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CAO 20.2 Orders/Civil Aviation as amended, taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Order 20.2 Amendment Order (No. 1) 2006
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Cities and Regional Development
Registered 17 May 2006
Start Date 16 May 2006

 

Civil Aviation Order 20.2

as amended

made under subregulation 244 (2) of the

Civil Aviation Regulations 1988

This compilation was prepared on 15 May 2006
taking into account amendments up to Civil Aviation Order 20.2 Amendment Order (No. 1) 2006

Prepared by the Legislative Drafting Branch, Legal Services Group,
Civil Aviation Safety Authority,
Canberra


Contents

            Air service operations — safety precautions before flight

 

2       Removal of locking and safety devices                                                             3

3       Security of doors and hatches                                                                        4

4       Precautions before solo flight in aircraft fitted with dual controls                         4

5       Fuel system inspection                                                                                  4

6       Fuel quantity measurement                                                                            5

         Notes to Civil Aviation Order 20.2                                                                    6


Section 20.2

Air service operations — safety precautions before flight

2          Removal of locking and safety devices

   2.2     Where external control surface locks, undercarriage pins and locks, or other external locking or restricting devices have been fitted, they must, except where otherwise approved by CASA, be removed prior to commencement of taxiing for the purpose of taking off. They must be removed only by the pilot in command or the co-pilot, or by a person instructed in this function and authorised to perform it by the owner, hirer, operator or pilot in command.

   2.3     Where external control surface locks, undercarriage pins and locks, or other external locking or restricting devices are removed by a person other than the pilot in command or co-pilot:

2.3.1    Removal must only be effected as directed by the pilot in command.

2.3.2    The locks, pins and other external devices must be exhibited to the pilot in command or co-pilot from a position which will enable him or her to readily determine that all pins, locks and devices are being displayed.

2.3.3    During the hours of darkness the owner, hirer, operator or pilot in command must ensure that adequate lighting is provided to enable the pilot in command or co-pilot (as the case may be) to see the articles displayed.

2.3.4    When the pilot in command or co-pilot is satisfied that all locking devices have been removed and displayed he or she must give an agreed form of acknowledgement to the person effecting removal.

2.3A     If any external control surface lock, undercarriage pin or lock, or other external locking or restricting device, fitted to an aircraft:

(a)   has been removed by a person other than the pilot in command of the aircraft; and

(b)   has not been exhibited to him or her under subparagraph 2.3.2;

            the pilot in command of the aircraft must not start taxiing the aircraft, or allow the aircraft to be taxied, for the purposes of taking-off unless the co-pilot has told him or her that the lock, pin or other device has been removed:

(c)   by the co-pilot; or

(d)   by a person other than the co-pilot in accordance with paragraph 2.3.

   2.4     When an aircraft has been parked, taxied or towed in winds exceeding 35 knots and the control systems and surfaces have not been effectively restrained either by a person in the cockpit or by approved control surface gust locks, the pilot in command or an appropriately licensed maintenance engineer must, before flight, inspect the control systems and control surface attachments for damage.

   2.5     Where external control surface locks or restricting devices have been removed as prescribed by paragraphs 2.2 and 2.3 of this section, or where an aircraft is to be flown for the first time following maintenance work involving the aircraft’s control surfaces or control surface systems, the pilot in command must, immediately before taxiing for the purpose of taking off, test the flight controls to the full limit of their travel and make such other tests as are necessary to ensure that those controls are functioning correctly.

Note   Paragraph 244 (1) (a) of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 requires that immediately before taking-off on any flight, the pilot in command of an aircraft must test the flight controls on the ground to the full limit of their travel and make such other tests as are necessary to ensure that those controls are functioning correctly.

3          Security of doors and hatches

            Immediately before taxiing for the purpose of taking off on any flight, the pilot in command must ensure that all doors, escape hatches and loading hatches are properly secured.

4          Precautions before solo flight in aircraft fitted with dual controls

            The pilot in command of an aircraft fitted with dual controls, which is to be flown solo, must ensure that safety harness and any other articles or equipment which may foul the controls are safely secured; if the second control column is readily detachable, it must be removed.

