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AASB 102 - Inventories - July 2004

Authoritative Version
AASB 102 Standards/Accounting & Auditing as made
Sets out recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements for inventories including inventories held for distribution by not-for-profit entities.
Administered by: Treasury
General Comments: When applicable, this Standard supersedes AASB 1019 - Inventories - March 1998 and AAS 2 - Inventories - March 1998.
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 18
Registered 31 May 2005
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled Senate30-Aug-2004
Tabled HR16-Nov-2004
Gazetted 22 Jul 2004
Date of repeal 31 Dec 2017
Repealed by AASB 102 - Inventories - July 2015
Table of contents.
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Obtaining a Copy of this Accounting Standard
CONTENTS
Preface
Reasons for Issuing AASB 102
Main Features of this Standard
Application Date
First-time Application and Comparatives
Main Requirements
Differences between this Standard and AASB 1019
Comparison with International Pronouncements
AASB 102 and IAS 2
Compliance with IAS 2
AASB 102 and IPSAS 12
aCCOUNTING STANDARD AASB 102
Objective
Application
Scope
Definitions
Measurement of Inventories
Cost of Inventories
Costs of Purchase
Costs of Conversion
Other Costs
Cost of Inventories of a Service Provider
Cost of Agricultural Produce Harvested from Biological Assets
Techniques for the Measurement of Cost
Cost Formulas
Net Realisable Value
Recognition as an Expense
Disclosure
Effective Date of IAS 2
Withdrawal of Other Pronouncements
AUSTRALIAN GUIDANCE
Normal Operating Capacity [see AASB 102 paragraph 13]
Net Realisable Value [see AASB 102 paragraphs 28 – 33]
Differences Between AASB 102 AND AASB 1019
Introduction
Differences
A. Incompatibilities between AASB 1019 and AASB 102
A.1 Scope
A.2 Retail inventory method
A.3 Not-for-profit entities
B. AASB 1019 is more detailed or restrictive
B.1 Normal operating capacity
B.2 Determining selling price
B.3 Net realisable value formula
B.4 Circumstances that may cause net realisable value to be less than cost
B.5 Spare parts
C. AASB 102 is more detailed or restrictive
C.1 Reversal of write-downs of inventory
D. AASB 1019 disclosures are more extensive
D.1 Sub-classification
E. AASB 102 disclosures are more extensive

Accounting Standard

AASB 102

July 2004

 

 

 

 

Inventories

 



Obtaining a Copy of this Accounting Standard

This Standard is available on the AASB website: www.aasb.com.au.

Alternatively, printed copies of this Standard are available for purchase by contacting:

 

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COPYRIGHT

 

© 2004 Commonwealth of Australia

 

This AASB Standard contains International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation copyright material.  Reproduction within Australia in unaltered form (retaining this notice) is permitted for personal and non-commercial use subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source.  Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights for commercial purposes within Australia should be addressed to The Administration Director, Australian Accounting Standards Board, PO Box 204, Collins Street West, Melbourne, Victoria 8007.

All existing rights in this material are reserved outside Australia.

Reproduction outside Australia in unaltered form (retaining this notice) is permitted for personal and non-commercial use only.  Further information and requests for authorisation to reproduce for commercial purposes outside Australia should be addressed to the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation at www.iasb.org.

 

ISSN 1036-4803


CONTENTS

Preface

Comparison With International Pronouncements

Accounting Standard

AASB 102 Inventories

        Paragraphs

Objective                                                                                                                 1

Application                                                                                  Aus1.1 – Aus1.7

Scope                                                                                                                 2 – 5

Definitions                                                                                              6 – Aus8.2

Measurement of Inventories                                                               9 – Aus9.1

Cost of Inventories                                                                           10 – Aus10.1

Costs of Purchase                                                                                        11

Costs of Conversion                                                                            12 – 14

Other Costs                                                                                           15 – 18

Cost of Inventories of a Service Provider                                                 19

Cost of Agricultural Produce Harvested from Biological Assets         20

Techniques for the measurement of Cost                                        21 – 22

Cost Formulas                                                                                              23 – 27

Net Realisable Value                                                                                    28 – 33

Recognition as an Expense                                                                        34 – 35

Disclosure                                                                                                     36 – 39

 

AUSTRALIAN GUIDANCE                                                                    Page 22

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AASB 102 AND AASB 1019                  Page 24

BASIS FOR CONCLUSIONS ON IAS 2
(available to AASB online subscribers or through the IASB)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australian Accounting Standard AASB 102 Inventories is set out in paragraphs 1 – 39.  All the paragraphs have equal authority.  Terms defined in this Standard are in italics the first time they appear in the Standard.  AASB 102 is to be read in the context of other Australian Accounting Standards, including AASB 1048 Interpretation and Application of Standards, which identifies the UIG Interpretations.  In the absence of explicit guidance, AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies.


