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Fair Work Act 2009

Authoritative Version
Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Fair Work Amendment (Supporting Australia’s Jobs and Economic Recovery) Act 2021
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 22 Apr 2021
Start Date 29 Mar 2021
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Fair Work Act 2009

No. 28, 2009

Compilation No. 43

Compilation date:                              29 March 2021

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 25, 2021

Registered:                                         22 April 2021

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–536H

Volume 2:       sections 537–800

                        Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

This compilation includes commenced amendments made by Act No. 38, 2020 and Act No. 81, 2020

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Fair Work Act 2009 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 29 March 2021 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 4—Compliance and enforcement                                         1

Part 4‑1—Civil remedies                                                                                                    1

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                            1

537........................ Guide to this Part................................................................ 1

538........................ Meanings of employee and employer.................................. 2

Division 2—Orders                                                                                                        3

Subdivision A—Applications for orders                                                              3

539........................ Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions     3

540........................ Limitations on who may apply for orders etc.................... 19

541........................ Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements  21

542........................ Entitlements under contracts............................................. 21

543........................ Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts 22

544........................ Time limit on applications................................................. 22

Subdivision B—Orders                                                                                           22

545........................ Orders that can be made by particular courts.................... 22

545A..................... Orders relating to casual loading amounts........................ 24

546........................ Pecuniary penalty orders................................................... 26

547........................ Interest up to judgment..................................................... 27

Division 3—Small claims procedure                                                                   28

548........................ Plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure................... 28

Division 4—General provisions relating to civil remedies                     31

549........................ Contravening a civil remedy provision is not an offence.. 31

550........................ Involvement in contravention treated in same way as actual contravention              31

551........................ Civil evidence and procedure rules for proceedings relating to civil remedy provisions          31

552........................ Civil proceedings after criminal proceedings.................... 32

553........................ Criminal proceedings during civil proceedings................. 32

554........................ Criminal proceedings after civil proceedings.................... 32

555........................ Evidence given in proceedings for pecuniary penalty not admissible in criminal proceedings 32

556........................ Civil double jeopardy........................................................ 33

557........................ Course of conduct............................................................. 33

557A..................... Serious contravention of civil remedy provisions............. 35

557B...................... Liability of bodies corporate for serious contravention..... 37

557C...................... Presumption where records not provided......................... 37

558........................ Regulations dealing with infringement notices.................. 38

Division 4A—Responsibility of responsible franchisor entities and holding companies for certain contraventions                                                                                      39

558A..................... Meaning of franchisee entity and responsible franchisor entity               39

558B...................... Responsibility of responsible franchisor entities and holding companies for certain contraventions        39

558C...................... Right of responsible franchisor entity or holding company to recover     43

Division 5—Unclaimed money                                                                               45

559........................ Unclaimed money............................................................. 45

Part 4‑2—Jurisdiction and powers of courts                                                      47

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          47

560........................ Guide to this Part.............................................................. 47

561........................ Meanings of employee and employer................................ 47

Division 2—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court                    48

562........................ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Court.................... 48

563........................ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court   48

564........................ No limitation on Federal Court’s powers.......................... 49

565........................ Appeals from eligible State or Territory courts................. 49

Division 3—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Circuit Court   51

566........................ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Circuit Court......... 51

567........................ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Circuit Court        51

568........................ No limitation on Federal Circuit Court’s powers.............. 51

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                       52

569........................ Minister’s entitlement to intervene.................................... 52

569A..................... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to intervene........ 52

570........................ Costs only if proceedings instituted vexatiously etc.......... 53

571........................ No imprisonment for failure to pay pecuniary penalty...... 53

572........................ Regulations dealing with matters relating to court proceedings                53

Chapter 5—Administration                                                                              54

Part 5‑1—The Fair Work Commission                                                                  54

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          54

573........................ Guide to this Part.............................................................. 54

574........................ Meanings of employee and employer................................ 55

Division 2—Establishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission             56

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission                56

575........................ Establishment of the Fair Work Commission................... 56

576........................ Functions of the FWC...................................................... 56

577........................ Performance of functions etc. by the FWC....................... 58

578........................ Matters the FWC must take into account in performing functions etc.     58

579........................ FWC has privileges and immunities of the Crown........... 58

580........................ Protection of FWC Members............................................ 58

Subdivision B—Functions and powers of the President                                 59

581........................ Functions of the President................................................ 59

581A..................... Dealing with a complaint about an FWC Member............ 59

581B...................... Code of Conduct............................................................... 61

582........................ Directions by the President............................................... 61

583........................ President not subject to direction...................................... 62

584........................ Delegation of functions and powers of the President........ 63

Subdivision C—Protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members         63

584B...................... Protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members  63

Division 3—Conduct of matters before the FWC                                       65

Subdivision A—Applications to the FWC                                                          65

585........................ Applications in accordance with procedural rules............. 65

586........................ Correcting and amending applications and documents etc. 65

587........................ Dismissing applications.................................................... 65

588........................ Discontinuing applications................................................ 66

Subdivision B—Conduct of matters before the FWC                                     66

589........................ Procedural and interim decisions...................................... 66

590........................ Powers of the FWC to inform itself.................................. 66

591........................ FWC not bound by rules of evidence and procedure........ 67

592........................ Conferences...................................................................... 67

593........................ Hearings........................................................................... 68

594........................ Confidential evidence........................................................ 69

595........................ FWC’s power to deal with disputes.................................. 69

Subdivision C—Representation by lawyers and paid agents and Minister’s entitlement to make submissions     70

596........................ Representation by lawyers and paid agents....................... 70

597........................ Minister’s entitlement to make submissions..................... 71

597A..................... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to make submissions 71

Subdivision D—Decisions of the FWC                                                                72

598........................ Decisions of the FWC...................................................... 72

599........................ FWC not required to decide an application in terms applied for               72

600........................ Determining matters in the absence of a person................ 73

