taken promptly to render harmless any spillage of dangerous substances. Particular attention may be necessary if such substances are transported in refrigerated compartments where the spillage may be absorbed by insulating material.

7.1.14                 On the discovery of leakage of dangerous goods or of damaged packing, work must cease immediately and may be resumed only after advice and instruction on the necessary safety precautions to be taken. Otherwise, work shall be resumed (depending on the degree of danger) only after workers have put on protective clothing appropriate to the nature of the goods to be handled.

7.1.15                 In the event of leakage or spillage involving dangerous gas or fumes, the use of a gas detector is advised before a space is declared to be safe (see chapter 10). Gas masks should only be used for purposes of escape. The place where the leakage has occurred should be treated immediately with an appropriate neutralising substance.

7.2                 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS

7.2.1               The IMDG Code contains many provisions for ensuring the safe handling and carriage of dangerous goods, including requirements for electrical equipment and wiring, fire-fighting equipment, ventilation, smoking, repair work, provision and availability of special equipment etc., and should be referred to before handling dangerous goods.


 

7.2.2                    Before the loading of particular consignments, officers should check the individual entries in the codes to ensure that the vessel has the appropriate fire-fighting equipment and extinguishing agent should a fire occur.

7.2.3                    Since some substances that catch fire may emit poisonous fumes, protective clothing and sets of self-contained breathing apparatus should be readily available.

7.2.4                    Packages should be stowed in a location that ensures protection from accidental damage or heating.

7.2.5                    Dangerous goods are to be segregated from substances that are liable to start or to spread fires.

7.2.6                    Dangerous goods should be stowed away from living quarters.

7.2.7                    It may be necessary to ensure accessibility of dangerous goods so that packages in the vicinity of a fire may be protected or moved to safety.

7.2.8                    Before loading commences all fire detection systems should be tested.

7.2.9                    During loading, suitable fire-fighting appliances should be ready for use and all unauthorised personnel should be removed /relocated from the area.

7.2.10                 A responsible person should be present when dangerous goods are being loaded. All packages should be tallied.

7.2.11                 Vessels that transport dangerous substances where conditions of operation have not allowed advance notice of the nature of the dangerous substances being transported, shall carry medical supplies including at least the antidotes listed in the IMDG Code. However, on a regular trade, the antidotes might be limited to those that have to be administered in cases of extreme emergency within a period of time not exceeding the normal duration of the crossing.

7.3                 ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION

7.3.1                    Marine Orders, Part .34 and the Bulk Cargoes Code provides guidance in the safe stowage and shipment of solid bulk cargoes, excluding grain. They include general advice on the procedures to be followed whenever bulk cargoes are to be shipped, a description of the hazards associated with certain materials and lists of typical material currently shipped in bulk.

7.3.2                    Appendix B (List of bulk materials possessing chemical hazards) of the Bulk Cargoes Code is to be followed where certain solid dangerous substances are shipped in bulk. Additional advice can be found in chapter 24.

7.3.3                    The IMO's Emergency procedures for ships carrying dangerous goods (EmS) gives information on the action to be taken in the event of an incident involving certain dangerous goods. The goods included in the EmS are classified according to the IMDG Code and are grouped so that goods with the same or similar emergency action appear on one emergency schedule. Each emergency schedule is divided into five sections:


 

(a)           group title with the emergency schedule number;

(b)           special equipment required;

(c)           emergency procedures;

(d)           emergency action;

(e)           first aid.

7.3.4                    The appropriate schedules should be consulted before goods are loaded to ascertain that the vessel has the correct equipment to deal with any incidents that might occur.

7.3.5                    Pesticides used on board ship may be classed as dangerous goods; information on various aspects of pest control can be found in IMO Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships.

7.3.6                    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in an incident involving dangerous goods may become contaminated. PPE contaminated in such a way may need to be disposed of in secure containers or thoroughly decontaminated on board. Specialist advice should be sought following an incident.


 

8               SAFE ACCESS TO SHIP

Note:           This chapter provides only general guidance on safe access to the ship. For information about specific requirements, the reader should also consult Marine Orders, Part 23 (Equipment—Miscellaneous and Safety Measures). Further information on safe access to ships may also be found in the ILO code of practice on Safety and Health in Dock Work (revised, 1984) and the ILO Guide to Health and Safety in Dock Work (revised, 1988).

8.1                 MEANS OF ACCESS TO SHIP

8.1.1                    There should be a safe means of access between any ship and any quay, pontoon or similar structure or another ship alongside which the ship is secured.

8.1.2                    Crew members should be provided with adequate information on how to make their way safely to and from the ship through the marine terminal or shore side cargo handling area.

8.1.3                    In some modern ports access equipment such as mobile gangways and information on safe means of access are provided by the port authorities. However, the master should ensure, as far as possible, that the equipment meets the required safety standards.

8.1.4                    Crew members shall not use a means of access which is unsafe. They should also use means of access with care, e.g. they should not carry so much at once but should instead make several trips or use a stores crane when carrying personal gear, stores or ship's equipment.

8.1.5                    Access arrangements should be supervised at all times, either by crew members or by shore personnel, particularly in ports which have large tidal ranges.

Note:           Besides contributing to the protection of seafarers against accidents, such surveillance also enhances security against unauthorised persons, including criminals, from boarding the ship.

8.1.6                    Access should generally be by an accommodation ladder or gangway which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and maximum freeboard of the ship.

8.1.7                    Access equipment should be of good construction, sound material, adequate strength, free from obvious defect, properly maintained and inspected at frequent intervals. It should not be painted or treated to conceal cracks or defects.

8.1.8                    Access equipment should be placed in position promptly after the ship has been secured and should remain in position while the ship is secured.

8.1.9                    A lifebuoy with a self-activating light and a separate safety line or some similar device should be provided at the point of access aboard the ship.

8.1.10                 Access equipment and approaches to such equipment should be properly illuminated.

8.1.11                 Crew members should use only the means of access provided to embark or disembark the ship.


 

8.1.12                 The means of access should be kept free of any snow, ice, grease or other substance likely to cause a slip or fall.

8.1.13                 All gaps between the dockside and the ship, should be protected by a safety net (meeting the requirements of Appendix 6 of Marine Orders, Part 23). This should prevent persons on the ship's accommodation ladder or gangway from falling into the water.

8.1.14                 The means of access and immediate approaches should be kept free from obstruction and, as far as practicable, kept clear of any substance likely to cause a slip or fall.

8.1.15                 The means of access should be sited so that no suspended load passes over it.

8.1.16                 Accommodation ladders and gangways should be clearly marked with maximum designed angle of use and maximum safe loading in both number of persons and total weight. Under no circumstances should this limit be exceeded.

8.1.17                 Further guidance concerning access to vehicle ferries or roll-on/roll-off vessels may be found in chapter 24.

82                  SHIP'S ACCOMMODATION LADDERS AND GANGWAYS

8.2.1                    The specifications for accommodation ladders and gangways are contained in Appendices 4 and 5 of Marine Orders, Part 23.

8.2.2                    If the gangway rests on rollers or wheels, it should be fitted or protected in such a way as to prevent the user's feet from being caught and it should be placed in a position that does not restrict the free movement of the rollers or wheels. Where the wharf surface is irregular or gaps or ledges exist that may cause the rollers or wheels to jamb or catch, a suitably sized plate should be placed on the surface on which the rollers or wheels rest.

8.2.3                    A gangway should never be permitted to drop between the shore and the ship in such a way that it may be crushed or damaged.

8.2.4               Special care should be taken during maintenance to detect any cracking, rusting or corrosion in gangways, ladders and metal fittings. Any defects posing a hazard should be rectified before further use.

8.3                 PILOT EMBARKATION AND DISEMBARKATION

8.3.1               The requirements for pilot transfer arrangements are contained in Marine Orders, Part 23. Pilot ladders are not to be used for crew access to a ship except in an emergency. Marine Orders, Part 23 provides that the master of a ship at anchor or at a mooring may provide a pilot ladder as a means of access if he or she considers the use of an accommodation ladder is impracticable. The use of such ladder, except in an emergency, must be limited to pilots and other persons engaged in or in relation to the business of the ship.


 

8.4                 TRANSPORT OF PERSONS BY WATER

8.4.1               When persons have to be transported to or from a ship by water, suitable and proper measures should be taken to provide for their safe passage. The boats used should be of suitable construction, properly equipped and maintained and suitably crewed. Embarkation and disembarkation should take place only at suitable and safe landing places.


 

9               SAFE MOVEMENT ABOUT THE SHIP

9.1                 GENERAL PROVISIONS

9.1.1                    When moving about the ship at sea, seafarers should always bear in mind the possibility of an unusual lurch or heavy roll by the ship.

9.1.2                    Permanent fittings which cause obstruction and which may be dangerous to vehicles, lifting appliances or persons should be made conspicuous by means of colouring, marking or lighting.

9.1.3                    Any deck obstructions and head-height obstructions that are a hazard should be painted a bright, conspicuous colour. Where necessary, warning notices utilising graphic symbols should be posted. Head-height obstructions should be padded.

9.1.4                    The stowage of deck cargoes should take account of the requirements for safe access to crew quarters, for crew working the ship, for boarding of pilots, and access to safety equipment.

9.2                 PASSAGEWAYS AND WALKWAYS

9.2.3               All passageways, walkways, stairs and deck surfaces used for transit should be properly maintained and kept free from materials or substances that might cause slips or falls.

9.2.2                    Transit areas and stair treads should, where practicable, be provided with a surface that is slip-resistant in dry as well as in wet conditions.

9.2.3                    Walkways on deck should be delineated by painted lines or otherwise and indicated by signs.

9.2.4                    Any gear or equipment stowed to the side of a passageway or walkway should be securely fixed or lashed against the movement of the ship when at sea.

9.2.5                    When heavy weather is expected, lifelines should be rigged securely across open decks (see chapter 10).

9.3                 WATERTIGHT DOORS

9.3.1                    All seafarers who might use watertight doors should be instructed in their safe use.

9.3.2                    Power-operated watertight doors can be closed from the bridge and particular care should be taken when using such doors. If opened locally under these circumstances, a door will re-close automatically and crush anyone in its path as soon as local control has been released. Both hands are usually required to operate the local controls, and for this reason no person alone should attempt to carry any load through such doors. The bridge should be notified whenever such doors are opened and immediately after they are closed.

9.3.3                    Notices clearly stating the method of operating the local controls of watertight doors should be prominently displayed on both sides of the doors.


 

9.3.4                    No attempt should be made to pass through a watertight door when it is closing or when the warning alarm is sounding.

9.3.5                    Whenever a watertight door is energised, and under remote control, transit is not allowed. If it is necessary to leave the area confined by such doors, emergency exits shall be used. A warning to that effect shall be displayed at the local operating point.

9.4                 LIGHTING

9.4.1                    Areas of the ship used for loading or unloading, other work processes or transit should be adequately and appropriately illuminated. See Marine Orders, Part 32 (Cargo and Cargo Handling—Safety Measures). Lighting should be reasonably constant and arranged to minimise glare, dazzle and the formation of deep shadows and sharp contrasts between one area and another.

