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AASB 140 - Investment Property - July 2004

Authoritative Version
AASB 140 Standards/Accounting & Auditing as made
Prescribes accounting treatment for investment properties and related disclosure requirements for financial reports.
Administered by: Treasury
Exempt from sunsetting by the Legislation (Exemptions and Other Matters) Regulation 2015 s12 item 18
Registered 27 May 2005
Tabling HistoryDate
Tabled Senate30-Aug-2004
Tabled HR16-Nov-2004
Gazetted 22 Jul 2004
Date of repeal 31 Dec 2016
Repealed by AASB 140 - Investment Property - August 2015
Table of contents.

Accounting Standard

AASB 140

July 2004

 

 

 

 

Investment Property

 

 

 

 

 



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COPYRIGHT

 

© 2004 Commonwealth of Australia

 

This AASB Standard contains International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation copyright material.  Reproduction within Australia in unaltered form (retaining this notice) is permitted for personal and non-commercial use subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source.  Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights for commercial purposes within Australia should be addressed to The Administration Director, Australian Accounting Standards Board, PO Box 204, Collins Street West, Melbourne, Victoria 8007.

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ISSN 1036-4803

 


CONTENTS

PREFACE             

COMPARISON WITH INTERNATIONAL PRONOUNCEMENTS

Accounting Standard

AASB 140 Investment Property

 

                Paragraphs

Objective                                                                                                                 1

Application                                                                                  Aus1.1 - Aus1.5

Scope                                                                                                                 2 - 4

Definitions                                                                                                      5 - 15

Recognition                                                                                                  16 - 19

Measurement at Recognition                                                                     20 - 29

Measurement after Recognition                                                                           

Accounting Policy                                                                            30 - 32C

Fair Value Model                                                                                  33 - 52

Inability to Determine Fair Value Reliably                                 53 - 55

Cost Model                                                                                                    56

Transfers                                                                                                       57 - 65

Disposals                                                                                                      66 - 73

Disclosure                                                                                                                

Fair Value Model and Cost Model                                                    74 - 75

Fair Value Model                                                                                  76 - 78

Cost Model                                                                                                    79

 

BASIS FOR CONCLUSIONS ON IAS 40

(available to AASB online subscribers or through the IASB)

Australian Accounting Standard AASB 140 Investment Property is set out in paragraphs 1-79.  All the paragraphs have equal authority.  Terms defined in this Standard are in italics the first time they appear in the Standard.  AASB 140 is to be read in the context of other Australian Accounting Standards, including AASB 1048 Interpretation and Application of Standards, which identifies the UIG Interpretations.  In the absence of explicit guidance, AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies.

 


PREFACE

Reasons for Issuing AASB 140

The Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) is implementing the Financial Reporting Council’s policy of adopting the Standards of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) for application to reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.  The AASB has decided it will continue to issue sector-neutral Standards, that is, Standards applicable to both for-profit and not-for-profit entities, including public sector entities.  Except for Standards that are specific to the not-for-profit or public sectors or that are of a purely domestic nature, the AASB is using the IASB Standards as the “foundation” Standards to which it adds material detailing the scope and applicability of a Standard in the Australian environment.  Additions are made, where necessary, to broaden the content to cover sectors not addressed by an IASB Standard and domestic, regulatory or other issues.

The IASB defines International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) as comprising:

(a)       International Financial Reporting Standards;

(b)      International Accounting Standards; and

(c)       Interpretations originated by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).

The Australian equivalents to IFRSs are:

(a)       Accounting Standards issued by the AASB that are equivalent to Standards issued by the IASB, being AASBs 1 – 99 corresponding to the IFRS series and AASBs 101 – 199 corresponding to the IAS series; and

(b)      UIG Interpretations issued by the AASB corresponding to the Interpretations adopted by the IASB, as listed in AASB 1048 Interpretation and Application of Standards

Main Features of this Standard

Application Date

This Standard is applicable to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.  To promote comparability among the financial reports of Australian entities, early adoption of this Standard is not permitted.

First-time Application and Comparatives

Application of this Standard will begin in the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2005 in the context of adopting all Australian equivalents to IFRSs.  The requirements of AASB 1 First-time Adoption of Australian Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards, the Australian equivalent of the IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, must be observed.  AASB 1 requires prior period information, presented as comparative information, to be restated as if the requirements of this Standard had always applied.  This differs from previous Australian requirements where changes in accounting policies did not require the restatement of the income statement and balance sheet of the preceding period.