601........................ Writing and publication requirements for the FWC’s decisions               73

602........................ Correcting obvious errors etc. in relation to the FWC’s decisions           74

603........................ Varying and revoking the FWC’s decisions..................... 74

Subdivision E—Appeals, reviews and referring questions of law               75

604........................ Appeal of decisions.......................................................... 75

605........................ Minister’s entitlement to apply for review of a decision... 76

606........................ Staying decisions that are appealed or reviewed............... 76

607........................ Process for appealing or reviewing decisions................... 77

608........................ Referring questions of law to the Federal Court............... 78

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                              78

609........................ Procedural rules................................................................ 78

610........................ Regulations dealing with any FWC matters...................... 79

611........................ Costs................................................................................. 79

Division 4—Organisation of the FWC                                                              81

Subdivision A—Functions etc. to be performed by a single FWC Member, a Full Bench or an Expert Panel      81

612........................ FWC’s functions etc. may generally be performed by single FWC Member           81

613........................ Appeal of decisions.......................................................... 81

614........................ Review of decisions by a Full Bench................................ 82

615........................ The President may direct a Full Bench to perform function etc.               82

615A..................... When the President must direct a Full Bench to perform function etc.     83

615B...................... Transfer to a Full Bench from an FWC Member.............. 83

615C...................... Transfer to the President from an FWC Member or a Full Bench            84

616........................ FWC’s functions etc. that must be performed by a Full Bench                84

617........................ FWC’s functions etc. that must be performed by an Expert Panel           85

Subdivision B—Constitution of the FWC by a single FWC Member, a Full Bench or an Expert Panel  87

618........................ Constitution and decision‑making of a Full Bench........... 87

619........................ Seniority of FWC Members............................................. 87

620........................ Constitution and decision‑making of an Expert Panel....... 88

621........................ Reconstitution of the FWC when single FWC Member becomes unavailable         89

622........................ Reconstitution of the FWC when FWC Member of a Full Bench or an Expert Panel becomes unavailable.......................................................................................... 90

623........................ When new FWC Members begin to deal with matters...... 90

624........................ FWC’s decisions not invalid when improperly constituted 91

Subdivision C—Delegation of the FWC’s functions and powers                  91

625........................ Delegation by the President of functions and powers of the FWC           91

Division 5—FWC Members                                                                                    93

Subdivision A—Appointment of FWC Members                                             93

626........................ Appointment of FWC Members....................................... 93

627........................ Qualifications for appointment of FWC Members............ 93

628........................ Basis of appointment of FWC Members.......................... 95

629........................ Period of appointment of FWC Members......................... 95

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of FWC Members                             96

629A..................... Status of the President...................................................... 96

630........................ Appointment of a Judge not to affect tenure etc................ 97

631........................ Dual federal and State appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners        97

632........................ Dual federal and Territory appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners  98

633........................ Outside work of FWC Members...................................... 98

634........................ Oath or affirmation of office............................................. 98

635........................ Remuneration of the President.......................................... 99

636........................ Application of Judges’ Pensions Act to the President...... 99

637........................ Remuneration of FWC Members other than the President 100

638........................ Remuneration of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners performing duties on a part‑time basis              101

639........................ Leave of absence of FWC Members other than the President  102

640........................ Disclosure of interests by FWC Members other than the President         102

641........................ Termination of appointment on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity   103

641A..................... Minister may handle complaints about FWC Members.. 103

641B...................... Modified application of the Judicial Misbehaviour and Incapacity (Parliamentary Commissions) Act 2012........................................................................................ 104

642........................ Suspension on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity... 111

643........................ Termination of appointment for bankruptcy, etc............. 112

644........................ Termination of appointment for outside work................. 112

645........................ Resignation of FWC Members....................................... 113

646........................ Other terms and conditions of FWC Members............... 113

647........................ Appointment of acting President and Vice President...... 113

648........................ Appointment of acting Deputy Presidents and Commissioners               114

Division 6—Cooperation with the States                                                       116

649........................ President to cooperate with prescribed State industrial authorities           116

650........................ Provision of administrative support................................ 116

Division 7—Seals and additional powers and functions of the President and the General Manager    117

651........................ Seals............................................................................... 117

652........................ Annual report.................................................................. 118

653........................ Reports about making enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements etc.             118

653A..................... Arrangements with the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court        120

654........................ President must provide certain information etc. to the Minister and Fair Work Ombudsman  120

655........................ Disclosure of information by the FWC........................... 120

Division 8—General Manager, staff and consultants                             122

Subdivision A—Functions of the General Manager                                      122

656........................ Establishment.................................................................. 122

657........................ Functions and powers of the General Manager.............. 122

658........................ Directions from the President......................................... 122

659........................ General Manager not otherwise subject to direction....... 123

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the General Manager        123

660........................ Appointment of the General Manager............................. 123

661........................ Remuneration of the General Manager........................... 123

662........................ Leave of absence of the General Manager...................... 124

663........................ Outside work of the General Manager............................ 124

664........................ Disclosure of interests to the President........................... 124

665........................ Resignation of the General Manager............................... 124

666........................ Termination of appointment of the General Manager...... 124

667........................ Other terms and conditions of the General Manager....... 125

668........................ Appointment of acting General Manager........................ 125

669........................ Minister to consult the President..................................... 126

Subdivision C—Staff and consultants                                                               126

670........................ Staff................................................................................ 126

671........................ Delegation by General Manager to staff......................... 126

672........................ Persons assisting the FWC............................................. 127

673........................ Consultants..................................................................... 127

Subdivision D—Application of the finance law                                              127

673A..................... Application of the finance law........................................ 127

Division 9—Offences relating to the Fair Work Commission            129

674........................ Offences in relation to the FWC..................................... 129

675........................ Contravening an FWC order........................................... 131

676........................ Intimidation etc............................................................... 132