9.4.2                    Broken or defective lights should be reported immediately and repaired as soon as practicable. Failed light globes or faults in sealed waterproof or gas tight fittings must only be changed by the responsible engineer officer.

It is prohibited to enter unlit or inadequately lit places on the ship without safe portable lights. Lighting appliances and cabling should be of a type appropriate to the space being entered, e.g. if the space does or may contain explosive fumes special electrical safety standards need to be applied.

9.4.3                    Both fixed and portable lighting should be checked to ensure proper operation and safe rigging prior to use. No operation should be permitted to commence or continue if lighting is insufficient.

9.5                 PROTECTION AROUND CARGO HATCHES AND OTHER DECK OPENINGS

9.5.1                    Marine Orders, Part 32 sets out the requirements for protection around cargo hatches and other deck openings

9.5.2                    Hatch covers, pontoons and beams that have been removed should be placed so as to leave a safe walkway from rail to hatch coaming and fore and aft.

9.5.3                    Access within cargo spaces and holds should be kept clear.

9.5.4                    Mechanically, hydraulically and electrically powered hatch covers should be opened and closed only by designated members of the ship's crew or other authorised persons. The hatches should only be operated after ensuring it is clear to do so.

9.5.5                    Any openings through which a person might fall should be fitted with secure guards or fencing of adequate design and construction.

9.5.6                    As required by Marine Orders, Part 32 fencing across an opening must comprise at least two parallel rails, ropes or chains, the top rail, rope or chain being at a height of at least one (1) metre above the walkway. If constructed of rope or chain, the fence should be fitted with tensioning devises to keep the rope or chain as taut as practicable.


 

9.6                 ACCESS TO HOLDS AND OTHER DECK SPACES

9.6.1                    Safe access should be provided into each hold or space below deck, in accordance with requirements of Marine Orders, Part 32 .

9.6.2                    Rope ladders should not be used to access holds.

9.6.3                    All ladders and access arrangements should be inspected at frequent intervals by a responsible officer, but particularly before and after working cargo in the space in question. If any ladders, handgrips, footholds or cleats are found to be unsafe, access should be locked or blocked off and warning notices prohibiting access should be posted at every approach until repairs have been carried out.

9.6.4                    The responsible officer should ensure that any defects are corrected as soon as practicable. Any welding or replacement of rungs, ladders or cleats should be inspected and tested by a responsible officer before use to ensure that the work has been properly carried out.

9.7                 DRAINAGE

9.7.1               Drains and scuppers should be regularly inspected and properly maintained to ensure that they do not become blocked.


 

10             ENTERING AND WORKING IN ENCLOSED OR CONFINED SPACES

Note:           This chapter provides only a general guide to entering and working in enclosed or confined spaces. For more detailed information about the precautions to be taken before entering enclosed or confined spaces the reader should consult AMSA Marine Notice 9/1986 (Precautions to be taken before entering tanks or other enclosed spaces and safety measures in port). AS 2865–1997 (Safe Working in a Confined Space), must be used for enclosed space entry. Reference should also be made to the ship's safety management system.

For additional guidance in relation to entry into spaces on oil, chemical and gas tankers and ships carrying solid bulk cargoes, the reader should consult the following publications:

International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT)

Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals (SIGTTO)

Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (Bulk Cargoes Code)

NOHSC 3008 Guidance Note on Exposure standards for atmospheric contaminants in the occupational environment

10.1               GENERAL

10.1.1                 All confined spaces should be considered unsafe for entry until proven otherwise.

10.1.2                 If there is an unexpected reduction in, or loss of, ventilation, in spaces which are usually ventilated by whatever means, then those spaces should also be considered as dangerous and should be vacated immediately.

10.1.3                 Any confined space may be deficient in oxygen, and/or contain flammable or toxic fumes, gases or vapours, thus presenting a major risk to health or life for anyone entering it. Areas in which an unsafe atmosphere is present, or can arise, include: cargo holds, double bottoms, cargo tanks, pump rooms, compressor rooms, fuel tanks, ballast tanks, cofferdams, void spaces, duct keels, inter-barrier spaces, sewage tanks, cable trunks, pipe trunks, pressure vessels, battery lockers, chain lockers, inert gas plant scrubber and blower spaces and the storage rooms for carbon dioxide (CO2), halons and other media used for fire extinguishing or inerting.

10.1.4                 Such confined spaces should not be entered except upon the explicit instruction of the master or the responsible officer. If a deficiency of oxygen or the presence of toxic gases, vapours or fumes is suspected in any space, then that space should be considered dangerous.

10.1.5             The crew shall be drilled periodically in confined spaces rescue and medical first aid.


 

10.2               PRECAUTIONS ON ENTERING CONFINED SPACES

10.2.1                 Before a space is entered, the following precautions should be taken, as appropriate, to make it safe for entry without the need for breathing apparatus, and to ensure that it remains safe whilst persons are inside:

(a)           a competent person should make an assessment of the space and the risks involved and a responsible officer should be appointed to take charge of the operation;

(b)           the potential hazards should be identified;

(c)           the space should be prepared and secured for entry;

(d)           the atmosphere should be tested;

(e)           a "permit-to-work" system should be used;

(f)            entry procedures should be established and followed;

(g)           continuous ventilation should be maintained throughout.

10.2.2                 Additional precautions, including the use of breathing apparatus, should be taken where the procedures listed in paragraph 10.2.1 have been followed and an unsafe atmosphere has been established (see section 10.9.).

10.2.3                 No person should enter a dangerous space to attempt a rescue without first having called for assistance and then having donned a breathing apparatus. Even then, entry should not be made until assistance arrives (see sections 10.9 and 10.10).

10.3               DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A COMPETENT PERSON AND OF A RESPONSIBLE OFFICER

10.3.1                 The designated competent person should be capable of making an informed assessment of the likelihood of a dangerous atmosphere being present or arising subsequently in a space. The competent person should have sufficient theoretical knowledge and practical experience of the hazards that might be met and whether precautions are necessary. The assessment of potential hazards should take into account any dangers from neighbouring or unconnected spaces, as well as the work needing to be done in the space itself.

10.3.2                 A responsible officer should be designated to take charge of every operation where entry into a potentially dangerous space is necessary. This officer may be the same person as the competent person.

10.3.3                 The responsible officer must, on the basis of the competent person's assessment, determine the procedures to be followed for entry into the space. These will depend on whether the assessment shows:

(a)           no immediate risk to life or health but that a risk could arise during the course of work in the space (the precautions in section 10.5 should then be followed);


 

(b)           an immediate risk to life or health (the precautions in section 10.9 should then be followed).

10.3.4                 The space should be continuously monitored as long as anyone is inside.

10.4               PREPARING AND SECURING THE SPACE FOR ENTRY

10.4.1                 Care should be taken to avoid the effects of a possible release of pressure or vapour when opening the entrance to the space.

10.4.2                 The space should be isolated and secured against the escape of dangerous substances by blanking off pipelines or other openings, or by closing valves. Valves should then be tied, or some other method employed to show that they must not be opened.

10.4.3                 The space should be cleaned or washed, if necessary, to remove as much as possible of the sludge or other deposit liable to give off dangerous fumes. Special precautions may be necessary (see section 10.9).

10.4.4                 The space should be thoroughly ventilated by natural or mechanical means, to ensure that all harmful gases are removed and no pockets of oxygen-deficient atmosphere remain. Compressed oxygen should not be used to ventilate any space.

10.4.5                 Officers on watch, or persons in charge, on the bridge, on the deck, in the engine-room, or the cargo control room should be informed as necessary that a space is to be entered so that, for example, fans are not stopped, equipment not started or valves not opened by remote control.

10.4.6                 Appropriate warning notices should be placed on the relevant controls or equipment.

10.4.7                 Where necessary, pumping operations or cargo movements should be suspended when entry is being made into a dangerous space.

10.5               TESTING THE ATMOSPHERE OF CONFINED AND ENCLOSED SPACES

10.5.1                 Only persons trained in the use of the equipment should test the atmosphere of a space.

10.5.2                 Equipment should be properly calibrated before use.

10.5.3                 Testing of the atmosphere should be carried out before entry and at regular intervals thereafter.

10.5.4                 Testing of the atmosphere before entry should be made by remote means. If not possible, the competent person should ensure that all attempts have been made to reduce the danger posed by the atmosphere and only then should entry be made with the additional precautions set out in section 10.9.

10.5.5                 Testing of the atmosphere should be carried out on different levels, where appropriate.


 

10.5.6                 Personal monitoring equipment designed purely to provide a warning against oxygen deficiency and hydrocarbon concentrations should not be used as a means of determining whether a dangerous space is safe to enter.

10.6               USE OF A PERMIT-TO-WORK SYSTEM

10.6.1                 A "permit-to-work" system should be used. Entry into a space should be planned in advance and if unforeseen problems or hazards arise during the operation, then work should be stopped and the space evacuated immediately. Permits to work should then be withdrawn and the situation reassessed. Permits to work should be revised as appropriate after the reassessment.

10.6.2                 Everyone should leave the space on expiry of a "permit to work", and the entrance should be closed or otherwise secured to prevent re-entry until declared safe for normal entry.

10.7               PROCEDURES AND ARRANGEMENTS BEFORE ENTRY

10.7.1                 Access to, and lighting, within the space should be adequate.

10.7.2                 No sources of ignition should be taken or put into the space unless the master or responsible officer is satisfied that it is safe to do so.

10.7.3                 A rescue team and resuscitation equipment should be available for immediate action. The resuscitation equipment should be positioned ready for use at the entrance.

10.7.4                 Only trained personnel should be assigned duties at entry, functioning as attendants or as members of rescue teams.

10.7.5                 The number of persons entering the space should be limited to those persons who need to work and to the number that could be rescued in the event of an emergency.

10.7.6                 At least one person, trained in entry procedures and the action to be taken in the event of an emergency, should be detailed to stay by the entrance whilst the space is occupied. The attendant should not enter the space leaving the entrance unattended, even in cases where a person inside the space is believed to be at risk, and certainly not before the responsible officer is advised and arrangements made for another person to act as the attendant.

10.7.7                 A communication system should be agreed and tested by all involved, to ensure that persons entering the space can keep in touch with the person stationed at the entrance.

10.7.8                 A communication system should be set up between the officer on watch and the person stationed at the entrance.

10.7.9                 It should be checked that entry with breathing apparatus is possible before entry is allowed. The extent by which movement could be restricted or the removal of a casualty could be hampered, by the use of breathing apparatus, lifelines or harnesses should be ascertained by a competent person.


 

10.7.30               Rescue harness lifelines should be long enough for the purpose and easily detachable by the wearer, but should not otherwise come away from the harness.

10.8               PROCEDURES AND ARRANGEMENTS DURING ENTRY

10.8.1                 The space should be continuously ventilated whilst occupied and during temporary breaks. All persons in the space should leave immediately if the ventilation system fails.

10.8.2                 Whilst the space is occupied the atmosphere should be tested periodically. Should there be any deterioration in the conditions all persons should leave immediately.

10.8.3                 Work should stop and all persons should leave the space if unforeseen difficulties or hazards occur. The situation should then be reassessed (see paragraph 10.6.1).

