Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Fair Work Act 2009

Authoritative Version
Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Sex Discrimination and Fair Work (Respect at Work) Amendment Act 2021
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 08 Oct 2021
Start Date 11 Sep 2021

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Fair Work Act 2009

No. 28, 2009

Compilation No. 45

Compilation date:                              11 September 2021

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 104, 2021

Registered:                                         8 October 2021

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–536H

Volume 2:       sections 537–800

                        Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Fair Work Act 2009 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 11 September 2021 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                       1

Part 1‑1—Introduction                                                                                                       1

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                              1

1............ Short title............................................................................................. 1

2............ Commencement................................................................................... 1

Division 2—Object of this Act                                                                                 4

3............ Object of this Act................................................................................ 4

Division 3—Guide to this Act                                                                                   6

4............ Guide to this Act................................................................................. 6

5............ Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2).............................. 7

6............ Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)               8

7............ Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)........................................... 9

8............ Administration (Chapter 5)................................................................. 9

9............ Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)................................................................ 10

9A......... Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)          11

Part 1‑2—Definitions                                                                                                         12

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          12

10.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 12

11.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 12

Division 2—The Dictionary                                                                                     13

12.......... The Dictionary.................................................................................. 13

Division 3—Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.    48

13.......... Meaning of national system employee.............................................. 48

14.......... Meaning of national system employer.............................................. 48

14A....... Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.             50

15.......... Ordinary meanings of employee and employer................................. 51

15A....... Meaning of casual employee............................................................. 51

Division 4—Other definitions                                                                                 53

16.......... Meaning of base rate of pay............................................................. 53

17.......... Meaning of child of a person............................................................ 54

17A....... Meaning of directly and indirectly (in relation to TCF work)............ 54

18.......... Meaning of full rate of pay................................................................ 55

19.......... Meaning of industrial action............................................................. 56

20.......... Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees               57

21.......... Meaning of pieceworker................................................................... 58

22.......... Meanings of service and continuous service..................................... 59

23.......... Meaning of small business employer................................................ 62

23A....... Terms relating to superannuation...................................................... 63

Part 1‑3—Application of this Act                                                                               65

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          65

24.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 65

25.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 65

Division 2—Interaction with State and Territory laws                            66

26.......... Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws.................................. 66

27.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26............. 68

28.......... Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws.............................. 69

29.......... Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws           70

30.......... Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases............ 70

Division 2A—Application of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009  71

30A....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 71

30B....... Meaning of referring State................................................................ 76

30C....... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 79

30D....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 79

30E........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 80

30F........ Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 80

30G....... General protections........................................................................... 81

30H....... Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 81

Division 2B—Application of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010                                                                                    82

30K....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 82

30L........ Meaning of referring State................................................................ 87

30M...... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 90

30N....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 90

30P........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 91

30Q....... Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 91

30R....... General protections........................................................................... 92

30S........ Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 92

Division 3—Geographical application of this Act                                       93

31.......... Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia..... 93

32.......... Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia           93

32A....... Rules may modify application of this Act in Norfolk Island............. 94

33.......... Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf       94

34.......... Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf               96

35.......... Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee.. 98

35A....... Regulations excluding application of Act.......................................... 99

36.......... Geographical application of offences................................................ 99

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                     100

37.......... Act binds Crown............................................................................. 100

38.......... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power................. 100

39.......... Acquisition of property................................................................... 101

40.......... Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws       101

40A....... Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.............................. 102

Chapter 2—Terms and conditions of employment                103

Part 2‑1—Core provisions for this Chapter                                                      103

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        103

41.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................ 103

42.......... Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 104

Division 2—Core provisions for this Chapter                                             105

Subdivision A—Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act            105

43.......... Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act....... 105

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards            106

44.......... Contravening the National Employment Standards......................... 106

Subdivision C—Terms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award 106

45.......... Contravening a modern award........................................................ 106

46.......... The significance of a modern award applying to a person............... 106

47.......... When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity   107

48.......... When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity        108

49.......... When a modern award is in operation............................................. 109

Subdivision D—Terms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement  110

50.......... Contravening an enterprise agreement............................................. 110

51.......... The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person... 110

52.......... When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation    110

53.......... When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation         111

54.......... When an enterprise agreement is in operation................................. 112

Division 3—Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                           114

Subdivision A—Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement                                                                                   114

55.......... Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement  114

56.......... Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect      116

Subdivision B—Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements         117

57.......... Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements...... 117

57A....... Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply. 117

Subdivision C—Interaction between one or more enterprise agreements 118

58.......... Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee............... 118

Part 2‑2—The National Employment Standards                                           120

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        120

59.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................ 120

60.......... Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 120

Division 2—The National Employment Standards                                   122

61.......... The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees     122

Division 3—Maximum weekly hours                                                                123

62.......... Maximum weekly hours................................................................. 123

63.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work        124

64.......... Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees. 125

Division 4—Requests for flexible working arrangements                    126

65.......... Requests for flexible working arrangements................................... 126

66.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 128

Division 4A—Offers and requests for casual conversion                     129

Subdivision A—Application of Division                                                           129

66A....... Division applies to casual employees etc......................................... 129

Subdivision B—Employer offers for casual conversion                             129

66AA.... Subdivision does not apply to small business employers................ 129

66B....... Employer offers.............................................................................. 129

66C....... When employer offers not required................................................. 130

66D....... Employee must give a response...................................................... 132

66E........ Acceptances of offers...................................................................... 132

Subdivision C—Residual right to request casual conversion                      132

66F........ Employee requests.......................................................................... 132

66G....... Employer must give a response....................................................... 134

66H....... Refusals of requests........................................................................ 134

66J........ Grants of requests........................................................................... 135

Subdivision D—Other provisions                                                                       136

66K....... Effect of conversion........................................................................ 136

66L........ Other rights and obligations............................................................ 136

66M...... Disputes about the operation of this Division................................. 136

Division 5—Parental leave and related entitlements                               139

Subdivision A—General                                                                                       139

67.......... General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service           139

68.......... General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc. 141

69.......... Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.      141

Subdivision B—Parental leave                                                                           142

70.......... Entitlement to unpaid parental leave................................................ 142

71.......... The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave       142

72.......... The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave             144

72A....... Flexible unpaid parental leave......................................................... 147

73.......... Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth          149

74.......... Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 151

75.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending to use more of available parental leave period     154

76.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending for up to 12 months beyond available parental leave period........................................................................................................ 155

77.......... Reducing period of unpaid parental leave........................................ 157

77A....... Effect of stillbirth or death of child on unpaid parental leave........... 157

78.......... Employee who ceases to have responsibility for care of child......... 159

78A....... Hospitalised children....................................................................... 159

79.......... Interaction with paid leave............................................................... 161

79A....... Keeping in touch days..................................................................... 162

79B....... Unpaid parental leave not extended by paid leave or keeping in touch days             163

Subdivision C—Other entitlements                                                                    163

80.......... Unpaid special maternity leave........................................................ 163

81.......... Transfer to a safe job....................................................................... 165

81A....... Paid no safe job leave...................................................................... 165

82.......... Employee on paid no safe job leave may be asked to provide a further medical certificate       166