677........................ Offences in relation to attending before the FWC........... 132

678........................ False or misleading evidence.......................................... 133

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                           135

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        135

679........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 135

680........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 135

Division 2—Fair Work Ombudsman                                                                136

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions and powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman         136

681........................ Establishment.................................................................. 136

682........................ Functions of the Fair Work Ombudsman....................... 136

683........................ Delegation by the Fair Work Ombudsman..................... 137

684........................ Directions from the Minister........................................... 138

685........................ Minister may require reports........................................... 138

686........................ Annual report.................................................................. 138

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman            139

687........................ Appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................. 139

688........................ Remuneration of the Fair Work Ombudsman................. 139

689........................ Leave of absence of the Fair Work Ombudsman............ 140

690........................ Outside work of the Fair Work Ombudsman................. 140

692........................ Resignation of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................... 140

693........................ Termination of appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman 140

694........................ Other terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman 141

695........................ Appointment of acting Fair Work Ombudsman.............. 141

Division 3—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                   143

Subdivision A—Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 143

696........................ Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 143

Subdivision B—Staff and consultants etc.                                                        143

697........................ Staff................................................................................ 143

698........................ Persons assisting the Fair Work Ombudsman................ 143

699........................ Consultants..................................................................... 144

Subdivision C—Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors                               144

700........................ Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors............................ 144

701........................ Fair Work Ombudsman is a Fair Work Inspector........... 144

702........................ Identity cards.................................................................. 145

Subdivision D—Functions and powers of Fair Work Inspectors—general 146

703........................ Conditions and restrictions on functions and powers..... 146

704........................ General directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman.......... 146

705........................ Particular directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman....... 146

706........................ Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised 147

707........................ When powers of inspectors may be exercised................ 147

707A..................... Hindering or obstructing the Fair Work Ombudsman and inspectors etc.                148

Subdivision DA—Power to enter premises                                                      148

708........................ Power of inspectors to enter premises............................ 148

709........................ Powers of inspectors while on premises......................... 149

710........................ Persons assisting inspectors........................................... 150

Subdivision DB—Powers to ask questions and require records and documents            150

711........................ Power to ask for person’s name and address.................. 150

712........................ Power to require persons to produce records or documents 151

712A..................... Minister may nominate AAT presidential members to issue FWO notices              151

712AA.................. Fair Work Ombudsman may apply to nominated AAT presidential member for FWO notice 152

712AB................... Issue of FWO notice....................................................... 154

712AC................... Form and content of FWO notice................................... 155

712AD.................. Fair Work Ombudsman may give FWO notice to person in relation to whom it is issued and vary time for compliance...................................................................... 156

712AE................... Conduct of examination.................................................. 157

712B...................... Requirement to comply with FWO notice....................... 157

712C...................... Payment for expenses incurred in attending as required by an FWO notice             158

712D..................... Protection from liability relating to FWO notices............ 158

712E...................... Fair Work Ombudsman must notify Commonwealth Ombudsman of issue of FWO notice   158

712F...................... Review and report by Commonwealth Ombudsman...... 159

Subdivision DC—Other rules relating to answers, records and documents 161

713........................ Self‑incrimination etc...................................................... 161

713A..................... Certain records and documents are inadmissible............. 162

713AA.................. Legal professional privilege............................................ 162

714........................ Power to keep records or documents.............................. 162

714A..................... Reports not to include information relating to an individual’s affairs       163

Subdivision DD—Enforceable undertakings and compliance notices      164

715........................ Enforceable undertakings relating to contraventions of civil remedy provisions      164

716........................ Compliance notices......................................................... 165

717........................ Review of compliance notices......................................... 167

Subdivision E—Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman           168

718........................ Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman  168

Subdivision F—False or misleading information or documents               169

718A..................... False or misleading information or documents............... 169

Chapter 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                171

Part 6‑1—Multiple actions                                                                                            171

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        171

719........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 171

720........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 171

Division 2—Certain actions not permitted if alternative action can be taken   172

721........................ Equal remuneration applications..................................... 172

722........................ Notification and consultation requirements applications. 172

723........................ Unlawful termination applications.................................. 173

Division 3—Preventing multiple actions                                                         174

Subdivision A—Equal remuneration applications                                        174

724........................ Equal remuneration applications..................................... 174

Subdivision B—Applications and complaints relating to dismissal          175

725........................ General rule.................................................................... 175

726........................ Dismissal remedy bargaining order applications............. 175

727........................ General protections FWC applications............................ 175

728........................ General protections court applications............................ 176

729........................ Unfair dismissal applications.......................................... 177

730........................ Unlawful termination FWC applications......................... 177

731........................ Unlawful termination court applications......................... 178

732........................ Applications and complaints under other laws................ 178

733........................ Dismissal does not include failure to provide benefits.... 179

Subdivision C—General protections applications that do not relate to dismissal         179

734........................ General rule.................................................................... 179

Part 6‑2—Dealing with disputes                                                                                181

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        181

735........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 181

736........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 181

Division 2—Dealing with disputes                                                                      182

Subdivision A—Model term about dealing with disputes                             182

737........................ Model term about dealing with disputes......................... 182

Subdivision B—Dealing with disputes                                                               182

738........................ Application of this Division............................................ 182

739........................ Disputes dealt with by the FWC..................................... 182

740........................ Dispute dealt with by persons other than the FWC......... 183

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements 185

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        185

741........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 185

742........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 185

Division 2—Extension of entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements            186

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        186

743........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 186

744........................ Extending the entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements              186

745........................ Contravening the extended parental leave provisions...... 188

746........................ References to the National Employment Standards include extended parental leave provisions               188

747........................ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................. 188

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended parental leave provisions 189

748........................ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees               189

749........................ Modification of meaning of base rate of pay for pieceworkers                189

750........................ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers  189

751........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if determined by State industrial instrument        189

752........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if not determined by State industrial instrument  190

753........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours   190

754........................ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................ 190

755........................ Modification of provision about interaction with paid leave 191

756........................ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements........................................................................................ 191

757........................ Modification of power to make regulations.................... 191

Division 3—Extension of entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice       192

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        192

758........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 192

759........................ Extending entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice              192

760........................ Contravening the extended notice of termination provisions 193

761........................ References to the National Employment Standards include extended notice of termination provisions    194

762........................ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................. 194

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended notice of termination provisions          194

763........................ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees               194

764........................ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers  194

765........................ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................ 195

766........................ Modification of provision about notice of termination by employee        195

767........................ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements........................................................................................ 195

768........................ Modification of power to make regulations.................... 195

Part 6‑3A—Transfer of business from a State public sector employer 197

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        197

768AA.................. Guide to this Part............................................................ 197

768AB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 197

Division 2—Copying terms of State instruments when there is a transfer of business  198

768AC................... What this Division is about............................................. 198

768AD.................. When does a transfer of business occur?........................ 198

768AE................... Meaning of transferring employee, termination time and re‑employment time        199

Division 3—Copied State instruments                                                             200

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              200

768AF................... What this Division is about............................................. 200

Subdivision B—Copied State instruments                                                        200

768AG.................. Contravening a copied State instrument.......................... 200

768AH.................. What is a copied State instrument?.................................. 201

768AI.................... What is a copied State award?......................................... 201

768AJ.................... What is a State award?.................................................... 202

768AK................... What is a copied State employment agreement?.............. 202

768AL................... What is a State employment agreement?......................... 204

768AM.................. When does a copied State instrument apply to a person? 205

768AN.................. When does a copied State instrument cover a person?.... 206

768AO.................. When is a copied State instrument in operation?............. 208

Division 4—Interaction between copied State instruments and the NES, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                           210

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              210

768AP................... What this Division is about............................................. 210

Subdivision B—Interaction with the NES                                                        210

768AQ.................. Interaction between the NES and a copied State instrument 210

768AR................... Provisions of the NES that allow instruments to contain particular kinds of terms  210

Subdivision C—Interaction with modern awards                                          212

768AS................... Modern awards and copied State awards........................ 212

768AT................... Modern awards and copied State employment agreements 212

Subdivision D—Interaction with enterprise agreements                              214

768AU.................. Enterprise agreements and copied State instruments....... 214

Division 5—Variation and termination of copied State instruments 215

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              215

768AV.................. What this Division is about............................................. 215

Subdivision B—Variation of copied State instruments                                215

768AW.................. Variation in limited circumstances.................................. 215

768AX.................. Variation of copied State instruments............................. 215

Subdivision C—Termination of copied State instruments                           218

768AY.................. Termination in limited circumstances.............................. 218

Division 6—FWC orders about coverage of copied State instruments and other instruments 219

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              219

768AZ................... What this Division is about............................................. 219

768AZA................ Orders in relation to a transfer of business..................... 219

Subdivision B—Coverage orders                                                                       220

768BA................... FWC orders about coverage for transferring employees. 220

768BB................... FWC orders about coverage for employee organisations 221

Division 7—FWC orders about consolidating copied State instruments etc.      223

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              223

768BC................... What this Division is about............................................. 223

768BCA................ Orders in relation to a transfer of business..................... 224

Subdivision B—Consolidation orders in relation to transferring employees 224

768BD................... Consolidation orders in relation to transferring employees 224

768BE................... Consolidation order to deal with application and coverage 225

768BF................... Effect of this Act after a consolidation order is made...... 226

Subdivision C—Consolidation orders in relation to non‑transferring employees        226

768BG................... Consolidation orders in relation to non‑transferring employees               226

768BH................... Consolidation order to deal with application and coverage 228

768BI.................... Effect of this Act after a consolidation order is made...... 229

Division 8—Special rules for copied State instruments                          230

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              230

768BJ.................... What this Division is about............................................. 230

Subdivision B—Terms about disputes                                                              231

768BK................... Where no term dealing with disputes.............................. 231

Subdivision C—Service and entitlements of a transferring employee     231

768BL................... Service for the purposes of this Act................................ 231

768BM.................. NES—working out non‑accruing entitlements............... 232

768BN................... NES—working out accruing entitlements....................... 233

768BO................... Copied State instrument—service................................... 234

768BP................... Copied State instrument—working out non‑accruing entitlements           235

768BQ................... Copied State instrument—working out accruing entitlements  236

Subdivision D—Cessation of copied State awards: avoiding reductions in take‑home pay        237

768BR................... Cessation not intended to result in reduction in take‑home pay                237

768BS................... Orders remedying reductions in take‑home pay.............. 238

768BT................... Contravening a take‑home pay order.............................. 239

768BU................... How long a take‑home pay order continues to apply...... 239

768BV................... Interaction of take‑home pay orders with modern awards and enterprise agreements              239

768BW.................. Application of this Act to take‑home pay orders............. 239

Subdivision E—Modification of this Act                                                          240

768BX................... Modification of this Act for copied State instruments..... 240

Subdivision F—Modification of the Transitional Act                                  241

768BY................... Modification of the Transitional Act for copied State instruments           241

Subdivision G—Modification of the Registered Organisations Act          245

768BZ................... Modification of the Registered Organisations Act for copied State instruments      245

Division 9—Regulations                                                                                          247

768CA................... Regulations..................................................................... 247

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment 249

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        249

769........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 249

770........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 249

Division 2—Termination of employment                                                       250

771........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 250

772........................ Employment not to be terminated on certain grounds..... 250

773........................ Application for the FWC to deal with a dispute.............. 252

774........................ Time for application........................................................ 252

775........................ Application fees.............................................................. 253

776........................ Dealing with a dispute (other than by arbitration)........... 253

777........................ Dealing with a dispute by arbitration.............................. 254