10.8.4                 If any person working in a space feels in any way adversely affected he or she should give a pre-arranged signal to the person standing by the entrance and immediately leave the space.

10.8.5                 A rescue harness should be worn to facilitate recovery in the event of an accident.

10.8.6                 The general (or crew) alarm should be sounded in the event of an emergency, so that immediate back-up can be given to the rescue team.

10.9               ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRY INTO A SPACE WHERE THE ATMOSPHERE IS SUSPECT OR KNOWN TO BE UNSAFE

10.9.1                 Where the atmosphere is considered suspect or unsafe to enter without breathing apparatus, and provided all reasonable attempts at gas-freeing have been carried out, entry may be made if this is essential for testing purposes, the working of the ship, the safety of life or the safety of the ship. The number of persons entering should be limited to the minimum number necessary to undertake the work.

10.9.2                 Breathing apparatus should always be worn. Respirators must not be used because they do not provide a supply of clean air from a source independent of the atmosphere in the space.

10.9.3                 Two air supplies, as described in section 10.10, should be available to the wearer of breathing apparatus, except in the case of emergency, or where this is impractical because movement in the space would be seriously impeded. A continuous supply provided from outside the space should be used. Should it prove necessary to change over to the self-contained supply, the person should immediately vacate the space.

10.9.4                 Precautions should be taken to safeguard the continuity of the outside source of air during occupation of the space by the wearer of breathing apparatus. Special attention should be given to supplies originating from the engine-room.

10.9.5                 A single air supply may be acceptable, where remote testing of the space is not reasonably practicable, provided prolonged presence in the space is not required and the person is situated so that he or she can be hauled out immediately in case of emergency.


 

10.9.6                 A rescue harness should be worn. Lifelines should be used where practicable, and should be attended by a person stationed at the entrance who has received training in removing an unconscious person from a dangerous space. If hoisting equipment is needed to effect a rescue, the availability of persons to operate the equipment in the event of an emergency should be ensured.

10.9.7                 Portable lights and other electrical equipment should be of a type approved for use in a flammable atmosphere.

10.9.8                 Personal protective equipment should be worn where there is a hazard due to chemicals, in liquid, gaseous or vapour form

10.9.9                 A pre-arranged plan should be drawn up to deal with the rescue of collapsed persons within a dangerous space. The plan should take into account the design of the individual ship and of the equipment and manpower on board. The need to allocate personnel to relieve or back-up those first into the space should be considered.

10.9.10               If a person working in the space indicates that he or she is being affected by the atmosphere, the person stationed by the entrance, using the agreed communication system should immediately raise the alarm. On no account should the person stationed at the entrance to the space attempt to enter it before additional help has arrived and the responsible person has been alerted to the situation. No one should attempt a rescue without wearing breathing apparatus, a rescue harness and, whenever possible, a lifeline.

10.9.11               If air is being supplied through an air line to the person who has become unwell, an immediate check should be made that the air supply is being maintained at the correct pressure.

10.9.12               An incapacitated person should be removed from the space as quickly as possible, unless he or she is gravely injured, and essential first aid treatment should be administered first (e.g. the restoration of the casualty's air supply at the earliest possible moment must be the first priority).

10.10             BREATHING APPARATUS AND RESUSCITATION EQUIPMENT

10.10.1               Every crew member should be instructed in the use of breathing apparatus by a responsible officer.

10.10.2               The responsible officer and the person about to enter the space should undertake the full pre-wearing check and donning procedures recommended by the manufacturer. In particular the following should be checked:

(a)           that there will be sufficient clean air at the correct pressure;

(b)           that low pressure alarms are working properly;

(c)           that the face mask fits correctly against the wearer's face, so that, combined with pressure of the air coming into the mask, there will not be an ingress of oxygen-deficient air or toxic vapours when the user inhales. It should be noted that facial hair or spectacles will prevent the formation of an airtight seal between a person's face and the face mask;


 

(d)           that the wearer of the breathing apparatus understands whether or not the air supply may be shared with another person and if so is also aware that such procedures should only be used in an extreme emergency;

(e)           that when work is being undertaken in the space, the wearer should keep the self-contained supply ready for use in case there is a failure of the continuous supply from outside the space.

10.10.3               When in a dangerous space:

(a)           no one should remove their own breathing apparatus;

(b)           breathing apparatus should not be removed from a person unless it is necessary to save his or her life.

10.10.4               Where any person may be required to enter a dangerous space, appropriate resuscitators should be provided, and if entry is expected to occur at sea the ship should be provided with the appropriate equipment. If the appropriate equipment has not been provided entry should not take place.

10.11             MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING

10.11.1               A responsible officer should maintain and periodically inspect and check for correct operation all breathing apparatus, rescue harnesses, lifelines, resuscitation equipment and any other equipment provided for use in, or in connection with, entry into dangerous spaces or during emergencies. A record should be kept of the inspections and checks. All items of breathing apparatus should be inspected and checked for correct operation before and after use.

1.0.11.2              Equipment for testing the atmosphere of dangerous spaces should be kept in good working order and, where applicable, regularly serviced and calibrated. The manufacturer's recommendations should be kept with the equipment and should be followed.

10.11.3               Shipowners should provide seafarers with the necessary training, instructions and information on entry into dangerous spaces, which should include:

(a)           recognition of the circumstances and activities likely to lead to the presence of a dangerous atmosphere;

(b)           recognition of the hazards associated with entry into dangerous spaces, and the precautions to be taken;

(c)           the use and proper care of equipment and clothing required for entry into dangerous spaces;

(d)           instruction and drill in rescue from dangerous spaces.


 

11             MANUAL LIFTING AND CARRYING

Note:           This chapter provides only a general guide to safe manual handling practice. For more detailed information about the principles and practices of safe manual handling, the reader should also study the Worksafe Australia Standard on Manual Handling (which incorporates both the National Standard (NOHSC:1001(1990)) and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC:2005(1990)).

11.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

11.1.1                 Lifting and carrying objects may seem to be simple operations but many persons on board ship have sustained serious back and other injuries by lifting in an incorrect manner.

11.1.2                 Every person who is required to handle loads manually should be properly trained.

11.1.3                 Before lifting and carrying weights, seafarers should first inspect the load as regards its weight, size and shape. Attention should be given to sharp edges, protruding nails or splinters, greasy surfaces or any other features which might lead to an accident.

11.1.4                 The size and shape of the load are not a reliable indication of its actual weight.

11.1.5                 The area over which the load is to be moved should not be slippery and should be free from obstructions.

11.1.6                 To ensure that the lift will be as straight as possible, a firm and balanced stance should be taken close to the load, with the feet being kept slightly apart.

11.1.7                 Seafarers lifting a load from below knee level should adopt a crouching position with the knees bent but the back should be kept straight to ensure that the legs take the strain.

11.1.8                 The load should be gripped with the whole of the hand.

11.1.9                 The load should be kept close to the body and lifted by straightening the legs.

11.1.10               Where possible or when lifting to a high level, the seafarer should:

(a)           use a bench or support to make the lift in two stages;

(b)           adjust the grip as necessary for carrying or lifting to a second level.

11.1.11               The load should be carried in such a manner as to ensure that vision is not obscured. If vision is obscured another method of moving the load should be adopted.

11.1.12               To put the load down the lifting procedure should be reversed, with the legs doing the work of lowering, with the knees bent, back straight and the load kept close to the body.

11.1.13               Safety shoes or boots should be worn.

11.1.14               Personal protective equipment such as back supports are not recommended.


 

11.1.15               Mechanical aids or devices such as a block and tackle should be used where ever possible.

11.1.16               Seafarers should take note of the working environment including the weather and the ship's movement when loads are being carried on board ship, particularly if the ship is at sea.

11.1.17               Particular care should be taken to coordinate action when two or more people are carrying a load.


 

12             TOOLS AND MATERIALS

12.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

12.1.1                 Users should ensure that all machines, tools and other equipment are suitable for the work in hand and the conditions in which they are to be used.

12.1.2                 Personal protective equipment should be worn when appropriate (e.g. eye, face and hearing protectors and hair nets for long hair, should be worn when appropriate).

12.2               HAND TOOLS

12.2.1                 Tools should be treated with due care and should be used only for the purpose for which each tool is designed.

12.2.2                 Damaged or unsafe tools should not be used.

12.2.3                 Tools that are not being used should be placed in a carrier, box or tool rack located in a safe position against movement at sea.

12.2.4                 All tools should be stowed on shadow boards, in lockers or other appropriate places at the end of a work period or operation.

12.2.5                 When working aloft with hand tools, tools should be secured in such a manner as to prevent them falling.

12.3               PORTABLE ELECTRIC, PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC TOOLS

12.3.1                 Power-operated tools are dangerous if they are not maintained and operated correctly.

12.3.2                 Special care should be taken when seafarers work in damp conditions since the risk of electric shock is greatly increased in the presence of moisture or high humidity.

12.3.3                 Since ships are largely made of metal, which conducts electricity, great care should be taken in the use of electrical tools.

12.3.4                 All electrical hand tools purchased must have double insulation. Electrical tools designed to be earthed should be properly connected.

12.3.5                 Electrical tools should be inspected before use and particular attention should be paid to power supply leads. Damaged, frayed or suspect leads must never be used.

12.3.6                 Refer to AS 3160–1996 (Approval and test specification), on electrical appliances.

12.3.7                 Electrical leads and hydraulic/pneumatic tool hoses should be kept clear of anything that might damage them.

12.3.8                 Tool pieces, such as drills or bits, must be secure in the tool and must not be fixed or replaced while the tool is connected to a power source.

12.3.9                 Power tools should be switched off and disconnected from the power source when not in use.


 

12.4               WORKSHOP AND BENCH MACHINES (FIXED INSTALLATIONS)

12.4.1                 Permanent signs should be fitted above workshop and bench machines alerting users to any necessary precautions appropriate to the machine, such as the wearing of eye protection.

12.4.2                 No person should operate a machine unless authorised and trained to do so.

12.4.3                 Machine operators should be competent in the use of the machine and familiar with its controls.

12.4.4                 All dangerous parts of machines must be securely guarded. Refer to AS 4024.1–1996 (Safeguarding of machinery Part 1General principles), on machine guarding. Examples of "dangerous parts" are reciprocating components, revolving shafts, gearing, belt drives etc.

12.4.5                 A machine should be checked each time before use. Guards and safety devices should be inspected before the machine is started.

12.4.6                 No control or light switch should be in such a position that an operator is required to lean over a machine to reach it.

12.4.7                 Loose fitting and unsuitable clothing should not be worn when operating machines.

12.4.8                 If a machine is found to be defective, it should be isolated from its source, tagged and or locked out until repaired by a competent person.

12.4.9                 Working areas should be kept clean and uncluttered and debris such as metal turnings and swarf should not be allowed to build up around a machine.

12.4.10               A machine in use should never be left unattended, even for a few minutes, and should always be stopped when it is not in use.

12.4.11               Before a drill or lathe is started, the chuck key should be removed and the operator should ensure that other people are clear of the machine.

12.4.12               Work pieces for drilling and milling should be securely held at all times by a machine vice or clamp.