Preface

Reasons for Issuing AASB 102

The Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) is implementing the Financial Reporting Council’s policy of adopting the Standards of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) for application to reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.  The AASB has decided it will continue to issue sector-neutral Standards, that is, Standards applicable to both for-profit and not-for-profit entities, including public sector entities.  Except for Standards that are specific to the not-for-profit or public sectors or that are of a purely domestic nature, the AASB is using the IASB Standards as the “foundation” Standards to which it adds material detailing the scope and applicability of a Standard in the Australian environment.  Additions are made, where necessary, to broaden the content to cover sectors not addressed by an IASB Standard and domestic, regulatory or other issues.

The IASB defines International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) as comprising:

(a)       International Financial Reporting Standards;

(b)      International Accounting Standards; and

(c)       Interpretations originated by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).

The Australian equivalents to IFRSs are:

(a)       Accounting Standards issued by the AASB that are equivalent to Standards issued by the IASB, being AASBs 1 – 99 corresponding to the IFRS series and AASBs 101 – 199 corresponding to the IAS series; and

(b)      UIG Interpretations issued by the AASB corresponding to the Interpretations adopted by the IASB, as listed in AASB 1048 Interpretation and Application of Standards.

 

Main Features of this Standard

Application Date

This Standard is applicable to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.  To promote comparability among the financial reports of Australian entities, early adoption of this Standard is not permitted. 

First-time Application and Comparatives

Application of this Standard will begin in the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2005 in the context of adopting all Australian equivalents to IFRSs.  The requirements of AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards, the Australian equivalent of IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, must be observed.  AASB 1 requires prior period information, presented as comparative information, to be restated as if the requirements of this Standard had always applied.  This differs from previous Australian requirements where changes in accounting policies did not require the restatement of the income statement and balance sheet of the preceding period. 

Main Requirements

The Standard:

(a)       requires inventories (other than those held for distribution) to be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value;

(b)      requires inventories held for distribution by not-for-profit entities to be measured at the lower of cost and current replacement cost;

(c)       prescribes cost formulas that are to be used to assign costs to inventories;

(d)      prescribes the manner and circumstances in which write-downs to net realisable value and to current replacement cost are recognised; and

(e)       requires specific disclosures in relation to inventories.

Differences between this Standard and AASB 1019

The primary difference between this Standard and the AASB Standard that it supersedes, AASB 1019 Inventories, is that, in respect of not-for-profit entities, this Standard requires inventories held for distribution to be measured at the lower of cost and current replacement cost whereas AASB 1019 requires all inventories to be measured at lower of cost and net realisable value.

A detailed description of the differences between this Standard and AASB 1019 accompanies this Standard under the heading “Differences between AASB 102 and AASB 1019”.

The requirements of the superseded AASB 1019 are essentially the same as AAS 2 Inventories.  Accordingly, there is no separate analysis of the differences between AASB 102 and AAS 2.


Comparison with International Pronouncements

AASB 102 and IAS 2

AASB 102 is equivalent to IAS 2 Inventories issued by the IASB.  Paragraphs that have been added to this Standard (and do not appear in the text of the equivalent IASB standard) are identified with the prefix “Aus”, followed by the number of the relevant IASB paragraph and decimal numbering.  Paragraphs that apply only to not-for-profit entities begin by identifying their limited applicability.

Compliance with IAS 2

For-profit entities that comply with AASB 102 will simultaneously be in compliance with IAS 2.  Not-for-profit entities using the added “Aus” paragraphs in the Standard that specifically apply to not-for-profit entities may not be simultaneously complying with IAS 2.  Whether a not-for-profit entity will be in compliance with IAS 2 will depend on whether the “Aus” paragraphs provide additional guidance for not-for-profit entities or contain requirements that are inconsistent with the corresponding IASB Standard and will be applied by the not-for-profit entity.