Main Requirements

The Standard:

(a)       requires entities to measure investment property using:

(i)        the fair value model, under which an investment property is measured, after initial measurement, at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss; or

(ii)       the cost model specified in AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment under which an investment property is measured after initial measurement at depreciated cost (less any accumulated impairment losses).  An entity that chooses the cost model discloses the fair value of its investment property;

(b)      permits a property interest that is held by a lessee under an operating lease to be classified and accounted for as investment property provided that:

(i)        the interest meets the rest of the definition of investment property;

(ii)       the operating lease is accounted for as if it were a finance lease in accordance with AASB 117 Leases;

(iii)      the lessee uses the fair value model set out in this Standard for the asset recognised; and

(iv)     once this alternative is selected for one such property, all property classified as investment property is to be accounted for consistently on a fair value basis;

(c)       permits an entity with investment property in a ‘pool’ backing liabilities that pay a return linked to the fair value of assets in the pool to choose between the cost and fair value models for all investment property in the pool and choose between the cost and fair value models for all other investment property not in the pool; and

(d)      requires an entity to make a range of disclosures, including whether it applies the fair value or cost model.

Differences

This Standard does not supersede any equivalent Australian Accounting Standard.  Accordingly, no description of differences is provided.

 


COMPARISON WITH INTERNATIONAL PRONOUNCEMENTS

AASB 140 and IAS 40

AASB 140 is equivalent to IAS 40 Investment Property issued by the IASB.

Paragraphs that have been added to this Standard (and do not appear in the text of the equivalent IASB Standard) are identified with the prefix “Aus”, followed by the number of the relevant IASB paragraph and decimal numbering.  Paragraphs that apply only to not-for-profit entities begin by identifying their limited applicability.

Compliance with IAS 40

For-profit entities that comply with AASB 140 will simultaneously be in compliance with IAS 40.  Not-for-profit entities using the added Australian paragraph Aus20.1 will not simultaneously be in compliance with the requirements of IAS 40.  Not-for-profit entities not using added Australian paragraph Aus20.1 will be able to claim compliance with IAS 40. 

AASB 140 and IPSAS 16

The International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) are issued by the Public Sector Committee of the International Federation of Accountants. 

IPSAS 16 Investment Property (July 2001) is drawn primarily from the 2000 version of IAS 40.  The main differences between IPSAS 16 and AASB 140 are that IPSAS 16:

(a)       does not permit a property interest held by a lessee under an operating lease to be classified as investment property;

(b)      requires the measurement model chosen to be used for all investment property; and

(c)       excludes forests and similar regenerative assets from its scope, whereas AASB 140 excludes all biological assets covered by AASB 141 Agriculture.


 


ACCOUNTING STANDARD AASB 140

The Australian Accounting Standards Board makes Accounting Standard AASB 140 Investment Property under section 334 of the Corporations Act 2001.

 

D.G. Boymal

Dated 15 July 2004

Chair – AASB

 

 

Accounting STANDARD AASB 140

Investment Property

Objective

1.        The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for investment property and related disclosure requirements.

Application

Aus1.1          This Standard applies to:

(a)       each entity that is required to prepare financial reports in accordance with Part 2M.3 of the Corporations Act and that is a reporting entity;

(b)       general purpose financial reports of each other reporting entity; and

(c)       financial reports that are, or are held out to be, general purpose financial reports.

Aus1.2          This Standard applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.

Aus1.3          This Standard shall not be applied to annual reporting periods beginning before 1 January 2005.

Aus1.4          The requirements specified in this Standard apply to the financial report where information resulting from their application is material in accordance with AASB 1031 Materiality.

Aus1.5          Notice of this Standard was published in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No S 294, 22 July 2004.

Scope

2.        This Standard shall be applied in the recognition, measurement and disclosure of investment property.

3.        Among other things, this Standard applies to the measurement in a lessee’s financial report of investment property interests held under a lease accounted for as a finance lease and to the measurement in a lessor’s financial report of investment property provided to a lessee under an operating lease.  This Standard does not deal with matters covered in AASB 117 Leases, including:

(a)       classification of leases as finance leases or operating leases;

(b)      recognition of lease income from investment property (see also AASB 118 Revenue);

(c)       measurement in a lessee’s financial statements of property interests held under a lease accounted for as an operating lease;

(d)      measurement in a lessor’s financial statements of its net investment in a finance lease;

(e)       accounting for sale and leaseback transactions; and

(f)       disclosure about finance leases and operating leases.

4.        This Standard does not apply to:

(a)       biological assets related to agricultural activity (see AASB 141 Agriculture); and

(b)      mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.

Definitions

5.        The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified.

Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised in the balance sheet.

Cost is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of other consideration given to acquire an asset at the time of its acquisition or construction or, where applicable, the amount attributed to that asset when initially recognised in accordance with the specific requirements of other Standards, for example, AASB 2 Share-based Payment.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

Investment property is property (land or a building – or part of a building – or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for:

(a)       use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or

(b)       sale in the ordinary course of business.

Owner-occupied property is property held (by the owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.

6.        A property interest that is held by a lessee under an operating lease may be classified and accounted for as investment property if, and only if, the property would otherwise meet the definition of an investment property and the lessee uses the fair value model set out in paragraphs 33-55 for the asset recognised.  This classification alternative is available on a property-by-property basis.  However, once this classification alternative is selected for one such property interest held under an operating lease, all property classified as investment property shall be accounted for using the fair value model.  When this classification alternative is selected, any interest so classified is included in the disclosures required by paragraphs 74-78. 

7.        Investment property is held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both.  Therefore, an investment property generates cash flows largely independently of the other assets held by an entity.  This distinguishes investment property from owner-occupied property.  The production or supply of goods or services (or the use of property for administrative purposes) generates cash flows that are attributable not only to property, but also to other assets used in the production or supply process.  AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment applies to owner-occupied property.

8.        The following are examples of investment property:

(a)       land held for long-term capital appreciation rather than for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business;

(b)      land held for a currently undetermined future use (if an entity has not determined that it will use the land as owner-occupied property or for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business, the land is regarded as held for capital appreciation);

(c)       a building owned by the entity (or held by the entity under a finance lease) and leased out under one or more operating leases; and

(d)      a building that is vacant but is held to be leased out under one or more operating leases.

9.        The following are examples of items that are not investment property and are therefore outside the scope of this Standard:

(a)       property intended for sale in the ordinary course of business or in the process of construction or development for such sale (see AASB 102 Inventories), for example, property acquired exclusively with a view to subsequent disposal in the near future or for development and resale;

(b)      property being constructed or developed on behalf of third parties (see AASB 111 Construction Contracts);

(c)       owner-occupied property (see AASB 116), including (among other things) property held for future use as owner-occupied property, property held for future development and subsequent use as owner-occupied property, property occupied by employees (whether or not the employees pay rent at market rates) and owner-occupied property awaiting disposal;

(d)      property that is being constructed or developed for future use as investment property.  AASB 116 applies to such property until construction or development is complete, at which time the property becomes investment property and this Standard applies.  However, this Standard applies to existing investment property that is being redeveloped for continued future use as investment property (see paragraph 58); and

(e)       property that is leased to another entity under a finance lease.

Aus9.1          In respect of not-for-profit entities, property may be held to meet service delivery objectives rather than to earn rental or for capital appreciation.  In such situations the property will not meet the definition of investment property and will be accounted for under AASB 116, for example:

(a)       property held for strategic purposes; and

(b)      property held to provide a social service, including those which generate cash inflows where the rental revenue is incidental to the purpose for holding the property.

10.      Some properties comprise a portion that is held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation and another portion that is held for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.  If these portions could be sold separately (or leased out separately under a finance lease), an entity accounts for the portions separately.  If the portions could not be sold separately, the property is investment property only if an insignificant portion is held for use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes.

11.      In some cases, an entity provides ancillary services to the occupants of a property it holds.  An entity treats such a property as investment property if the services are insignificant to the arrangement as a whole.  An example is when the owner of an office building provides security and maintenance services to the lessees who occupy the building.

12.      In other cases, the services provided are significant.  For example, if an entity owns and manages a hotel, services provided to guests are significant to the arrangement as a whole.  Therefore, an owner-managed hotel is owner-occupied property, rather than investment property.

13.      It may be difficult to determine whether ancillary services are so significant that a property does not qualify as investment property.  For example, the owner of a hotel sometimes transfers some responsibilities to third parties under a management contract.  The terms of such contracts vary widely.  At one end of the spectrum, the owner’s position may, in substance, be that of a passive investor.  At the other end of the spectrum, the owner may simply have outsourced day-to-day functions while retaining significant exposure to variation in the cash flows generated by the operations of the hotel.

14.      Judgement is needed to determine whether a property qualifies as investment property.  An entity develops criteria so that it can exercise that judgement consistently in accordance with the definition of investment property and with the related guidance in paragraphs 7-13.  Paragraph 75(c) requires an entity to disclose these criteria when classification is difficult.

15.      In some cases, an entity owns property that is leased to, and occupied by, its parent or another subsidiary.  The property does not qualify as investment property in the consolidated financial statements, because the property is owner-occupied from the perspective of the group.  However, from the perspective of the entity that owns it, the property is investment property if it meets the definition in paragraph 5.  Therefore, the lessor treats the property as investment property in its individual financial statements.

Recognition

16.      Investment property shall be recognised as an asset when, and only when:

(a)       it is probable that the future economic benefits that are associated with the investment property will flow to the entity; and

(b)       the cost of the investment property can be measured reliably.

17.      An entity evaluates under this recognition principle all its investment property costs at the time they are incurred.  These costs include costs incurred initially to acquire an investment property and costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service a property.

18.      Under the recognition principle in paragraph 16, an entity does not recognise in the carrying amount of an investment property the costs of the day-to-day servicing of such a property.  Rather, these costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.  Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the cost of labour and consumables, and may include the cost of minor parts.  The purpose of these expenditures is often described as for the ‘repairs and maintenance’ of the property.

19.      Parts of investment properties may have been acquired through replacement.  For example, the interior walls may be replacements of original walls.  Under the recognition principle, an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an investment property the cost of replacing part of an existing investment property at the time that cost is incurred if the recognition criteria are met.  The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised in accordance with the derecognition provisions of this Standard.

Measurement at Recognition

20.      An investment property shall be measured initially at its cost.  Transaction costs shall be included in the initial measurement.

Aus20.1       Notwithstanding paragraph 20, in respect of not-for-profit entities, where an investment property is acquired at no cost or for nominal cost, its cost shall be deemed to be its fair value as at the date of acquisition.

21.      The cost of a purchased investment property comprises its purchase price and any directly attributable expenditure.  Directly attributable expenditure includes, for example, professional fees for legal services, property transfer taxes and other transaction costs.

22.      The cost of a self-constructed investment property is its cost at the date when the construction or development is complete.  Until that date, an entity applies AASB 116.  At that date, the property becomes investment property and this Standard applies (see paragraphs 57(e) and 65). 

23.      The cost of an investment property is not increased by:

(a)       start-up costs (unless they are necessary to bring the property to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management);

(b)      operating losses incurred before the investment property achieves the planned level of occupancy; or

(c)       abnormal amounts of wasted material, labour or other resources incurred in constructing or developing the property.

24.      If payment for an investment property is deferred, its cost is the cash price equivalent. The difference between this amount and the total payments is recognised as interest expense over the period of credit.

25.      The initial cost of a property interest held under a lease and classified as an investment property shall be as prescribed for a finance lease by paragraph 20 of AASB 117 Leases, that is, the asset shall be recognised at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and the present value of the minimum lease payments.  An equivalent amount shall be recognised as a liability in accordance with that same paragraph.

26.      Any premium paid for a lease is treated as part of the minimum lease payments for this purpose, and is therefore included in the cost of the lease, but is excluded from the liability.  If a property interest held under a lease is classified as investment property, the item accounted for at fair value is that interest and not the underlying property.  Guidance on determining the fair value of a property interest is set out for the fair value model in paragraphs 33-52.  That guidance is also relevant to the determination of fair value when that value is used as cost for initial recognition purposes.

27.      One or more investment properties may be acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and non-monetary assets.  The following discussion refers simply to an exchange of one non-monetary asset for another, but it also applies to all the exchanges described in the preceding sentence.  The cost of such an investment property is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable.  The acquired asset is measured in this way even if an entity cannot immediately derecognise the asset given up.  If the acquired asset is not measured at fair value, its cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset given up. 

28.      An entity determines whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance by considering the extent to which its future cash flows are expected to change as a result of the transaction.  An exchange transaction has commercial substance if:

(a)       the configuration (risk, timing and amount) of the cash flows of the asset received differs from the configuration of the cash flows of the asset transferred; or

(b)      the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity’s operations affected by the transaction changes as a result of the exchange; and

(c)       the difference in (a) or (b) is significant relative to the fair value of the assets exchanged.

For the purpose of determining whether an exchange transaction has commercial substance, the entity-specific value of the portion of the entity’s operations affected by the transaction shall reflect post-tax cash flows.  The result of these analyses may be clear without an entity having to perform detailed calculations.

29.      The fair value of an asset for which comparable market transactions do not exist is reliably measurable if (a) the variability in the range of reasonable fair value estimates is not significant for that asset or (b) the probabilities of the various estimates within the range can be reasonably assessed and used in estimating fair value.  If the entity is able to determine reliably the fair value of either the asset received or the asset given up, then the fair value of the asset given up is used to measure cost unless the fair value of the asset received is more clearly evident.

Measurement after Recognition

Accounting Policy

30.      With the exceptions noted in paragraphs 32A and 34, an entity shall choose as its accounting policy either the fair value model in paragraphs 33 to 55 or the cost model in paragraph 56 and shall apply that policy to all of its investment property.

31.      AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors states that a voluntary change in accounting policy shall be made only if the change will result in a more appropriate presentation of transactions, other events or conditions in the entity’s financial report.  It is highly unlikely that a change from the fair value model to the cost model will result in a more appropriate presentation.

32.      This Standard requires all entities to determine the fair value of investment property for the purpose of either measurement (if the entity uses the fair value model) or disclosure (if it uses the cost model).  An entity is encouraged, but not required, to determine the fair value of investment property on the basis of a valuation by an independent valuer who holds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued.

32A.   An entity may:

(a)       choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all investment property backing liabilities that pay a return linked directly to the fair value of, or returns from, specified assets including that investment property; and

(b)       choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all other investment property, regardless of the choice in (a).

32B.    Some insurers and other entities operate an internal property fund that issues notional units, with some units held by investors in linked contracts and others held by the entity.  Paragraph 32A does not permit an entity to measure the property held by the fund partly at cost and partly at fair value.

32C.    If an entity chooses different models for the two categories described in paragraph 32A, sales of investment property between pools of assets measured using different models shall be recognised at fair value and the cumulative change in fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss.  Accordingly, if an investment property is sold from a pool in which the fair value model is used into a pool in which the cost model is used, the property’s fair value at the date of the sale becomes its deemed cost.

Fair Value Model

33.      After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the fair value model shall measure all of its investment property at fair value, except in the cases described in paragraph 53.

34.      When a property interest held by a lessee under an operating lease is classified as an investment property under paragraph 6, paragraph 30 is not elective; the fair value model shall be applied.

35.      A gain or loss arising from a change in the fair value of investment property shall be recognised in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.

36.      The fair value of investment property is the price at which the property could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction (see paragraph 5).  Fair value specifically excludes an estimated price inflated or deflated by special terms or circumstances such as atypical financing, sale and leaseback arrangements, special considerations or concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.

37.      An entity determines fair value without any deduction for transaction costs it may incur on sale or other disposal.

38.      The fair value of investment property shall reflect market conditions at the reporting date.

39.      Fair value is time-specific as of a given date.  Because market conditions may change, the amount reported as fair value may be incorrect or inappropriate if estimated as of another time.  The definition of fair value also assumes simultaneous exchange and completion of the contract for sale without any variation in price that might be made in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties if exchange and completion are not simultaneous.

40.      The fair value of investment property reflects, among other things, rental income from current leases and reasonable and supportable assumptions that represent what knowledgeable, willing parties would assume about rental income from future leases in the light of current conditions.  It also reflects, on a similar basis, any cash outflows (including rental payments and other outflows) that could be expected in respect of the property.   Some of those outflows are reflected in the liability whereas others relate to outflows that are not recognised in the financial statements until a later date (e.g. periodic payments such as contingent rents).

41.      Paragraph 25 specifies the basis for initial recognition of the cost of an interest in a leased property. Paragraph 33 requires the interest in the leased property to be re-measured, if necessary, to fair value. In a lease negotiated at market rates, the fair value of an interest in a leased property at acquisition, net of all expected lease payments (including those relating to recognised liabilities), should be zero.  This fair value does not change regardless of whether, for accounting purposes, a leased asset and liability are recognised at fair value or at the present value of minimum lease payments, in accordance with paragraph 20 of AASB 117.  Thus, remeasuring a leased asset from cost in accordance with paragraph 25 to the fair value in accordance with paragraph 33 should not give rise to any initial gain or loss, unless fair value is measured at different times. This could occur when an election to apply the fair value model is made after initial recognition.

42.      The definition of fair value refers to “knowledgeable, willing parties”.  In this context, “knowledgeable” means that both the willing buyer and the willing seller are reasonably informed about the nature and characteristics of the investment property, its actual and potential uses, and market conditions at the reporting date.  A willing buyer is motivated, but not compelled, to buy.  This buyer is neither over-eager nor determined to buy at any price.  The assumed buyer would not pay a higher price than a market comprising knowledgeable, willing buyers and sellers would require.

43.      A willing seller is neither an over-eager nor a forced seller, prepared to sell at any price, nor one prepared to hold out for a price not considered reasonable in current market conditions.  The willing seller is motivated to sell the investment property at market terms for the best price obtainable.  The factual circumstances of the actual investment property owner are not a part of this consideration because the willing seller is a hypothetical owner (e.g. a willing seller would not take into account the particular tax circumstances of the actual investment property owner).

44.      The definition of fair value refers to an arm’s length transaction.  An arm’s length transaction is one between parties that do not have a particular or special relationship that makes prices of transactions uncharacteristic of market conditions.  The transaction is presumed to be between unrelated parties, each acting independently.

45.      The best evidence of fair value is given by current prices in an active market for similar property in the same location and condition and subject to similar lease and other contracts.  An entity takes care to identify any differences in the nature, location or condition of the property, or in the contractual terms of the leases and other contracts relating to the property.

46.      In the absence of current prices in an active market of the kind described in paragraph 45, an entity considers information from a variety of sources, including:

(a)       current prices in an active market for properties of different nature, condition or location (or subject to different lease or other contracts), adjusted to reflect those differences;

(b)      recent prices of similar properties on less active markets, with adjustments to reflect any changes in economic conditions since the date of the transactions that occurred at those prices; and

(c)       discounted cash flow projections based on reliable estimates of future cash flows, supported by the terms of any existing lease and other contracts and (when possible) by external evidence such as current market rents for similar properties in the same location and condition, and using discount rates that reflect current market assessments of the uncertainty in the amount and timing of the cash flows.

47.      In some cases, the various sources listed in the previous paragraph may suggest different conclusions about the fair value of an investment property.  An entity considers the reasons for those differences, in order to arrive at the most reliable estimate of fair value within a range of reasonable fair value estimates.

48.      In exceptional cases, there is clear evidence when an entity first acquires an investment property (or when an existing property first becomes investment property following the completion of construction or development, or after a change in use) that the variability in the range of reasonable fair value estimates will be so great, and the probabilities of the various outcomes so difficult to assess, that the usefulness of a single estimate of fair value is negated.  This may indicate that the fair value of the property will not be reliably determinable on a continuing basis (see paragraph 53).

49.      Fair value differs from value in use, as defined in AASB 136 Impairment of Assets.  Fair value reflects the knowledge and estimates of knowledgeable, willing buyers and sellers.  In contrast, value in use reflects the entity’s estimates, including the effects of factors that may be specific to the entity and not applicable to entities in general.  For example, fair value does not reflect any of the following factors to the extent that they would not be generally available to knowledgeable, willing buyers and sellers:

(a)       additional value derived from the creation of a portfolio of properties in different locations;

(b)      synergies between investment property and other assets;

(c)       legal rights or legal restrictions that are specific only to the current owner; and

(d)      tax benefits or tax burdens that are specific to the current owner.

50.      In determining the fair value of investment property, an entity does not double-count assets or liabilities that are recognised as separate assets or liabilities.  For example:

(a)       equipment such as lifts or air-conditioning is often an integral part of a building and is generally included in the fair value of the investment property, rather than recognised separately as property, plant and equipment;

(b)      if an office is leased on a furnished basis, the fair value of the office generally includes the fair value of the furniture, because the rental income relates to the furnished office.  When furniture is included in the fair value of investment property, an entity does not recognise that furniture as a separate asset;

(c)       the fair value of investment property excludes prepaid or accrued operating lease income, because the entity recognises it as a separate liability or asset; and

(d)      the fair value of investment property held under a lease reflects expected cash flows (including contingent rent that is expected to become payable).  Accordingly, if a valuation obtained for a property is net of all payments expected to be made, it will be necessary to add back any recognised liability, to arrive at the fair value of the investment property for accounting purposes. 

51.      The fair value of investment property does not reflect future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the property and does not reflect the related future benefits from this future expenditure.

52.      In some cases, an entity expects that the present value of its payments relating to an investment property (other than payments relating to recognised liabilities) will exceed the present value of the related cash receipts.  An entity applies AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets to determine whether to recognise a liability and, if so, how to measure it.

Inability to Determine Fair Value Reliably

53.      There is a rebuttable presumption that an entity can reliably determine the fair value of an investment property on a continuing basis.  However, in exceptional cases, there is clear evidence when an entity first acquires an investment property (or when an existing property first becomes an investment property following the completion of construction or development, or after a change in use) that the fair value of the investment property is not reliably determinable on a continuing basis.  This arises when, and only when, comparable market transactions are infrequent and alternative reliable estimates of fair value (for example, based on discounted cash flow projections) are not available.  In such cases, an entity shall measure that investment property using the cost model in AASB 116.  The residual value of the investment property shall be assumed to be zero.  The entity shall apply AASB 116 until disposal of the investment property.

54.      In the exceptional cases when an entity is compelled, for the reason given in the previous paragraph, to measure an investment property using the cost model in accordance with AASB 116, it measures all its other investment property at fair value.  In these cases, although an entity may use the cost model for one investment property, the entity shall continue to account for each of the remaining properties using the fair value model.

55.      If an entity has previously measured an investment property at fair value, it shall continue to measure the property at fair value until disposal (or until the property becomes owner-occupied property or the entity begins to develop the property for subsequent sale in the ordinary course of business) even if comparable market transactions become less frequent or market prices become less readily available.

Cost Model

56.      After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the cost model shall measure all of its investment property in accordance with AASB 116’s requirements for that model, other than those that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or are included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with AASB 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.  Investment properties that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or are included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) shall be measured in accordance with AASB 5.

Transfers

57.      Transfers to, or from, investment property shall be made when, and only when, there is a change in use, evidenced by:

(a)       commencement of owner-occupation, for a transfer from investment property to owner-occupied property;

(b)       commencement of development with a view to sale, for a transfer from investment property to inventories;

(c)       end of owner-occupation, for a transfer from owner-occupied property to investment property;

(d)       commencement of an operating lease to another party, for a transfer from inventories to investment property; or

(e)       end of construction or development, for a transfer from property in the course of construction or development (covered by AASB 116) to investment property.

58.      Paragraph 57(b) requires an entity to transfer a property from investment property to inventories when, and only when, there is a change in use, evidenced by commencement of development with a view to sale.  When an entity decides to dispose of an investment property without development, it continues to treat the property as an investment property until it is derecognised (eliminated from the balance sheet) and does not treat it as inventory.  Similarly, if an entity begins to redevelop an existing investment property for continued future use as investment property, the property remains an investment property and is not reclassified as owner-occupied property during the redevelopment.

59.      Paragraphs 60-65 apply to recognition and measurement issues that arise when an entity uses the fair value model for investment property.  When an entity uses the cost model, transfers between investment property, owner-occupied property and inventories do not change the carrying amount of the property transferred and they do not change the cost of that property for measurement or disclosure purposes.

60.      For a transfer from investment property carried at fair value to owner-occupied property or inventories, the property’s deemed cost for subsequent accounting in accordance with AASB 116 or AASB 102 Inventories shall be its fair value at the date of change in use.

61.      If an owner-occupied property becomes an investment property that will be carried at fair value, an entity shall apply AASB 116 up to the date of change in use.  The entity shall treat any difference at that date between the carrying amount of the property in accordance with AASB 116 and its fair value in the same way as a revaluation in accordance with AASB 116.

62.      Up to the date when an owner-occupied property becomes an investment property carried at fair value, an entity depreciates the property and recognises any impairment losses that have occurred.  The entity treats any difference at that date between the carrying amount of the property in accordance with AASB 116 and its fair value in the same way as a revaluation in accordance with AASB 116.  In other words:

(a)       any resulting decrease in the carrying amount of the property is recognised in profit or loss.  However, to the extent that an amount is included in a revaluation reserve for that property, the decrease is charged against that revaluation reserve; and

(b)      any resulting increase in the carrying amount is treated as follows:

(i)        to the extent that the increase reverses a previous impairment loss for that property, the increase is recognised in profit or loss.  The amount recognised in profit or loss does not exceed the amount needed to restore the carrying amount to the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised; and

(ii)       any remaining part of the increase is credited directly to equity in a revaluation reserve.  On subsequent disposal of the investment property, the revaluation reserve included in equity may be transferred to retained earnings.  The transfer from the revaluation reserve to retained earnings is not made through profit or loss.

63.      For a transfer from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

64.      The treatment of transfers from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value is consistent with the treatment of sales of inventories.

65.      When an entity completes the construction or development of a self-constructed investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

Disposals

66.      An investment property shall be derecognised (eliminated from the balance sheet) on disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from its disposal.

67.      The disposal of an investment property may be achieved by sale or by entering into a finance lease.  In determining the date of disposal for investment property, an entity applies the criteria in AASB 118 Revenue for recognising revenue from the sale of goods and considers the related guidance in the Appendix to AASB 118.  AASB 117 applies to a disposal effected by entering into a finance lease and to a sale and leaseback.

68.      If, in accordance with the recognition principle in paragraph 16, an entity recognises in the carrying amount of an asset the cost of a replacement for part of an investment property, then it derecognises the carrying amount of the replaced part.  For investment property accounted for using the cost model, a replaced part may not be a part that was depreciated separately.  If it is not practicable for an entity to determine the carrying amount of the replaced part, it may use the cost of the replacement as an indication of what the cost of the replaced part was at the time it was acquired or constructed.  In accordance with the fair value model, the fair value of the investment property may already reflect that the part to be replaced has lost its value. In other cases it may be difficult to discern how much fair value shall be reduced for the part being replaced. An alternative to reducing fair value for the replaced part, when it is not practical to do so, is to include the cost of the replacement in the carrying amount of the asset and then to reassess the fair value, as would be required for additions not involving replacement.

69.      Gains or losses arising from the retirement or disposal of investment property shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and shall be recognised in profit or loss (unless AASB 117 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback) in the period of the retirement or disposal.

70.      The consideration receivable on disposal of an investment property is recognised initially at fair value.  In particular, if payment for an investment property is deferred, the consideration received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent.  The difference between the nominal amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest revenue in accordance with AASB 118 using the effective interest method.

71.      An entity applies AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets or other Standards, as appropriate, to any liabilities that it retains after disposal of an investment property.

72.      Compensation from third parties for investment property that was impaired, lost or given up shall be recognised in profit or loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

73.      Impairments or losses of investment property, related claims for or payments of compensation from third parties and any subsequent purchase or construction of replacement assets are separate economic events and are accounted for separately as follows:

(a)       impairments of investment property are recognised in accordance with AASB 136;

(b)      retirements or disposals of investment property are recognised in accordance with paragraphs 66-71 of this Standard;

(c)       compensation from third parties for investment property that was impaired, lost or given up is recognised in profit or loss when it becomes receivable; and

(d)      the cost of assets restored, purchased or constructed as replacements is determined in accordance with paragraphs 20-29 of this Standard.

Disclosure

Fair Value Model and Cost Model

74.      The disclosures below apply in addition to those in AASB 117.  In accordance with AASB 117, the owner of an investment property provides lessors’ disclosures about leases into which it has entered.  An entity that holds an investment property under a finance or operating lease provides lessees’ disclosures for finance leases and lessors’ disclosures for any operating leases into which it has entered.

75.      An entity shall disclose:

(a)       whether it applies the fair value or the cost model;

(b)       if it applies the fair value model, whether, and in what circumstances, property interests held under operating leases are classified and accounted for as investment property;

(c)       when classification is difficult (see paragraph 14), the criteria it uses to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from property held for sale in the ordinary course of business;

(d)       the methods and significant assumptions applied in determining the fair value of investment property, including a statement whether the determination of fair value was supported by market evidence or was more heavily based on other factors (which the entity shall disclose) because of the nature of the property and lack of comparable market data;

(e)       the extent to which the fair value of investment property (as measured or disclosed in the financial report) is based on a valuation by an independent valuer who holds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued.  If there has been no such valuation, that fact shall be disclosed;

(f)       the amounts recognised in profit or loss for:

(i)       rental income from investment property;

(ii)      direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that generated rental income during the period;

(iii)     direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that did not generate rental income during the period; and

(iv)      the cumulative change in fair value recognised in profit or loss on a sale of investment property from a pool of assets in which the cost model is used into a pool in which the fair value model is used (see paragraph 32C);

(g)      the existence and amounts of restrictions on the realisability of investment property or the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal; and

(h)      contractual obligations to purchase, construct or develop investment property or for repairs, maintenance or enhancements.

Fair Value Model

76.      In addition to the disclosures required by paragraph 75, an entity that applies the fair value model in paragraphs 33-55 shall disclose a reconciliation between the carrying amounts of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:

(a)       additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised in the carrying amount of an asset;

(b)       additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;

(c)       assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group in accordance with AASB 5 and other disposals;

(d)       net gains or losses from fair value adjustments;

(e)       the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity;

(f)       transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and

(g)      other changes.

77.      When a valuation obtained for investment property is adjusted significantly for the purpose of the financial statements, for example to avoid double-counting of assets or liabilities that are recognised as separate assets and liabilities as described in paragraph 50, the entity shall disclose a reconciliation between the valuation obtained and the adjusted valuation included in the financial statements, showing separately the aggregate amount of any recognised lease obligations that have been added back, and any other significant adjustments.

78.      In the exceptional cases referred to in paragraph 53, when an entity measures investment property using the cost model in AASB 116, the reconciliation required by paragraph 76 shall disclose amounts relating to that investment property separately from amounts relating to other investment property.  In addition, an entity shall disclose:

(a)       a description of the investment property;

(b)       an explanation of why fair value cannot be determined reliably;

(c)       if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie; and

(d)       on disposal of investment property not carried at fair value:

(i)       the fact that the entity has disposed of investment property not carried at fair value;

(ii)      the carrying amount of that investment property at the time of sale; and

(iii)     the amount of gain or loss recognised.

Cost Model

79.      In addition to the disclosures required by paragraph 75, an entity that applies the cost model in paragraph 56 shall disclose:

(a)       the depreciation methods used;

(b)       the useful lives or the depreciation rates used;

(c)       the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period;

(d)       a reconciliation of the carrying amount of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:

(i)       additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised as an asset;

(ii)      additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;

(iii)     assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group in accordance with AASB 5 and other disposals;

(iv)      depreciation;

(v)       the amount of impairment losses recognised, and the amount of impairment losses reversed, during the period in accordance with AASB 136;

(vi)      the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity;

(vii)    transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and

(viii)   other changes; and

(e)       the fair value of investment property.  In the exceptional cases described in paragraph 53, when an entity cannot determine the fair value of the investment property reliably, it shall disclose:

(i)       a description of the investment property;

(ii)      an explanation of why fair value cannot be determined reliably; and

(iii)     if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie.

Transitional Provisions

80.      [Deleted by the AASB]

81.      [Deleted by the AASB]

82.      [Deleted by the AASB]

83.      [Deleted by the AASB]

84.      [Deleted by the AASB]

Effective Date of IAS 40

85.      [Deleted by the AASB]

Withdrawal of IAS 40 (2000)

86.      [Deleted by the AASB]