12.4.13               There must be adequate lighting around all fixed machines.

12.5               ABRASIVE WHEELS

12.5.1                 Abrasive wheels should be selected, mounted and used only in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

12.5.2                 A wheel should be closely inspected for damage and brushed clean before it is mounted.

12.5.3                 The clamping nut should be tightened only enough to hold the wheel firmly.


 

12.5.4                 A strong guard should be provided and kept in position at every abrasive wheel both to contain the parts in the event of the wheel bursting and to prevent the user from coming into contact with the wheel.

12.5.5                 The speed of the spindle should not exceed the stated maximum speed of the wheel and should be periodically checked.

12.5.6                 When dry grind operations are being carried out or an abrasive wheel is being trued or dressed, suitable transparent screens should be fitted in front of the exposed part of the wheel and users must wear properly fitting suitable eye protection. Note that it is necessary to use both forms of protection.

12.6               SPIRIT LAMPS

12.6.1             Care should be taken in filling lamps. If a lamp has been in use it should be completely cool before it is refilled.

12.7               COMPRESSED AIR

12.7.1                 Compressed air should never be directed at any part of a person's body as air puncturing a person's skin could have serious consequences.

12.7.2                 Compressed air should not be used to clean a working area.

12.7.3                 Seafarers should be particularly aware of the dangers of using high pressure pneumatic equipment, such as cleaning and scaling devices, as their misuse can lead to fatal consequences.

12.8               COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

12.8.1                 The labelling, stowage and carriage of compressed gas cylinders are governed by the IMDG code to which reference should be made.

12.8.2                 Reference should also be made to Australian Standards 2030.1–1989, 2030.2–1996, 2030.3–1982, 2030.4–1985 and 2030 Supplement 1–1986 on the approval, filling, inspection, testing and maintenance of cylinders for the storage and transport of compressed gas.

12.8.3                 Cylinders should always be handled with care, whether full or empty.

12.8.4                 Cylinders should be properly secured and kept upright but must be capable of quick release. Oxygen and fuel gas cylinders (such as acetylene) should be kept in suitable, separate, well ventilated compartments that are not subject to extremes of temperature. The space should have no electrical fittings or other sources of ignition. "No smoking" signs should be displayed at the entrance and within the space.

12.8.5                 Protective caps over the valve should be screwed in place when cylinders are not in use or are being moved. Valves should be closed when the cylinder is empty.

12.8.6                 Cylinder valves controls and associated fittings should be kept free from oil, grease and paint. Controls should not be operated with oily hands. Delivery pipework must


 

be marked in accordance with AS 1345–1995 (Identification of the contents of pipes, conduits and ducts).


 

13             WELDING FLAME-CUTTING AND OTHER HOT WORK

13.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

13.1.1                 Welding, flame-cutting and other hot work operations must be conducted within the "permit-to-work" system and procedures as described in the ship's safety management system documentation (see chapter 4), whenever carried out in a non-workshop location.

13.1.2                 Equipment operators should be competent and familiar with the equipment to be used and should inspect it before use.

13.1.3                 Equipment operators should be given careful instructions if special precautions need to be taken.

13.1.4                 Harmful fumes may be produced and oxygen depleted during operations. Special care should be taken during operations in enclosed places and enclosed space procedures (see chapter 10) should be used where necessary to ensure safe operations. Compressed gas cylinders must not be introduced into confined spaces.

13.1.5                 The precautions provided in chapter 24 should be followed for hot work aboard tankers.

13.2               PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

13.2.1                 The equipment operator and other persons involved in the work process should wear clean and approved personal protective equipment.

13.2.2                 The operator should normally wear:

(a)           a welding helmet and suitable eye shield:

(b)           leather working gloves;

(c)           a leather apron when appropriate; and

(d)           any other appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment, e.g. safety boots.

13.3               PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE, EXPLOSIONS AND NON-LIFE SUPPORTING ENVIRONMENTS

13.3.1                 Before any operation begins, inspections and tests should be carried out to ensure that there are no combustible solids, liquids or gases at or in any compartments adjacent to the work area which might be ignited by heat or sparks from the work. An assessment of the task in the context of other work being done on board must be completed. The assessment to be undertaken by a responsible officer.

13.3.2                 All surfaces to be welded, or upon which hot work is to be conducted, should be free of oil, grease or any flammable or combustible material


 

13.3.3                 All openings through which sparks might fall in should be closed where practicable. Where closure is not possible special care is to be taken to ensure no flammable materials below can be ignited and that the area below is cordoned off to prevent access to passage of persons below while work is occurring.

13.3.4                 Cargo tanks, fuel tanks, cargo holds or other tanks or spaces (including cargo pumps and pipelines) that have contained flammable substances should be certified by a competent person as being free of flammable gases before any work commences (see chapter 10).

13.3.5                 All operations should be properly supervised and a fire watch maintained, both in the operational area and all adjacent areas, including spaces on the other side of affected bulkheads. Because of the possibility of delayed fires the fire watch should be maintained for a suitable period of time after the work has been completed.

13.3.6                 Suitable fire extinguishers should be kept at hand.

13.4               ELECTRIC WELDING EQUIPMENT

13.4.1                 The power supply should be direct current (DC), which minimises the risk from electric shock.

13.4.2                 The "go and return" system in which the welding set has two cables should be used, with the "return" cable separately earthed to the ship's structure. The lead and return cables should be of the shortest length possible (and of an appropriate cross-section) to avoid voltage drop.

13.4.3                 Cables should be inspected before use, and connectors should be fully insulated.

13.4.4                 Suitable means should be provided for rapidly cutting off current from the electrode should the operator encounter difficulties.

13.5               PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING ELECTRIC-ARC WELDING

13.5.1                 Non-conducting safety footwear should be worn in addition to the personal protective equipment specified in section 13.2. Clothing should be kept as dry as possible.

13.5.2                 If the operator is in close contact with the ship's structure, protection should be provided by dry insulating mats or boards.

13.5.3                 Where possible, welding should not be carried out in hot/humid conditions that might cause sweat or damp clothing. If it is not possible to avoid such conditions, appropriate precautions should be taken such as changing damp clothing.

13.5.4                 Under no circumstances whatsoever should a welder work in wet conditions.

13.5.5                 The electrode holder should be isolated from the current supply before a used electrode is removed and before a new electrode is inserted. This precaution is necessary because some electrode coatings have extremely low resistance.

 


 

13.6               FLAME-CUTTING AND BRAZING

13.6.1                 Equipment should have backpressure valves fitted adjacent to the torch in the oxygen and acetylene lines and flame arresters fitted at the low pressure side of the regulators. A competent person must check all tools and equipment before use.

13.6.2                 Oxygen pressure should always be sufficient to prevent acetylene from entering the oxygen line.

13.6.3                 Acetylene may explode under excessive pressure. It should not be used at a pressure exceeding one (1) atmosphere gauge.

13.6.4                 If a backfire occurs, the valves on the oxygen and acetylene cylinders should be closed immediately. Personnel should be trained in the appropriate methods for cooling and/or jettisoning cylinders which become hot. An acetylene cylinder that becomes overheated is very dangerous as an impact could cause internal ignition and subsequent explosion.

13.6.5                 Only hoses which have been specially designed for flame cutting and brazing operations should be used. Hoses in which a flashback has occurred, or which are in any other way damaged, should be discarded.

13.6.6                 Blowpipes should be lit by safe means such as a stationary pilot flame or a special friction igniter.

13.6.7                 Gases should be shut off at the pressure reducing regulators before a blowpipe is changed.


 

14             PAINTING

14.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

14.1.1                 Paints may contain toxic or irritant substances. A paint for which no manufacturer's information or Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is available should not be used. Information must also be provided on thinners and cleaning solvents.

14.1.2                 Some paints dry by evaporation of the paint's solvent and the process may release flammable or toxic vapours. All interior and enclosed spaces should be well ventilated while painting is in progress and until the paint has dried.

14.1.3                 Smoking should not be permitted during painting. Naked lights, such as matches, should not be used in spaces until paint has fully dried.

14.1.4                 Great care should be taken when mixing two-pack (two component) paint, as a chemical reaction takes place during the mixing which might create heat and fumes.

14.1.5                 Chemical rust removers are corrosive and precautions should be taken to protect eyes and skin.

14.1.6                 Spaces where paint and painting equipment are stored should be well ventilated (see section 10.9 for guidance concerning entering into such spaces when the ventilation system is inoperative).

14.2               SPRAY PAINTING

14.2.1                 Operators should closely follow the manufacturer's instructions on the operation of spray equipment.

14.2.2                 A "paint mist" may form during spraying operations and personnel should wear suitable personal protective equipment such as a combination suit, hood, gloves and eye protectors. A respirator may also be necessary.

14.2.3                 Paints containing tin, mercury, lead or any toxic compounds should not be sprayed in interior spaces.

14.2.4                 Airless spray equipment ejects paint at a very high pressure. The operation is hazardous as the paint can penetrate the skin or cause eye injuries. Great care should be taken in the use of such equipment.

14.2.5                 Operators of spray equipment should be trained in the correct methods of unblocking nozzles according to the manufacturer's instructions.

14.3               PAINTING ALOFT AND WORKING OVER THE SIDE

14.3.1             Chapter 15 should be read for the precautions to be taken when working aloft and over the side.


 

15             WORKING ALOFT AND OVER THE SIDE

15.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

15.1.1                 Consideration should be given to a permit to work system for work aloft or over the side, depending on the nature of the work (see chapter 4). A form for working aloft should take account of the particular nature of the operation.

15.1.2                 Particular attention should be paid to sea and weather conditions and the possibility of squalls before working aloft or over the side is commenced. In general, working aloft or over the side should not be permitted if the movement of a ship in a seaway makes such work hazardous.

15.1.3                 In coastal waters strong tidal or current rips could cause sudden, unexpected ship movements, which might be hazardous to seafarers working aloft.

15.1.4                 Special consideration should be given to the problems of working near the ship's whistle, funnel, radio aerials and radar scanners. All relevant officers should be informed before work commences and all relevant equipment should be isolated, shut down or appropriate procedures adopted. Warning notices should be posted as appropriate. Officers should be informed when the work is completed.

15.1.5                 Inexperienced persons should not be required to work aloft, outboard or over the side, unless accompanied by an experienced crew member or are under adequate supervision.

15.1.6                 All seafarers should wear safety harnesses and restraints appropriate to the conditions. Safety nets should be rigged where necessary. Persons working over the side should wear life-jackets or other suitable flotation devices. Someone should be in attendance on deck. A lifebuoy with a line attached should be readily available.

15.1.7                 Warning notices that persons are working aloft should be posted on deck, and elsewhere as appropriate. Tools should not be carried in pockets but secured in belt tool carriers, and they should be kept secured to the belt with a lanyard or string during the work. Tools and stores should be sent up and lowered by line in suitable containers.

15.1.8                 All equipment, such as lizards, blocks and gantlines, should be carefully examined before use. If there is any doubt of the standard, quality and condition of any item, it should not be used.

15.1.9                 Where possible, only permanent fixtures to the ship's structure, such as welded eye pads, should be used as securing points for lizards, blocks and gantlines. Securing points should be inspected to ensure that they are capable of carrying the weight.