AASB 102 and IPSAS 12

International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) are issued by the Public Sector Committee of the International Federation of Accountants. 

IPSAS 12 Inventories (June 2001) is drawn primarily from IAS 2 (revised 1993).  The main differences between IAS 2 and IPSAS 12 are incorporated as not-for-profit requirements in AASB 102.


 


ACCOUNTING STANDARD AASB 102

The Australian Accounting Standards Board makes Accounting Standard AASB 102 Inventories under section 334 of the Corporations Act 2001.

 

 

 

D.G. Boymal

Dated 15 July 2004

Chair – AASB

 

 

aCCOUNTING STANDARD AASB 102

Inventories

Objective

1.        The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories.  A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues are recognised.  This Standard provides guidance on the determination of cost and its subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net realisable value.  It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.

Application

Aus1.1           This Standard applies to:

(a)       each entity that is required to prepare financial reports in accordance with Part 2M.3 of the Corporations Act and that is a reporting entity;

(b)       general purpose financial reports of each other reporting entity; and

(c)       financial reports that are, or are held out to be, general purpose financial reports.

Aus1.2           This Standard applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.

Aus1.3           This Standard shall not be applied to annual reporting periods beginning before 1 January 2005.

Aus1.4           The requirements specified in this Standard apply to the financial report where information resulting from their application is material in accordance with AASB 1031 Materiality.

Aus1.5           When applicable, this Standard supersedes:

(a)       AASB 1019 Inventories as notified in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No S 132, 26 March 1998; and

(b)       AAS 2 Inventories as issued in March 1998.

Aus1.6           Both AASB 1019 and AAS 2 remain applicable until superseded by this Standard.

Aus1.7           Notice of this Standard was published in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No S 294, 22 July 2004.

Scope

2.        This Standard applies to all inventories, except:

(a)       work in progress arising under construction contracts, including directly related service contracts (see AASB 111 Construction Contracts);

(b)       financial instruments; and

(c)       biological assets related to agricultural activity and agricultural produce at the point of harvest (see AASB 141 Agriculture).

Aus2.1           Notwithstanding paragraph 2, in respect of not-for-profit entities, this Standard does not apply to work in progress of services to be provided for no or nominal consideration directly in return from the recipients.

3.        This Standard does not apply to the measurement of inventories held by:

(a)       producers of agricultural and forest products, agricultural produce after harvest, and minerals and mineral products, to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well-established practices in those industries.  When such inventories are measured at net realisable value, changes in that value are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change; and

(b)       commodity broker-traders who measure their inventories at fair value less costs to sell.  When such inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, changes in fair value less costs to sell are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.

4.        The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(a) are measured at net realisable value at certain stages of production.  This occurs, for example, when agricultural crops have been harvested or minerals have been extracted and sale is assured under a forward contract or a government guarantee, or when an active market exists and there is a negligible risk of failure to sell.  These inventories are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this Standard.

5.        Broker-traders are those who buy or sell commodities for others or on their own account.  The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(b) are principally acquired with the purpose of selling in the near future and generating a profit from fluctuations in price or broker-traders’ margin.  When these inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, they are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this Standard.

Definitions

6.        The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

Inventories are assets:

(a)       held for sale in the ordinary course of business;

(b)       in the process of production for such sale; or

(c)       in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Aus6.1           The following terms are also used in this Standard with the meanings specified.

A not-for-profit entity is an entity whose principal objective is not the generation of profit.  A not-for-profit entity can be a single entity or a group of entities comprising the parent entity and each of the entities that it controls.

In respect of not-for-profit entities, current replacement cost is the cost the entity would incur to acquire the asset on the reporting date.

In respect of not-for-profit entities, inventories held for distribution are assets:

(a)       held for distribution at no or nominal consideration in the ordinary course of operations;

(b)       in the process of production for distribution at no or nominal consideration in the ordinary course of operations; or

(c)       in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services at no or nominal consideration.[1]

7.        Net realisable value refers to the net amount that an entity expects to realise from the sale of inventory in the ordinary course of business.  Fair value reflects the amount for which the same inventory could be exchanged between knowledgeable and willing buyers and sellers in the marketplace.  The former is an entity-specific value; the latter is not.  Net realisable value for inventories may not equal fair value less costs to sell. 