82A....... Unpaid no safe job leave................................................................. 167

83.......... Consultation with employee on unpaid parental leave..................... 167

84.......... Return to work guarantee................................................................ 167

84A....... Replacement employees.................................................................. 168

85.......... Unpaid pre‑adoption leave.............................................................. 168

Division 6—Annual leave                                                                                       170

86.......... Division applies to employees other than casual employees............ 170

87.......... Entitlement to annual leave.............................................................. 170

88.......... Taking paid annual leave................................................................. 171

89.......... Employee not taken to be on paid annual leave at certain times....... 172

90.......... Payment for annual leave................................................................ 172

91.......... Transfer of employment situations that affect entitlement to payment for period of untaken paid annual leave        172

92.......... Paid annual leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms           173

93.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out and taking paid annual leave........................................................................................................ 173

94.......... Cashing out and taking paid annual leave for award/agreement free employees       174

Division 7—Personal/carer’s leave, compassionate leave and unpaid family and domestic violence leave                                                                                                                    176

Subdivision A—Paid personal/carer’s leave                                                   176

95.......... Subdivision applies to employees other than casual employees...... 176

96.......... Entitlement to paid personal/carer’s leave........................................ 176

97.......... Taking paid personal/carer’s leave.................................................. 176

98.......... Employee taken not to be on paid personal/carer’s leave on public holiday              177

99.......... Payment for paid personal/carer’s leave.......................................... 177

100........ Paid personal/carer’s leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms             177

101........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out paid personal/carer’s leave   177

Subdivision B—Unpaid carer’s leave                                                               178

102........ Entitlement to unpaid carer’s leave.................................................. 178

103........ Taking unpaid carer’s leave............................................................. 178

Subdivision C—Compassionate leave                                                               179

104........ Entitlement to compassionate leave................................................. 179

105........ Taking compassionate leave............................................................ 179

106........ Payment for compassionate leave (other than for casual employees) 180

Subdivision CA—Unpaid family and domestic violence leave                   181

106A..... Entitlement to unpaid family and domestic violence leave............... 181

106B..... Taking unpaid family and domestic violence leave.......................... 181

106C..... Confidentiality................................................................................. 182

106D..... Operation of unpaid family and domestic violence leave and leave for victims of crime          183

106E...... Entitlement to days of leave............................................................. 183

Subdivision D—Notice and evidence requirements                                       183

107........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 183

Division 8—Community service leave                                                             185

108........ Entitlement to be absent from employment for engaging in eligible community service activity               185

109........ Meaning of eligible community service activity............................... 185

110........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 187

111........ Payment to employees (other than casuals) on jury service............. 187

112........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 189

Division 9—Long service leave                                                                           191

113........ Entitlement to long service leave..................................................... 191

113A..... Enterprise agreements may contain terms discounting service under prior agreements etc. in certain circumstances........................................................................................................ 193

Division 10—Public holidays                                                                                195

114........ Entitlement to be absent from employment on public holiday......... 195

115........ Meaning of public holiday.............................................................. 196

116........ Payment for absence on public holiday........................................... 197

Division 11—Notice of termination and redundancy pay                     198

Subdivision A—Notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice         198

117........ Requirement for notice of termination or payment in lieu................ 198

118........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for notice of termination by employees            199

Subdivision B—Redundancy pay                                                                       199

119........ Redundancy pay.............................................................................. 199

120........ Variation of redundancy pay for other employment or incapacity to pay  200

121........ Exclusions from obligation to pay redundancy pay......................... 201

122........ Transfer of employment situations that affect the obligation to pay redundancy pay                202

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            203

123........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 203

Division 12—Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish statements           205

124........ Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Fair Work Information Statement  205

125........ Giving new employees the Fair Work Information Statement......... 205

125A..... Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Casual Employment Information Statement   206

125B..... Giving new employees the Casual Employment Information Statement.. 207

Division 13—Miscellaneous                                                                                   208

126........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for school‑based apprentices and trainees to be paid loadings in lieu.................................................................................................. 208

127........ Regulations about what modern awards and enterprise agreements can do              208

128........ Relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements etc. permitted by this Part for award/agreement free employees................................................................................ 208

129........ Regulations about what can be agreed to etc. in relation to award/agreement free employees   209

130........ Restriction on taking or accruing leave or absence while receiving workers’ compensation    209

131........ Relationship with other Commonwealth laws................................. 210

Part 2‑3—Modern awards                                                                                            211

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        211

132........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 211

133........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 212

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                213

134........ The modern awards objective.......................................................... 213

135........ Special provisions relating to modern award minimum wages........ 214

Division 3—Terms of modern awards                                                             215

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               215

136........ What can be included in modern awards......................................... 215

137........ Terms that contravene section 136 have no effect........................... 216

138........ Achieving the modern awards objective.......................................... 216

Subdivision B—Terms that may be included in modern awards               216

139........ Terms that may be included in modern awards—general................ 216

140........ Outworker terms............................................................................. 217

141........ Industry‑specific redundancy schemes............................................ 218

142........ Incidental and machinery terms....................................................... 219

Subdivision C—Terms that must be included in modern awards              220

143........ Coverage terms of modern awards other than modern enterprise awards and State reference public sector modern awards........................................................................................................ 220

143A..... Coverage terms of modern enterprise awards................................. 222

143B..... Coverage terms of State reference public sector modern awards..... 224

144........ Flexibility terms.............................................................................. 225

145........ Effect of individual flexibility arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                226

145A..... Consultation about changes to rosters or hours of work................. 227

146........ Terms about settling disputes.......................................................... 227

147........ Ordinary hours of work.................................................................. 228

148........ Base and full rates of pay for pieceworkers.................................... 228

149........ Automatic variation of allowances.................................................. 228

149B..... Term requiring avoidance of liability to pay superannuation guarantee charge         229

149C..... Default fund terms.......................................................................... 229

149D..... Default fund term must provide for contributions to be made to certain funds         229

Subdivision D—Terms that must not be included in modern awards       231

150........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 231

151........ Terms about payments and deductions for benefit of employer etc. 231

152........ Terms about right of entry............................................................... 232

153........ Terms that are discriminatory.......................................................... 232

154........ Terms that contain State‑based differences...................................... 233

155........ Terms dealing with long service leave............................................. 234

Division 4A—4 yearly reviews of default fund terms of modern awards             235

Subdivision A—4 yearly reviews of default fund terms                               235

156A..... 4 yearly reviews of default fund terms............................................ 235

Subdivision B—The first stage of the 4 yearly review                                 236

156B..... Making the Default Superannuation List......................................... 236

156C..... Applications to list a standard MySuper product............................ 236

156D..... Submissions on applications to list a standard MySuper product... 237

156E...... Determining applications to list a standard MySuper product......... 238

156F...... First stage criteria............................................................................ 238

Subdivision C—Second stage of the 4 yearly review                                    239

156G..... Review of the default fund term of modern awards........................ 239

156H..... Default fund term must specify certain superannuation funds......... 240

156J...... Variation to comply with section 149D........................................... 241

156K..... Transitional authorisation for certain superannuation funds............ 241