15.1.10               Lizards and gantlines should be kept away from, or protected from, sharp edges.

15.1.11               Cargo handling operations should not take place in the vicinity where seafarers are working aloft.

15.1.12               A competent person should continuously supervise seafarers working aloft or over the side.


 

15.2               CRADLES AND STAGES

15.2.1                 Cradles and stages must comply with AS 1576.1-1995 (ScaffoldingGeneral Requirements). Cradles should be at least 45 cm wide and fitted with guard-rails to a height of one (1) metre.

15.2.2                 Plank stages should be made from sound wood and materials and should be free from defect.

15.2.3                 As far as possible, stages should be secured against movement.

15.2.4                 Gantlines should be long enough to allow stages to be lowered to a level which enables seafarers to step off the stage easily.

15.2.5                 When seafarers working on a stage are required to lower the stage themselves, all movements of the stage should be small and carefully controlled.

15.3               BOSUN'S CHAIRS (SWING CHAIR)

Work aloft using bosun's chairs must be done in accordance with the provisions of AS/NZ 4488.1–1997 (Industrial rope access systemsPart 1: Specifications) and AS/NZ 4488.2-1997 (Industrial rope access systemsPart 2: Selection, use and maintenance).

15.4               ROPES

15.4.1                 The safety of seafarers working aloft: depends to a large extent on the condition of the ropes used in the operations. Such ropes must be given considerable care and attention (see also chapter 18).

15.4.2                 Ropes should be stowed in a special locker and used for no other purpose than for working aloft. Nothing else should be stowed in the locker as stores such as detergents and paints may damage ropes. The locker should be dry and not subject to excessive heat.

15.4.3                 All ropes should be thoroughly inspected each time before use and daily when in use. It should be remembered that although the surface of a rope may indicate that it is in good condition, it may have deteriorated inside.

15.4.4                 All ropes (e.g. gantlines, lifelines and lizards) should be load tested before use to four or five times the weight that they will be expected to carry.

15.5               PORTABLE LADDERS AND SCAFFOLDING

15.5.1                 Portable ladders should be manufactured to AS 1892.1–1996 (Portable ladders—metal) or AS 1892.2–1992 (Portable ladders—timber). Portable scaffolding should be manufactured to AS 1576.1–1995 (Scaffolding—General Requirements).

15.5.2                 Working from ladders, where there is a risk of over-stretching and falling, should be discouraged.

15.5.3                 A safety harness secured above the person should be used when working aloft.


 

15.5.4                 The ladder should extend to a height of at least one (1) m above the top landing place.

15.5.5                 A ladder should be effectively secured so that it cannot move.

15.5.6                 Seafarers using a ladder should:

(a)     have both hands free for climbing up and down;

(b)     face a rigid ladder when climbing up and down;

(c)     not carry tools or equipment.

15.5.7                 Rigid portable ladders should be placed at an angle between 65 and 70 degrees to the horizontal and there should be a clearance of at least 15 cm behind all the rungs. Portable ladders are to be regularly inspected for defects.

15.5.8                 Metal ladders should never be used where there is any risk of the ladder or user coming into contact with an electrical source

15.5.9                 Scaffolding over three (3) metres in height should be erected by professional scaffolders with due regard to the stability and securing of the structure.

15.6               ROPE LADDERS

15.6.1.1              Rope ladders should be of good construction, adequate strength and properly maintained.

15.6.2                 The rope ladder should be properly secured but never secured to railings, or to any other means of support, unless the railings or support will safely take the weight of a person and the ladder.

15.6.3                 The rope ladder should either hang fully extended or be pulled up completely. It should never be left so that slack may suddenly pay out when the ladder is used.

15.6.4                 The ladder should be rigged and used under proper supervision.

15.7               WORKING OVER THE SIDE FROM PUNTS

15.7.1                 Punts should be stable and have suitable fencing.

15.7.2                 The person in charge should consider the potential hazards of working at the stern and near side discharges and the hazards of strong tides and wash from passing vessels etc. All relevant persons should be informed that the work is taking place.

15.7.3                 A person working from a punt should wear a lifeline and a buoyancy garment. Someone should be in attendance on deck and a lifebuoy with a line attached should be readily available.


 

16             WORKING WITH ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

16.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

16.1.1                 All relevant national and international regulations governing the design and construction of electrical installations should be observed, with account being taken of unusual conditions which may be encountered in service such as exposure to:

(a)     moisture, steam and oil vapour, salt-laden atmosphere, sea spray, high winds and ice formation;

(b)     abnormal vibrations, deformation and mechanical shock;

(c)     unusually high or low temperatures; and

(d)     explosive mixtures when used in certain areas.

Note:           The Australian Standard Handbook SAA HB94 1997—Electrical safety in the workplace contains information and advice which augments the provisions of this code.

16.1.2                 Seafarers should receive adequate training before being permitted to work on electrical installations.

16.1.3                 The installation should be maintained and protected to minimise the possibility of fire, external explosion, electrical shocks and danger to seafarers.

16.1.4                 All live parts should be effectively insulated and enclosed in conduits or otherwise protected and should be maintained in that condition.

16.1.5                 All electrical equipment should be regularly inspected to ensure that it is suitable for its intended use. Any electrical faults or other defects should be immediately reported to the appropriate person and repaired by a competent person.

16.1.6                 Attention should be paid to the maintenance of the emergency source of electrical power and alarm systems supply and backup.

16.1.7                 All electrical appliances should be clearly marked to indicate their safe operating voltage.

16.1.8                 Flickering lights should be investigated and repaired by an engineer officer.

16.1.9                 Circuits and appliances carrying different voltages in the same installation should be clearly distinguishable by notices, markings on distribution boxes and other conspicuous means.

16.1.10               Seafarers should not interfere with a design and installation intended to prevent circuits and apparatus from being subjected to voltages which exceed those for which they were designed.


 

16.1.11               Only an engineer officer or other competent person should carry out repairs to electrical installations. When appropriate a "permit-to-work" should be issued (see chapter 4).

16.1.12               Effective means of ensuring safe isolation of every circuit, sub-circuit and apparatus, such as facilities to lock off isolators, key control or signing, should be provided to minimise or eliminate danger to seafarers.

16.1.13               Every circuit should be protected against overload currents, so as to reduce damage to the system and keep the danger of fire to a minimum.

16.1.14               Redundant circuits or apparatus should be disconnected or dismantled.

16.1.15               Personal protective equipment, such as rubber gloves and rubber boots, should be used whenever there is a risk of electric shock, but should not be regarded as providing full protection against such a risk.

16.1.16               Protection against contact with live equipment should be afforded by:

(a)     placing live parts out of reach;

(b)     effective enclosure of live parts;

(c)     adequate insulation; and

(d)     where ever possible do not work on live equipment or plant.

16.1.17               The enclosures of live circuits, such as terminal boxes, should be designed so that only authorised persons can remove them.

16.1.18               Suitable fuses or contact-breakers should be placed in each circuit to limit the current to the safe rating for the cable or equipment.

16.1.19               Where fuses are used, they should bear clear markings indicating their rated current and, as far as practicable, their rated capacity. Replacement fuses should be of the correct rating.

16.1.20               Only authorised persons should replace fuses.

16.1.21               All fuses should be protected to prevent accidental contact.

16.1.22               Effective means (such as a fuse replacement tool) should be employed to ensure that persons removing or inserting fuses will not be endangered, in particular, by any adjacent live parts.

16.1.23               In general, it should not be possible to remove or insert fuses in a circuit unless it has been made dead by means of an isolating device on the incoming side.

16.1.24               The following notices should be exhibited at suitable places:

(a)     a warning notice prohibiting unauthorised persons from entering electrical equipment rooms, interfering with switchboards, and handling or interfering with electrical apparatus;


 

(b)     a warning notice specifying the person to be notified in the event of an electrical accident or some other dangerous occurrence, and indicating how to communicate with that person;

(c)     a notice specifying the voltage present in equipment or conductors; and

(d)     a notice prohibiting the use of naked flames in the vicinity of the battery room.

16.1.25               Only authorised persons should have access to and enter equipment rooms containing live electrical equipment or have access to the rear of live switchboards.

16.1.26               No work should be done in dangerous proximity to a conductor or installation until it has been made dead and signs have been suitably posted.

16.1.27               If a conductor or an installation is in the immediate vicinity of a work location and cannot be made dead, special precautions should be taken. An engineer officer should supervise any such operation.

16.1.28               All conductors and equipment should be considered to be live unless there is definite proof to the contrary.

16.1.29               Before the current is restored, an engineer officer should ensure that no seafarer is in a dangerous position.

16.1.30               After work has been done on electrical equipment, the current should be switched on again only by, or on the orders of, a competent person.

16.1.31               Distribution apparatus and switch gear should be protected in all circumstances, particularly:

(b)     against dripping or splashing of water; and

(b)     in switchboard rooms and machinery spaces.

16.1.32               If temporary connections have to be made while repairs are being carried out, the connections should be made with cables having an adequate margin of current and voltage rating and by an engineer officer. They should be disconnected and removed as soon as they are no longer required.

16.1.33               Seafarers not authorised to carry out electrical work should never install new equipment or alter existing equipment.

16.1.34               Accurate up-to-date drawings, including cabling diagrams and electrical equipment arrangement diagrams, covering the whole installation should be on hand.

16.1.35               Distribution panels should include a list identifying the lighting fixtures, socket outlets and fixed appliances supplied by each of the panel's circuit breakers or fuses.

16.1.36               Distribution panels and local group starter panels should be clearly labelled to show their identity as depicted on the drawings.


 

16.2               WANDERING LEADS, PORTABLE LIGHTS, ELECTRIC TOOLS AND OTHER MOVABLE EQUIPMENT

16.2.1                 All flexible cables should be:

(a)     of sufficient size and current rating for the purposes for which they are to be used;

(b)     so constructed, insulated, secured and protected as to ensure that danger to seafarers will be reduced to a minimum.

16.2.2                 Every electrical connection should be of suitable construction with regard to conductivity, insulation, mechanical strength and protection, with account being taken of the need to use such equipment in exposed locations.

16.2.3                 Cables and conductors should be mechanically protected and properly and durably insulated at points where they are joined, branched or led into any apparatus. For these purposes junction boxes, sleeves, bushings, glands or equivalent connecting devices should be employed.

16.2.4                 Where practicable, flexible cables should be joined by junction boxes or plug and socket couplings, and the attachment should be made by screwing, clamping, soldering, riveting, brazing and crimping or equivalent means.

16.2.5                 Where armoured cables are joined, care should be taken to continue the conductive bond between the armouring of the cables by the bridging and the junction boxes.

16.2.6                 All conductors and apparatus liable to be exposed to a flammable or explosive atmosphere should be so constructed as to negate the possibility of ignition of the vapour or explosive dust. Reference should be made to Australian Standards 2380.1–1989, 2380.2–1991, 2380.4–1994, 2380.6–1988, 2380.7–1987 and 2380.9–1991 on Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Explosion protection techniques. Refer additionally to AS 2381.1–1991, AS 2381.2–1993, AS 2381.6–1993, AS 2381.7–1989, AS 2381.10–1995 on electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—selection, installation and maintenance.