8.        Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale including, for example, merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, or land and other property held for resale.  Inventories also encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress being produced, by the entity and include materials and supplies awaiting use in the production process.  In the case of a service provider, inventories include the costs of the service, as described in paragraph 19, for which the entity has not yet recognised the related revenue (see AASB 118 Revenue).

Aus8.1           A not-for-profit entity may hold inventories whose future economic benefits or service potential are not directly related to their ability to generate net cash inflows.  These types of inventories may arise when an entity has determined to distribute certain goods at no charge or for a nominal amount.  In these cases, the future economic benefits or service potential of the inventory for financial reporting purposes is reflected by the amount the entity would need to pay to acquire the economic benefits or service potential if this was necessary to achieve the objectives of the entity.  Where the economic benefits or service potential cannot be acquired in the market, an estimate of replacement cost will need to be made.  If the purpose for which the inventory is held changes, then the inventory is valued using the provisions of paragraph 9.

Aus8.2           The replacement cost that an entity would be prepared to incur in respect of an item of inventory would reflect any obsolescence or any other impairment.

Measurement of Inventories

9.        Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.

Aus9.1           Notwithstanding paragraph 9, in respect of not-for-profit entities, inventories held for distribution shall be measured at the lower of cost and current replacement cost.

Cost of Inventories

10.      The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Aus10.1         Notwithstanding paragraph 10, in respect of not-for-profit entities, where inventories are acquired at no cost, or for nominal consideration, the cost shall be the current replacement cost as at the date of acquisition.

Costs of Purchase

11.      The costs of purchase of inventories comprise the purchase price, import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the entity from the taxing authorities), and transport, handling and other costs directly attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services.  Trade discounts, rebates and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase.

Costs of Conversion

12.      The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the units of production, such as direct labour.  They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods.  Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings and equipment, and the cost of factory management and administration.  Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production, such as indirect materials and indirect labour.

13.      The allocation of fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities.  Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance.  The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity.  The amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant.  Unallocated overheads are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.  In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost.  Variable production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities.

14.      A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously.  This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product.  When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis.  The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process when the products become separately identifiable, or at the completion of production.  Most by-products, by their nature, are immaterial.  When this is the case, they are often measured at net realisable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product.  As a result, the carrying amount of the main product is not materially different from its cost.

Other Costs

15.      Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.  For example, it may be appropriate to include non-production overheads or the costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories.

16.      Examples of costs excluded from the cost of inventories and recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred are:

(a)       abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour or other production costs;

(b)      storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process before a further production stage;

(c)       administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing inventories to their present location and condition; and

(d)      selling costs.

17.      AASB 123 Borrowing Costs identifies limited circumstances where borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories.

18.      An entity may purchase inventories on deferred settlement terms.  When the arrangement effectively contains a financing element, that element, for example a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and the amount paid, is recognised as interest expense over the period of the financing.

Cost of Inventories of a Service Provider

19.      To the extent that service providers have inventories, they measure them at the costs of their production.  These costs consist primarily of the labour and other costs of personnel directly engaged in providing the service, including supervisory personnel, and attributable overheads.  Labour and other costs relating to sales and general administrative personnel are not included but are recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.  The cost of inventories of a service provider does not include profit margins or non-attributable overheads that are often factored into prices charged by service providers.

Cost of Agricultural Produce Harvested from Biological Assets

20.      In accordance with AASB 141 Agriculture, inventories comprising agricultural produce that an entity has harvested from its biological assets are measured on initial recognition at their fair value less estimated point-of-sale costs at the point of harvest.  This is the cost of the inventories at that date for application of this Standard.

Techniques for the Measurement of Cost

21.      Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate cost.  Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation.  They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions.

22.      The retail method is often used in the retail industry for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods.  The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing the sales value of the inventory by the appropriate percentage gross margin.  The percentage used takes into consideration inventory that has been marked down to below its original selling price.  An average percentage for each retail department is often used.

Cost Formulas

23.      The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs.

24.      Specific identification of cost means that specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory.  This is the appropriate treatment for items that are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been bought or produced.  However, specific identification of costs is inappropriate when there are large numbers of items of inventory that are ordinarily interchangeable.  In such circumstances, the method of selecting those items that remain in inventories could be used to obtain predetermined effects on profit or loss.

25.      The cost of inventories, other than those dealt with in paragraph 23, shall be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula.  An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories having a similar nature and use to the entity.  For inventories with a different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified.