Subdivision D—The Schedule of Approved Employer MySuper Products 241

156L...... The Schedule of Approved Employer MySuper Products.............. 241

156M.... FWC to invite applications to include employer MySuper products on schedule     242

156N..... Making applications to include employer MySuper products on schedule               242

156P...... FWC to determine applications....................................................... 243

156Q..... The first stage test........................................................................... 244

156R..... Submissions about the first stage test.............................................. 244

156S...... The second stage test....................................................................... 245

156T...... Submissions about the second stage test......................................... 245

Subdivision E—Publishing documents under this Division                         246

156U..... Publishing documents under this Division...................................... 246

Division 5—Exercising modern award powers                                          247

Subdivision A—Exercise of powers if necessary to achieve modern awards objective               247

157........ FWC may vary etc. modern awards if necessary to achieve modern awards objective             247

158........ Applications to vary, revoke or make modern award...................... 248

Subdivision B—Other situations                                                                        250

159........ Variation of modern award to update or omit name of employer, organisation or outworker entity         250

159A..... Variation of default fund term of modern award............................. 251

160........ Variation of modern award to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error      252

161........ Variation of modern award on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission  253

Division 6—General provisions relating to modern award powers 254

162........ General............................................................................................ 254

163........ Special criteria relating to changing coverage of modern awards.... 254

164........ Special criteria for revoking modern awards................................... 255

165........ When variation determinations come into operation, other than determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages.............................................................................. 255

166........ When variation determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages come into operation  256

167........ Special rules relating to retrospective variations of awards............. 257

168........ Varied modern award must be published........................................ 258

Division 7—Additional provisions relating to modern enterprise awards           259

168A..... Modern enterprise awards............................................................... 259

168B..... The modern enterprise awards objective......................................... 260

168C..... Rules about making and revoking modern enterprise awards......... 260

168D..... Rules about changing coverage of modern enterprise awards......... 262

Division 8—Additional provisions relating to State reference public sector modern awards   263

168E...... State reference public sector modern awards................................... 263

168F...... The State reference public sector modern awards objective............. 263

168G..... Making State reference public sector modern awards on application 264

168H..... State reference public sector modern awards may contain State‑based differences   265

168J...... When State reference public sector modern awards come into operation  265

168K..... Rules about revoking State reference public sector modern awards 266

168L...... Rules about varying coverage of State reference public sector modern awards        267

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements                                                                             268

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        268

169........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 268

170........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 269

171........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 269

Division 2—Employers and employees may make enterprise agreements          271

172........ Making an enterprise agreement...................................................... 271

Division 3—Bargaining and representation during bargaining        274

173........ Notice of employee representational rights...................................... 274

174........ Content and form of notice of employee representational rights...... 275

176........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are not greenfields agreements        276

177........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are greenfields agreements              278

178........ Appointment of bargaining representatives—other matters............. 279

178A..... Revocation of appointment of bargaining representatives etc.......... 280

178B..... Notified negotiation period for a proposed single‑enterprise agreement that is a greenfields agreement   281

Division 4—Approval of enterprise agreements                                        282

Subdivision A—Pre‑approval steps and applications for the FWC’s approval             282

179........ Disclosure by organisations that are bargaining representatives...... 282

179A..... Disclosure by employers................................................................. 283

180........ Employees must be given a copy of a proposed enterprise agreement etc.               284

181........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed enterprise agreement     286

182........ When an enterprise agreement is made............................................ 287

183........ Entitlement of an employee organisation to have an enterprise agreement cover it   288

184........ Multi‑enterprise agreement to be varied if not all employees approve the agreement                289

185........ Bargaining representative must apply for the FWC’s approval of an enterprise agreement      290

185A..... Material that must accompany an application under subsection 182(4) for approval of a greenfields agreement      291

Subdivision B—Approval of enterprise agreements by the FWC             291

186........ When the FWC must approve an enterprise agreement—general requirements        291

187........ When the FWC must approve an enterprise agreement—additional requirements    293

188........ When employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement 295

188A..... Disclosure documents..................................................................... 296

189........ FWC may approve an enterprise agreement that does not pass better off overall test—public interest test               296

190........ FWC may approve an enterprise agreement with undertakings....... 297

191........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 298

192........ When the FWC may refuse to approve an enterprise agreement..... 298

Subdivision C—Better off overall test                                                              299

193........ Passing the better off overall test..................................................... 299

Subdivision D—Unlawful terms                                                                         301

194........ Meaning of unlawful term............................................................... 301

195........ Meaning of discriminatory term..................................................... 302

195A..... Meaning of objectionable emergency management term................ 303

Subdivision E—Approval requirements relating to particular kinds of employees     306

196........ Shiftworkers................................................................................... 306

197........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement includes pieceworker term.... 306

198........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement does not include a pieceworker term              307

199........ School‑based apprentices and school‑based trainees....................... 307

200........ Outworkers..................................................................................... 308

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            308

201........ Approval decision to note certain matters........................................ 308

Division 5—Mandatory terms of enterprise agreements                      310

202........ Enterprise agreements to include a flexibility term etc..................... 310

203........ Requirements to be met by a flexibility term................................... 311

204........ Effect of arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                312

205........ Enterprise agreements to include a consultation term etc................. 313

Division 6—Base rate of pay under enterprise agreements                315

206........ Base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement must not be less than the modern award rate or the national minimum wage order rate etc.......................................................................... 315

Division 7—Variation and termination of enterprise agreements   317

Subdivision A—Variation of enterprise agreements by employers and employees      317

207........ Variation of an enterprise agreement may be made by employers and employees    317

208........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed variation of an enterprise agreement              318

209........ When a variation of an enterprise agreement is made...................... 318

210........ Application for the FWC’s approval of a variation of an enterprise agreement        319

211........ When the FWC must approve a variation of an enterprise agreement 319

212........ FWC may approve a variation of an enterprise agreement with undertakings          322

213........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 322

214........ When the FWC may refuse to approve a variation of an enterprise agreement         323

215........ Approval decision to note undertakings.......................................... 323

216........ When variation comes into operation.............................................. 324

Subdivision B—Variations of enterprise agreements where there is ambiguity, uncertainty or discrimination  324

217........ Variation of an enterprise agreement to remove an ambiguity or uncertainty            324

217A..... FWC may deal with certain disputes about variations..................... 324

218........ Variation of an enterprise agreement on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission    325

Subdivision C—Termination of enterprise agreements by employers and employees                326

219........ Employers and employees may agree to terminate an enterprise agreement              326

220........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed termination of an enterprise agreement          326

221........ When termination of an enterprise agreement is agreed to............... 327

222........ Application for the FWC’s approval of a termination of an enterprise agreement    327

223........ When the FWC must approve a termination of an enterprise agreement.. 328

224........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 329

Subdivision D—Termination of enterprise agreements after nominal expiry date      329

225........ Application for termination of an enterprise agreement after its nominal expiry date                329

226........ When the FWC must terminate an enterprise agreement................. 329