16.2.7                 The supply voltage to portable tools and appliances should generally not exceed 240 volts.

16.2.8                 Hand-held electrical tools should be provided with a spring-loaded switch that will break the circuit automatically when the tool is released from the hand.

16.2.9                 Portable electrical tools and appliances should not be used in a potentially flammable or explosive atmosphere, unless they are of a type certificated for use in such an atmosphere and the action is authorised by a responsible officer.

16.2.10               A hand lamp or other portable lamp should be of an approved type with effective protection for the bulb and with a suitable cover of glass or other transparent material. Such equipment should be dust and water proof and, where necessary, gas proof.

16.2.11               Flexible cables should:


 

(a)     not be laid on surfaces that are oily or wet with corrosive liquids;

(b)     be kept clear of moving loads, running gear and moving equipment;

(c)     not be used to lift the portable lamp or portable tools to which they are connected, unless specifically designed for that purpose;

(d)     have additional protection where they are likely to be subjected to rough usage or moisture.

16.2.12               When seafarers use portable equipment or portable lamps they should ensure that any flexible cables passing through doors, hatches, manholes etc., are protected and that their insulation is not damaged by the closing of doors, covers or lids.

16.2.13               A sufficient number of well placed socket outlets should be provided so that no permanent extension leads are required. Permanent extension leads are to be avoided.

16.3               HIGH-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

16.3.1                 As high-voltage systems present considerable danger only competent persons should work upon them.

16.3.2                 Manufacturer's instruction manuals should be provided for all high-voltage equipment and be closely followed.

16.3.3                 Care should be taken to observe the requirement that all high-voltage equipment should be enclosed or protected. Access should be only obtained by authorised persons using a special tool or key that is retained by the responsible engineer officer, unless the equipment is designed in a way to ensure that any attempt at access will automatically isolate and render it safe.

16.4               RECTIFIERS AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

16.4.1                 No maintenance or repair work should be attempted until the equipment has been effectively isolated and any stored energy dissipated.

16.4.2                 Special attention should be paid to the hazard of working near charged capacitors associated with rectification circuits.

16.4.3                 Only competent persons should be authorised to repair electronic equipment.

16.5               RADIO COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT

16.5.1                 Aerials and open wire feeders should be placed and guarded in a way to make them inaccessible to unauthorised persons.

16.5.2                 Conductors that pass through areas of high electro-magnetic flux should be insulated or otherwise protected in areas to which seafarers have access.

16.5.3                 Any work in the vicinity of transmitting aerials should be carried out only within the "permit-to-work" system (see chapter 4). Warning notices should be posted at appropriate places until the work has been completed.


 

16.5.4                 No seafarers should be allowed to work in the vicinity of transmitting aerials whilst there is a possibility that they may be energised.

16.5.5                 Suitable means should be provided and maintained to exclude any persons from the vicinity of equipment where there is a danger from shock, radio frequency burns and injury from X-rays or other radiation.

16.6               BATTERIES AND BATTERY ROOMS

16.6.1                 Battery rooms should be adequately ventilated to avoid accumulation of explosive gases.

16.6.2                 Lighting fittings and any electrical equipment in the battery room should be of a type certified as being suitable for a hydrogen atmosphere.

16.6.3                 Particular hazards when charging batteries are hydrogen explosion and short circuits. During charging, a battery gives off hydrogen and oxygen and the subsequent mixture can be easily ignited. Short circuits may cause arcing which could lead to an explosion or burn seafarers.

16.6.4                 Only authorised persons should enter battery rooms and, when doing so, they should ensure that they do not introduce any source of ignition. Smoking or welding is prohibited in and near battery rooms.

16.6.5                 Care should be taken when using metal tools or implements to avoid making contact with the metal battery case or terminals.

16.6.6                 Battery rooms should be kept clear of any equipment, including any other electrical equipment, likely to act as a source of ignition, and should not be used as storerooms.

16.6.7                 Lead-acid batteries and alkaline batteries should not be stored in the same room because of the possible interaction of the electrolytes.

16.6.8                 Safe and effective means of inspecting and servicing the batteries should be provided by adequate lighting and access to each cell. Personal protective clothing, gloves and face shield suitable for use with acid should be supplied and worn by seafarers engaged in topping up the batteries.

Open flames and naked lights should not be used to inspect battery cells.

16.7               WORK WITH VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS (VDUS) INCLUDING MICROCOMPUTERS

16.7.1                 Seafarers should be given adequate training in the use and capabilities of VDUs and microcomputers, where applicable, for the execution of their duties.

16.7.2                 Work with VDUs can be mentally tiring and measures should be taken to minimise the risk of eyestrain. Lighting should be adequate for the task, with glare and reflection cut to a minimum, and the display screen should be clear and easy to read. Rest periods should be provided.


 

16.7.3                 Symptoms such as neck and arm pains may arise as the result of bad posture. VDU operators should avoid sitting in a slumped or cramped position and should be provided with an adjustable chair. Screens and keyboards should be adjustable to the correct height and the correct distance from the operator.


 

17             WORKING WITH DANGEROUS AND IRRITATING SUBSTANCES AND RADIATIONS

17.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

17.1.1                 This chapter should be read in conjunction with chapter 7 which refers to publications and codes containing essential information on the handling of dangerous goods.

17.1.2                 Dangerous and irritating substances should be handled only under the supervision of a responsible officer.

17.1.3                 Seafarers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment (see chapter 5).

17.1.4                 Seafarers should be aware that materials such as residual fuel oil and used or spent engine oil contain substances known to be carcinogenic. In addition to any carcinogenic effects, contact between oil and human skin may lead to a range of skin complaints ranging from mild irritation to severe oil acne. Contact must be avoided by taking suitable precautions, e.g. the owner should provide barrier creams and personal protective equipment.

17.1.5                 Masters should ensure that the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provided by the manufacturers with their products is made available to all seafarers who may come into contact with these products.

17.2               WORK WITH UNSATURATED POLYESTERS

17.2.1                 Composite bonding material can contain unsaturated polyesters that may cause skin irritation or sensitisation that can be difficult to control. Appropriate personal protective clothing should be worn when using substances that contain unsaturated polyesters.

17.3               WORK WITH ADHESIVES

17.3.1                 Many adhesives emit fumes that are detrimental to health. Appropriate respiratory equipment should be worn and work spaces should be well ventilated.

17.3.2                 Fire precautions should be observed when working with adhesives.

17.3.3                 Some adhesives, such as "super-glues", can bond skin upon contact. Such adhesives should be used with great caution and the manufacturer's instructions should be closely followed if skin becomes bonded to objects or to other parts of the body. Force should never be used to separate skin or to detach skin from objects.

17.4               REMOVING INSULATION, PAINT AND OTHER COATINGS

17.4.1                 When possible, information on the nature of the material should be obtained and any particular hazards identified and suitable precautions taken.

17.4.2                 Even seemingly innocuous material may contain harmful substances. Appropriate personal protective equipment should always be worn when insulation, paint and other coatings are removed.


 

17.5               WORK WITH ASBESTOS

17.5.1                 All types of asbestos have a fibrous structure that can produce dust harmful to health if the surface integrity is damaged or disturbed. The danger is from minute fibres that can become lodged in the lungs and may cause cancer at a later period (see also paragraph 5.1.5).

17.5.2                 Seafarers should be supplied with information if asbestos is on board ship. Such information should indicate the specific location.

17.5.3                 Asbestos that is sealed is unlikely to release dust; old asbestos may be in poor condition and consideration should be given to its removal.

17.5.4                 In general asbestos must only be dealt a specialist contractor.

17.5.5                 If it is necessary to carry out emergency repairs involving the removal of asbestos, lull personal protective equipment, including respirators, should be worn and asbestos-handling safety procedures should be followed. If necessary expert advice should be sought.

Refer to NOHSC Asbestos Guide

17.6               WORK WITH MAN-MADE MINERAL FIBRES

17.6.1                 Man-made mineral fibres, such as those found within insulation material, can cause skin, nose and eye irritation. Appropriate personal protective equipment, such as goggles, masks and coveralls should be worn when handling such material.

Refer NOHSC Guide on Synthetic Mineral Fibres

17.7               RADIO AND RADAR INSTALLATIONS

17.7.1                 Warning notices of the danger of high voltages should be located near radio transmitter aerials and lead-through insulators.

17.7.2                 When seafarers are working near aerials and scanners, equipment should be isolated, tagged and locked out from the mains supply and radio transmitters earthed. Warning notices should be displayed on the relevant equipment.

17.7.3                 Fuses should be removed from any equipment upon which work is to be carried out before that work commences.

17.8               IONISING RADIATION

17.8.1                 Seafarers should not be exposed to dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Instructions contained in manufacturers' manuals should be strictly followed.

17.8.2                 Eyes are particularly sensitive to microwave and ultrawave radiation. Care should be taken not to look into a radar scanner or waveguide when a radar is operating.

17.8.3                 No work should be carried out within the marked safety radius of a satellite terminal antenna unless its transmitter has been switched off and isolated.


 

18             UPKEEP OF WIRE AND FIBRE ROPES

18.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

18.1.1                 All ropes should be of sound material, good construction and adequate strength for the service required. Refer to AS 3569-1989 (Steel Wire Ropes) and AS 4142-1993 (Fibre ropesCare and safe usage).

18.1.2                 Before use, all ropes should be inspected and confirmed adequate for the intended working load.

18.1.3                 A competent person should periodically inspect all ropes used for load bearing purposes.

18.1.4                 When any rope has been lengthened, altered or repaired, it should be examined and tested before it is used again.

18.1.5                 All ropes should be maintained in good order:

(a)     when not in use they should be stowed under cover in clean, dry and well ventilated places;

(b)     ropes should not be exposed to excessive heat or harmful chemicals.

18.1.6                 Care should be taken to avoid damaging or weakening a rope through:

(a)     excessive stress and strain;

(b)     rubbing or chafing against sharp objects; or

(c)     passing it through too small a sheave or block.

18.1.7                 Care should be taken to avoid the formation of a kink in any rope under strain.

18.1.8                 Care should be taken in withdrawing rope from a new coil:

(a)     for stranded rope this should be done from the inside of a coil, taking it counter-clockwise for a rope for right-hand lay in order to retain the twist.

(b)     kinks should always be taken out by correct coiling (a right-hand coiling for a right-hand rope).

18.1.9                 Any rope, whether natural, synthetic or wire, and of any construction, should not be put under a load suddenly or taken up with a jerk, since such action may overload it.

18.1.10               Where thimbles are required for eye splices on ropes, they should be of suitable size.

18.1.11               Rope ends and splices should be properly seized with yam or other suitable means.

18.2               WIRE ROPES

18.2.1                 No wire rope should be accepted on board unless it is accompanied by a certificate stating that it has been made to a recognised national or international standard and


 

which gives details of its construction, safe working load and minimum breaking strain.

18.2.2                 Wire rope should always be handled with great care. Gloves should be used to protect hands against injury from wire ropes except when the rope is under stress or is being paid out. In such cases care should be taken to avoid hand injuries from broken or frayed strands.