26.      For example, inventories used in one business segment may have a use to the entity different from the same type of inventories used in another business segment.  However, a difference in geographical location of inventories (or in the respective tax rules), by itself, is not sufficient to justify the use of different cost formulas.

27.      The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory that were purchased or produced first are sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory at the end of the period are those most recently purchased or produced.  Under the weighted average cost formula, the cost of each item is determined from the weighted average of the cost of similar items at the beginning of a period and the cost of similar items purchased or produced during the period.  The average may be calculated on a periodic basis, or as each additional shipment is received, depending upon the circumstances of the entity.

Net Realisable Value

28.      The cost of inventories may not be recoverable if those inventories are damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling prices have declined.  The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs to be incurred to make the sale have increased.  The practice of writing inventories down below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets shall not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use.

29.      Inventories are usually written down to net realisable value item by item.  In some circumstances, however, it may be appropriate to group similar or related items.  This may be the case with items of inventory relating to the same product line that have similar purposes or end uses, are produced and marketed in the same geographical area, and cannot be practicably evaluated separately from other items in that product line.  It is not appropriate to write inventories down on the basis of a classification of inventory, for example, finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular industry or geographical segment.  Service providers generally accumulate costs in respect of each service for which a separate selling price is charged.  Therefore, each such service is treated as a separate item.

30.      Estimates of net realisable value are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made, of the amount the inventories are expected to realise.  These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the end of the period to the extent that such events confirm conditions existing at the end of the period.

31.      Estimates of net realisable value also take into consideration the purpose for which the inventory is held.  For example, the net realisable value of the quantity of inventory held to satisfy firm sales or service contracts is based on the contract price.  If the sales contracts are for less than the inventory quantities held, the net realisable value of the excess is based on general selling prices.  Provisions may arise from firm sales contracts in excess of inventory quantities held or from firm purchase contracts.  Such provisions are dealt with under AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.

32.      Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.  However, when a decline in the price of materials indicates that the cost of the finished products exceeds net realisable value, the materials are written down to net realisable value.  In such circumstances, the replacement cost of the materials may be the best available measure of their net realisable value.

33.      A new assessment is made of net realisable value in each subsequent period.  When the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written down below cost no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in net realisable value because of changed economic circumstances, the amount of the write-down is reversed (i.e. the reversal is limited to the amount of the original write-down) so that the new carrying amount is the lower of the cost and the revised net realisable value.  This occurs, for example, when an item of inventory that is carried at net realisable value, because its selling price has declined, is still on hand in a subsequent period and its selling price has increased.

Recognition as an Expense

34.      When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised.  The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs.  The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.

Aus34.1         When inventories held for distribution by a not-for-profit entity are distributed, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense.  The amount of any write-down of inventories to current replacement cost and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs.  The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories arising from an increase in current replacement cost shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.

35.      Some inventories may be allocated to other asset accounts, for example, inventory used as a component of self-constructed property, plant or equipment.  Inventories allocated to another asset in this way are recognised as an expense during the useful life of that asset.

Disclosure

36.      The financial report shall disclose:

(a)       the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used;

(b)       the total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;

(c)       the carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs to sell;

(d)       the amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period;

(e)       the amount of any write-down of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;

(f)       the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;

(g)      the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories in accordance with paragraph 34; and

(h)      the carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for liabilities.

Aus36.1         Notwithstanding paragraph 36, in respect of not-for-profit entities, the financial report shall disclose:

(a)       the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories held for distribution, including the cost formula used;

(b)       the total carrying amount of inventories held for distribution and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;

(c)       the amount of inventories held for distribution recognised as an expense during the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;

(d)       the amount of any write-down of inventories held for distribution recognised as an expense in the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;

(e)       the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories held for distribution recognised as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;

(f)       the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories held for distribution in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1; and

(g)      the carrying amount of inventories held for distribution pledged as security for liabilities.

37.      Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of inventories and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial report users.  Common classifications of inventories are merchandise, production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods.  The inventories of a service provider may be described as work in progress.

38.      The amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period, which is often referred to as cost of sales, consists of those costs previously included in the measurement of inventory that has now been sold and unallocated production overheads and abnormal amounts of production costs of inventories.  The circumstances of the entity may also warrant the inclusion of other amounts, such as distribution costs.