227........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 330

Division 8—FWC’s general role in facilitating bargaining                  331

Subdivision A—Bargaining orders                                                                   331

228........ Bargaining representatives must meet the good faith bargaining requirements         331

229........ Applications for bargaining orders.................................................. 332

230........ When the FWC may make a bargaining order................................. 333

231........ What a bargaining order must specify............................................. 334

232........ Operation of a bargaining order...................................................... 336

233........ Contravening a bargaining order..................................................... 336

Subdivision B—Serious breach declarations                                                  336

234........ Applications for serious breach declarations................................... 336

235........ When the FWC may make a serious breach declaration.................. 337

Subdivision C—Majority support determinations and scope orders        339

236........ Majority support determinations..................................................... 339

237........ When the FWC must make a majority support determination......... 339

238........ Scope orders................................................................................... 340

239........ Operation of a scope order.............................................................. 342

Subdivision D—FWC may deal with a bargaining dispute on request     343

240........ Application for the FWC to deal with a bargaining dispute............. 343

Division 9—Low‑paid bargaining                                                                      344

241........ Objects of this Division.................................................................. 344

242........ Low‑paid authorisations.................................................................. 344

243........ When the FWC must make a low‑paid authorisation...................... 345

244........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—general................................ 347

245........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—enterprise agreement etc. comes into operation            348

246........ FWC’s assistance for the low‑paid................................................. 348

Division 10—Single interest employer authorisations                            350

Subdivision A—Declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement            350

247........ Ministerial declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement           350

Subdivision B—Single interest employer authorisations                             351

248........ Single interest employer authorisations........................................... 351

249........ When the FWC must make a single interest employer authorisation 351

250........ What a single interest employer authorisation must specify............ 353

251........ Variation of single interest employer authorisations........................ 353

252........ Variation to extend period single interest employer authorisation is in operation     354

Division 11—Other matters                                                                                  355

253........ Terms of an enterprise agreement that are of no effect.................... 355

254........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 355

254A..... Entitlement for volunteer bodies to make submissions.................... 356

255........ Part does not empower the FWC to make certain orders................. 356

255A..... Limitations relating to greenfields agreements................................. 357

256........ Prospective employers and employees............................................ 358

256A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          358

257........ Enterprise agreements may incorporate material in force from time to time etc.        358

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations                                                                    359

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        359

258........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 359

259........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 360

Division 2—Low‑paid workplace determinations                                     361

260........ Applications for low‑paid workplace determinations...................... 361

261........ When the FWC must make a consent low‑paid workplace determination                362

262........ When the FWC must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—general requirements             363

263........ When the FWC must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—additional requirements         364

264........ Terms etc. of a low‑paid workplace determination.......................... 365

265........ No other terms................................................................................ 365

Division 3—Industrial action related workplace determinations     366

266........ When the FWC must make an industrial action related workplace determination     366

267........ Terms etc. of an industrial action related workplace determination.. 367

268........ No other terms................................................................................ 368

Division 4—Bargaining related workplace determinations                 369

269........ When the FWC must make a bargaining related workplace determination               369

270........ Terms etc. of a bargaining related workplace determination............ 370

271........ No other terms................................................................................ 372

271A..... Limitations relating to greenfields agreements................................. 372

Division 5—Core terms, mandatory terms and agreed terms of workplace determinations etc.           373

272........ Core terms of workplace determinations......................................... 373

273........ Mandatory terms of workplace determinations............................... 374

274........ Agreed terms for workplace determinations.................................... 375

275........ Factors the FWC must take into account in deciding terms of a workplace determination        376

Division 6—Operation, coverage and interaction etc. of workplace determinations    377

276........ When a workplace determination operates etc................................. 377

277........ Employers, employees and employee organisations covered by a workplace determination    377

278........ Interaction of a workplace determination with enterprise agreements etc. 378

279........ Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement        379

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                     381

280........ Contravening a workplace determination........................................ 381

281........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 381

281AA.. Entitlement for volunteer bodies to make submissions.................... 381

281A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          382

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages                                                                                           383

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        383

282........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 383

283........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 384

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                385

284........ The minimum wages objective........................................................ 385

Division 3—Annual wage reviews                                                                     387

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        387

285........ Annual wage reviews to be conducted............................................ 387

286........ When annual wage review determinations varying modern awards come into operation         387

287........ When national minimum wage orders come into operation etc........ 388

Subdivision B—Provisions about conduct of annual wage reviews          390

288........ General............................................................................................ 390

289........ Everyone to have a reasonable opportunity to make and comment on submissions 390

290........ President may direct investigations and reports............................... 391

291........ Research must be published............................................................ 392

292........ Varied wage rates must be published.............................................. 392

Division 4—National minimum wage orders                                               393

293........ Contravening a national minimum wage order................................ 393

294........ Content of national minimum wage order—main provisions.......... 393

295........ Content of national minimum wage order—other matters............... 394

296........ Variation of national minimum wage order to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error              395

297........ When determinations varying national minimum wage orders come into operation 395

298........ Special rule about retrospective variations of national minimum wage orders          396

299........ When a national minimum wage order is in operation..................... 397

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration                                                                                  398

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        398

300........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 398

301........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 398

Division 2—Equal remuneration orders                                                        399

302........ FWC may make an order requiring equal remuneration.................. 399

303........ Equal remuneration order may increase, but must not reduce, rates of remuneration                400

304........ Equal remuneration order may implement equal remuneration in stages.. 400

305........ Contravening an equal remuneration order...................................... 400

306........ Inconsistency with modern awards, enterprise agreements and orders of the FWC 401

Part 2‑8—Transfer of business                                                                                  402

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        402

307........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 402

308........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 402

309........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 403

Division 2—Transfer of instruments                                                                404

310........ Application of this Division............................................................ 404

311........ When does a transfer of business occur.......................................... 404

312........ Instruments that may transfer.......................................................... 406

313........ Transferring employees and new employer covered by transferable instrument       406

314........ New non‑transferring employees of new employer may be covered by transferable instrument              407

315........ Organisations covered by transferable instrument........................... 408

316........ Transferring employees who are high income employees............... 409

Division 3—Powers of the FWC                                                                         411

317........ FWC may make orders in relation to a transfer of business............ 411

318........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and transferring employees 411

319........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and non‑transferring employees         413

320........ Variation of transferable instruments.............................................. 415

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment                               417

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        417

321........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 417

322........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 417

Division 2—Payment of wages etc.                                                                   418

323........ Method and frequency of payment.................................................. 418

324........ Permitted deductions....................................................................... 418

325........ Unreasonable requirements to spend or pay amount....................... 419

326........ Certain terms have no effect............................................................ 420

327........ Things given or provided, and amounts required to be spent or paid, in contravention of this Division  421

Division 3—Guarantee of annual earnings                                                   422

328........ Employer obligations in relation to guarantee of annual earnings.... 422

329........ High income employee.................................................................... 423

330........ Guarantee of annual earnings and annual rate of guarantee............. 424

331........ Guaranteed period........................................................................... 424

332........ Earnings.......................................................................................... 425

333........ High income threshold.................................................................... 426