5          Fuel system inspection

   5.1     The operator and pilot in command must ensure that the following inspections and tests for the presence of water in the fuel system of the aircraft are made:

(a)   either:

             (i)  if:

(A)    the aircraft manufacturer’s data specifies the manner in which inspections and tests for the presence of water in the aircraft’s fuel system are to be made; and

(B)    the data has been approved under regulation 42M of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 as part of the aircraft’s system of maintenance;

        an inspection and test in accordance with the approved data; or

            (ii)  in any other case — before the start of each day’s flying, and after each refuelling, with the aircraft standing on a reasonably level surface, drain a small quantity of fuel from each fuel tank into a clear transparent container and check by an approved method for the presence of water;

(b)   on such aircraft types which may be specified by CASA, extend the foregoing inspection to fuel system filters and collector boxes. It is recommended that all aircraft fuel system filters and collector boxes be checked for water contamination at frequent intervals.

Note   It is important that checks for water contamination of fuel drainage samples be positive in nature and do not rely solely on sensory perceptions of colour and smell, both of which can be highly deceptive. The following methods are acceptable:

1.       Place a small quantity of fuel into the container before taking samples from tank or filter drain points. The presence of water will then be revealed by a visible surface of demarcation between the two fluids in the container.

2.       Check the drainage samples by chemical means such as water detecting paper or paste, where a change in colour of the detecting medium will give clear indication of the presence of water.

3.       In the case of turbine fuel samples, tests should also include inspection for persistent cloudiness or other evidence of the presence of suspended water droplets, which will not necessarily be detected by methods mentioned in notes 1 and 2. Should any doubt exist of the suitability of the fuel, the checks specified in the aircraft Operators Maintenance Manual should be followed. It is advisable to allow turbine fuel a reasonable period of stagnation before drawing test samples from fuel drain points; this allows settling of suspended water which is a slower process in turbine fuel than in aviation gasoline.

5.1A     In relation to a refuelling that is a hot refuelling in accordance with section 20.10 or section 20.10.1, the operator and pilot in command of an aircraft are not required to carry out inspections and tests in accordance with paragraph 5.1. This does not effect the requirement to do so before the start of each day’s flying.

   5.2     If, at any time, a significant quantity of water is found to be present in an aircraft fuel system, the operator and pilot in command must ensure that all traces of it are removed from the fuel system, including the fuel filters, before further flight.

Note   In eliminating water from an aircraft fuel system, it is important that consideration be given to the possibility of water lying in portions of the tanks or fuel lines where, because of the design of the system or the existing attitude of the aircraft, it is not immediately accessible to a drain point.

   5.3     The operator and pilot in command must ensure that, before the commencement of each day’s flying, all external fuel tank vents are inspected for freedom from obstruction.

6          Fuel quantity measurement

   6.1     The operator of an aircraft having a maximum take-off weight of more than 5 700 kg and engaged in commercial operations must ensure that the operations manual contains instructions and procedures for the pilot in command of the aircraft to verify the quantity of fuel on board the aircraft before flight.

Note   See Airworthiness Bulletin 28-002 for advice on instructions and procedures that may be adopted to verify the quantity of fuel on board an aircraft before flight.

Notes to Civil Aviation Order 20.2

Note 1

The Civil Aviation Order (in force under the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988) as shown in this compilation comprises Civil Aviation Order 20.2 amended as indicated in the Tables below.

Table of Orders

Year and
number

Date of notification
in Gazette/
registration on FRLI

Date of
commencement

Application, saving or
transitional provisions

CAO 2004 No. R1

8 December 2004

8 December 2004 (see s. 2)

 

CAO 20.2 2006 No. 1

FRLI 15 May 2006

16 May 2006 (see s. 2)

 

 



Table of Amendments

ad. = added or inserted     am. = amended     rep. = repealed     rs. = repealed and substituted

Provision affected

How affected

s. 20.2

subs. 6

rs. CAO 2004 No. R1

am. CAO 20.2 2006 No. 1