39.      Some entities adopt a format for profit or loss that results in amounts being disclosed other than the cost of inventories recognised as an expense during the period.  Under this format, an entity presents an analysis of expenses using a classification based on the nature of expenses.  In this case, the entity discloses the costs recognised as an expense for raw materials and consumables, labour costs and other costs together with the amount of the net change in inventories for the period.

Effective Date of IAS 2

40.      [Deleted by the AASB]

Withdrawal of Other Pronouncements

41.      [Deleted by the AASB]

42.      [Deleted by the AASB]


AUSTRALIAN GUIDANCE

Australian Guidance accompanies, but is not part of, AASB 102.

Normal Operating Capacity [see AASB 102 paragraph 13]

G1.           Three additional factors that can be considered in determining normal operating capacity are:

(a)       the volume of production which the production facilities are intended by their designers and by management to yield under the working conditions normally prevailing;

(b)      the budgeted level of activity for the current reporting period and for the ensuing reporting period; and

(c)       the level of activity achieved both in the current reporting period and in previous reporting periods.

Net Realisable Value [see AASB 102 paragraphs 28 – 33]

G2.           In relation to using the selling price to determine net realisable value, three additional factors that can be considered in determining the future selling price are:

(a)       any existing contracts for future sales of items of inventory;

(b)      the general pattern of sales, inventories and discounts; and

(c)       fluctuations in the price of materials which will affect the selling price of items of inventory or where the raw materials are expected to be sold in their unprocessed state.

G3.           In relation to the formula used to determine net realisable value on initial calculation, factors that would be taken into account as appropriate are:

(a)       age;

(b)      past movements;

(c)       expected future movements; and

(d)      estimated scrap values of the inventory.

G4.           Net realisable value may be less than cost in circumstances where there is:

(a)       a fall in selling price;

(b)      physical deterioration of inventories;

(c)       obsolescence of a product;

(d)      a decision, as part of an entity’s marketing strategy, to manufacture and sell products for the time being at a loss; and

(e)       miscalculations or other errors in purchasing or production.

G5.           Factors that may be relevant in considering the net realisable value of spare parts held for sales or after sales service are:

(a)       the need to consider past and future inventory movements relative to the total number of units in existence on which the spares can be used; and

(b)      the approximate date by which the last of those units can be expected to have gone out of service.

 


Differences Between
AASB 102 AND AASB 1019

This analysis of differences accompanies, but is not part of, AASB 102.

This section identifies differences between AASB 1019 Inventories and AASB 102 Inventories under the following headings.

A:       Incompatibilities between AASB 1019 and AASB 102

B:        AASB 1019 is more detailed or restrictive

C:        AASB 102 is more detailed or restrictive

D:       AASB 1019 disclosures are more extensive

E:        AASB 102 disclosures are more extensive

The analysis of differences should not be taken as providing an exhaustive list of differences.

Introduction

AASB 102 and AASB 1019 both deal with the recognition and measurement of inventories and related disclosures.

Differences

A.        Incompatibilities between AASB 1019 and AASB 102

A.1          Scope

The scope of AASB 102 differs from that of AASB 1019 because:

(a)       AASB 102.3(a) excludes from its scope producers of agricultural and forest products, agricultural produce after harvest, and minerals and mineral products to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well-established practices in those industries whereas AASB 1019 does not; and

(b)      AASB 102.3(b) excludes from its scope commodity broker-traders who measure their inventories at fair value less costs to sell whereas AASB 1019 does not.

A.2          Retail inventory method

The calculation of the cost of seasonal or slow moving inventories under the Retail Inventory Method (RIM) differs between AASB 102 and AASB 1019.  Under AASB 102, the gross profit margin is reduced for these seasonal or slow moving items, whereas under AASB 1019, the gross profit margin remains the same.  Consider the following example.

 

AASB 102

AASB 1019

 

Normal

Marked
Down

Normal

Marked
Down

Selling Price

100

80

100

80

Gross Margin

40

20

40

32

Carrying Amount

60

60

60

48

Under this example, the normal case is that the company has $100 of inventory with a 40% margin (from AASB 1019, paragraph 6.3.2 “current average mark-up [margin] … expressed as a percentage of the selling price”) such that the cost of inventory is deduced to be $60.  If the inventory is then marked down to $80 because it is seasonal or slow moving, AASB 102 assumes that the margin is reduced to 25% and the carrying amount of inventory remains $60.  AASB 1019 assumes that the margin of 40% remains the same and the carrying amount of inventory decreases (even if this is below actual cost).