333A..... Prospective employees.................................................................... 427

Chapter 3—Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc.                                                                                                                       428

Part 3‑1—General protections                                                                                   428

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        428

334........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 428

335........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 428

336........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 429

Division 2—Application of this Part                                                                 430

337........ Application of this Part................................................................... 430

338........ Action to which this Part applies..................................................... 430

339........ Additional effect of this Part........................................................... 431

Division 3—Workplace rights                                                                              433

340........ Protection........................................................................................ 433

341........ Meaning of workplace right............................................................ 433

342........ Meaning of adverse action.............................................................. 435

343........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 438

344........ Undue influence or pressure........................................................... 438

345........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 439

Division 4—Industrial activities                                                                          440

346........ Protection........................................................................................ 440

347........ Meaning of engages in industrial activity....................................... 440

348........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 441

349........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 441

350........ Inducements—membership action.................................................. 442

Division 5—Other protections                                                                             443

351........ Discrimination................................................................................. 443

352........ Temporary absence—illness or injury............................................. 444

353........ Bargaining services fees.................................................................. 444

354........ Coverage by particular instruments................................................. 445

355........ Coercion—allocation of duties etc. to particular person.................. 445

356........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 446

Division 6—Sham arrangements                                                                        447

357........ Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting arrangement 447

358........ Dismissing to engage as independent contractor............................. 447

359........ Misrepresentation to engage as independent contractor................... 447

Division 7—Ancillary rules                                                                                   449

360........ Multiple reasons for action.............................................................. 449

361........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise............ 449

362........ Advising, encouraging, inciting or coercing action......................... 449

363........ Actions of industrial associations.................................................... 449

364........ Unincorporated industrial associations............................................ 451

Division 8—Compliance                                                                                          452

Subdivision A—Contraventions involving dismissal                                    452

365........ Application for the FWC to deal with a dismissal dispute............... 452

366........ Time for application........................................................................ 452

367........ Application fees.............................................................................. 452

368........ Dealing with a dismissal dispute (other than by arbitration)............ 453

369........ Dealing with a dismissal dispute by arbitration............................... 453

370........ Taking a dismissal dispute to court................................................. 455

Subdivision B—Other contraventions                                                              455

372........ Application for the FWC to deal with a non‑dismissal dispute....... 455

373........ Application fees.............................................................................. 456

374........ Conferences.................................................................................... 456

375........ Advice on general protections court application.............................. 456

Subdivision C—Appeals and costs orders                                                        457

375A..... Appeal rights................................................................................... 457

375B..... Costs orders against parties............................................................. 457

376........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 457

377........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 458

377A..... Schedule of costs............................................................................ 458

378........ Contravening costs orders............................................................... 459

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal                                                                                           460

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        460

379........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 460

380........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 460

381........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 460

Division 2—Protection from unfair dismissal                                              462

382........ When a person is protected from unfair dismissal........................... 462

383........ Meaning of minimum employment period...................................... 462

384........ Period of employment..................................................................... 462

Division 3—What is an unfair dismissal                                                         464

385........ What is an unfair dismissal............................................................. 464

386........ Meaning of dismissed..................................................................... 464

387........ Criteria for considering harshness etc............................................. 465

388........ The Small Business Fair Dismissal Code....................................... 466

389........ Meaning of genuine redundancy..................................................... 466

Division 4—Remedies for unfair dismissal                                                    467

390........ When the FWC may order remedy for unfair dismissal.................. 467

391........ Remedy—reinstatement etc............................................................. 467

392........ Remedy—compensation................................................................. 469

393........ Monetary orders may be in instalments........................................... 470

Division 5—Procedural matters                                                                         471

394........ Application for unfair dismissal remedy......................................... 471

395........ Application fees.............................................................................. 471

396........ Initial matters to be considered before merits.................................. 472

397........ Matters involving contested facts.................................................... 472

398........ Conferences.................................................................................... 472

399........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 473

399A..... Dismissing applications.................................................................. 473

400........ Appeal rights................................................................................... 474

400A..... Costs orders against parties............................................................. 474

401........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 474

402........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 475

403........ Schedule of costs............................................................................ 475

404........ Security for costs............................................................................ 476

405........ Contravening orders under this Part................................................ 476

Part 3‑3—Industrial action                                                                                           477

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        477

406........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 477

407........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 478

Division 2—Protected industrial action                                                          479

Subdivision A—What is protected industrial action                                     479

408........ Protected industrial action............................................................... 479

409........ Employee claim action..................................................................... 479

410........ Employee response action............................................................... 481

411........ Employer response action............................................................... 481

412........ Pattern bargaining........................................................................... 482

Subdivision B—Common requirements for industrial action to be protected industrial action                483

413........ Common requirements that apply for industrial action to be protected industrial action           483

414........ Notice requirements for industrial action......................................... 485

Subdivision C—Significance of industrial action being protected industrial action    486

415........ Immunity provision......................................................................... 486

416........ Employer response action—employer may refuse to make payments to employees 486

416A..... Employer response action does not affect continuity of employment 486

Division 3—No industrial action before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       488

417........ Industrial action must not be organised or engaged in before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       488

Division 4—FWC orders stopping etc. industrial action                       490

418........ FWC must order that industrial action by employees or employers stop etc.            490

419........ FWC must order that industrial action by non‑national system employees or non‑national system employers stop etc......................................................................................................... 491

420........ Interim orders etc............................................................................ 492

421........ Contravening an order etc............................................................... 492

Division 5—Injunction against industrial action if pattern bargaining is being engaged in       494

422........ Injunction against industrial action if a bargaining representative is engaging in pattern bargaining         494

Division 6—Suspension or termination of protected industrial action by the FWC       495

423........ FWC may suspend or terminate protected industrial action—significant economic harm etc.  495

424........ FWC must suspend or terminate protected industrial action—endangering life etc. 497

425........ FWC must suspend protected industrial action—cooling off.......... 498

426........ FWC must suspend protected industrial action—significant harm to a third party   499

427........ FWC must specify the period of suspension................................... 500

428........ Extension of a period of suspension............................................... 501

429........ Employee claim action without a further protected action ballot after a period of suspension etc.            501

430........ Notice of employee claim action engaged in after a period of suspension etc.          502

Division 7—Ministerial declarations                                                                504

431........ Ministerial declaration terminating industrial action........................ 504

432........ Informing people of declaration...................................................... 504

433........ Ministerial directions to remove or reduce threat............................. 505

434........ Contravening a Ministerial direction............................................... 505

Division 8—Protected action ballots                                                                506

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               506

435........ Guide to this Division..................................................................... 506

436........ Object of this Division.................................................................... 506

Subdivision B—Protected action ballot orders                                              507

437........ Application for a protected action ballot order................................. 507

438........ Restriction on when application may be made................................. 508

439........ Joint applications............................................................................. 508

440........ Notice of application....................................................................... 509

441........ Application to be determined within 2 days after it is made............ 509

442........ Dealing with multiple applications together..................................... 509

443........ When the FWC must make a protected action ballot order.............. 510

444........ FWC may decide on ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission and independent advisor           511