778........................ Taking a dispute to court................................................. 255

779........................ Appeal rights.................................................................. 255

779A..................... Costs orders against parties............................................ 256

780........................ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................. 256

781........................ Applications for costs orders.......................................... 257

781A..................... Schedule of costs............................................................ 257

782........................ Contravening costs orders.............................................. 258

783........................ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise 258

Division 3—Notification and consultation requirements relating to certain terminations of employment                                                                                                                    259

Subdivision A—Object of this Division                                                             259

784........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 259

Subdivision B—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                        259

785........................ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed terminations              259

Subdivision C—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations             260

786........................ FWC may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about terminations........................................................................................ 260

787........................ Orders that the FWC may make...................................... 262

788........................ Application to the FWC for order................................... 262

Subdivision D—Limits on scope of this Division                                            263

789........................ Limits on scope of this Division..................................... 263

Part 6‑4A—Special provisions about TCF outworkers                              264

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        264

789AA.................. Guide to this Part............................................................ 264

789AB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 264

789AC................... Objects of this Part......................................................... 264

Division 2—TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances             266

789BA................... Provisions covered by this Division............................... 266

789BB................... TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances               267

789BC................... Regulations relating to TCF outworkers who are taken to be employees 268

Division 3—Recovery of unpaid amounts                                                     269

789CA................... When this Division applies............................................. 269

789CB................... Liability of indirectly responsible entity for unpaid amount 271

789CC................... Demand for payment from an apparent indirectly responsible entity        271

789CD................... Court order for entity to pay amount demanded.............. 272

789CE................... Effect of payment by entity (including entity’s right to recover from responsible person)       273

789CF................... Division does not limit other liabilities or rights............. 274

Division 4—Code of practice relating to TCF outwork                         275

789DA.................. Regulations may provide for a code................................ 275

789DB................... Matters that may be dealt with in TCF outwork code..... 275

789DC................... Persons on whom obligations may be imposed by TCF outwork code   276

789DD.................. Other general matters relating to content of TCF outwork code               277

789DE................... Relationship between the TCF outwork code and other instruments        278

Division 5—Miscellaneous                                                                                     280

789EA................... Part not intended to exclude or limit State or Territory laws relating to outworkers 280

Part 6‑4B—Workers bullied at work                                                                     281

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        281

789FA................... Guide to this Part............................................................ 281

789FB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 281

Division 2—Stopping workers being bullied at work                              282

789FC................... Application for an FWC order to stop bullying.............. 282

789FD................... When is a worker bullied at work?................................. 282

789FE.................... FWC to deal with applications promptly......................... 283

789FF.................... FWC may make orders to stop bullying......................... 284

789FG................... Contravening an order to stop bullying........................... 284

789FH................... Actions under work health and safety laws permitted..... 284

789FI..................... This Part is not to prejudice Australia’s defence, national security etc.    285

789FJ.................... Declarations by the Chief of the Defence Force.............. 285

789FK................... Declarations by the Director‑General of Security........... 286

789FL.................... Declarations by the Director‑General of ASIS............... 286

Part 6‑4C—Coronavirus economic response                                                    287

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        287

789GC................... Definitions...................................................................... 287

789GCB................ 10% decline in turnover test............................................ 289

789GCC................ Designated quarter.......................................................... 289

789GCD................ 10% decline in turnover certificate.................................. 290

789GCA................ When employer qualifies for the jobkeeper scheme........ 291

Division 7—Service                                                                                                    292

789GR................... Service............................................................................ 292

Division 8—Accrual rules                                                                                      293

789GS................... Accrual rules................................................................... 293

Division 10—Dealing with disputes                                                                   294

789GV.................. FWC may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part 294

789GW.................. Contravening an FWC order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part               295

Division 12—Protections                                                                                        296

789GXA............... Misuse of jobkeeper enabling direction.......................... 296

789GXB................ 10% decline in turnover test—prohibited conduct.......... 296

789GXC................ False statutory declaration............................................... 297

789GXD............... Federal Court may terminate a jobkeeper enabling direction if employer does not satisfy the 10% decline in turnover test.................................................................... 297

789GXE................ Federal Court may terminate a subsection 789GJD(2) agreement if employer does not satisfy the 10% decline in turnover test................................................................ 298

789GY.................. Protection of workplace rights........................................ 299

789GZ................... Relationship with other laws etc..................................... 299

789GZA................ Redundancy.................................................................... 300

Division 13—Review of this Part                                                                       301

789GZB................ Review of this Part......................................................... 301

Part 6‑5—Miscellaneous                                                                                                 302

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        302

790........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 302

791........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 302

Division 2—Miscellaneous                                                                                     303

792........................ Delegation by Minister................................................... 303

793........................ Liability of bodies corporate........................................... 303

794........................ Signature on behalf of body corporate............................ 304

795........................ Public sector employer to act through employing authority 304

795A..................... The Schedules................................................................. 306

796........................ Regulations—general...................................................... 306

796A..................... Regulations conferring functions.................................... 306

797........................ Regulations dealing with offences.................................. 306

798........................ Regulations dealing with civil penalties.......................... 307

799........................ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................ 307

800........................ Regulations dealing with exhibiting fair work instruments 307

Schedule 1—Application, saving and transitional provisions relating to amendments of this Act                                                                                           308

Part 1—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Textile, Clothing and Footwear Industry) Act 2012                                                                                                                308

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 308

2............................ Section 789BB of amended Act applies to contracts entered into after commencement           308

3............................ Effect on TCF contract outworker’s entitlements............ 309

4............................ Fair work instruments etc. made before commencement. 309

5............................ Application of Division 3 of Part 6‑4A of amended Act 310

6............................ Application of subsection 203(2A) of amended Act....... 310

7............................ Regulations dealing with various matters........................ 310

Part 2—Amendments made by the Superannuation Legislation Amendment (Further MySuper and Transparency Measures) Act 2012                                                      312

8............................ Definitions...................................................................... 312

9............................ Application of sections 149A and 155A of amended Act 312

10.......................... FWC to vary certain modern awards.............................. 312

11.......................... FWC to update text of certain modern awards................ 313

12.......................... Application of paragraph 194(h) of amended Act........... 313

Part 3—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Respect for Emergency Services Volunteers) Act 2016                                                                                                                314

13.......................... Definitions...................................................................... 314

14.......................... Application of amendments—objectionable emergency management terms             314

Part 4—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Protecting Vulnerable Workers) Act 2017                                                                                                                                    316

15.......................... Definitions...................................................................... 316

16.......................... Application of amendments—unreasonable requirements to spend or pay amounts                316

17.......................... Saving of regulations—unreasonable deductions........... 316

18.......................... Application of amendments—increasing maximum penalties for contraventions of certain civil remedy provisions....................................................................... 316

19.......................... Application of amendments—responsibility of responsible franchisor entities and holding companies   317

20.......................... Application of amendments—hindering or obstructing the Fair Work Ombudsman and inspectors etc. 317

21.......................... Application of power to give FWO notices.................... 317

22.......................... Application of amendments relating to self‑incrimination etc.  318

23.......................... Application of requirement for reports not to include information relating to an individual’s affairs       318

24.......................... Application of amendments—false or misleading information or documents          318

24A....................... Application of amendments—presumption where records not provided  318

Part 5—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Repeal of 4 Yearly Reviews and Other Measures) Act 2018                                                                                       319

Division 1—General                                                                                                  319

25.......................... Definitions...................................................................... 319

Division 2—Amendments made by Schedule 1 to the amending Act 320

26.......................... Incomplete review of modern award............................... 320

27.......................... Dismissing applications.................................................. 321

Division 3—Amendments made by Schedule 2 to the amending Act 322

28.......................... Application of amendments—when employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement         322

Division 4—Amendments made by Schedule 3 to the amending Act 324

29.......................... Application of section 641B of the amended Act............ 324

Part 6—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Corrupting Benefits) Act 2017   325

30.......................... Disclosure by organisations and employers.................... 325

Part 8—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Family and Domestic Violence Leave) Act 2018                                                                                                                         326

39.......................... Entitlement to unpaid family and domestic violence leave 326

40.......................... Resolving uncertainties and difficulties about interaction between enterprise agreements and unpaid family and domestic violence leave................................................... 326

Part 9—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Improving Unpaid Parental Leave for Parents of Stillborn Babies and Other Measures) Act 2020 328

41.......................... Definitions...................................................................... 328

42.......................... Amendments about stillbirth, death and hospitalisation of children          328

43.......................... Amendments about flexible unpaid parental leave.......... 329

Part 10—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Supporting Australia’s Jobs and Economic Recovery) Act 2021                                                                                        331

Division 1—Definitions                                                                                            331

44.......................... Definitions...................................................................... 331

Division 2—Amendments made by Schedule 1 to the amending Act 332

45.......................... Resolving uncertainties and difficulties about interaction between enterprise agreements and the definition of casual employee and casual conversion rights................ 332

46.......................... Application of certain amendments................................. 332

47.......................... Transitioning casual employees...................................... 334

47A....................... Casual employees of small business employers.............. 336

48.......................... Variations to modern awards.......................................... 336

Schedule 2—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Transfer of Business) Act 2012                                                                                               338

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 338

2............................ Application of the amendments made by the amending Act 338

Schedule 3—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment Act 2012          339

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                         339

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 339

Part 2—Default superannuation (Schedule 1)                                                 340

2............................ Schedule 1 to the amending Act...................................... 340

2A......................... Transitional provision—when first variations of default fund term take effect         340

2B.......................... Transitional provision—modern awards made on or after 1 January 2014              341

Part 3—Modern awards (Schedule 3)                                                                   342

3............................ Part 1 of Schedule 3 to the amending Act....................... 342

Part 4—Enterprise agreements (Schedule 4)                                                    343

4............................ Part 1 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 343

5............................ Part 2 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 343

6............................ Part 3 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 343

7............................ Part 4 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 344

8............................ Part 5 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 344

Part 5—General protections (Schedule 5)                                                           345

9............................ Part 1 of Schedule 5 to the amending Act....................... 345

Part 6—Unfair dismissal (Schedule 6)                                                                   346

10.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 346

11.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 346

12.......................... Part 3 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 346

13.......................... Part 4 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 346

Part 7—Industrial action (Schedule 7)                                                                  347

14.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 347

15.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 347

16.......................... Part 3 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 347

Part 8—The Fair Work Commission (Schedule 8)                                        348

17.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 348

18.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 348

19.......................... Part 4 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 348

20.......................... Part 5 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 348

21.......................... Part 6 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 348

22.......................... Part 7 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 349

23.......................... Part 8 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 349

Part 9—Changing the name of Fair Work Australia (Schedule 9)     350

24.......................... Transitional provision—President.................................. 350

25.......................... Transitional provision—Deputy President...................... 351

26.......................... Transitional provision—Commissioner.......................... 352

27.......................... Transitional provision—Minimum Wage Panel Member 353

28.......................... Operation of laws—things done by, or in relation to, FWA 354

29.......................... Transitional provision—General Manager and staff of FWA  354

30.......................... Operation of section 7 and subsection 25B(1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 not limited                355

Part 10—Other amendments (Schedule 10)                                                       356

31.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 10 to the amending Act..................... 356

Part 11—Regulations                                                                                                       357

32.......................... Regulations about application, transitional and saving matters 357

Schedule 4—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment Act 2013          358

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                         358

1............................ Definition........................................................................ 358

Part 2—Family‑friendly measures (Schedule 1)                                              359

2............................ Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 359

3............................ Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 359

4............................ Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 359

5............................ Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 359

6............................ Part 5 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 360

Part 3—Modern awards objective (Schedule 2)                                              361

7............................ Schedule 2 to the amending Act...................................... 361

Part 4—Anti‑bullying measure (Schedule 3)                                                     362

8............................ Schedule 3 to the amending Act...................................... 362

Part 4A—Conferences (Schedule 3A)                                                                   363

8A......................... Schedule 3A to the amending Act................................... 363

Part 5—Right of entry (Schedule 4)                                                                       364

9............................ Schedule 4 to the amending Act...................................... 364

Part 6—Consent arbitration for general protections and unlawful termination (Schedule 4A)               365

10.......................... Schedule 4A to the amending Act................................... 365

Part 7—The FWC (Schedule 5)                                                                                366

11.......................... Item 4 of Schedule 5 to the amending Act...................... 366

Schedule 5—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment Act 2015          367

1............................ Definition........................................................................ 367

2............................ Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 367

9............................ Part 5 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 367

11.......................... Part 7 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 367

14.......................... Part 10 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act..................... 367

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  368

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          368

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              370

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           371

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         380


Chapter 4Compliance and enforcement

Part 4‑1Civil remedies

Division 1Introduction

537  Guide to this Part

This Part is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions.

Subdivision A of Division 2 deals with applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions and safety net contractual entitlements, and applications for orders to enforce entitlements arising under subsection 542(1).

Subdivision B of Division 2 sets out the orders that can be made by the Federal Court, the Federal Circuit Court or an eligible State or Territory Court in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

Division 3 sets out when proceedings relating to a contravention of a civil remedy provision may be dealt with as small claims proceedings.

Division 4 deals with general provisions relating to civil remedies, including rules about evidence and procedure.

Division 4A imposes obligations on responsible franchisor entities in relation to certain contraventions of civil remedy provisions by franchisee entities and on holding companies in relation to certain contraventions of civil remedy provisions by subsidiaries.

Division 5 deals with unclaimed money.

538  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2Orders

Subdivision AApplications for orders

539  Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions

             (1)  A provision referred to in column 1 of an item in the table in subsection (2) is a civil remedy provision.

             (2)  For each civil remedy provision, the persons referred to in column 2 of the item may, subject to sections 540 and 544 and Subdivision B, apply to the courts referred to in column 3 of the item for orders in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of the provision, including the maximum penalty referred to in column 4 of the item.

Note 1:       Civil remedy provisions within a single Part may be grouped together in a single item of the table.

Note 2:       Applications cannot be made by an inspector in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision by a person in certain cases where an undertaking or compliance notice has been given (see subsections 715(4) and 716(4A)).

Note 3:       The regulations may also prescribe persons for the purposes of an item in column 2 of the table (see subsection 540(8)).

Note 4:       See section 557A in relation to a serious contravention of a civil remedy provision.

 

Standing, jurisdiction and maximum penalties

Item

Column 1
Civil remedy provision

Column 2
Persons

Column 3
Courts

Column 4
Maximum penalty

Part 2‑1—Core provisions

1

44(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

2

45 (other than in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of an outworker term)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an employer organisation;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

3

45 (in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of an outworker term)

(a) an outworker;

(b) an employer;

(c) an outworker entity;

(d) an employee organisation;

(e) an employer organisation;

(f) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

4

50 (other than in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a term that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation to which the enterprise agreement concerned applies;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

5

50 (in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a term that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements

5A

179(1)

179(5)

(a) an employee;

(b) a bargaining representative for the proposed enterprise agreement;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

5B

180(4A)

180(4B)

180(4C)

(a) an employee;

(b) a bargaining representative for the proposed enterprise agreement;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

6

233

(a) an employee who the proposed enterprise agreement will cover;

(b) a bargaining representative for the proposed enterprise agreement;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations

7

280

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation to which the workplace determination concerned applies;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages

8

293

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration

9

305

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment

10

323(1)
323(3)
325(1)
328(1)
328(2)
328(3)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

10A

325(1A)

(a) a prospective employee;

(b) an employee;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 3‑1—General protections

11

340(1)
340(2)
343(1)
344
345(1)
346
348
349(1)
350(1)
350(2)
351(1)
352
353(1)
354(1)
355
357(1)
358
359
369(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

12

378

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal

13

405

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an employer organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑3—Industrial action

14

417(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation covered by the enterprise agreement or workplace determination concerned;

(d) a person affected by the industrial action;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

15

421(1)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

16

434

an inspector

the Federal Court

60 penalty units

17

458(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

18

462(1)
462(3)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

19

463(1)
463(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

20

467(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

21

470(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

22

473(1)
473(2)

(a) an employer;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

23

474(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

24

475(1)
475(2)

(a) an employer;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑4—Right of entry

25

482(3)
483(4)
483B(4)
483C(5)
483D(4)
483E(5)
494(1)
495(1)
496
497
498
499
500
501
502(1)
503(1)
504
506
509
521C(3)
521D(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

26

517(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑5—Stand down

27

527

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities

28

530(4)

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

29

535(1)
535(2)
535(4)
536(1)
536(2)
536(3)

(a) an employee;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

for a serious contravention—600 penalty units; or

otherwise—60 penalty units

Part 4‑1—Civil remedies

29A

558B(1)

558B(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 5‑1—The Fair Work Commission

30

611(3)

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an employer organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman

30A

707A(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

31

711(3)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

30 penalty units

32

712(3)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

32A

712B(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

600 penalty units

33

716(5)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

30 penalty units

33A

718A(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements

34

745(1)
760

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 6‑3A—Transfer of business from a State public sector employer

34A

768AG

(a) the transferring employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an employer organisation;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

34B

768BT

(a) the transferring employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment

35

772(1)
777(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

36

782

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

37

785(4)

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

Part 6‑4B—Workers bullied at work

38

789FG

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

             (3)  The regulations may provide that a provision set out in the regulations is a civil remedy provision.