18.2.3                 All wire ropes should be treated at regular intervals with suitable lubricants free from acid or alkali and, if possible, of a type recommended by the manufacturer. Wire ropes should be regularly inspected for loose or broken strands or internal damage. Special attention should be paid to the condition of eye splices.

18.2.4                 Wire ropes should be stored on reels of suitable diameter. When a wire rope normally stored on a reel is required for use it should be taken from the reel and flaked on the deck in a safe manner. It should be inspected thoroughly for corrosion, damage, and for the expiry of shelf life that the manufacturer may have recommended.

18.2.5                 A wire rope should not be used if:

(a)     it shows signs of corrosion;

(b)     there is a tendency towards separation of the strands or wires;

(c)     excessive wear is indicated by flats appearing on the individual wires;

(d)     there is excessive reduction in the measured diameter;

(e)     the number of broken wires in any length of 10 diameters exceeds five percent of the total number of wires in the rope;

(f)     its statutory life or service life as recommended by the manufacturer has expired, although the wire may look outwardly good; or

(g)     after failing to meet requirements of a test.

18.3               FIBRE ROPES

18.3.1                 At regular intervals and always after any cutting or splicing, fibre ropes used for hoisting purposes should be examined for abrasions, broken fibres, cuts, fraying, displacement of the yarns, discolouration and other defects. Contact with grit or sand or dragging over rough surfaces may damage rope and should be avoided.

18.3.2                 An eye or rope splice in a rope of natural fibre should have not less than three tucks and the tail of each tuck should be whipped in a suitable manner.

18.3.3                 Ropes used in connection with safety equipment should preferably be of natural fibre.

18.3.4                 If ropes of man-made fibre are used for life-saving purposes, they should:

(a)     be approved for the purpose; and

(b)     carry a means of identification that they are of the approved quality.


 

18.3.5                 In using ropes of man-made fibres, seafarers should:

(a)     avoid practices under which the special characteristics of such ropes could pose a hazard;

(b)     be aware of the whiplash effects of a breakage in ropes of man-made fibre resulting from their added elasticity and lack of warning signs prior to breakage;

(c)     avoid operations by which friction can heat the strands of the rope and produce a partial melting or stickiness in operation, as for example during surging or slacking away on a drum end or winch barrel, excessive angle around or movement over bollards or fairleads, or rubbing against or across a wire rope or hatch coaming;

(d)     ensure that the manufacturer's recommendations concerning man-made fibre ropes are used when surging operations are carried out using winch drums to avoid excessive slippage;

(e)     ensure that when taking in or paying out rope, slippage between the rope and the drum or barrel is reduced to a minimum;

(f)     avoid gripping any rope that has become heated by friction;

(g)     not allow ropes to run freely through their hands; and

(h)     ensure that such ropes are not unduly exposed to sunlight or harmful chemicals.

18.3.6                 Man-made fibre ropes should be replaced when worn or damaged and in any case as required by the competent authority.

18.3.7                 The method of making eye or loop splices in ropes of man-made fibre should accord strictly with the manufacturer's instructions for the particular material of which the rope is made.

18.3.8                 Any part of a rope composed of man-made fibres, which has come into contact with such organic solvents as paint stripper or paint, should be discarded.

18.3.9                 If a man-made rope has been subjected to a severe shock, it should be carefully examined.

18.3.10               A natural fibre rope that has become wet should be allowed to dry naturally.

18.3.11               A natural fibre rope that has been, or is suspected of having been, in contact with any acid, alkali or any other substance known to be detrimental to rope fibre should be taken out of service and destroyed.

18.3.12               Fibre ropes of diameter less than 12 millimetres shall not be used to lift materials.


 

19             ANCHORING, DOCKING AND MOORING

19.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

19.1.1                 All anchoring, docking and mooring work must be supervised by an officer, who is in constant communication with the bridge.

19.1.2                 The windlass, anchors, chains, mooring lines and wires should be carefully maintained and regularly inspected for damage and defects.

19.1.3                 Appropriate personal protective equipment should be provided to all seafarers involved in these operations.

19.1.4                 Seafarers should be aware that it is usual for capstans, winches, or windlasses to be designed so as to stall or walk back before exceeding the safe working load of the weakest part of the system. Seafarers should not tamper with such arrangements or settings.

19.2               ANCHORING

19.2.1                 Any anchor or chain showing defects should be withdrawn from service and repaired and tested by a suitable shore workshop.

19.2.2                 Except on cases of an emergency the anchor should not be dropped from the hawse pipe but should be walked back to a suitable position and let go from that position.

19.2.3                 Anchors may be let go at inappropriate moments due to the wrong message being received on a portable transceiver. All instructions should be "identified" by some means, e.g. by including the name of the vessel in the instruction.

19.2.4                 Seafarers engaged in operating the brake, and others in the vicinity should wear goggles (or a full-face shield) and safety helmets for protection from dust and debris thrown from the chain.

19.2.5                 Seafarers engaged in stowing an anchor chain into the locker should stand in a protected position and should keep in constant communication with the windlass operator.

19.2.6                 Anchors housed and not required should be properly secured to guard against accidents or damage should the windlass brake be released inadvertently.

19.3               CHARACTERISTICS OF MAN-MADE FIBRE ROPES USED FOR MOORING OR TOWING

19.3.1                 Man-made fibre ropes have advantages over natural fibre ropes in terms of strength, durability and resistance to rot etc. However, wear, damage and excessive exposure to sunlight can greatly diminish the strength of man-made ropes which should therefore be handled with care.

19.3.2                 The following features should be taken into account when man-made ropes are used in port operations:


 

(a)     owing to the ability of the ropes to stretch there may be considerable whiplash effect if the rope breaks;

(b)     there is generally no audible warning prior to a rope breaking;

(c)     some ropes have a low melting point and have a tendency to melt or fuse on a drum end.

19.4                     MOORING AND UNMOORING

19.4.1                 All seafarers involved in mooring and unmooring operations of any kind should be informed of the hazards of engaging in such operations.

19.4.2                 A competent person should be in charge of mooring operations and ascertain that there are no persons in a dangerous position before any heaving or letting go operation is commenced.

19.4.3                 On each occasion that a vessel berths, all relevant circumstances such as weather, tides, passing vessels etc., should be considered in determining a safe securing pattern of ropes and wires.

19.4.4                 Mixed moorings of wires and ropes in the same direction should not be used because wires and ropes stretch differently.

19.4.5                 There should be sufficient seafarers available to ensure the safe conduct of operations.

19.4.6                 Only competent persons should operate windlasses and winches.

19.4.7                 Under no circumstances whatsoever should seafarers stand in a bight of a rope or wire which is lying on deck. Seafarers should never stand or move across a rope or wire that is under strain.

19.4.8                 Ropes and wires are frequently under strain during mooring operations and seafarers should always stand in a place of safety from whiplash should ropes or wires break.

19.4.9                 Due to the types of man-made ropes that may be on board ship, seafarers should be trained in the techniques of "stopping off' wires and ropes. Chain securing devices should be used for stopping off wire mooring ropes but never for fibre ropes.

19.4.10               A watchman should regularly inspect the moorings when a vessel is alongside and the moorings should be kept tight at all times to prevent the ship's movement.

19.5               MOORING TO BUOYS

19.5.1                 Where mooring to buoys by the ship's crew is permitted by the local authority, the following additional precautions should be followed:

(a)     lifebuoys, with and without attached lines, should be readily available;

(b)     seafarers engaged in mooring to buoys from a ship's boat should wear personal protective equipment and a life-jacket;


 

(c)     means should be provided to enable anyone who falls into the water to climb on board the boat;

(d)     the eye of a slip wire used for mooring to buoys should never be put over the bitts;

(e)     mooring strong points, such as chain securing devices and quick-release mechanisms, should be maintained in a serviceable condition.


 

20             WORKING ON DECK OR IN CARGO SPACES

20.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

20.1.1                 All statutory requirements, standards and codes relating to the equipment used should be observed. However, when a ship is not subject to such requirements, these may nevertheless serve as useful guidance.

20.1.2                 Reference should also be made to the chapters concerning special types of ships, where relevant.

20.1.3                 All operations should be under the control of a responsible officer or supervisor who should provide instruction and draw attention to any possible hazards associated with the operation.

20.1.4                 Work should be planned to take account of the prevailing weather conditions.

20.1.5                 The planning process above must include risk assessment and control strategies.

20.1.6                 When seafarers are to work on deck while a ship is at sea, a responsible person should authorise such work.

20.2               CARGO OPERATIONS

20.2.1                 The following section applies to seafarers only to the extent that they are permitted to perform such cargo operations under applicable local regulations and/or practice.

20.2.2                 This section outlines general considerations for cargo operations. For additional information on cargo operations on specific types of ships, reference should be made to chapter 24.

20.2.3                 The requirements of Marine Orders, Part 32 must be complied with. The requirements of the port where cargo operations take place should also be complied with and should be made known to seafarers, as appropriate. The ship's garbage management plan should also be consulted.

20.2.4                 Only trained and experienced persons should operate cargo handling equipment. Manufacturer's instructions regarding operation and maintenance as contained in the ship's cargo handling manual should be followed at all times.

20.2.5                 A responsible officer should inspect equipment prior to and after use. No equipment should be used or operated unless the prescribed certificates of tests and examinations are on the ship and are current and valid.

20.2.6                 The officer with primary responsibility for cargo operations should check that all safety features are in place and that any possible hazards are clearly marked and otherwise dealt with to prevent injury to any persons who may be working on board the vessel.

20.2.7                 The master and ship's officers should ensure that the other crew members are aware of any hazardous cargoes or operations. Appropriate protective equipment should be provided to seafarers before commencement of cargo operations.


 

20.2.8                 Prior to commencement of cargo operations, clear means and lines of communication should be established between the ship's crew and terminal personnel or waterside workers. This is particularly important in the case of hazardous cargoes or hazardous operations. If hand signals are to be used, they must be in accordance with Appendix 18 of Marine Orders, Part 32 and their meaning must be clear in advance to all those concerned in the operation.

20.2.9                 All seafarers must take particular care to not exceed the safe working load of any equipment. The master and officers should take particular care, especially in older vessels, not to overstress any part of the ship's structure.

20.2.10               When work is interrupted or has temporarily ceased, hatches should be left in a safe condition, with either guardrails or the hatch covers in position.

20.2.11               No other work should be carried out in a space in which cargo is being worked.

20.2.12               Seafarers should immediately report the damage of cargo handling equipment to a responsible ship's officer. Damaged equipment should be immediately taken out of service. Seafarers should never attempt to conceal damage to equipment from the responsible ship's officer or from waterside workers and others who may use the equipment.

20.2.13               When dangerous goods are carried, the guidance provided in chapter 7 should be strictly followed.

20.2.14               Cargo gear should be properly stowed to prevent it from breaking loose and posing a hazard when the vessel is at sea.

20.2.15               Cargo should be stowed and secured assuming the worst weather conditions that may be expected.

20.2.16               When deck cargoes are carried, particularly timber, attention should be paid to ensuring the ship's stability throughout the voyage, especially in consideration of the possibility of added weight due to absorption of water or accumulation of ice or snow.

20.3               LIFTING GEAR

20.3.1                 All lifting equipment used on board ship should be of good design, sound construction and material, adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used, free from defect, properly installed or assembled and properly maintained.

20.3.2                 Lifting gear must be tested, examined and' certificated in accordance with Marine Orders, Part 32.

20.3.3                 Lifting gear must not be used unless clearly and legibly marked with its safe working load, including the safe working load at various operating positions.

20.3.4                 The register of a ship's lifting appliances and items of loose gear should be kept in an accessible place on the ship. All lifting gear and loose gear should be included in the register.


 

20.3.5                 All equipment should be thoroughly examined by a responsible officer before use and regularly examined during use. The frequency of examination should depend on the operation, e.g. derrick wires subjected to hard usage should be inspected several times a day.

20.3.6                 Seafarers using cranes, derricks or special lifting gear should preferably be trained and certified for the particular equipment; if this is not possible, they should be thoroughly instructed by a competent ship's officer prior to any cargo operations.

20.3.7                 Loads being lowered or hoisted should not pass or remain over any person engaged in loading or unloading or performing any other work in the vicinity.

20.3.8                 Cargo handling equipment should always be manned when controls are in the "on" position. When not in operation it should be turned "off" and safety locks or devices should be put in place.

20.3.9                 Persons operating equipment should have a clear view. If this is not possible, a signaller should be placed at a point clearly visible to the equipment operator and from the area of work.

20.4               USE OF SLINGS

20.4.1                 Straps and slings should be of sufficient size and length to enable them to be used safely and be applied and pulled sufficiently tight to prevent the load or any part of the load from slipping and falling.

20.4.2                 Before heavy loads such as lengths of steel sections, tubes and lumber are swung, the load should be given a trial lift to test the effectiveness of the slinging.

20.4.3                 Except for the purpose of breaking out or making up slings, lifting hooks should not be attached to:

(a)     the bands, straps or other fastenings of packages of cargo;

(b)     the rims of barrels or drums.

20.4.4                 Slings or chains being returned to the loading position should be securely hooked on the cargo hook before the signaller gives the signal to hoist. Hooks or claws should be attached to the egg link or shackle of the cargo hook, not allowed to hang loose. The cargo hook should be kept high enough to keep slings or chains clear of persons and obstructions.

20.4.5                 Loads (setts) should be properly put together and properly slung before they are hoisted or lowered.

20.4.6                 Loads should be raised and lowered smoothly, avoiding sudden jerks or "snatching" loads.

20.4.7                 Suitable precautions, such as the use of packing or chafing pieces, should be taken to prevent chains, wire and fibre ropes from being damaged by the sharp edges of loads.


 

20.4.8                 When slings are used with barrel hooks or similar holding devices where the weight of the load holds the hooks in place, the sling should be led down through the egg or eye link and through the eye of each hook in turn so that the horizontal part of the sling draws the hooks together.

20.4.9                 The angle between the legs of slings should not normally exceed 90 degrees. Where this is not reasonably practicable, the angle may be exceeded up to 120 degrees provided that the slings have been designed to work at the greater angles.

20.4.10               Trays and pallets should be hoisted with four-legged slings and, where necessary, nets or other means should be used to prevent any part of the load falling. Cages should be used wherever possible for loose items.

20.4.11               When bundles of long metal goods such as tubes, pipes and rails are being hoisted, two slings should be used and, where necessary, a spreader. A suitable lanyard should also be attached, where necessary.

20.4.12               Cargo buckets, tubs and similar appliances should be carefully filled so that there is no risk of the contents falling out. They should be securely attached to the hoist (for example, by a shackle) to prevent tipping and displacement during hoisting and lowering.

20.4.13               Shackles should be used for slinging thick sheet metal if there are suitable holes in the material; otherwise, suitable clamps on an endless sling should be used.

20.4.14               Bricks and other loose goods of similar shape, carboys, small drums, canisters etc., should be loaded or discharged in suitable boxes or pallets with sufficiently high sides, lifted by four-legged slings.

20.5               PULLEY BLOCKS

20.5.1                 All blocks should be inspected before use and no block should be used unless it has identification marks and its safe working load marked on it in tonnes.

20.5.2                 When a block is inspected it should be ascertained that no sheave is cracked, that it turns freely and the groove is not excessively worn, that the head swivel fitting is securely fastened and the block shank freely turns, that the site straps are sound and that all sheave clearances are satisfactory.

20.5.3                 All grease nipples and/or lubrication holes should be kept clear and each block should be regularly greased.

20.6               HOOKS

20.6.1                 Every hook should be provided with an efficient device to prevent displacement of the sling or load or be of such construction as to prevent displacement.

20.6.2                 No hook should be used unless its safe working load is clearly marked.

20.7               SHACKLES

20.7.1                 No shackle should be used unless its safe working load is clearly marked.


 

20.7.2                 A shackle should be of the correct type, size and safe working load for its intended use.

20.7.3                 All shackles should have their pins effectively secured or seized with wire.

20.7.4                 The running part of any rigging should not come into contact with the pin of a shackle.

20.7.5                 All shackle pins should be kept lubricated.

20.8               WORKING ON DECK WHILE SHIP IS AT SEA

20.8.1                 The responsible officer should ensure that seafarers working on deck are properly instructed in the tasks that they are required to perform,

20.8.2                 Seafarers should be prohibited at all times from sitting upon the vessel's bulwark or rail.

20.8.3                 Bridge watchkeeping officers should be informed of all work being performed oil deck or in deck spaces.

20.9               HEAVY WEATHER

20.9.1                 If heavy weather is expected, lifelines should be rigged in appropriate locations on deck.

20.9.2                 Attention should be given to the dangers of allowing any person out on deck during heavy weather.

20.9.3                 No seafarers should be on deck during heavy weather unless it is absolutely necessary for the safety of the ship or crew.

20.9.4                 The lashings of all deck cargo should be inspected and tightened, as necessary, when heavy weather is expected. Work on deck during heavy weather should be authorised by the master and the bridge watch should be informed.

20.9.5                 Any person required to go on deck during heavy weather should wear a life-jacket and be equipped with a portable transceiver. If possible, the person should remain in communication with a back-up person and be visible at all times.

20.9.6                 Seafarers on deck should wear reflective clothing.

20.9.7                 Seafarers should work in pairs or in teams. All seafarers should be under the command of an experienced senior officer.

20.10             WORKING IN HATCHES AND HOLDS

20.10.1               Reference should be made to chapters 8, 9 and 10.

20.10.2               Before any work in any hatches or holds where the atmosphere may contain toxic or flammable gases or be deficient in oxygen, the enclosed space procedures outlined in chapter 10 should be observed.


 

20.10.3               If work is to be performed on or near a tall stack of cargo, an officer should ensure that it is safe to do so. Fall protection measures should be implemented where there is a risk of falling and being injured.

20.10.4               When possible, loosely stowed dunnage should not be walked upon. If this is unavoidable, care should be taken not to walk on any protruding nails.

20.10.5               Work should not be carried out in holds where cargo operations are taking place.


 

21             WORKING IN MACHINERY SPACES

21.1               GENERAL PROVISIONS

21.1.1                 All operations in machinery spaces should be performed under the supervision of a responsible officer.

21.1.2                 Reference should be made to chapter 13 concerning welding, flame cutting and other hot work.

21.1.3                 Reference should be made to chapter 5 concerning personal protective equipment. Particular attention should be paid to protecting seafarers from the effects of noise. Warning signs should indicate spaces in which hearing protection needs to be worn.

21.1.4                 No work other than routine duties should be undertaken except on the orders of a responsible engineering officer. Maintenance work should be carried out in compliance with manufacturer's instruction manuals. When necessary, specific work should be carried out within the "permit-to work" system (see chapter 4).

21.1.5                 Moving parts of machinery should be protected with permanent guards or other safety devices such as railings or fencing. Refer to the AS 4024.1-1996 (Safeguarding of machineryGeneral principles).

21.1.6                 If the use of any piece of machinery or equipment is considered to be temporarily unsafe, it should be immobilised or put in a safe place or condition immediately and, if necessary, a warning notice should be posted adjacent to it or at the control position. The ships lock out or tag out system should be used where applicable.

21.1.7                 No guard, fencing or shielding should be removed for repair or maintenance except when the machinery to which it relates has been stopped and isolated. The machinery should not be restarted until the fencing or shielding has been replaced and secured.

21.1.8                 All valves, pipes and fittings should be adequately supported and fixed or clamped to avoid vibration and possible fracture. All such fixtures and supports should be properly maintained and replaced after maintenance.

21.1.9                 All items such as steam pipes, exhaust pipes and fittings which, because of then-location and operating temperature present a hazard, should be adequately lagged or shielded.

21.1.10               The source of any oil leak should be located as soon as possible and the leak stopped.

21.1.11               Waste oil should not be allowed to accumulate in the bilges or on tank tops. Any accumulation should be removed as soon as possible in compliance with MARPOL. Tank top and bilge spaces should be washed down at regular intervals or as necessary for safety.

21.1.12               A procedure should be in place to ensure that, whenever a fuel oil tank is being filled, or the contents of one tank are being transferred to another, it does not overflow. Such a procedure may be in writing and may include permanently displayed line diagrams and particulars. Whenever fuel oil is being loaded or transferred, the operation should be supervised by the responsible officer.


 

21.1.13               Bilges and mud-boxes should be kept clear of rubbish and substances so that the bilges can be easily pumped.

21.1.14               Special attention should be given to preventing leakages into machinery spaces of exhaust gases from boilers, inert gas plants, uptakes etc.

21.1.15               All areas should be suitably illuminated:

(a)     areas under floor plates where oil pipes are located should be painted a light colour.

(b)     any light that fails should be replaced as soon as possible;

(c)     temporary or portable lighting should be used to provide additional illumination as required, and should be removed immediately after use.

21.1.16               Care should be taken to keep the noise level as low as practicable and to maintain or, where necessary, improve sound-absorbing arrangements.

21.1.17               Seafarers should be informed of the danger of removing hearing protection in areas where the noise level is high, even for short periods. When work has to be carried out in such areas, a suitable system of communication should be agreed upon before the work begins.

21.1.18               If there is a control room, doors should be kept closed and hearing protection should be worn when access is required to any area where the noise level is high.

21.1.19               Ventilation should be maintained to ensure a comfortable atmosphere so far as is reasonably practicable in all areas, with special attention being given to working areas and control rooms. If necessary, ventilation should be increased where maintenance and repair work have to be carried out in areas of high temperature or high humidity.

21.1.20               Unless properly equipped and authorised to be operated without persons in attendance, the boiler room and machinery space should be under the direct supervision of an engineer officer at all times and should be manned at all times by persons adequate for the duties required.

21.1.21               All work on piping systems should be performed under the supervision of an engineer officer and the following precautions should be taken:

(a)     all drains on such equipment as pipes and filters should be kept clear;

(b)     care should be taken to ensure that any pressure has been relieved in all relevant piping, system or container before it is opened or any flange or joint is broken;

(c)     as a precaution, bolts should be only slackened back and not removed until the flange or joint is broken;

(d)     if the flange or joint does not part easily, separation should be made with a wedge and not by allowing pressure into the line. The pipe should be secured temporarily if necessary before the flange or joint is broken;</