445........ Notice of protected action ballot order............................................. 512

446........ Protected action ballot order may require 2 or more protected action ballots to be held at the same time  512

447........ Variation of protected action ballot order........................................ 513

448........ Revocation of protected action ballot order..................................... 513

Subdivision C—Conduct of protected action ballot                                      513

449........ Protected action ballot to be conducted by Australian Electoral Commission or other specified ballot agent            513

450........ Directions for conduct of protected action ballot............................. 514

451........ Timetable for protected action ballot................................................ 515

452........ Compilation of roll of voters........................................................... 516

453........ Who is eligible to be included on the roll of voters......................... 516

454........ Variation of roll of voters................................................................ 517

455........ Protected action ballot papers.......................................................... 519

456........ Who may vote in protected action ballot.......................................... 519

457........ Results of protected action ballot..................................................... 519

458........ Report about conduct of protected action ballot............................... 519

Subdivision D—Effect of protected action ballot                                          521

459........ Circumstances in which industrial action is authorised by protected action ballot    521

460........ Immunity for persons who act in good faith on protected action ballot results         522

461........ Validity of protected action ballot etc. not affected by technical breaches 523

Subdivision E—Compliance                                                                                524

462........ Interferences etc. with protected action ballot.................................. 524

463........ Contravening a protected action ballot order etc.............................. 526

Subdivision F—Liability for costs of protected action ballot                     526

464........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission                526

465........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by protected action ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission.................................................................................... 527

466........ Costs of legal challenges................................................................. 527

Subdivision G—Miscellaneous                                                                           528

467........ Information about employees on roll of voters not to be disclosed. 528

468........ Records........................................................................................... 529

469........ Regulations..................................................................................... 529

Division 9—Payments relating to periods of industrial action           530

Subdivision A—Protected industrial action                                                    530

470........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 530

471........ Payments relating to partial work bans............................................ 531

472........ Orders by the FWC relating to certain partial work bans................ 533

473........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 534

Subdivision B—Industrial action that is not protected industrial action 535

474........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 535

475........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 536

Subdivision C—Miscellaneous                                                                            537

476........ Other responses to industrial action unaffected............................... 537

Division 10—Other matters                                                                                  538

477........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 538

Part 3‑4—Right of entry                                                                                                539

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        539

478........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 539

479........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 539

480........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 540

Division 2—Entry rights under this Act                                                         541

Subdivision A—Entry to investigate suspected contravention                   541

481........ Entry to investigate suspected contravention................................... 541

482........ Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 542

483........ Later access to record or document................................................. 543

483AA.. Application to the FWC for access to non‑member records............ 544

Subdivision AA—Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers             545

483A..... Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers           545

483B..... Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 547

483C..... Later access to record or document................................................. 548

483D..... Entry onto other premises to access records and documents........... 549

483E...... Later access to record or document—other premises...................... 550

Subdivision B—Entry to hold discussions                                                        551

484........ Entry to hold discussions................................................................ 551

Subdivision C—Requirements for permit holders                                         552

486........ Permit holder must not contravene this Subdivision....................... 552

487........ Giving entry notice or exemption certificate.................................... 552

488........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 553

489........ Producing authority documents....................................................... 553

490........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 554

491........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 554

492........ Location of interviews and discussions........................................... 554

492A..... Route to location of interview and discussions............................... 555

493........ Residential premises........................................................................ 555

Division 3—State or Territory OHS rights                                                  556

494........ Official must be permit holder to exercise State or Territory OHS right.. 556

495........ Giving notice of entry..................................................................... 557

496........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 558

497........ Producing entry permit.................................................................... 558

498........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 558

499........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 558

Division 4—Prohibitions                                                                                         560

500........ Permit holder must not hinder or obstruct....................................... 560

501........ Person must not refuse or delay entry............................................. 560

502........ Person must not hinder or obstruct permit holder........................... 560

503........ Misrepresentations about things authorised by this Part................. 560

504........ Unauthorised use or disclosure of information or documents......... 561

Division 5—Powers of the FWC                                                                         563

Subdivision A—Dealing with disputes                                                               563

505........ FWC may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 563

505A..... FWC may deal with a dispute about frequency of entry to hold discussions            565

506........ Contravening order made to deal with dispute................................ 566

Subdivision B—Taking action against permit holder                                  566

507........ FWC may take action against permit holder.................................... 566

Subdivision C—Restricting rights of organisations and officials where misuse of rights           567

508........ FWC may restrict rights if organisation or official has misused rights 567

509........ Contravening order made for misuse of rights................................ 568

Subdivision D—When the FWC must revoke or suspend entry permits  568

510........ When the FWC must revoke or suspend entry permits................... 568

Subdivision E—General rules for suspending entry permits                      570

511........ General rules for suspending entry permits..................................... 570

Division 6—Entry permits, entry notices and certificates                    571

Subdivision A—Entry permits                                                                            571

512........ FWC may issue entry permits......................................................... 571

513........ Considering application................................................................... 571

514........ When the FWC must not issue permit............................................. 572

515........ Conditions on entry permit.............................................................. 572

516........ Expiry of entry permit..................................................................... 573

517........ Return of entry permits to the FWC................................................ 574

Subdivision B—Entry notices                                                                             574

518........ Entry notice requirements................................................................ 574

Subdivision C—Exemption certificates                                                            576

519........ Exemption certificates..................................................................... 576

Subdivision D—Affected member certificates                                                577

520........ Affected member certificates........................................................... 577

Subdivision E—Miscellaneous                                                                            577

521........ Regulations dealing with instruments under this Part...................... 577

Division 7—Accommodation and transport arrangements in remote areas      579

521A..... Meaning of accommodation arrangement...................................... 579

521B..... Meaning of transport arrangement................................................ 579

521C..... Accommodation arrangements for remote areas.............................. 580

521D..... Transport arrangements for remote areas........................................ 581

Part 3‑5—Stand down                                                                                                     583

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        583

522........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 583

523........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 583

Division 2—Circumstances allowing stand down                                      584

524........ Employer may stand down employees in certain circumstances...... 584

525........ Employee not stood down during a period of authorised leave or absence               585

Division 3—Dealing with disputes                                                                      586

526........ FWC may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 586

527........ Contravening an FWC order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part                586

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities                                                        587

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        587

528........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 587

529........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 587

Division 2—Notification and consultation relating to certain dismissals              588

Subdivision A—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                        588

530........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals........ 588

Subdivision B—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations             589

531........ FWC may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about dismissals         589

532........ Orders that the FWC may make...................................................... 590

533........ Application for an FWC order........................................................ 591

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            591

534........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 591

Division 3—Employer obligations in relation to employee records and pay slips           593

535........ Employer obligations in relation to employee records..................... 593

536........ Employer obligations in relation to pay slips................................... 593

Part 3‑7—Corrupting benefits                                                                                   595

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        595

536A..... Guide to this Part............................................................................ 595

536B..... Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 595

536C..... Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws............................ 595

536CA.. Dishonesty...................................................................................... 596

Division 2—Giving, receiving or soliciting corrupting benefits         597

536D..... Giving, receiving or soliciting a corrupting benefit......................... 597