             (4)  If the regulations make provision as mentioned in subsection (3):

                     (a)  the regulations must set out:

                              (i)  the persons who would be referred to in column 2; and

                             (ii)  the courts that would be referred to in column 3; and

                            (iii)  the maximum penalty that would be referred to in column 4;

                            of the table in subsection (2) if there were an item for the civil remedy provision in the table; and

                     (b)  this Part has effect as if the matters referred to subparagraphs (a)(i) to (iii) were set out in such an item in the table.

Note:          See section 798 for limits on the penalties that may be set out in the regulations.

540  Limitations on who may apply for orders etc.

Employees, employers, outworkers and outworker entities

             (1)  The following persons may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the person is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention:

                     (a)  an employee;

                    (aa)  a prospective employee;

                     (b)  an employer;

                     (c)  an outworker;

                     (d)  an outworker entity.

Employee organisations and registered employee associations

             (2)  An employee organisation or a registered employee association may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision in relation to an employee, only if:

                     (a)  the employee is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; and

                     (b)  the organisation or association is entitled to represent the industrial interests of the employee.

             (3)  However, subsection (2) does not apply in relation to:

                     (a)  items 4, 7 and 14 in the table in subsection 539(2); or

                     (b)  a contravention or proposed contravention of:

                              (i)  an outworker term in a modern award; or

                             (ii)  a term in an enterprise agreement that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award.

             (4)  An employee organisation may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of:

                     (a)  an outworker term in a modern award; or

                     (b)  a term in an enterprise agreement that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award;

only if the employee organisation is entitled to represent the industrial interests of an outworker to whom the term relates.

Employer organisations

             (5)  An employer organisation may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the organisation has a member who is affected by the contravention, or who will be affected by the proposed contravention.

Industrial associations

             (6)  An industrial association may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if:

                     (a)  the industrial association is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; or

                     (b)  if the contravention is in relation to a person:

                              (i)  the person is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; and

                             (ii)  the industrial association is entitled to represent the industrial interests of the person.

             (7)  If an item in column 2 of the table in subsection 539(2) refers to an industrial association then, to avoid doubt, an employee organisation, a registered employee association or an employer organisation may apply for an order, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the organisation or association is entitled to apply for the order under subsection (6).

Regulations

             (8)  The regulations may prescribe a person for the purposes of an item in column 2 of the table in subsection 539(2). The regulations may provide that the person is prescribed only in relation to circumstances specified in the regulations.

541  Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements

             (1)  This section applies if an inspector applies to a court for an order under this Division, in relation to an employer’s contravention or proposed contravention of a provision or term referred to in subsection (3) in relation to an employee.

             (2)  The inspector may also apply to the court, on behalf of the employee, for an order in relation to the employer’s contravention, or proposed contravention, of a safety net contractual entitlement of the employee.

             (3)  The provisions and terms are the following:

                     (a)  a provision of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  a term of a modern award;

                     (c)  a term of an enterprise agreement;

                     (d)  a term of a workplace determination;

                     (e)  a term of a national minimum wage order;

                      (f)  a term of an equal remuneration order.

542  Entitlements under contracts

             (1)  For the purposes of this Part, a safety net contractual entitlement of a national system employer or a national system employee, as in force from time to time, also has effect as an entitlement of the employer or employee under this Act.

             (2)  The entitlement has effect under this Act subject to any modifications, by a law of the Commonwealth (including this Act or a fair work instrument), a State or a Territory, of the safety net contractual entitlement.

543  Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts

                   A national system employer or a national system employee may apply to the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court to enforce an entitlement of the employer or employee arising under subsection 542(1).

544  Time limit on applications

                   A person may apply for an order under this Division in relation to a contravention of one of the following only if the application is made within 6 years after the day on which the contravention occurred:

                     (a)  a civil remedy provision;

                     (b)  a safety net contractual entitlement;

                     (c)  an entitlement arising under subsection 542(1).

Note 1:       This section does not apply in relation to general protections court applications or unlawful termination court applications (see subparagraphs 370(a)(ii) and 778(a)(ii)).

Note 2:       For time limits on orders relating to underpayments, see subsection 545(5).

Subdivision BOrders

545  Orders that can be made by particular courts

Federal Court and Federal Circuit Court

             (1)  The Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court may make any order the court considers appropriate if the court is satisfied that a person has contravened, or proposes to contravene, a civil remedy provision.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

Note 3:       The Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court may grant injunctions in relation to industrial action under subsections 417(3) and 421(3).

Note 4:       There are limitations on orders that can be made in relation to contraventions of subsection 65(5), 76(4), 463(1) or 463(2) (which deal with reasonable business grounds and protected action ballot orders) (see subsections 44(2), 463(3) and 745(2)).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), orders the Federal Court or Federal Circuit Court may make include the following:

                     (a)  an order granting an injunction, or interim injunction, to prevent, stop or remedy the effects of a contravention;

                     (b)  an order awarding compensation for loss that a person has suffered because of the contravention;

                     (c)  an order for reinstatement of a person.

Eligible State or Territory courts

             (3)  An eligible State or Territory court may order an employer to pay an amount to, or on behalf of, an employee of the employer if the court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the employer was required to pay the amount under this Act or a fair work instrument; and

                     (b)  the employer has contravened a civil remedy provision by failing to pay the amount.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

          (3A)  An eligible State or Territory court may order an outworker entity to pay an amount to, or on behalf of, an outworker if the court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the outworker entity was required to pay the amount under a modern award; and

                     (b)  the outworker entity has contravened a civil remedy provision by failing to pay the amount.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

When orders may be made

             (4)  A court may make an order under this section:

                     (a)  on its own initiative, during proceedings before the court; or

                     (b)  on application.

Time limit for orders in relation to underpayments

             (5)  A court must not make an order under thi