A.3          Not-for-profit entities

AASB 102 contains additional requirements and commentary applicable to not-for-profit entities that differs from AASB 1019.  These are as follows:

(a)       AASB 102.Aus9.1 requires inventories held for distribution by not-for-profit entities to be measured at the lower of cost and current replacement cost whereas AASB 1019.5.1 requires all inventories to be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value;

(b)      AASB 102.Aus34.1 requires not-for-profit entities with inventory held for distribution for no or nominal consideration to expense those inventories when the distribution of those inventories occurs or when the services are rendered whereas AASB 1019 does not include such requirements; and

(c)       AASB 102.Aus8.1 includes commentary that addresses the accounting for goods that are not directly related to a not-for-profit entity’s ability to generate profits and that are distributed for no or nominal consideration while AASB 1019 does not include such commentary.

B.        AASB 1019 is more detailed or restrictive

B.1          Normal operating capacity

AASB 1019.6.1.3 notes three factors to be considered for determining normal operating capacity.  They are:

(a)       the volume of production which the production facilities are intended by their designers and by management to yield under the working conditions normally prevailing;

(b)      the budgeted level of activity for the current reporting period and for the ensuing reporting period; and

(c)       the level of activity achieved both in the current reporting period and in previous reporting periods.

This guidance is additional to the guidance for determining normal operating activity provided in AASB 102.13.

B.2          Determining selling price

AASB 1019.8.1.1 comments on the use of selling price in the determination of net realisable value of inventories and notes three factors to be considered in determining selling price:

(a)       any existing contracts for future sales of items of inventory;

(b)      the general pattern of sales, inventories and discounts; and

(c)       fluctuations in the price of materials which will affect the selling price of items of inventory or where the raw materials are expected to be sold in their unprocessed state.

AASB 102.30 does not provide the same level of guidance for estimating selling prices.

B.3          Net realisable value formula

AASB 1019.8.1.2 commentary provides detail about inclusions in the formula to determine net realisable value on initial calculation.  For example, the formula would normally take into account, as appropriate, the age, past movements, expected future movements and estimated scrap values of the inventories, thereby establishing a basis which can be consistently applied.  AASB 102 is silent on this matter.

B.4          Circumstances that may cause net realisable value to be less than cost

AASB 1019.8.1.3 identifies five principal situations in which the net realisable value of inventory is likely to be less than the cost of the inventory.  These situations are:

(a)       a fall in selling price;

(b)      physical deterioration of inventories;

(c)       obsolescence of product;

(d)      a decision, as part of an entity’s marketing strategy, to manufacture and sell products for the time being at a loss; and

(e)       miscalculations or other errors in purchasing or production.

AASB 102 does not comment on circumstances that may cause the net realisable value to be less than the cost of inventory.

B.5          Spare parts

AASB 1019.8.1.5 comments on matters that are relevant to the determination of the net realisable value of spare parts held for sale or for use in after-sales service.  AASB 102 does not comment on these matters.

C.        AASB 102 is more detailed or restrictive

C.1          Reversal of write-downs of inventory

AASB 1019 implies that inventory write-downs can be reversed but does not explicitly require the reversal of such write-downs.  However, AASB 102 requires the reversal of write-downs when the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written down below cost no longer exist and requires disclosure of these reversals.  This may occur when an item of inventory on hand experiences a price increase in a subsequent period while being carried at net realisable value due to its selling price previously declining.  AASB 102 also requires disclosure of the amount of any write-downs.

D.        AASB 1019 disclosures are more extensive

D.1          Sub-classification

AASB 1019.10.1(e) requires the carrying amount of inventories that have been measured at net realisable value to be sub-classified in a manner appropriate to the entity’s operations.  In contrast, whilst AASB 102.36(e) requires the disclosure of the carrying amount of inventories that have been measured at net realisable value, it does not require that they be sub-classified in a manner appropriate to the entity’s operations.

E.         AASB 102 disclosures are more extensive

None noted.



[1]    Paragraphs 10 to 18 and 20 to 27 in this Standard apply to both inventories (as defined in paragraph 6) and inventories held for distribution (as defined in paragraph Aus6.3).