536E...... Meaning of registered organisations officer or employee................ 599

Division 3—Cash or in kind payments to employee organisations etc.  601

536F...... Giving a cash or in kind payment.................................................... 601

536G..... Receiving or soliciting a cash or in kind payment........................... 603

536H..... Implied freedom of political communication................................... 604


An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1‑1Introduction

Division 1Preliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Fair Work Act 2009.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

7 April 2009

2.  Sections 3 to 40

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

26 May 2009

(see F2009L01818)

3.  Sections 41 to 572

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 41–43, 50–54, 58, 169–281A, 300–327, 332, 333, 334–572: 1 July 2009 (see F2009L02563)

Sections 44–49, 55–57A, 59–168, 282–299, 328–331, 333A: 1 January 2010 (see F2009L02563)

4.  Sections 573 to 718

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

5.  Sections 719 to 800

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 719–740, 769–800: 1 July 2009 (see F2009L02563)

Sections 741–768: 1 January 2010 (see F2009L02563)

6.  Schedule 1

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by both Houses of the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.

Division 2Object of this Act

3  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to provide a balanced framework for cooperative and productive workplace relations that promotes national economic prosperity and social inclusion for all Australians by:

                     (a)  providing workplace relations laws that are fair to working Australians, are flexible for businesses, promote productivity and economic growth for Australia’s future economic prosperity and take into account Australia’s international labour obligations; and

                     (b)  ensuring a guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum terms and conditions through the National Employment Standards, modern awards and national minimum wage orders; and

                     (c)  ensuring that the guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum wages and conditions can no longer be undermined by the making of statutory individual employment agreements of any kind given that such agreements can never be part of a fair workplace relations system; and

                     (d)  assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by providing for flexible working arrangements; and

                     (e)  enabling fairness and representation at work and the prevention of discrimination by recognising the right to freedom of association and the right to be represented, protecting against unfair treatment and discrimination, providing accessible and effective procedures to resolve grievances and disputes and providing effective compliance mechanisms; and

                      (f)  achieving productivity and fairness through an emphasis on enterprise‑level collective bargaining underpinned by simple good faith bargaining obligations and clear rules governing industrial action; and

                     (g)  acknowledging the special circumstances of small and medium‑sized businesses.

Division 3Guide to this Act

4  Guide to this Act

Overview of this Act

             (1)  This Act is about workplace relations. It:

                     (a)  provides for terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2); and

                     (b)  sets out rights and responsibilities of employees, employers and organisations in relation to that employment (Chapter 3); and

                     (c)  provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act (Chapter 4); and

                     (d)  provides for the administration of this Act by establishing the Fair Work Commission and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman (Chapter 5); and

                     (e)  deals with other matters relating to the above (Chapter 6).

Overview of the rest of this Chapter

             (2)  The rest of this Chapter deals with:

                     (a)  definitions that are used in this Act (Part 1‑2); and

                     (b)  the application of this Act (Part 1‑3), including how this Act interacts with certain State and Territory laws and its geographical application.

Definitions

             (3)  Many of the terms in this Act are defined. The Dictionary in section 12 contains a list of every term that is defined in this Act.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for amendments

             (4)  Schedule 1 contains application, saving and transitional provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

5  Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)

             (1)  Chapter 2 provides for terms and conditions of employment of national system employees.

             (2)  Part 2‑1 has the core provisions for the Chapter. It deals with compliance with, and interaction between, the sources of the main terms and conditions provided under this Act—the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

Note:          Workplace determinations are another source of main terms and conditions. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279).

Main terms and conditions

             (3)  Part 2‑2 contains the National Employment Standards, which are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

             (4)  Part 2‑3 is about modern awards. A modern award is made for a particular industry or occupation and provides additional minimum terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A modern award can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (5)  Part 2‑4 is about enterprise agreements. An enterprise agreement is made at the enterprise level and provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. An enterprise agreement can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (6)  Part 2‑5 is about workplace determinations. A workplace determination provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A workplace determination is made by the FWC if certain conditions are met.

             (7)  Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements, workplace determinations and other instruments if there is a transfer of business from one national system employer to another national system employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (8)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment for national system employees include those:

                     (a)  provided by a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6) or an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  provided by Part 2‑9 (which deals with the frequency and method of making payments to employees, deductions from payments and high‑income employees).

6  Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)

             (1)  Chapter 3 sets out rights and responsibilities of national system employees, national system employers, organisations and others (such as independent contractors and industrial associations).

             (2)  Part 3‑1 provides general workplace protections. It:

                     (a)  protects workplace rights; and

                     (b)  protects freedom of association and involvement in lawful industrial activities; and

                     (c)  provides other protections, including protection from discrimination.

             (3)  Part 3‑2 deals with unfair dismissal of national system employees, and the granting of remedies when that happens.

             (4)  Part 3‑3 deals mainly with industrial action by national system employees and national system employers and sets out when industrial action is protected industrial action. No action lies under any law in force in a State or Territory in relation to protected industrial action except in certain circumstances.

             (5)  Part 3‑4 is about the rights of officials of organisations who hold entry permits to enter premises for purposes related to their representative role under this Act and under State or Territory OHS laws. In exercising those rights, permit holders must comply with the requirements set out in the Part.

             (6)  Part 3‑5 allows a national system employer to stand down a national system employee without pay in certain circumstances.

             (7)  Part 3‑6 deals with other rights and responsibilities of national system employers in relation to:

                     (a)  termination of employment; and

                     (b)  keeping records and giving payslips.

             (8)  Part 3‑7 deals with offences in relation to corrupting benefits.

7  Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)

             (1)  Chapter 4 provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act.

             (2)  Part 4‑1 is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions. Part 4‑1:

                     (a)  deals with applications for orders for contraventions of civil remedy provisions; and

                     (b)  sets out the orders the courts can make in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

             (3)  Part 4‑2 is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

8  Administration (Chapter 5)

             (1)  Chapter 5 provides for the administration of this Act by establishing the Fair Work Commission and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman.

             (2)  Part 5‑1 is about the Fair Work Commission. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the FWC; and

                     (b)  sets out how matters before the FWC are to be conducted (for example, how the FWC is to deal with applications made to it).

             (3)  Part 5‑2 is about the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the Fair Work Ombudsman; and

                     (b)  confers functions and powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

9  Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)

             (1)  Chapter 6 is a collection of miscellaneous matters that relate to the other Chapters.

             (2)  Part 6‑1 provides rules relating to applications for remedies under this Act. It prevents certain applications if other remedies are available and prevents multiple applications or complaints in relation to the same conduct.

             (3)  Part 6‑2 is about dealing with disputes between national system employees and their employers under modern awards, enterprise agreements and contracts of employment.

             (4)  Part 6‑3 extends the National Employment Standards relating to unpaid parental leave and notice of termination to non‑national system employees.

          (4A)  Part 6‑3A provides for the transfer of terms and conditions of employment that are provided for in particular State industrial instruments if there is a transfer of business from a non‑national system employer that is a State public sector employer of the State to a national system employer.

             (5)  Part 6‑4 contains provisions to give effect, or further effect, to certain international agreements relating to termination of employment.

          (5A)  Part 6‑4A contains special provisions about TCF outworkers.

          (5B)  Part 6‑4B allows a worker who has been bullied or sexually harassed at work to apply to the FWC for an order to stop the bullying or sexual harassment.

             (6)  Part 6‑5 deals with miscellaneous matters such as delegations and regulations.

9A  Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)

                   The Schedules contain application, transitional and saving provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

Note:          Application, transitional and saving provisions relating to the enactment of this Act, and States becoming referring States, are in the Transitional Act.

Part 1‑2Definitions

Division 1Introduction

10  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the terms that are defined in this Act.

Division 2 has the Dictionary (see section 12). The Dictionary is a list of every term that is defined in this Act. A term will either be defined in the Dictionary itself, or in another provision of this Act. If another provision defines the term, the Dictionary will have a signpost to that definition.

Division 3 has definitions relating to the meanings of employee and employer.

Division 4 has some other definitions that apply across this Act.

11  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2The Dictionary

12  The Dictionary

                   In this Act:

AAT presidential member means a person who is a presidential member of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal under the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975.

access period for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 180(4).

accommodation arrangement: see subsections 521A(1) and (2).

action includes an omission.

adoption‑related leave: see subsection 67(5).

adverse action: see section 342.

affected employees for a variation of an enterprise agreement: see subsection 207(2).

affected employer:

                     (a)  in relation to an entry under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 3‑4: see subsection 482(2); and

                    (aa)  in relation to an entry under section 483A other than a designated outworker terms entry: see paragraph 483B(3)(a); and

                   (ab)  in relation to a designated outworker terms entry under section 483A: see paragraph 483B(3)(b); and

                     (b)  in relation to an entry in accordance with Division 3 of Part 3‑4: see paragraph 495(2)(a); and

                     (c)  in relation to a State or Territory OHS right to inspect or otherwise access an employee record: see paragraph 495(2)(b).

affected member certificate: see subsection 520(1).

Age Discrimination Commissioner means the Age Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Age Discrimination Act 2004.

agreed terms for a workplace determination: see section 274.

agreed to in relation to a termination of an enterprise agreement: see section 221.

annual rate of an employee’s guaranteed annual earnings: see subsection 330(3).

annual wage review: see subsection 285(1).

anti‑discrimination law: see subsection 351(3).

apparent indirectly responsible entity: see subsection 789CC(2).

applicable agreement‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(5).

applicable award‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(3).

application or complaint under another law: see subsection 732(2).

applies:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 47; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 52; and

                     (c)  in relation to a copied State instrument: see section 768AM.

applies to employment generally: see subsection 26(4).

appointment of a bargaining representative means an appointment of a bargaining representative under paragraph 176(1)(c) or (d) or 177(c).

appropriate safe job: see subsection 81(3).

approved by the FWC, in relation to an enterprise agreement, means approved by the FWC under section 186 or 189.

associated entity has the meaning given by section 50AAA of the Corporations Act 2001.

Australia means the Commonwealth of Australia and, when used in a geographical sense, includes Norfolk Island, the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, but does not include any other external Territory.

Australian‑based employee: see subsections 35(2) and (3).

Australian employer: see subsection 35(1).

Australian ship means a ship that has Australian nationality under section 29 of the Shipping Registration Act 1981.

authority documents: see subsection 489(3).

available parental leave period: see subsection 75(2).

award/agreement free employee means a national system employee to whom neither a modern award nor an enterprise agreement applies.

award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(4).

award modernisation process means:

                     (a)  the process of making modern awards under Part 10A of the Workplace Relations Act 1996, as continued by Part 2 of Schedule 5 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (b)  the enterprise instrument modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (c)  the State reference public sector transitional award modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6A of the Transitional Act.

ballot paper: see subsection 455(2).

bargaining order: see subsection 229(1).

bargaining related workplace determination: see subsection 269(1).

bargaining representative for a proposed enterprise agreement: see sections 176 and 177.

bargaining services: see subsection 353(3).

bargaining services fee: see subsection 353(2).

base rate of pay: see section 16.

birth‑related leave: see subsection 67(4).

bullied at work: see subsection 789FD(1).

cash or in kind payment: see subsection 536F(4).

casual employee: see section 15A.

child of a person: see subsection 17(1).

civil remedy provision: see subsections 539(1) and (3).

close relative: see subsection 106B(3).

Commissioner means a Commissioner of the FWC.

common requirements in relation to industrial action: see section 413.

Commonwealth means the Commonwealth of Australia and, when used in a geographical sense, includes Norfolk Island, the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, but does not include any other external Territory.

Commonwealth authority means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a body corporate:

                              (i)  incorporated under a law of the Commonwealth or a State or a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which the Commonwealth has a controlling interest.

Commonwealth Ombudsman means the person for the time being holding office as Ombudsman under the Ombudsman Act 1976.

Commonwealth outworker entity means an entity that is an outworker entity otherwise than because of section 30F or 30Q.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

Commonwealth place means a place referred to in paragraph 52(i) of the Constitution, other than the seat of government.

compassionate leave means compassionate leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 104.

complaint about an FWC Member means a complaint referred to in paragraph 581A(1)(a) or section 641A.

complaint handler means:

                     (a)  the President; or

                     (b)  a person who is authorised by the President under subsection 581A(3); or

                     (c)  a person who is a member of a body that is authorised by the President under subsection 581A(3).

compliance powers: see section 703.

compliance purposes: see subsection 706(1).

concurrent leave: see subsection 72(5).

conduct includes an omission.

conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(5).

connected with a Territory: an arrangement for work to be performed for a person (either directly or indirectly) is connected with a Territory if one or more of the following apply:

                     (a)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a Territory in Australia;

                     (b)  the work is to be performed in such a Territory;

                     (c)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that Territory;

                     (d)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

Note:          In this context, Australia includes Norfolk Island, the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see the definition of Australia).

consent low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(2).

consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code: see subsection 388(2).

consolidation order:

                     (a)  in relation to a transferring employee—see subsection 768BD(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a non‑transferring employee—see subsection 768BG(1).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

constitutionally‑covered business: see subsection 789FD(3).

constitutionally‑covered entity: see subsection 338(2).

constitutional trade or commerce means trade or commerce:

                     (a)  between Australia and a place outside Australia; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories; or

                     (e)  within a Territory.

continental shelf means:

                     (a)  the continental shelf (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories); and

                     (b)  the Greater Sunrise special regime area (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973).

continuous service has a meaning affected by section 22.

copied State award: see subsection 768AI(1).

copied State collective employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(4).

copied State employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(1).

copied State individual employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(5).

copied State instrument: see section 768AH.

corporate MySuper product: see subsection 23A(3).

coverage terms:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award (other than a modern enterprise award): see section 143; and

                     (b)  in relation to a modern enterprise award: see section 143A; and

                     (c)  in relation to a State reference public sector modern award: see section 143B.

covers:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 48; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreeme