Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Telecommunications Act 1997

Authoritative Version
  • - C2021C00134
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 47 of 1997 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Telecommunications Amendment (Infrastructure in New Developments) Act 2021
An Act about telecommunications, and for related purposes
Administered by: Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications
Registered 05 Mar 2021
Start Date 17 Feb 2021
End Date 16 Jun 2021
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Telecommunications Act 1997

No. 47, 1997

Compilation No. 99

Compilation date:                              17 February 2021

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 7, 2021

Registered:                                         5 March 2021

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–594

Volume 2:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Telecommunications Act 1997 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 17 February 2021 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part 1—Introduction                                                                                                            1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Commencement.................................................................. 1

3............................ Objects................................................................................ 1

4............................ Regulatory policy................................................................ 3

5............................ Simplified outline................................................................ 3

6............................ Main index.......................................................................... 7

7............................ Definitions.......................................................................... 8

8............................ Crown to be bound........................................................... 23

9............................ Extra‑territorial application................................................ 23

10.......................... Extension to external Territories....................................... 23

11.......................... Extension to offshore areas............................................... 24

11A....................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 24

12.......................... Act subject to Radiocommunications Act......................... 25

13.......................... Continuity of partnerships................................................ 25

14.......................... Controlled carriage services, controlled networks and controlled facilities               25

15.......................... Content service................................................................. 27

16.......................... Listed carriage services..................................................... 27

18.......................... Access to an emergency call service................................. 28

19.......................... Recognised person who operates an emergency call service 28

20.......................... Customer cabling.............................................................. 29

21.......................... Customer equipment......................................................... 29

22.......................... Customer cabling and customer equipment—boundary of a telecommunications network      30

23.......................... Immediate circle................................................................ 32

24.......................... Extended meaning of use.................................................. 37

Part 2—Network units                                                                                                      38

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                                38

25.......................... Simplified outline.............................................................. 38

Division 2—Basic definition                                                                                    39

26.......................... Single line links connecting distinct places in Australia.... 39

27.......................... Multiple line links connecting distinct places in Australia. 39

28.......................... Designated radiocommunications facility.......................... 40

29.......................... Facilities specified in Ministerial determination................ 41

Division 3—Related definitions                                                                             42

30.......................... Line links.......................................................................... 42

31.......................... Designated radiocommunications facility.......................... 42

32.......................... Public mobile telecommunications service........................ 44

33.......................... Intercell hand‑over functions............................................ 45

34.......................... When a base station is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network     46

35.......................... Fixed radiocommunications link....................................... 47

Division 4—Distinct places                                                                                      49

36.......................... Distinct places—basic rules.............................................. 49

37.......................... Properties.......................................................................... 49

38.......................... Combined areas................................................................ 50

39.......................... Principal user of a property............................................... 51

40.......................... Eligible combined areas.................................................... 51

Part 3—Carriers                                                                                                                   52

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                                52

41.......................... Simplified outline.............................................................. 52

Division 2—Prohibitions relating to carriers                                                53

42.......................... Network unit not to be used without carrier licence or nominated carrier declaration               53

43.......................... Continuing offences.......................................................... 54

44.......................... Supply to the public.......................................................... 54

45.......................... Exemption—defence......................................................... 56

46.......................... Exemption—intelligence operations.................................. 57

47.......................... Exemption—transport authorities..................................... 57

48.......................... Exemption—broadcasting services................................... 58

49.......................... Exemption—electricity supply bodies............................... 60

50.......................... Exemption—line links authorised by or under previous laws  61

51.......................... Exemption—Ministerial determination............................. 63

Division 3—Carrier licences                                                                                   65

52.......................... Applications for carrier licence......................................... 65

53.......................... Form of application etc..................................................... 65

53A....................... Copy of application to be given to Communications Access Co‑ordinator              65

54.......................... Application to be accompanied by charge......................... 65

55.......................... Further information........................................................... 66

56.......................... Grant of licence................................................................. 66

56A....................... Consultation with Communications Access Co‑ordinator 66

57.......................... Carrier licence has effect subject to this Act...................... 68

58.......................... Refusal of carrier licence—disqualified applicant............. 68

58A....................... Refusal of carrier licence—security.................................. 72

59.......................... Time limit on licence decision........................................... 73

60.......................... Notification of refusal of application................................. 75

61.......................... Conditions of carrier licence specified in Schedule 1........ 75

62.......................... Condition of carrier licence set out in section 152AZ of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010         75

62A....................... Condition of carrier licence set out in section 152BCO of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010      76

62B........................ Condition of carrier licence set out in section 152BDF of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010      76

62C........................ Condition of carrier licence set out in section 152BEC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010      76

62D....................... Condition of carrier licence set out in section 152CJC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010       76

62E........................ Condition of carrier licence set out in section 37 of the National Broadband Network Companies Act 2011.......................................................................................... 77

63.......................... Conditions of carrier licence declared by Minister............ 77

64.......................... Consultation about declared licence conditions................. 78

65.......................... Conditions about foreign ownership or control................ 79

67.......................... Carrier licence conditions—special provisions................. 79

68.......................... Compliance with conditions.............................................. 80

69.......................... Remedial directions—breach of condition........................ 80

69AA.................... Remedial directions—breach of conditions relating to access  83

70.......................... Formal warnings—breach of condition............................ 84

71.......................... Surrender of carrier licence............................................... 86

72.......................... Cancellation of carrier licence........................................... 86

73.......................... Collection of charges relating to carrier licences............... 88

73A....................... Refund of application charge............................................ 90

74.......................... Collection of charges on behalf of the Commonwealth..... 90

75.......................... Cancellation of certain exemptions from charge................ 90

76.......................... Commonwealth not liable to charge.................................. 91

Division 4—Nominated carrier declarations                                                 92

77.......................... Applications for nominated carrier declarations................ 92

78.......................... Application to be accompanied by charge etc.................... 92

79.......................... Form of application etc..................................................... 92

80.......................... Further information........................................................... 92

81.......................... Making a nominated carrier declaration............................ 93

81A....................... Obligations of nominated carrier....................................... 93

82.......................... Notification of refusal of application................................. 94

83.......................... Revocation of nominated carrier declaration..................... 94

Division 5—Register of nominated carrier declarations and carrier licences   96

84.......................... Register of nominated carrier declarations and carrier licences 96

Part 4—Service providers                                                                                               97

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                                97

85.......................... Simplified outline.............................................................. 97

Division 2—Service providers                                                                               98

86.......................... Service providers.............................................................. 98

Division 3—Carriage service providers                                                           99

87.......................... Carriage service providers................................................ 99

88.......................... Supply to the public........................................................ 101

89.......................... Exemption from definition—customers located on the same premises     102

90.......................... Exemption from definition—defence.............................. 102

91.......................... Exemption from definition—intelligence operations....... 103

92.......................... Exemption from definition—transport authorities........... 103

93.......................... Exemption from definition—broadcasting services........ 104

94.......................... Exemption from definition—electricity supply bodies.... 105

95.......................... Exemption from definition—Ministerial determination... 105

96.......................... Exemption from certain regulatory provisions—Ministerial determination              106

Division 4—Content service providers                                                           107

97.......................... Content service providers............................................... 107

Division 5—Service provider rules                                                                   108

98.......................... Service provider rules..................................................... 108

99.......................... Service provider determinations...................................... 109

100........................ Exemptions from service provider rules......................... 110

101........................ Service providers must comply with service provider rules 110

102........................ Remedial directions—breach of service provider rules... 111

103........................ Formal warnings—breach of service provider rules....... 113

Part 5—Monitoring of the performance of carriers and carriage service providers       116

104........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 116

105........................ Monitoring of performance—annual report.................... 116

105A..................... Monitoring of performance—additional report............... 117

105C...................... Monitoring of breaches by Telstra of an undertaking about structural separation    117

Part 6—Industry codes and industry standards                                             118

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              118

106........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 118

Division 2—Interpretation                                                                                     119

107........................ Industry codes................................................................ 119

108........................ Industry standards.......................................................... 119

108A..................... Electronic messaging service provider............................ 119

108B...................... Telecommunications industry......................................... 120

109........................ Telecommunications activity........................................... 120

109B...................... Telemarketing activity..................................................... 120

109C...................... Fax marketing activity..................................................... 122

110........................ Sections of the telecommunications industry.................. 124

110B...................... Sections of the telemarketing industry............................ 126

110C...................... Sections of the fax marketing industry............................ 126

111........................ Participants in a section of the telecommunications industry 127

111AA.................. Participants in a section of the telemarketing industry..... 127

111AB................... Participants in a section of the fax marketing industry.... 128

111B...................... Unsolicited commercial electronic messages................... 128

Division 3—General principles relating to industry codes and industry standards        129

112........................ Statement of regulatory policy........................................ 129

113........................ Examples of matters that may be dealt with by industry codes and industry standards            131

114........................ Industry codes and industry standards may confer powers on the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman........................................................................................ 134

115........................ Industry codes and industry standards not to deal with certain design features and performance requirements........................................................................................ 134

116........................ Industry codes and industry standards not to deal with matters dealt with by codes and standards under Part 9 of the Broadcasting Services Act.................................... 136

116A..................... Industry codes and standards do not affect Privacy Act 1988  136

Division 4—Industry codes                                                                                    137

117........................ Registration of industry codes........................................ 137

118........................ ACMA may request codes............................................. 139

119........................ Publication of notice where no body or association represents a section of the telecommunications industry, the telemarketing industry or the fax marketing industry 142

119A..................... Variation of industry codes............................................. 142

119B...................... Publication requirements for submissions...................... 145

120........................ Replacement of industry codes....................................... 148

121........................ Directions about compliance with industry codes........... 148

122........................ Formal warnings—breach of industry codes.................. 149

122A..................... De‑registering industry codes and provisions of industry codes              150

Division 5—Industry standards                                                                          151

123........................ ACMA may determine an industry standard if a request for an industry code is not complied with        151

124........................ ACMA may determine industry standard where no industry body or association formed       152

125........................ ACMA may determine industry standards where industry codes fail      153

125AA.................. ACMA must determine an industry standard if directed by the Minister 154

125A..................... ACMA must determine certain industry standards relating to the telemarketing industry        155

125B...................... ACMA must determine certain industry standards relating to the fax marketing industry       156

126........................ Industry standards not to be determined for certain privacy matters         157

128........................ Compliance with industry standards............................... 157

129........................ Formal warnings—breach of industry standards............ 158

130........................ Variation of industry standards....................................... 158

131........................ Revocation of industry standards.................................... 159

132........................ Public consultation on industry standards....................... 159

133........................ Consultation with ACCC and the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman        160

134........................ Consultation with Information Commissioner................ 160

135........................ Consultation with consumer body.................................. 161

135A..................... Consultation with the States and Territories.................... 161

Division 6—Register of industry codes and industry standards        162

136........................ ACMA to maintain Register of industry codes and industry standards   162

Division 6A—Reimbursement of costs of development or variation of consumer‑related industry codes                                                                                                                    163

136A..................... Application for eligibility for reimbursement of costs of development or variation of consumer‑related industry code................................................................................ 163

136B...................... Declaration of eligibility for reimbursement of costs of development or variation of consumer‑related industry code................................................................................ 164

136C...................... Reimbursement of costs of developing or varying consumer‑related industry code 166

136D..................... Costs—transactions between persons not at arm’s length 169

136E...................... Refundable cost.............................................................. 169

Division 7—Miscellaneous                                                                                     170

137........................ Protection from civil proceedings................................... 170

138........................ Implied freedom of political communication................... 170

139........................ Agreements for the carrying on of telemarketing activities or fax marketing activities must require compliance with this Part................................................................... 170

Part 8—Local access lines                                                                                             172

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        172

142........................ Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 172

142A..................... Definitions...................................................................... 173

142B...................... Functional separation undertaking given by a person..... 176

142BA................... Promotion of the long‑term interests of end‑users of carriage services and of services supplied by means of carriage services.............................................................. 176

142BB................... Terms and conditions...................................................... 177

142BC................... Unsatisfactory compliance record................................... 177

142BD................... Designated carriage service............................................. 177

Division 2—Supply of eligible services to be on wholesale basis       179

142C...................... Supply of eligible services to be on wholesale basis—lines that come into existence on or after the designated commencement date etc................................................... 179

143........................ Supply of eligible services to be on wholesale basis—networks in existence before the designated commencement date etc................................................... 181

143AA.................. Judicial enforcement of prohibitions............................... 183

Division 2A—Exemptions                                                                                       184

143A..................... Class exemptions............................................................ 184

143B...................... Compliance with conditions and limitations of exemption determinations               188

143C...................... Judicial enforcement of conditions and limitations of exemption determinations     188

143D..................... Publication of list of persons who have elected to be bound by exemption determinations      189

143E...................... Exemptions—certain real estate development projects etc. 189

143F...................... Exemptions—lines installed in close proximity to other lines  192

143G..................... Exemptions—networks covered by exemption instruments 193

143H..................... Exemption—networks marketed as business networks.. 195

144........................ Exemptions—Ministerial instrument.............................. 196

145........................ Exemption—transport authorities................................... 197

146........................ Exemption—electricity supply bodies............................. 198

147........................ Exemption—gas supply bodies...................................... 199

148........................ Exemption—water supply bodies................................... 199

149........................ Exemption—sewerage services bodies........................... 199

150........................ Exemption—storm water drainage services bodies......... 200

151........................ Exemption—State or Territory road authorities.............. 200

Division 2B—Functional separation undertakings                                   202

151A..................... Standard functional separation undertaking.................... 202

151B...................... Deemed standard functional separation undertaking....... 206

151C...................... Joint functional separation undertaking........................... 209

151D..................... Further information about undertaking........................... 214

151E...................... Withdrawal of undertaking that is under consideration... 215

151F...................... ACCC to accept or reject functional separation undertaking 215

151G..................... Consultation—acceptance or rejection of undertaking.... 217

151H..................... Serial undertakings......................................................... 218

151J....................... Criteria for accepting functional separation undertaking. 219

151K...................... Variation of functional separation undertaking that is under consideration              220

151L...................... Replacement of functional separation undertaking that is under consideration         221

151M..................... Renewal of functional separation undertaking................ 221

151N..................... Variation of expiry time of certain functional separation undertakings     222

151P...................... Duration of functional separation undertaking................ 224

151Q..................... Variation of functional separation undertaking that is in force 225

151R...................... Further information about variation of functional separation undertaking                226

151S...................... Withdrawal of variation that is under consideration........ 227

151T...................... ACCC to accept or reject variation.................................. 227

151U..................... Consultation—acceptance or rejection of variation......... 229

151V..................... Criteria for accepting variation........................................ 230

151W..................... Revocation of functional separation undertaking............ 230

151X..................... Consultation—revocation of functional separation undertaking               233

151Y..................... Notification that a person is at risk of having an unsatisfactory compliance record in relation to functional separation........................................................................ 234

151Z...................... Variation of functional separation undertaking following giving of revocation notice             235

151ZA................... Reporting obligations following giving of revocation notice 236

151ZB................... Requirement to notify changes in control of person who gave undertaking             238

151ZC................... Register of functional separation undertakings............... 240

151ZD................... Compliance with functional separation undertaking........ 240

151ZE.................... Enforcement of functional separation undertaking.......... 241

Division 2C—Non‑discrimination rules                                                          243

151ZF.................... Eligible services to be supplied on a non‑discriminatory basis 243

151ZG................... Eligible services—related activities to be carried on on a non‑discriminatory basis 245

151ZH................... Statement about the differences between an access agreement and an offer etc.       247

151ZHA................ Judicial enforcement of non‑discrimination rules............ 250

Division 3—Other provisions                                                                               251

151ZI..................... Anti‑avoidance................................................................ 251

151ZJ.................... Self‑incrimination........................................................... 252

151ZK................... Delegation....................................................................... 252

151ZL.................... Review by the Australian Competition Tribunal............. 253

151ZM.................. Functions and powers of the Australian Competition Tribunal etc.          254

151ZN................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to an Australian Competition Tribunal review            255

152........................ Associate........................................................................ 255

153........................ Control............................................................................ 256

154........................ Control of a company..................................................... 257

155........................ When a person is in a position to exercise control of a network               257

155A..................... When a person is in a position to exercise control of a line 259

156........................ Deemed networks etc...................................................... 261

156A..................... Certain lines deemed to have come into existence on or after the designated commencement date           263

157........................ Certain installations and connections are not taken to be an extension, alteration or upgrade of a network........................................................................................ 264

158........................ Local access line............................................................. 265

158A..................... Deemed local access lines............................................... 266

159........................ Alteration........................................................................ 267

160........................ Upgrade of telecommunications network........................ 267

161........................ Extended meaning of residential customer..................... 267

162........................ Close proximity.............................................................. 269

Part 13—Protection of communications                                                              270

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        270

270........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 270

271........................ Eligible person................................................................ 270

272........................ Number‑database operator and eligible number‑database person             271

273........................ Information..................................................................... 271

274........................ Telecommunications contractor....................................... 271

275........................ Number‑database contractor........................................... 272

275A..................... Location information....................................................... 272

275B...................... Emergency management person...................................... 272

275C...................... Emergency...................................................................... 273

275D..................... Emergency law............................................................... 273

275E...................... Relevant information....................................................... 273

Division 2—Primary disclosure/use offences                                               274

276........................ Primary disclosure/use offence—eligible persons.......... 274

277........................ Primary disclosure/use offence—eligible number‑database persons        276

278........................ Primary disclosure/use offence—emergency call persons 278

Division 3—Exceptions to primary disclosure/use offences                 280

Subdivision A—Exceptions                                                                                  280

279........................ Performance of person’s duties...................................... 280

280........................ Authorisation by or under law........................................ 281

281........................ Witnesses........................................................................ 283

284........................ Assisting the ACMA, the eSafety Commissioner, the ACCC or the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman................................................................... 284

285........................ Integrated public number database.................................. 285

285A..................... Data for emergency warnings......................................... 289

286........................ Calls to emergency service number................................. 290

287........................ Threat to person’s life or health...................................... 291

288........................ Communications for maritime purposes......................... 291

289........................ Knowledge or consent of person concerned................... 291

290........................ Implicit consent of sender and recipient of communication 292

291........................ Business needs of other carriers or service providers..... 292

291A..................... Location dependent carriage services.............................. 294

292........................ Circumstances prescribed in the regulations................... 295

293........................ Uses connected with exempt disclosures........................ 296

294........................ Effect of this Subdivision............................................... 296

Subdivision B—Burden of proof                                                                        296

295........................ Burden of proof.............................................................. 296

Division 3A—Integrated public number database authorisations    298

Subdivision A—ACMA scheme for the granting of authorisations           298

295A..................... ACMA to make integrated public number database scheme 298

295B...................... Scheme must deal with certain matters............................ 298

295C...................... Applications may be treated differently........................... 299

295D..................... Scope of authorisations................................................... 299

295E...................... Provisional and final authorisations................................ 299

295F...................... Conditions...................................................................... 299

295G..................... Varying or revoking authorisations................................ 299

295H..................... Scheme may confer administrative powers on the ACMA 300

295J....................... Ancillary or incidental provisions................................... 300

295K...................... Scheme‑making power not limited.................................. 300

295L...................... Variation of scheme........................................................ 300

295M..................... Consultation.................................................................... 300

Subdivision B—Ministerial instruments                                                          301

295N..................... Criteria for deciding authorisation applications............... 301

295P...................... Conditions...................................................................... 301

295Q..................... Other reviewable decisions............................................. 302

Subdivision C—Enforcing compliance with conditions of authorisations 302

295R...................... Offence of breaching a condition.................................... 302

295S...................... Remedial directions for breaching a condition................ 302

295T...................... Formal warnings for breaching a condition.................... 303

Subdivision D—Report to Minister                                                                    303

295U..................... Report to Minister........................................................... 303

Division 3B—Emergency warnings                                                                  304

295V..................... Use or disclosure of information by emergency management persons     304

295W..................... Use or disclosure of information by other persons......... 305

295X..................... Effect on telecommunications network........................... 305

295Y..................... Coronial and other inquiries............................................ 305

295Z...................... Offence—use or disclosure of information by emergency management persons     306

295ZA................... Offence—use or disclosure of information by other persons.. 306

295ZB................... Reports of access............................................................ 307

295ZC................... Annual reports to the ACMA and Information Commissioner                307

295ZD................... Arrangements with States and Territories....................... 308

295ZE.................... Commonwealth immunity............................................... 308

Division 4—Secondary disclosure/use offences                                          309

296........................ Performance of person’s duties...................................... 309

297........................ Authorisation by or under law........................................ 309

299........................ Assisting the ACMA, the eSafety Commissioner, the ACCC or the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman................................................................... 309

299A..................... Integrated public number database.................................. 310

300........................ Threat to person’s life or health...................................... 311

301........................ Communications for maritime purposes......................... 312

302........................ Business needs of other carriers or service providers..... 312

302A..................... Location dependent carriage services.............................. 313

303........................ Secondary offence—contravening this Division............. 313

303A..................... Generality of Division not limited................................... 313

Division 4A—Relationship with the Privacy Act 1988                           314

303B...................... Acts taken to be authorised by this Act for purposes of Privacy Act       314

303C...................... Prosecution of an offence against this Part does not affect proceedings under the Privacy Act 1988       314

Division 5—Record‑keeping requirements                                                   315

304........................ Associate........................................................................ 315

305........................ Authorisations under the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979                315

306........................ Record of disclosures—general...................................... 315

306A..................... Record of disclosures—prospective authorisation under the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.......................................................................... 317

307........................ Incorrect records............................................................. 318

308........................ Annual reports to the ACMA by carriers, carriage service providers or number‑database operators       319

309........................ Monitoring by the Information Commissioner............... 319

Division 6—Instrument‑making powers not limited                                 321

310........................ Instrument‑making powers not limited........................... 321

Part 14—National interest matters                                                                          322

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              322

311........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 322

Division 2—Obligations of ACMA and carriers and carriage service providers            324

312........................ ACMA’s obligations...................................................... 324

313........................ Obligations of carriers and carriage service providers.... 324

314........................ Terms and conditions on which help is to be given........ 330

Division 3—Notification of changes to telecommunications services or telecommunications systems relating to obligation under subsection 313(1A) or (2A) 332

Subdivision A—Individual notifications                                                          332

314A..................... Individual notifications................................................... 332

314B...................... Assessment of proposed change..................................... 335

Subdivision B—Security capability plans                                                        337

314C...................... Security capability plans................................................. 337

314D..................... Assessment of security capability plan........................... 338

314E...................... Relationship with section 314A...................................... 340

Division 4—Carriage service provider may suspend supply of carriage service in an emergency       341

315........................ Suspension of supply of carriage service in an emergency 341

Division 5—Directions by Home Affairs Minister                                    343

315A..................... Direction if use or supply of carriage services prejudicial to security       343

315B...................... Direction if risk of unauthorised interference or access involving telecommunications networks or facilities........................................................................................ 344

Division 6—Home Affairs Secretary’s information‑gathering powers 348

315C...................... Home Affairs Secretary may obtain information and documents from carriers and carriage service providers........................................................................................ 348

315D..................... Self‑incrimination........................................................... 349

315E...................... Copies of documents...................................................... 350

315F...................... Retention of documents.................................................. 350

315G..................... Delegation by Home Affairs Secretary........................... 351

Division 7—Information sharing and confidentiality                              352

315H..................... Information sharing and confidentiality.......................... 352

Division 8—Annual report                                                                                     354

315J....................... Annual report.................................................................. 354

Division 8A—Review by Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security              356

315K...................... Review by Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security  356

Division 9—Generality of Part not limited                                                   357

316........................ Generality of Part not limited.......................................... 357

Part 15—Industry assistance                                                                                       358

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        358

317A..................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 358

317B...................... Definitions...................................................................... 360

317C...................... Designated communications provider etc........................ 366

317D..................... Electronic service............................................................ 370

317E...................... Listed acts or things........................................................ 371

317F...................... Extension to external Territories..................................... 373

Division 2—Voluntary technical assistance                                                  374

317G..................... Voluntary technical assistance provided to ASIO, the Australian Secret Intelligence Service, the Australian Signals Directorate or an interception agency................. 374

317H..................... Form of technical assistance request............................... 377

317HAA............... Provision of advice to designated communications providers  378

317HAB................ Notification obligations................................................... 379

317HA.................. Duration of technical assistance request.......................... 380

317J....................... Specified period etc......................................................... 381

317JAA................. Decision‑making criteria................................................. 381

317JA.................... Variation of technical assistance requests....................... 382

317JB.................... Revocation of technical assistance requests.................... 386

317JC.................... Whether a technical assistance request is reasonable and proportionate   388

317K...................... Contract etc..................................................................... 389

Division 3—Technical assistance notices                                                       391

317L...................... Technical assistance notices............................................ 391

317LA................... Approval of technical assistance notices given by the chief officer of an interception agency of a State or Territory.......................................................................... 392

317M..................... Form of technical assistance notice................................. 392

317MAA............... Provision of advice to designated communications providers  393

317MAB............... Notification obligations................................................... 395

317MA.................. Duration of technical assistance notice............................ 395

317N..................... Compliance period etc..................................................... 396

317P...................... Decision‑making criteria................................................. 397

317PA................... Consultation about a proposal to give a technical assistance notice          397

317Q..................... Variation of technical assistance notices......................... 398

317R...................... Revocation of technical assistance notices...................... 400

317RA................... Whether requirements imposed by a technical assistance notice are reasonable and proportionate           402

Division 4—Technical capability notices                                                        403

317S...................... Attorney‑General may determine procedures and arrangements relating to requests for technical capability notices............................................................................. 403

317T...................... Technical capability notices............................................. 403

317TAAA............. Approval of technical capability notice........................... 406

317TAA................ Provision of advice to designated communications providers  407

317TAB................ Notification obligations................................................... 407

317TA................... Duration of technical capability notice............................ 408

317U..................... Compliance period etc..................................................... 410

317V..................... Decision‑making criteria................................................. 410

317W..................... Consultation about a proposal to give a technical capability notice           411

317WA.................. Assessment and report.................................................... 412

317X..................... Variation of technical capability notices.......................... 417

317XA.................. Approval of variation of technical capability notice........ 419

317Y..................... Consultation about a proposal to vary a technical capability notice          420

317YA.................. Assessment and report.................................................... 421

317Z...................... Revocation of technical capability notices....................... 425

317ZAA................ Whether requirements imposed by a technical capability notice are reasonable and proportionate           426

Division 5—Compliance and enforcement                                                    428

317ZA................... Compliance with notices—carriers and carriage service providers           428

317ZB................... Compliance with notices—designated communications provider (other than a carrier or carriage service provider)......................................................................... 428

317ZC................... Civil penalty provision.................................................... 429

317ZD................... Enforceable undertakings................................................ 430

317ZE.................... Injunctions...................................................................... 431

Division 6—Unauthorised disclosure of information etc.                      432

317ZF.................... Unauthorised disclosure of information.......................... 432

317ZFA................. Powers of a court............................................................ 442

Division 7—Limitations                                                                                           444

317ZG................... Designated communications provider must not be requested or required to implement or build a systemic weakness or systemic vulnerability etc........................... 444

317ZGA................ Limits on technical capability notices.............................. 445

317ZH................... General limits on technical assistance requests, technical assistance notices and technical capability notices........................................................................................ 446

Division 8—General provisions                                                                          451

317ZJ.................... Immunity........................................................................ 451

317ZK................... Terms and conditions on which help is to be given etc... 451

317ZKA................ Notification obligations................................................... 458

317ZL.................... Service of notices etc...................................................... 460

317ZM.................. Interception agency—chief officer and officer................ 462

317ZN................... Delegation by Director‑General of Security.................... 463

317ZP.................... Delegation by Director‑General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service          463

317ZQ................... Delegation by Director‑General of the Australian Signals Directorate     464

317ZR................... Delegation by the chief officer of an interception agency 464

317ZRA................ Relationship of this Part to parliamentary privileges and immunities       465

317ZRB................. Inspection of records...................................................... 466

317ZS.................... Annual reports................................................................ 467

317ZT.................... Alternative constitutional basis....................................... 468

Part 16—Defence requirements and disaster plans                                      469

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        469

333........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 469

334........................ Defence authority............................................................ 469

Division 2—Supply of carriage services                                                         470

335........................ Requirement to supply carriage services for defence purposes or for the management of natural disasters........................................................................................ 470

Division 3—Defence planning                                                                              472

336........................ Definitions...................................................................... 472

337........................ Preparation of draft agreement........................................ 472

338........................ ACMA’s certification of draft agreement....................... 473

339........................ Requirement to enter into certified agreement................. 474

340........................ Compliance with agreement............................................ 474

341........................ Withdrawal of certification of agreement........................ 474

342........................ Duration of agreement.................................................... 475

343........................ Variation of agreement.................................................... 475

Division 4—Disaster plans                                                                                     477

344........................ Designated disaster plans................................................ 477

345........................ Carrier licence conditions about designated disaster plans 477

346........................ Service provider determinations about designated disaster plans             477

346A..................... Carrier and carriage service provider immunity.............. 477

Division 5—Delegation                                                                                            479

347........................ Delegation....................................................................... 479

Part 17—Pre‑selection in favour of carriage service providers             480

348........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 480

349........................ Requirement to provide pre‑selection.............................. 480

349A..................... Local access line............................................................. 486

350........................ When pre‑selection is provided in favour of a carriage service provider  486

350A..................... Declared carriage services............................................... 488

351........................ Pre‑selection to be provided............................................ 488

352........................ Exemptions from requirement to provide pre‑selection... 489

353........................ Use of over‑ride dial codes............................................. 490

Part 18—Calling line identification                                                                         492

354........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 492

355........................ Calling line identification................................................ 492

356........................ Exemptions from calling line identification requirement. 492

Part 19—Statutory infrastructure providers                                                    494

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        494

360........................ Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 494

360A..................... Definitions...................................................................... 494

360AA.................. Qualifying fixed wireless carriage service...................... 497

Division 2—Service areas and statutory infrastructure providers 499

Subdivision AA—Introduction                                                                            499

360B...................... Simplified outline of this Division.................................. 499

360C...................... Definition of service area............................................... 500

Subdivision A—Rules applicable before the designated day                      501

360D..................... Interim NBN service area............................................... 501

360E...................... Statutory infrastructure provider for an interim NBN service area           503

Subdivision B—Rules applicable after the start of the designated day    503

360F...................... General service area........................................................ 503

360G..................... Statutory infrastructure provider for the general service area 504

Subdivision C—Rules applicable before, at and after the start of the designated day 504

360H..................... Nominated service area—declaration made by a carrier.. 504

360HA.................. Nominated service area—anticipatory notice to be given to the ACMA by a carrier                508

360J....................... Nominated service area—carrier licence conditions declarations              511

360K...................... Statutory infrastructure provider for a nominated service area 511

360L...................... Designated service area and statutory infrastructure provider  512

Subdivision D—Format of description of areas                                             513

360LA................... Format of description of areas........................................ 513

Division 3—Obligations of statutory infrastructure provider           514

360P...................... Obligation of statutory infrastructure provider to connect premises         514

360Q..................... Obligation of statutory infrastructure provider to supply eligible services—premises             517

360R...................... Notification obligations of statutory infrastructure provider 521

360S...................... Targets for NBN Co....................................................... 521

Division 4—Standards, benchmarks and rules                                           523

360U..................... Standards and benchmarks............................................. 523

360V..................... Rules............................................................................... 525

Division 5—Publication of offers                                                                        527

360W..................... Publication of offer etc.—connection of premises.......... 527

360X..................... Publication of offer—supply of eligible services............ 527

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     529

360XA.................. Periodic compliance reports............................................ 529

360Y..................... Building redevelopment projects etc............................... 529

360Z...................... Register of statutory infrastructure providers and anticipatory notices     530

360ZA................... Delegation....................................................................... 531

Part 20—International aspects of activities of the telecommunications industry                533

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              533

364........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 533

Division 2—Compliance with international agreements                        534

365........................ INTELSAT and Inmarsat—directions to Signatories..... 534

366........................ Compliance with conventions......................................... 534

Division 3—Rules of conduct about dealings with international telecommunications operators             536

367........................ Rules of conduct about dealings with international telecommunications operators   536

368........................ ACCC to administer Rules of Conduct........................... 538

369........................ Rules of Conduct to bind carriers and carriage service providers             539

370........................ Unenforceability of agreements...................................... 539

371........................ Investigations by the ACCC........................................... 539

372........................ Reviews of the operation of this Division....................... 540

Part 20A—Deployment of optical fibre etc.                                                       541

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              541

372A..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 541

Division 2—Deployment of optical fibre lines                                             543

372B...................... Deployment of optical fibre lines to building lots........... 543

372C...................... Deployment of optical fibre lines to building units......... 545

372D..................... Exemptions—Ministerial instrument.............................. 547

Division 3—Installation of fibre‑ready facilities                                        548

Subdivision A—Installation obligations                                                           548

372E...................... Installation of fibre‑ready facilities—building lots.......... 548

372F...................... Installation of fibre‑ready facilities—building units........ 549

Subdivision B—Sale of building lots and building units                              551

372G..................... Sale of building lots and building units—subdivisions... 551

372H..................... Sale of building units—other projects............................. 554

372J....................... Acquisition of property................................................... 556

Subdivision D—Exemptions                                                                                556

372K...................... Exemptions—Ministerial instrument.............................. 556

Division 4—Third party access regime                                                           559

372L...................... Third party access regime............................................... 559

372M..................... Terms and conditions of access...................................... 561

372N..................... Exemptions—Ministerial instrument.............................. 562

372NA.................. Code relating to access.................................................... 562

Division 5—Exemption of certain projects                                                   564

372P...................... Exemption of certain projects.......................................... 564

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     565

372Q..................... Real estate development projects etc............................... 565

372R...................... Subdivision of an area of land........................................ 567

372S...................... Building units................................................................. 567

372T...................... Sale of building lots........................................................ 567

372U..................... Sale of building units...................................................... 568

372V..................... Fixed‑line facilities.......................................................... 568

372W..................... Fibre‑ready facility.......................................................... 569

372X..................... Installation of a facility.................................................... 569

372Y..................... Installation of a fibre‑ready facility in proximity to a building lot or building unit   570

372Z...................... Sewerage services, electricity or water supplied to a building lot or building unit    570

372ZA................... Supply to the public........................................................ 572

372ZB................... Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 572

372ZD................... NBN Co......................................................................... 572

Part 21—Technical regulation                                                                                   574

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              574

373........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 574

Division 2—Interpretative provisions                                                             576

374........................ Part applies to networks or facilities in Australia operated by carriers or carriage service providers        576

375........................ Manager of network or facility....................................... 576

Division 3—Technical standards about customer equipment and customer cabling      577

376........................ ACMA’s power to make technical standards................. 577

376A..................... ACMA must make technical standards if directed by the Minister          579

377........................ Adoption of voluntary standards.................................... 579

378........................ Procedures for making technical standards..................... 579

379........................ Making technical standards in cases of urgency............. 580

Division 4—Disability standards                                                                        582

380........................ Disability standards........................................................ 582

381........................ Adoption of voluntary standards.................................... 582

382........................ Procedures for making disability standards.................... 583

383........................ Effect of compliance with disability standards................ 584

Division 5—Technical standards about the interconnection of facilities               585

384........................ ACMA’s power to make technical standards................. 585

385........................ Adoption of voluntary standards.................................... 586

386........................ Procedures for making technical standards..................... 586

387........................ Procedures for making technical standards..................... 587

388........................ Provision of access......................................................... 588

389........................ Promotion of the long‑term interests of end‑users of carriage services and of services supplied by means of carriage services.............................................................. 588

Division 5A—Technical standards relating to Layer 2 bitstream services         589

389A..................... ACMA’s power to determine technical standards.......... 589

389B...................... Compliance with technical standards.............................. 589

Division 6—Connection permits and connection rules                           591

Subdivision A—Connection permits authorising the connection of non‑standard customer equipment and non‑standard cabling                                                               591

390........................ Application for connection permit................................... 591

391........................ Form of application......................................................... 591

392........................ Application to be accompanied by charge....................... 592

393........................ Further information......................................................... 592

394........................ Issue of connection permits............................................ 592

395........................ Connection permit has effect subject to this Act............. 593

396........................ Nominees of holder........................................................ 593

397........................ Duration of connection permits....................................... 593

398........................ Conditions of connection permits................................... 594

399........................ Offence of contravening condition.................................. 594

400........................ Formal warnings—breach of condition.......................... 595

401........................ Surrender of connection permit....................................... 595

402........................ Cancellation of connection permit................................... 595

403........................ Register of connection permits........................................ 596

Subdivision B—Connection rules                                                                       597

404........................ Connection rules............................................................. 597

405........................ Procedures for making connection rules......................... 597

Division 7—Labelling of customer equipment and customer cabling 599

406........................ Application of labels....................................................... 599

406A..................... Application of Division to agent of manufacturer or importer  599

407........................ Labelling requirements.................................................... 599

408........................ Requirements to apply labels—ancillary matters............. 600

409........................ Recognised testing authorities and competent bodies...... 602

410........................ Certification bodies......................................................... 602

411........................ Connection of customer equipment or customer cabling—breach of section 376 standards    602

412........................ Connection of labelled customer equipment or customer cabling not to be refused  604

413........................ Supply of unlabelled customer equipment or unlabelled customer cabling               606

414........................ Applying labels before satisfying requirements under subsection 408(5)                606

415........................ Failure to retain records etc............................................. 607

416........................ Application of labels containing false statements about compliance with standards 608

Division 8—Protected symbols                                                                            609

417........................ Protected symbols........................................................... 609

Division 9—Cabling providers                                                                            613

418........................ Cabling work.................................................................. 613

419........................ Types of cabling work.................................................... 613

420........................ Prohibition of unauthorised cabling work....................... 613

421........................ Cabling provider rules.................................................... 614

422........................ Procedures for making cabling provider rules................ 615

423........................ Application for cabling licence........................................ 616

424........................ Form of application......................................................... 616

425........................ Application to be accompanied by charge....................... 616

426........................ Further information......................................................... 616

427........................ Grant of cabling licence.................................................. 616

428........................ Time limit on licence decision......................................... 617

429........................ Notification of refusal of application............................... 618

430........................ Cabling licence has effect subject to this Act.................. 618

431........................ Duration of cabling licence............................................. 618

432........................ Conditions of cabling licence.......................................... 618

433........................ Procedures for changing licence conditions.................... 619

434........................ Offence in relation to contravening condition................. 619

435........................ Formal warnings—breach of condition.......................... 620

436........................ Surrender of cabling licence............................................ 620

437........................ Suspension of cabling licence......................................... 621

438........................ Cancellation of cabling licence........................................ 621

439........................ ACMA may limit application of Division in relation to customer cabling                622

440........................ Ministerial directions...................................................... 622

441........................ Delegation....................................................................... 623

442........................ Register of cabling licences............................................. 624

Division 10—Remedies for unauthorised connections to telecommunications networks etc.    625

443........................ Civil action for unauthorised connections to telecommunications networks etc.      625

444........................ Remedy for contravention of labelling requirements....... 626

445........................ Remedies for connection of unlabelled customer equipment or unlabelled customer cabling   627

446........................ Disconnection of dangerous customer equipment or customer cabling    629

447........................ Disconnection of customer equipment or customer cabling—protection of the integrity of networks and facilities........................................................................... 631

448........................ Civil action for dangerous connections to telecommunications networks etc.          632

449........................ Other remedies not affected............................................ 633

Division 11—Prohibited customer equipment and prohibited customer cabling              634

450........................ Declaration of prohibited customer equipment or prohibited customer cabling        634

452........................ Operation of prohibited customer equipment or customer cabling           634

Division 12—Pre‑commencement labels                                                         636

453........................ Pre‑commencement labels............................................... 636

Division 13—Penalties payable instead of prosecution                          637

453A..................... Penalties payable instead of prosecution......................... 637

Part 22—Numbering of carriage services and regulation of electronic addressing          638

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              638

454........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 638

Division 2—Numbering of carriage services                                               639

Subdivision AA—Management by numbering scheme manager               639

454A..................... Minister may determine numbering scheme manager..... 639

454B...................... No property rights in numbers........................................ 639

454C...................... Numbering scheme principles......................................... 639

454D..................... Revocation of determination........................................... 641

454E...................... Directions to numbering scheme manager...................... 641

454F...................... Numbering scheme manager providing information to the ACMA         642

454G..................... Directions to comply with rules...................................... 643

454H..................... Numbering scheme documents are not legislative instruments 643

Subdivision A—Management by the ACMA                                                   643

455A..................... Application..................................................................... 643

455........................ Numbering plan.............................................................. 644

456........................ Numbering plan—supply to the public........................... 645

457........................ Numbering plan—allocation otherwise than in accordance with an allocation system             646

458........................ Numbering plan—rules about portability of allocated numbers               646

459........................ ACMA to administer numbering plan............................ 647

459A..................... Delegation....................................................................... 647

460........................ Consultation about numbering plan................................ 648

461........................ Consultation with ACCC................................................ 649

461A..................... Making numbering plan in cases of urgency.................. 649

462........................ Compliance with the numbering plan.............................. 650

Subdivision B—Allocation system for numbers                                             651

463A..................... Numbering scheme manager........................................... 651

463........................ Allocation system for numbers....................................... 652

464........................ Consultation about an allocation system......................... 653

Subdivision C—Miscellaneous                                                                            653

465........................ Register of allocated numbers......................................... 653

466........................ Emergency service numbers........................................... 655

468........................ Collection of numbering charges.................................... 656

469........................ Collection of charges on behalf of the Commonwealth... 658

470........................ Cancellation of certain exemptions from charge.............. 658

471........................ Commonwealth not liable to charge................................ 658

472........................ Integrated public number database.................................. 659

473........................ Letters and symbols taken to be numbers....................... 660

Division 3—Regulation of electronic addressing                                       661

474........................ Declared manager of electronic addressing..................... 661

475........................ ACMA may give directions to declared manager of electronic addressing              661

476........................ ACCC may give directions to declared manager of electronic addressing                662

477........................ ACCC’s directions to prevail over the ACMA’s directions 664

Part 23—Standard agreements for the supply of carriage services    665

478........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 665

479........................ Standard terms and conditions apply unless excluded.... 665

482........................ Concurrent operation of State/Territory laws.................. 666

483........................ Competition and Consumer Act not affected by this Part 667

Part 24—Carriers’ powers and immunities                                                       668

484........................ Schedule 3...................................................................... 668

Part 24A—Submarine cables                                                                                      669

484A..................... Schedule 3A................................................................... 669

Part 25—Public inquiries                                                                                              670

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              670

485........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 670

Division 2—Inquiries by the ACMA                                                                 671

486........................ When inquiry must be held............................................. 671

487........................ When inquiry may be held.............................................. 671

488........................ Informing the public about an inquiry............................. 672

489........................ Discussion paper............................................................ 672

490........................ Written submissions and protection from civil actions.... 673

491........................ Hearings......................................................................... 673

492........................ Hearing to be in public except in exceptional cases......... 674

493........................ Confidential material not to be published........................ 675

494........................ Direction about private hearings..................................... 676

495........................ Reports on inquiries........................................................ 677

Division 3—Inquiries by the ACCC                                                                  678

496........................ When inquiry must be held............................................. 678

497........................ When inquiry may be held.............................................. 678

498........................ Informing the public about an inquiry............................. 678

499........................ Discussion paper............................................................ 679

500........................ Written submissions and protection from civil actions.... 679

501........................ Hearings......................................................................... 680

502........................ Hearing to be in public except in exceptional cases......... 681

503........................ Confidential material not to be published........................ 681

504........................ Direction about private hearings..................................... 682

505........................ Reports on inquiries........................................................ 683

505A..................... ACCC may use material presented to a previous public inquiry              684

505B...................... ACCC may adopt a finding from a previous public inquiry 685

506........................ ACCC’s other powers not limited.................................. 685

Part 26—Investigations                                                                                                   686

507........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 686

508........................ Matters to which this Part applies................................... 686

509........................ Complaints to the ACMA............................................... 687

510........................ Investigations by the ACMA.......................................... 689

511........................ Preliminary inquiries....................................................... 690

512........................ Conduct of investigations............................................... 690

513........................ Complainant and certain other persons to be informed of various matters               691

514........................ Reference of matters to Ombudsman or other responsible person           692

515........................ Reference of matters to the ACCC.................................. 693

515A..................... Reference of matters to Information Commissioner........ 694

516........................ Reports on investigations................................................ 695

517........................ Publication of reports...................................................... 696

518........................ Person adversely affected by report to be given opportunity to comment                697

519........................ Protection from civil actions........................................... 697

Part 27—The ACMA’s information‑gathering powers                             699

Division 1—Simplified outline                                                                              699

520........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 699

Division 2—Information‑gathering powers                                                  700

521........................ The ACMA may obtain information and documents from carriers and service providers       700

522........................ The ACMA may obtain information and documents from other persons                701

523........................ Copying documents—reasonable compensation............. 703

524........................ Self‑incrimination........................................................... 703

525........................ Giving false or misleading information or evidence........ 704

527........................ Copies of documents...................................................... 704

528........................ ACMA may retain documents........................................ 704

Division 3—Record‑keeping rules                                                                     706

529........................ ACMA may make record‑keeping rules......................... 706

530........................ Compliance with record‑keeping rules............................ 707

531........................ Incorrect records............................................................. 707

Part 28—Enforcement                                                                                                    708

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        708

532........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 708

532A..................... References to the Spam Act 2003.................................... 709

Division 2—Inspectors and identity cards                                                     710

533........................ Inspectors....................................................................... 710

534........................ Identity cards.................................................................. 711

Division 3—Search warrants relating to breaches of the Spam Act 2003 or Part 21 of this Act           712

535........................ Magistrate may issue warrant......................................... 712

536........................ Reasonable grounds for issuing warrant etc................... 713

537........................ Contents of warrant........................................................ 713

538........................ Warrants may be issued by telephone etc........................ 713

539........................ Provisions relating to issue of warrant by telephone etc. 713

540........................ Proceedings involving warrant issued by telephone etc.. 715

Division 4—Searches and seizures relating to breaches of the Spam Act 2003 or Part 21 of this Act                                                                                                                    716

541........................ When is a thing connected with an offence?................... 716

541A..................... When is a thing connected with a breach of the Spam Act 2003?             716

542........................ Searches and seizures..................................................... 716

543........................ Production of identity card etc........................................ 717

544........................ Evidence of commission of other offences against Part 21 of this Act or other breaches of the Spam Act 2003........................................................................................ 718

545........................ Emergency entry, search and seizure.............................. 719

546........................ Retention of things seized............................................... 720

Division 5—Searches to monitor compliance with Part 21                  721

547........................ Searches to monitor compliance with Part 21................. 721

Division 5A—Searches to monitor compliance with the Spam Act 2003              722

547A..................... Powers available to inspectors for monitoring compliance 722

547B...................... Monitoring powers......................................................... 722

547C...................... Production of identity card etc........................................ 724

547D..................... Monitoring warrants....................................................... 724

547E...................... Details of warrant to be given to occupier etc................. 726

547F...................... Announcement before entry............................................ 726

547G..................... Compensation for damage to equipment......................... 726

547H..................... Occupier entitled to be present during search.................. 727

Division 5B—Access to computer data that is relevant to the Spam Act 2003 729

547J....................... Access to computer data that is relevant to the Spam Act 2003                729

Division 6—Other powers of inspectors                                                         731

548........................ General powers of inspectors......................................... 731

549........................ Power to require information etc..................................... 732

550........................ Retention of documents.................................................. 734

Division 7—Forfeiture                                                                                             735

551........................ Court may order forfeiture.............................................. 735

552........................ Forfeited goods may be sold........................................... 735

Division 8—Future offences                                                                                  736

553........................ Offences that are going to be committed......................... 736

Part 29—Review of decisions                                                                                      737

554........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 737

555........................ Decisions that may be subject to reconsideration by the ACMA             737

556........................ Deadlines for reaching certain decisions......................... 737

557........................ Statements to accompany notification of decisions......... 738

558........................ Applications for reconsideration of decisions................. 738

559........................ Reconsideration by the ACMA...................................... 739

560........................ Deadlines for reconsiderations........................................ 739

561........................ Statements to accompany notification of decisions on reconsideration     739

562........................ Review by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal............ 740

Part 30—Injunctions                                                                                                        741

563........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 741

564........................ Injunctions...................................................................... 741

565........................ Interim injunctions.......................................................... 745

566........................ Discharge etc. of injunctions........................................... 746

567........................ Certain limits on granting injunctions not to apply.......... 746

568........................ Other powers of the court unaffected.............................. 747

Part 31—Civil penalties                                                                                                  748

569........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 748

570........................ Pecuniary penalties for contravention of civil penalty provisions             748

571........................ Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 750

572........................ Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contravention of civil penalty provisions             753

Part 31A—Enforceable undertakings                                                                   754

572A..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 754

572B...................... Acceptance of undertakings............................................ 754

572C...................... Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 755

Part 31B—Infringement notices for contraventions of civil penalty provisions  757

572D..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 757

572E...................... When an infringement notice can be given...................... 757

572F...................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 761

572G..................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 763

572H..................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 763

572J....................... What happens if the penalty is paid................................. 764

572K...................... Effect of this Part on civil proceedings........................... 764

572L...................... Appointment of authorised infringement notice officer... 765

572M..................... Guidelines relating to infringement notices..................... 766

572N..................... Regulations..................................................................... 767

Part 32—Vicarious liability                                                                                          768

573........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 768

574........................ Proceedings under this Act............................................. 768

574A..................... Definition........................................................................ 768

575........................ Liability of corporations.................................................. 769

576........................ Liability of persons other than corporations.................... 770

Part 33—Voluntary undertakings given by Telstra                                     772

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        772

577........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 772

Division 2—Structural separation                                                                     773

Subdivision A—Undertaking about structural separation                          773

577A..................... Acceptance of undertaking about structural separation... 773

577AA.................. Acceptance of undertaking about structural separation may be subject to the occurrence of events         778

577AB................... When undertaking about structural separation comes into force               780

577AC................... Publication requirements for undertaking about structural separation      781

577AD.................. Compliance with undertaking about structural separation 782

577B...................... Variation of undertaking about structural separation....... 782

577BA................... Authorised conduct—subsection 51(1) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010              783

Subdivision B—Migration plan                                                                          790

577BB................... Migration plan principles................................................ 790

577BC................... Migration plan................................................................ 791

577BD................... Approval of draft migration plan by the ACCC—plan given after undertaking about structural separation comes into force.............................................................. 793

577BDA................ Approval of draft migration plan by the ACCC—plan given before undertaking about structural separation comes into force.............................................................. 795

577BDB................ Approval of draft migration plan by the ACCC—plan given in compliance with a direction   797

577BDC................ Approval of draft migration plan by the ACCC—plan given in response to a request             798

577BE................... Effect of approval of draft migration plan....................... 800

577BF................... Variation of final migration plan..................................... 801

Division 3—Hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks                                                  803

577C...................... Acceptance of undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks              803

577CA................... Acceptance of undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks may be subject to the occurrence of events........................................................................................ 804

577CB................... When undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks comes into force                806

577CC................... Publication requirements for undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks       807

577CD................... Compliance with undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks         808

577D..................... Variation of undertaking about hybrid fibre‑coaxial networks 808

Division 4—Subscription television broadcasting licences                   810

577E...................... Acceptance of undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences       810

577EA................... Acceptance of undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences may be subject to the occurrence of events....................................................... 811

577EB................... When undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences comes into force         813

577EC................... Publication requirements for undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences                814

577ED................... Compliance with undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences  815

577F...................... Variation of undertaking about subscription television broadcasting licences          815

Division 5—Enforcement of undertakings                                                    817

577G..................... Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 817

Division 6—Limits on allocation of spectrum licences etc.                   819

577GA.................. Excluded spectrum regime.............................................. 819

577H..................... Designated part of the spectrum...................................... 819

577J....................... Limits on allocation of certain spectrum licences to Telstra 819

577K...................... Limits on use of certain spectrum licences by Telstra..... 822

577L...................... Limits on assignment of certain spectrum licences to Telstra etc.             824

Division 7—Other provisions                                                                               826

577M..................... Associate........................................................................ 826

577N..................... Control............................................................................ 827

577P...................... Control of a company..................................................... 827

577Q..................... When Telstra is in a position to exercise control of a network 827

Part 34—Special provisions relating to conventions and directions    830

579........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 830

580........................ ACMA must have regard to conventions....................... 830

581........................ Power to give directions to carriers and service providers 831

Part 35—Miscellaneous                                                                                                  833

582........................ Simplified outline............................................................ 833

583........................ Penalties for certain continuing offences......................... 834

584........................ Procedure relating to certain continuing offences............ 835

585........................ Treatment of partnerships............................................... 835

586........................ Giving of documents to partnerships.............................. 836

587........................ Nomination of address for service of documents............ 836

588........................ Service of summons or process on foreign corporations—criminal proceedings     837

589........................ Instruments under this Act may provide for matters by reference to other instruments            838

590........................ Arbitration—acquisition of property............................... 839

591........................ Compensation—constitutional safety net........................ 840

592........................ Act not to affect performance of State or Territory functions 841

593........................ Funding of consumer representation, and of research, in relation to telecommunications        841

593A..................... Removal of Optus Networks’ tax losses........................ 842

594........................ Regulations..................................................................... 843


An Act about telecommunications, and for related purposes

Part 1Introduction

  

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Telecommunications Act 1997.

2  Commencement

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act commence on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent:

                     (a)  this Part;

                     (b)  Part 2;

                     (c)  Divisions 2, 3 and 4 of Part 4;

                     (d)  Division 3 of Part 25;

                      (f)  section 589;

                     (g)  section 594.

             (2)  Sections 52 to 55 (inclusive) commence on 5 June 1997.

             (3)  The remaining provisions of this Act commence on 1 July 1997.

3  Objects

             (1)  The main object of this Act, when read together with Parts XIB and XIC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, is to provide a regulatory framework that promotes:

                     (a)  the long‑term interests of end‑users of carriage services or of services provided by means of carriage services; and

                     (b)  the efficiency and international competitiveness of the Australian telecommunications industry; and

                     (c)  the availability of accessible and affordable carriage services that enhance the welfare of Australians.

             (2)  The other objects of this Act, when read together with Parts XIB and XIC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, are as follows:

                     (a)  to ensure that standard telephone services and payphones are:

                              (i)  reasonably accessible to all people in Australia on an equitable basis, wherever they reside or carry on business; and

                             (ii)  are supplied as efficiently and economically as practicable; and

                            (iii)  are supplied at performance standards that reasonably meet the social, industrial and commercial needs of the Australian community;

                     (c)  to promote the supply of diverse and innovative carriage services and content services;

                     (d)  to promote the development of an Australian telecommunications industry that is efficient, competitive and responsive to the needs of the Australian community;

                     (e)  to promote the effective participation by all sectors of the Australian telecommunications industry in markets (whether in Australia or elsewhere);

                      (f)  to promote:

                              (i)  the development of the technical capabilities and skills of the Australian telecommunications industry; and

                             (ii)  the development of the value‑adding and export‑oriented activities of the Australian telecommunications industry; and

                            (iii)  research and development that contributes to the growth of the Australian telecommunications industry;

                     (g)  to promote the equitable distribution of benefits from improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of:

                              (i)  the provision of telecommunications networks and facilities; and

                             (ii)  the supply of carriage services;

                     (h)  to provide appropriate community safeguards in relation to telecommunications activities and to regulate adequately participants in sections of the Australian telecommunications industry;

                      (i)  to promote the placement of lines underground, taking into account economic and technical issues, where placing such lines underground is supported by the affected community;

                      (j)  to promote responsible practices in relation to the sending of commercial electronic messages;

                     (k)  to promote responsible practices in relation to the making of telemarketing calls;

                      (l)  to promote responsible practices in relation to the sending of marketing faxes.

4  Regulatory policy

                   The Parliament intends that telecommunications be regulated in a manner that:

                     (a)  promotes the greatest practicable use of industry self‑regulation; and

                     (b)  does not impose undue financial and administrative burdens on participants in the Australian telecommunications industry;

but does not compromise the effectiveness of regulation in achieving the objects mentioned in section 3.

5  Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Act:

•      This Act sets up a system for regulating telecommunications.

•      The main entities regulated by this Act are carriers and service providers.

•      A carrier is the holder of a carrier licence granted under this Act.

•      The owner of a network unit that is used to supply carriage services to the public must hold a carrier licence unless responsibility for the unit is transferred from the owner to a carrier.

•      There are 4 types of network unit:

     (a)        a single line link connecting distinct places in Australia, where the line link meets certain minimum distance requirements;

     (b)        multiple line links connecting distinct places in Australia, where the line links meet certain minimum distance requirements;

     (c)        a designated radiocommunications facility;

     (d)        a facility specified in a Ministerial determination.

•      Carrier licences are subject to conditions.

•      There are 2 types of service provider:

     (a)        a carriage service provider;

     (b)        a content service provider.

•      A carriage service provider is a person who supplies, or proposes to supply, certain carriage services.

•      A content service provider is a person who supplies, or proposes to supply, certain content services.

•      Service providers must comply with the service provider rules.

•      The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) is to monitor, and report each year to the Minister on, significant matters relating to the performance of carriers and carriage service providers.

•      Bodies and associations that represent sections of the telecommunications industry, the telemarketing industry or the fax marketing industry may develop industry codes.

•      Industry codes may be registered by the ACMA.

•      Compliance with an industry code is voluntary unless the ACMA directs a particular participant in the telecommunications industry, the telemarketing industry or the fax marketing industry to comply with the code.

•      The ACMA has a reserve power to make an industry standard if there are no industry codes or if an industry code is deficient.

•      Compliance with industry standards is mandatory.

•      Carriers and carriage service providers must protect the confidentiality of communications.

•      The ACMA, carriers and carriage service providers must do their best to prevent telecommunications networks and facilities from being used to commit offences.

•      Carriers and carriage service providers must do their best to protect telecommunications networks and facilities from unauthorised interference or unauthorised access.

•      Carriers and carriage service providers must ensure that it is possible to execute a warrant issued under the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

•      Carriage service providers may be required to supply carriage services for defence purposes or for the management of natural disasters.

•      A carrier or carriage service provider may be required to enter into an agreement with the Commonwealth about:

     (a)        planning for network survivability; or

     (b)        operational requirements in times of crisis.

     The ACMA may require certain carriers and carriage service providers to provide pre‑selection in favour of carriage service providers in relation to calls made using a standard telephone service.

     The ACMA must require certain carriers and carriage service providers to provide pre‑selection in favour of carriage service providers in relation to calls made using a declared carriage service.

•      Carriers and carriage service providers may be required to comply with certain international conventions.

•      The Minister may make Rules of Conduct about dealings with international telecommunications operators.

•      Provision is made for the technical regulation of customer equipment, customer cabling and cabling work.

•      Numbering may be administered by a numbering scheme manager or by the ACMA.

•      Provision is made for standard agreements for the supply of carriage services.

•      The ACMA and the ACCC may hold public inquiries about certain matters relating to telecommunications.

•      The ACMA may investigate certain matters relating to telecommunications.

•      Certain switching systems must be capable of providing calling line identification.

•      Provision is made for the following ancillary matters:

     (a)        information‑gathering powers;

     (b)        powers of search, entry and seizure;

     (c)        review of decisions;

     (d)        injunctions.

6  Main index

                   The following is a main index to this Act:

 

Main Index

 

 

Item

Topic

Provisions

2

Calling line identification

Part 18

3

Carriers’ powers and immunities

Part 24, Schedule 3

4

Carrier licence conditions

Part 3, Schedule 1

5

Carriers

Part 3

6

Communications, protection of

Part 13

8

Decisions, review of

Part 29, Schedule 4

9

Defence requirements and disaster plans

Part 16

10

Enforceable undertakings

Part 31A

11

Enforcement

Part 28

12

Industry codes and industry standards

Part 6

13

Information‑gathering powers

Part 27

14

Injunctions

Part 30

15

Inquiries, public

Part 25

16

International aspects

Part 20

17

Investigations

Part 26

19

Liability, vicarious

Part 32

21

National interest matters

Part 14

22

Network units

Part 2

23

Numbering and electronic addressing

Part 22

24

Penalties, civil

Part 31

25

Performance of carriers and carriage service providers, monitoring of

Part 5

26

Pre‑selection

Part 17

28

Service provider rules

Part 4, Schedule 2

29

Service providers

Part 4

30

Standard agreements for the supply of carriage services

Part 23

32

Technical regulation

Part 21

7  Definitions

                   In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

ACCC means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission.

ACCC’s telecommunications functions and powers means the functions and powers conferred on the ACCC by or under:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999; or

                   (ba)  the National Broadband Network Companies Act 2011; or

                     (c)  Part XIB of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010; or

                     (d)  Part XIC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010; or

                     (e)  any other provision of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, in so far as that provision applies to a matter connected with telecommunications.

For this purpose, telecommunications means the carriage of communications by means of guided and/or unguided electromagnetic energy.

access, in relation to an emergency call service, has a meaning affected by section 18.

ACMA means the Australian Communications and Media Authority.

ACMA’s telecommunications functions means the functions that are telecommunications functions, in relation to the ACMA, for the purposes of the Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005.

ACMA’s telecommunications powers means the powers conferred on the ACMA by:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999; or

                   (ba)  Chapter 4 or 5 of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979; or

                     (c)  the Spam Act 2003; or

                    (ca)  the Do Not Call Register Act 2006; or

                     (d)  Part XIC of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010; or

                     (e)  section 12 of the Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005, in so far as that section relates to the ACMA’s telecommunications functions.

ACNC type of entity means an entity that meets the description of a type of entity in column 1 of the table in subsection 25‑5(5) of the Australian Charities and Not‑for‑profits Commission Act 2012.

adverse security assessment has the meaning given by section 35 of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979.

AFP Minister means the Minister administering the Australian Federal Police Act 1979.

aircraft includes a balloon.

ASIO means the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation.

Australia, when used in a geographical sense, includes the eligible Territories.

Australian number has the same meaning as in the Do Not Call Register Act 2006.

authorised infringement notice officer means:

                     (a)  the Chair of the ACMA; or

                     (b)  a member of the staff of the ACMA appointed under section 572L.

base station that is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network has the meaning given by section 34.

broadcasting service has the same meaning as in the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

building lot has the meaning given by section 372Q.

building unit has the meaning given by section 372S.

cabling licence means a licence granted under section 427.

carriage service means a service for carrying communications by means of guided and/or unguided electromagnetic energy.

carriage service intermediary means a person who is a carriage service provider under subsection 87(5).

carriage service provider has the meaning given by section 87.

carrier means the holder of a carrier licence.

carrier licence means a licence granted under section 56.

carry includes transmit, switch and receive.

civil penalty provision means:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act (other than section 317ZB) that is declared by this Act to be a civil penalty provision; or

                     (b)  a provision of the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999 that is declared by that Act to be a civil penalty provision; or

                     (c)  a provision of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979 that is declared by that Act to be a civil penalty provision for the purposes of this Act.

commercial electronic message has the same meaning as in the Spam Act 2003.

communications includes any communication:

                     (a)  whether between persons and persons, things and things or persons and things; and

                     (b)  whether in the form of speech, music or other sounds; and

                     (c)  whether in the form of data; and

                     (d)  whether in the form of text; and

                     (e)  whether in the form of visual images (animated or otherwise); and

                      (f)  whether in the form of signals; and

                     (g)  whether in any other form; and

                     (h)  whether in any combination of forms.

Communications Access Co‑ordinator has the meaning given by section 6R of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

connected, in relation to:

                     (a)  a telecommunications network; or

                     (b)  a facility; or

                     (c)  customer cabling; or

                     (d)  customer equipment;

includes connection otherwise than by means of physical contact, for example, a connection by means of radiocommunication.

connection permit means a permit issued under section 394.

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

content service has the meaning given by section 15.

content service provider has the meaning given by section 97.

controlled carriage service has the meaning given by section 14.

controlled facility has the meaning given by section 14.

controlled network has the meaning given by section 14.

customer cabling has the meaning given by section 20.

customer equipment has the meaning given by section 21.

data processing device means any article or material (for example, a disk) from which information is capable of being reproduced, with or without the aid of any other article or device.

Defence Department means the Department of State that deals with defence and that is administered by the Minister administering section 1 of the Defence Act 1903.

defence purposes means any one or more of the following:

                     (a)  the operation of command or control systems;

                     (b)  the operation, direction or use of a defence organisation;

                     (c)  the operation of intelligence systems;

                     (d)  the collection or dissemination of information relevant to the security or defence of:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth; or

                             (ii)  a foreign country that is allied or associated with the Commonwealth;

                     (e)  the operation or control of weapons systems, including any thing that, by itself or together with any other thing or things, is intended for defensive or offensive use in combat;

                      (f)  any other matter specified in the regulations.

designated part of the spectrum has the meaning given by section 577H.

designated radiocommunications facility has the meaning given by section 31.

Director‑General of Security means the Director‑General of Security holding office under the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979.

directory assistance services means services that are:

                     (a)  provided to an end‑user of a standard telephone service to help the end‑user find the number of another end‑user of a standard telephone service; and

                     (b)  provided by an operator or by means of:

                              (i)  an automated voice response system; or

                             (ii)  another technology‑based system.

distinct places has the meaning given by section 36.

draft functional separation undertaking means a draft functional separation undertaking under Division 2 of Part 9 of Schedule 1.

draft migration plan means a draft migration plan under Subdivision B of Division 2 of Part 33.

eligible partnership means a partnership where each partner is a constitutional corporation.

eligible Territory means:

                     (a)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands; or

                     (c)  an external Territory prescribed for the purposes of section 10.

emergency call contractor means a person who performs services for or on behalf of a recognised person who operates an emergency call service, but does not include a person who performs such services in the capacity of an employee of the person who operates the emergency call service.

Note:          Recognised person who operates an emergency call service is defined by section 19.

emergency call person means:

                     (a)  a recognised person who operates an emergency call service; or

                     (b)  an employee of such a person; or

                     (c)  an emergency call contractor; or

                     (d)  an employee of an emergency call contractor.

Note:          Recognised person who operates an emergency call service is defined by section 19.

emergency call service means a service for:

                     (a)  receiving and handling calls to an emergency service number; and

                     (b)  transferring such calls to:

                              (i)  a police force or service; or

                             (ii)  a fire service; or

                            (iii)  an ambulance service; or

                            (iv)  if there is a numbering scheme manager—a service specified by the ACMA for the purposes of this subparagraph in a legislative instrument; or

                          (iva)  if there is no numbering scheme manager—a service specified for the purposes of this subparagraph in the numbering plan made by the ACMA; or

                             (v)  a service for despatching a force or service referred to in subparagraph (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (iva).

For the purposes of paragraph (b), transferring a call includes giving information in relation to the call for purposes connected with dealing with the matter or matters raised by the call.

emergency service number has the meaning given by section 466.

exempt network‑user means:

                     (a)  a person:

                              (i)  who is entitled to use a network unit to supply a carriage service; and

                             (ii)  whose entitlement derives, directly or indirectly, from rights granted to a carrier; or

                     (b)  if:

                              (i)  a police force or service; or

                             (ii)  a fire service; or

                            (iii)  an ambulance service; or

                            (iv)  an emergency service specified in the regulations;

                            (the first force or service) uses a network unit for the sole or principal purpose of enabling either or both of the following:

                             (v)  communication between the members of the first force or service;

                            (vi)  communication between the members of the first force or service and the members of another force or service, where the other force or service is of a kind covered by subparagraph (i), (ii), (iii) or (iv);

                            the first force or service.

For the purposes of paragraph (b), an employee of a force or service is taken to be a member of the force or service.

facility means:

                     (a)  any part of the infrastructure of a telecommunications network; or

                     (b)  any line, equipment, apparatus, tower, mast, antenna, tunnel, duct, hole, pit, pole or other structure or thing used, or for use, in or in connection with a telecommunications network.

fax marketing industry means an industry that involves carrying on a fax marketing activity (as defined by section 109C).

Federal Circuit Court means the Federal Circuit Court of Australia.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

fibre‑ready facility has the meaning given by subsection 372W(1).

final functional separation undertaking means a final functional separation undertaking under Division 2 of Part 9 of Schedule 1.

final migration plan means a final migration plan under Subdivision B of Division 2 of Part 33.

Finance Minister means the Minister administering the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013.

fixed‑line facility has the meaning given by section 372V.

fixed radiocommunications link has the meaning given by section 35.

functional fibre‑ready facility has the meaning given by subsection 372W(2).

Home Affairs Department means the Department administered by the Home Affairs Minister.

Home Affairs Minister means the Minister administering the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979.

Home Affairs Secretary means the Secretary of the Home Affairs Department.

hybrid fibre‑coaxial network means a telecommunications network:

                     (a)  that is for use for the transmission of any broadcasting service; and

                     (b)  that is also capable of being used to supply an internet carriage service; and

                     (c)  the line component of which consists of optical fibre to connecting nodes, supplemented by coaxial cable connections from the nodes to the premises of end‑users.

immediate circle has the meaning given by section 23.

import means import into Australia.

industry levy means levy imposed by the Telecommunications (Industry Levy) Act 2012.

infringement notice means an infringement notice under section 572E.

inspector has the meaning given by section 533.

integrated public number database scheme means the scheme in force under section 295A.

intercell hand‑over functions has the meaning given by section 33.

internet carriage service means a carriage service that enables end‑users to access the internet.

internet service provider has the same meaning as in Schedule 5 to the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

Layer 2 bitstream service means a carriage service that is:

                     (a)  a Layer 2 bitstream service (within the ordinary meaning of that expression); and

                     (b)  a listed carriage service; and

                     (c)  supplied using a line to premises occupied or used by an end‑user.

For the purposes of determining the ordinary meaning of the expression used in paragraph (a), assume that Layer 2 has the same meaning as in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model for data exchange.

line means a wire, cable, optical fibre, tube, conduit, waveguide or other physical medium used, or for use, as a continuous artificial guide for or in connection with carrying communications by means of guided electromagnetic energy.

line link has the meaning given by section 30.

listed carriage service has the meaning given by section 16.

marketing fax means:

                     (a)  a marketing fax (within the meaning of the Do Not Call Register Act 2006) that is sent to an Australian number; or

                     (b)  a fax (within the meaning of the Do Not Call Register Act 2006) that is sent to an Australian number, where, having regard to:

                              (i)  the content of the fax; and

                             (ii)  the presentational aspects of the fax;

                            it would be concluded that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the fax is:

                            (iii)  to conduct opinion polling; or

                            (iv)  to carry out standard questionnaire‑based research.

member means a member of the ACMA (and does not include an associate member).

NBN corporation has the same meaning as in the National Broadband Network Companies Act 2011. This definition does not apply to:

                     (a)  section 577BA; or

                     (b)  section 577BC; or

                     (c)  clause 17 of Schedule 1; or

                     (d)  Part 5 of Schedule 1.

network unit has the meaning given by Division 2 of Part 2.

nominated carriage service provider means a carriage service provider covered by a declaration in force under subsection 197(4) of the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

nominated carrier means a carrier in respect of whom a nominated carrier declaration is in force.

nominated carrier declaration means a declaration under section 81.

notifiable equipment has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

numbering plan has the meaning given by section 455.

numbering scheme means the scheme for planning and managing:

                     (a)  the numbering of carriage services in Australia; and

                     (b)  the use of numbers in connection with the supply of such services; and

                     (c)  the specification, allocation and issuing of numbers for that use.

numbering scheme manager: see subsection 454A(2).

numbering scheme principles: see subsection 454C(2).

optical fibre line means a line that consists of, or encloses, optical fibre.

owner, in relation to a network unit, means a person who legally owns the unit (whether alone or together with one or more other persons).

person includes a partnership.

point‑to‑multipoint service means a carriage service which allows a person to transmit a communication to more than one end‑user simultaneously.

project area for a real estate development project has the meaning given by section 372Q.

public body means:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory; or

                     (b)  an authority, or institution, of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory; or

                     (c)  an incorporated company all the stock or shares in the capital of which is beneficially owned by one of the following:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth;

                             (ii)  a State;

                            (iii)  a Territory; or

                     (d)  an incorporated company limited by guarantee, where the interests and rights of the members in or in relation to the company are beneficially owned by one of the following:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth;

                             (ii)  a State;

                            (iii)  a Territory.

public mobile telecommunications service has the meaning given by section 32.

radiocommunication has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

radiocommunications device has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

radiocommunications receiver has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

radiocommunications transmitter has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

real estate development project has the meaning given by section 372Q.

recognised person who operates an emergency call service has the meaning given by section 19.

recognised testing authority has the meaning given by section 409.

record‑keeping rule means a rule under section 529.

registered charity means an entity that is registered under the Australian Charities and Not‑for‑profits Commission Act 2012 as the type of entity mentioned in column 1 of item 1 of the table in subsection 25‑5(5) of that Act.

satellite‑based facility means a radiocommunications transmitter, or a radiocommunications receiver, in a satellite.

sell:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a building lot—has the meaning given by section 372T; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a building unit—has the meaning given by section 372U.

service provider has the meaning given by section 86.

service provider rules has the meaning given by section 98.

spectrum has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

spectrum licence has the same meaning as in the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

standard questionnaire‑based research means research that involves people being asked to answer one or more standard questions, but does not include:

                     (a)  opinion polling; or

                     (b)  research of a kind specified in the regulations.

standard telephone service has the meaning given by section 6 of the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999.

subdivision of an area of land has a meaning affected by section 372R.

subscription television broadcasting licence has the same meaning as in the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

telecommunications industry includes an industry that involves:

                     (a)  carrying on business as a carrier; or

                     (b)  carrying on business as a carriage service provider; or

                     (c)  supplying goods or services for use in connection with the supply of a listed carriage service; or

                     (d)  supplying a content service using a listed carriage service; or

                     (e)  manufacturing or importing customer equipment or customer cabling; or

                      (f)  installing, maintaining, operating or providing access to:

                              (i)  a telecommunications network; or

                             (ii)  a facility;

                            used to supply a listed carriage service.

Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999.

Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman scheme has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999.

telecommunications network means a system, or series of systems, that carries, or is capable of carrying, communications by means of guided and/or unguided electromagnetic energy.

telecommunications service has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

telecommunications system has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979.

telemarketing call means:

                     (a)  a telemarketing call (within the meaning of the Do Not Call Register Act 2006) that is made to an Australian number; or

                     (b)  a voice call (within the meaning of the Do Not Call Register Act 2006) that is made to an Australian number, where, having regard to:

                              (i)  the content of the call; and

                             (ii)  the presentational aspects of the call;

                            it would be concluded that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the call is:

                            (iii)  to conduct opinion polling; or

                            (iv)  to carry out standard questionnaire‑based research.

telemarketing industry means an industry that involves carrying on a telemarketing activity (as defined by section 109B).

Telstra has the same meaning as in the Telstra Corporation Act 1991.

this Act includes the regulations.

universal service obligation has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999.

vessel means a vessel or boat of any description, and includes:

                     (a)  an air‑cushion vehicle; and

                     (b)  any floating structure.

8  Crown to be bound

             (1)  This Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth, of each of the States, of the Australian Capital Territory and of the Northern Territory.

             (2)  This Act does not make the Crown liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of the Crown.

9  Extra‑territorial application

                   This Act applies both within and outside Australia.

10  Extension to external Territories

             (1)  This Act extends to:

                     (a)  the Territory of Christmas Island; and

                     (b)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands; and

                     (c)  such other external Territories (if any) as are prescribed.

             (2)  The operation of this Act in relation to Norfolk Island is not affected by the amendments made by Division 1 of Part 1 of Schedule 5 to the Territories Legislation Amendment Act 2016.

11  Extension to offshore areas

             (1)  This Act applies in relation to the offshore areas of:

                     (a)  each of the States; and

                     (b)  each of the eligible Territories;

as if references in this Act to Australia included references to those offshore areas. This subsection has effect subject to subsection (2).

             (2)  The application of this Act in accordance with subsection (1) in relation to an offshore area extends only in relation to acts, matters and things touching, concerning, arising out of or connected with:

                     (a)  the exploration of the continental shelf of Australia; or

                     (b)  the exploitation of the resources of the continental shelf of Australia.

             (3)  The application of this Act in accordance with subsection (1) in relation to an offshore area extends in relation to all acts done by or in relation to, and all matters, circumstances and things affecting, any person who is in the offshore area for a reason touching, concerning, arising out of or connected with:

                     (a)  the exploration of the continental shelf of Australia; or

                     (b)  the exploitation of the resources of the continental shelf of Australia.

             (4)  Subsection (3) does not, by implication, limit subsection (2).

             (5)  In this section:

offshore area, in relation to a State or Territory, has the same meaning as in the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

11A  Application of the Criminal Code

                   Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code (except Part 2.5) applies to all offences against this Act.

Note:          Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

12  Act subject to Radiocommunications Act

             (1)  This Act has effect subject to the Radiocommunications Act 1992.

             (2)  However, to avoid doubt, the fact that a person is authorised to do something under a licence under the Radiocommunications Act 1992 does not entitle the person to do that thing if the person is prohibited by or under this Act from doing it, unless a condition of the licence requires the person to do it.

13  Continuity of partnerships

                   For the purposes of this Act, a change in the composition of a partnership does not affect the continuity of the partnership.

14  Controlled carriage services, controlled networks and controlled facilities

Controlled carriage services

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a carrier or carriage service provider supplies, or proposes to supply, a carriage service; and

                     (b)  the carriage service involves, or will involve, the use of a controlled network, or a controlled facility, of the carrier or of the provider, as the case may be;

the carriage service is a controlled carriage service of the carrier or the provider, as the case may be.

Controlled networks

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a carrier or carriage service provider operates a telecommunications network; and

                     (b)  the network satisfies the geographical test set out in subsection (4);

the network is a controlled network of the carrier or the provider, as the case may be.

Controlled facilities

             (3)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a carrier or carriage service provider operates a facility; and

                     (b)  the facility satisfies the geographical test set out in subsection (4);

the facility is a controlled facility of the carrier or provider, as the case may be.

Geographical test

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a telecommunications network, or a facility, satisfies the geographical test if:

                     (a)  the whole or any part of the network or facility, as the case requires, is, or will be, located in Australia; or

                     (b)  all of the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  a person, or a group of persons, operates the network or the facility, as the case requires;

                             (ii)  the person, or at least one of the members of the group, carries on, or will carry on, a telecommunications‑related business wholly or partly in Australia;

                            (iii)  the network, or the facility, as the case requires, is used, or will be used, to supply a listed carriage service, or a service that is ancillary or incidental to such a service.

Definition

             (5)  In this section:

telecommunications‑related business means a business that consists of, or includes:

                     (a)  supplying a carriage service; or

                     (b)  supplying goods or services for use in connection with the supply of a carriage service; or

                     (c)  supplying a content service; or

                     (d)  installing, maintaining, operating or providing access to:

                              (i)  a telecommunications network; or

                             (ii)  a facility.

15  Content service

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a content service is:

                     (a)  a broadcasting service; or

                     (b)  an on‑line information service (for example, a dial‑up information service); or

                     (c)  an on‑line entertainment service (for example, a video‑on‑demand service or an interactive computer game service); or

                     (d)  any other on‑line service (for example, an education service provided by a State or Territory government); or

                     (e)  a service of a kind specified in a determination made by the Minister for the purposes of this paragraph.

             (2)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e).

16  Listed carriage services

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the following carriage services are listed carriage services:

                     (a)  a carriage service between a point in Australia and one or more other points in Australia;

                     (b)  a carriage service between a point and one or more other points, where the first‑mentioned point is in Australia and at least one of the other points is outside Australia;

                     (c)  a carriage service between a point and one or more other points, where the first‑mentioned point is outside Australia and at least one of the other points is in Australia.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a point includes a mobile or potentially mobile point, whether on land, underground, in the atmosphere, in outer space, underwater, at sea or anywhere else.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, a point that is:

                     (a)  in the atmosphere; and

                     (b)  in or below the stratosphere; and

                     (c)  above Australia;

is taken to be a point in Australia.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a point that is:

                     (a)  on a satellite; and

                     (b)  above the stratosphere;

is taken to be a point outside Australia.

18  Access to an emergency call service

                   For the purposes of this Act, a person is taken not to have access to an emergency call service unless, in the event that the person attempts to place a call to the relevant emergency service number, the call can be established and maintained.

19  Recognised person who operates an emergency call service

             (1)  A reference in this Act to a recognised person who operates an emergency call service is a reference to a person who:

                     (a)  operates an emergency call service; and

                     (b)  is specified, in a written determination made by the ACMA for the purposes of this paragraph, as:

                              (i)  a national operator of emergency call services; or

                             (ii)  a regional operator of emergency call services.

             (2)  A copy of a determination under paragraph (1)(b) is to be published in the Gazette.

             (3)  A person may be specified in a determination under paragraph (1)(b) even if the person does not operate an emergency call service at the time the determination is made.

             (4)  Subsection (3) is enacted for the avoidance of doubt.

20  Customer cabling

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, customer cabling means a line that, under the regulations, is treated as customer cabling.

             (2)  Regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) may deal with a matter by reference to the boundary of a telecommunications network.

Note:          Boundary of a telecommunications network is defined by section 22.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not, by implication, limit subsection (1).

             (4)  If no regulations are in force for the purposes of subsection (1), then, for the purposes of this Act, customer cabling means a line that is used, installed ready for use or intended for use on the customer side of the boundary of a telecommunications network.

Note:          Boundary of a telecommunications network is defined by section 22.

21  Customer equipment

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, customer equipment means:

                     (a)  any equipment, apparatus, tower, mast, antenna or other structure or thing; or

                     (b)  any system (whether software‑based or otherwise);

that:

                     (c)  is used, installed ready for use or intended for use in connection with a carriage service; and

                     (d)  under the regulations, is treated as customer equipment;

but does not include a line.

             (2)  Regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) may deal with a matter by reference to the boundary of a telecommunications network.

Note:          Boundary of a telecommunications network is defined by section 22.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not, by implication, limit subsection (1).

             (4)  If no regulations are in force for the purposes of subsection (1), then, for the purposes of this Act, customer equipment means:

                     (a)  any equipment, apparatus, tower, mast, antenna or other structure or thing that is used, installed ready for use or intended for use on the customer side of the boundary of a telecommunications network; or

                     (b)  any system (whether software‑based or otherwise) that is used, installed ready for use or intended for use on the customer side of the boundary of a telecommunications network;

but does not include:

                     (c)  a line; or

                     (d)  equipment of a kind specified in regulations made for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (e)  an apparatus, tower, mast, antenna or other structure or thing that is of a kind specified in regulations made for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                      (f)  a system (whether software‑based or otherwise) that is of a kind specified in regulations made for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note :         Boundary of a telecommunications network is defined by section 22.

22  Customer cabling and customer equipment—boundary of a telecommunications network

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 20, 21, 30, 349, 372B, 372C and 372V, the boundary of a telecommunications network is to be ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  Regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) may deal with a matter by reference to any or all of the following:

                     (a)  the terms of an agreement between 2 or more carriers, where the agreement is entered into for the purposes of those regulations;

                     (b)  the terms of an agreement between 2 or more carriage service providers, where the agreement is entered into for the purposes of those regulations;

                     (c)  the terms of an agreement between a carrier and a carriage service provider, where the agreement is entered into for the purposes of those regulations;

                     (d)  the terms of an agreement between a carrier and a customer of the carrier, where the agreement is entered into for the purposes of those regulations;

                     (e)  the terms of an agreement between a carriage service provider and a customer of the provider, where the agreement is entered into for the purposes of those regulations.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not, by implication, limit subsection (1).

             (4)  If no regulations are in force for the purposes of subsection (1), then, for the purposes of sections 20, 21, 30, 349, 372B, 372C and 372V, the boundary of a telecommunications network is:

                     (a)  in a case where a telecommunications network is used to supply a carriage service to an end‑user in a building by means of a line that enters the building—the point agreed between the customer and the carrier or carriage service provider who operates the telecommunications network, or, failing agreement:

                              (i)  if there is a main distribution frame in the building and the line is connected to the frame—the side of the frame nearest to the end‑user; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (i) does not apply but the line is connected to a network termination device located in, on or within close proximity to, the building—the side of the device nearest to the end‑user; or

                            (iii)  if neither subparagraph (i) nor (ii) applies but the line is connected to one or more sockets in the building—the side nearest to the end‑user of the first socket after the building entry point; or

                     (b)  in a case where a telecommunications network is used to supply a carriage service to an end‑user by means of a satellite‑based facility that transmits to, or receives transmissions from, the point where the end user is located—the outer surface of the satellite‑based facility; or

                     (c)  in a case where:

                              (i)  a telecommunications network is used to supply a carriage service to an end‑user; and

                             (ii)  paragraphs (a) and (b) do not apply;

                            the outer surface of the fixed facility nearest to the end‑user, where the facility is used, installed ready for use or intended for use to supply the carriage service.

             (5)  If, immediately before 1 July 1997, the boundary of a telecommunications network used to supply a standard telephone service to an end‑user in a building by means of a line that enters the building is the side of a main distribution frame, or a telephone socket, nearest to the end‑user, paragraph (4)(a) has effect, on and after 1 July 1997, as if the customer and the carrier or carriage service provider who operates the network had agreed to the boundary at that point.

             (6)  Subsection (5) does not prevent the customer and the carrier or carriage service provider agreeing to a boundary at a different point.

             (7)  For the purposes of subsection (4), the building entry point is the point at which a line that is used to provide a carriage service to an end‑user in a building meets the outer surface of that building, immediately before entering the building.

             (8)  In this section:

building includes a structure, a caravan and a mobile home.

23  Immediate circle

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a person’s immediate circle consists of the person, together with the following persons:

                     (a)  if the person is an individual—an employee of the individual;

                     (b)  if the person is a partnership—an employee of the partnership;

                     (c)  if the person is a body corporate:

                              (i)  an officer of the body corporate;

                             (ii)  if another body corporate is related to the first‑mentioned body corporate (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001)—that other body corporate and an officer of that other body corporate;

                     (d)  if the person is the Commonwealth:

                              (i)  an authority or institution of the Commonwealth (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of such an authority or institution;

                             (ii)  an officer or employee of the Commonwealth;

                            (iii)  a member of the Australian Defence Force;

                            (iv)  a member of the Australian Federal Police;

                             (v)  a member of the Parliament and a member of the staff of a member of the Parliament;

                            (vi)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under the Constitution or a law of the Commonwealth;

                     (e)  if the person is a State:

                              (i)  an authority or institution of the State (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of such an authority or institution;

                             (ii)  an officer or employee of the State;

                            (iii)  a member of the police force of the State;

                            (iv)  a member of the Parliament of the State and a member of the staff of a member of the Parliament of the State;

                             (v)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under a law of the State;

                      (f)  if the person is a Territory:

                              (i)  an authority or institution of the Territory (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of such an authority or institution;

                             (ii)  an officer or employee of the Territory;

                            (iii)  a member of the police force of the Territory;

                            (iv)  a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory and a member of the staff of a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory;

                             (v)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under a law of the Territory;

                     (g)  if the person is an authority or institution of the Commonwealth (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function):

                              (i)  a constituent member or an employee of the authority or institution;

                             (ii)  the Commonwealth;

                            (iii)  an officer or employee of the Commonwealth;

                            (iv)  a member of the Australian Defence Force;

                             (v)  a member of the Australian Federal Police;

                            (vi)  a member of the Parliament and a member of the staff of a member of the Parliament;

                           (vii)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under the Constitution or a law of the Commonwealth;

                          (viii)  another authority or institution of the Commonwealth (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of the other authority or institution;

                     (h)  if the person is an authority or institution of the Commonwealth, being an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function—a constituent member or an employee of the authority or institution;

                      (i)  if the person is an authority or institution of a State (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function):

                              (i)  a constituent member or an employee of the authority or institution;

                             (ii)  the State;

                            (iii)  an officer or employee of the State;

                            (iv)  a member of the police force of the State;

                             (v)  a member of the Parliament of the State and a member of the staff of a member of the Parliament of the State;

                            (vi)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under a law of the State;

                           (vii)  another authority or institution of the State (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of the other authority or institution;

                      (j)  if the person is an authority or institution of a State, being an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function—a constituent member or an employee of the authority or institution;

                     (k)  if the person is an authority or institution of a Territory (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function):

                              (i)  a constituent member or an employee of the authority or institution;

                             (ii)  the Territory;

                            (iii)  an officer or employee of the Territory;

                            (iv)  a member of the police force of the Territory;

                             (v)  a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory and a member of the staff of a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory;

                            (vi)  a person who holds or performs the duties of an office under a law of the Territory;

                           (vii)  another authority or institution of the Territory (other than an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function) and a constituent member or an employee of the other authority or institution;

                      (l)  if the person is an authority or institution of a Territory, being an authority or institution that carries on a business as a core function—a constituent member or employee of the authority or institution;

                    (m)  if the person is a tertiary education institution:

                              (i)  a member of the governing body of the tertiary education institution;

                             (ii)  an officer or employee of the tertiary education institution;

                            (iii)  a student of the tertiary education institution;

                     (n)  a person specified in a determination under subsection (2).

             (2)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination specifying persons for the purposes of paragraph (1)(n).

             (3)  A determination under subsection (2) may be unconditional or subject to such conditions (if any) as are specified in the determination.

             (4)  Paragraphs (1)(a) to (m) (inclusive) do not, by implication, limit subsections (2) and (3).

             (5)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination providing that a specified authority or specified institution is taken to carry on a business as a core function for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (6)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination providing that a specified authority or specified institution is taken not to carry on a business as a core function for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (7)  A determination under subsection (2), (5) or (6) has effect accordingly.

             (9)  For the purposes of this section, a person who holds or performs the duties of the office of Administrator of the Northern Territory is taken to be an officer of that Territory.

           (10)  For the purposes of this section, the Australian Federal Police is taken to be the police force of the Australian Capital Territory.

           (11)  In this section:

core function, in relation to an authority or institution, means a function of the authority or institution other than a secondary or incidental function.

director includes a constituent member of a body corporate incorporated for a public purpose by a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

executive officer, in relation to a body corporate, means a person, by whatever name called and whether or not a director of the body, who is concerned in, or takes part in, the management of the body.

officer, in relation to a body corporate, includes a director, secretary, executive officer or employee of the body.

tertiary education institution means:

                     (a)  a higher education institution (within the meaning of the Student Assistance Act 1973); or

                     (b)  a technical and further education institution (within the meaning of that Act).

24  Extended meaning of use

                   Unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in this Act to the use of a thing is a reference to the use of the thing either:

                     (a)  in isolation; or

                     (b)  in conjunction with one or more other things.

Part 2Network units

Division 1Simplified outline

25  Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Part:

•      The object of this Part is to define the expression network unit.

•      There are 4 types of network unit:

               (a)     a single line link connecting distinct places in Australia, where the line link meets certain minimum distance requirements;

              (b)     multiple line links connecting distinct places in Australia, where the line links meet certain minimum distance requirements;

               (c)     a designated radiocommunications facility;

              (d)     a facility specified in a Ministerial determination.

Division 2Basic definition

26  Single line links connecting distinct places in Australia

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a line link connects distinct places in Australia; and

                     (b)  the distinct places are at least the statutory distance apart;

the line link is a network unit.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, the statutory distance is:

                     (a)  500 metres; or

                     (b)  if a longer distance, not exceeding 50 kilometres, is specified in the regulations—that longer distance.

27  Multiple line links connecting distinct places in Australia

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  the same person owns, or the same persons own, 2 or more line links; and

                     (b)  each of those line links connects distinct places in Australia; and

                     (c)  the aggregate of the distances between the distinct places is more than the statutory distance;

each of those line links is a network unit.

Note:          Statutory distance is defined by subsection (3).

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the following conditions are satisfied in relation to 2 or more line links:

                              (i)  the owners of the line links are bodies corporate;

                             (ii)  the owners of the line links are all members of the same related company group; and

                     (b)  each of those line links connects distinct places in Australia; and

                     (c)  the aggregate of the distances between the distinct places is more than the statutory distance;

each of those line links is a network unit.

Note:          Statutory distance is defined by subsection (3).

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, the statutory distance is:

                     (a)  5 kilometres; or

                     (b)  if a longer distance, not exceeding 500 kilometres, is specified in the regulations—that longer distance.

             (4)  In this section:

owner means legal or beneficial owner, and own has a corresponding meaning.

related company group means a group of 2 or more bodies corporate, where each member of the group is related to each other member of the group.

             (5)  For the purposes of this section, the question whether a body corporate is related to another body corporate is to be determined in the same manner as that question is determined under the Corporations Act 2001.

28  Designated radiocommunications facility

             (1)  If a designated radiocommunications facility is used, or is for use, to supply a carriage service between a point in Australia and one or more other points in Australia, the facility is a network unit.

             (2)  It does not matter whether the supply involves:

                     (a)  the use of a satellite; or

                     (b)  the use of a line or other facility outside Australia.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, a point includes a mobile or potentially mobile point, whether on land, underground, in the atmosphere, in outer space, underwater, at sea or anywhere else.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a point that is:

                     (a)  in the atmosphere; and

                     (b)  in or below the stratosphere; and

                     (c)  above Australia;

is taken to be a point in Australia.

             (5)  For the purposes of this section, a point that is:

                     (a)  on a satellite; and

                     (b)  above the stratosphere;

is taken to be a point outside Australia.

29  Facilities specified in Ministerial determination

             (1)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, determine that a specified facility is a network unit for the purposes of this Act.

             (2)  The determination has effect accordingly.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, nothing in the other provisions of this Part limits the power conferred by subsection (1).

Division 3Related definitions

30  Line links

             (1)  A line constitutes a line link.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a line is connected to another line; and

                     (b)  the other line constitutes, or forms part of, a line link;

the first‑mentioned line, and the line link referred to in paragraph (b), together constitute a line link.

             (3)  Subsection (2) is recursive, that is, the reference in paragraph (2)(b) to a line link is a reference to something that is a line link because of any other application or applications of this section.

             (4)  For the purposes of subsection (2), a line is connected to another line if, and only if:

                     (a)  the lines are connected to each other; or

                     (b)  each of the lines is connected to the same facility (other than a line);

in such a way that a communication can be carried, by means of the 2 lines, or by means of facilities including the 2 lines, in the same way as if the 2 lines were a single line.

          (4A)  A line does not form part of any line link to the extent that the line is on the customer side of the boundary of a telecommunications network.

Note:          Boundary of a telecommunications network is defined by section 22.

             (5)  A facility other than a line does not form part of any line link.

31  Designated radiocommunications facility

             (1)  A reference in this Act to a designated radiocommunications facility is a reference to:

                     (a)  a base station used, or for use, to supply a public mobile telecommunications service; or

                     (b)  a base station that is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network; or

                     (c)  a fixed radiocommunications link; or

                     (d)  a satellite‑based facility; or

                     (e)  a radiocommunications transmitter of a kind specified in a determination under subsection (2); or

                      (f)  a radiocommunications receiver of a kind specified in a determination under subsection (3);

but does not include a reference to:

                     (g)  a base station of a kind declared under subsection (5) to be exempt from this section; or

                     (h)  a fixed radiocommunications link of a kind declared under subsection (5) to be exempt from this section; or

                      (i)  a satellite‑based facility of a kind declared under subsection (5) to be exempt from this section.

Note 1:       Public mobile telecommunications service is defined by section 32.

Note 2:       Base station that is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network is defined by section 34.

Note 3:       Fixed radiocommunications link is defined by section 35.

Note 4:       Satellite‑based facility is defined by section 7.

             (2)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e).

             (3)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a determination for the purposes of paragraph (1)(f).

             (5)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, make a declaration for the purposes of paragraph (1)(g), (h) or (i).

             (7)  To avoid doubt, nothing in the other provisions of this Part limits a power conferred by subsection (2), (3) or (5).

32  Public mobile telecommunications service

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  an end‑user can use a carriage service while moving continuously between places; and

                     (b)  the customer equipment used for or in relation to the supply of the service is not in physical contact with any part of the telecommunications network by means of which the service is supplied; and

                     (c)  the service is supplied by use of a telecommunications network that has intercell hand‑over functions; and

                     (d)  the service is not an exempt service (as defined by subsection (2), (3) or (4));

the service is a public mobile telecommunications service.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a carriage service is an exempt service if:

                     (a)  the service is supplied by means of a telecommunications network (a primary network) that is connected to one or more line links or other facilities that, apart from this section, are eligible network units; and

                     (b)  the principal function of the primary network is to supply carriage services between customer equipment connected to the primary network and other such equipment; and

                     (c)  the supply of carriage services between such equipment and equipment connected to the network units is, at most, an ancillary function of the primary network; and

                     (d)  despite the connection or connections referred to in paragraph (a), the primary network cannot be used in carrying a communication, as a single transaction, between equipment connected to the network units and other such equipment.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, a carriage service is an exempt service if the service is:

                     (a)  a one‑way only, store‑and‑forward communications service; or

                     (b)  a service that performs the same functions as such a service.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a carriage service is an exempt service if all of the end‑users of the service are located at the same distinct place.

             (5)  In this section:

eligible network unit means a network unit:

                     (a)  that is owned by one or more carriers; or

                     (b)  in relation to which a nominated carrier declaration is in force.

33  Intercell hand‑over functions

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a telecommunications network is taken to have intercell hand‑over functions if, and only if:

                     (a)  the facilities of the network include at least 2 base stations each of which transmits and receives signals to and from customer equipment (mobile equipment) that is:

                              (i)  used for or in relation to the supply of an eligible mobile telecommunications service; and

                             (ii)  located within a particular area (a cell); and

                     (b)  the network includes the functions necessary to do the following while the network is carrying a communication made to or from particular mobile equipment:

                              (i)  determine in which cell the equipment is located and cause the base station in that cell to transmit and receive signals to and from the equipment;

                             (ii)  when the equipment moves from one cell to another, cause the base station in the one cell to stop, and the base station in the other cell to start, transmitting and receiving signals to and from the equipment.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a carriage service is an eligible mobile telecommunications service if:

                     (a)  an end‑user can use it while moving continuously between places; and

                     (b)  customer equipment used for or in relation to the supply of the service is not in physical contact with any part of the telecommunications network by means of which the service is supplied.

34  When a base station is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a base station is part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network if, and only if:

                     (a)  the base station is part of a telecommunications network; and

                     (b)  the base station is not an exempt base station (as defined by subsection (2)); and

                     (c)  the base station is used, or for use, in connection with the supply of a carriage service; and

                     (d)  customer equipment used for or in relation to the supply of the service is not in physical contact with any part of the telecommunications network by means of which the service is supplied; and

                     (e)  the service is wholly or principally used, or wholly or principally for use, by each end‑user:

                              (i)  at premises occupied or used by the end‑user; or

                             (ii)  in the immediate vicinity of those premises; and

                      (f)  the network does not have intercell hand‑over functions; and

                     (g)  the conditions (if any) specified in the regulations are satisfied; and

                     (h)  the network is not an exempt network (as defined by subsection (3)).

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), a base station is an exempt base station if the sole use of the base station is use by a broadcaster to:

                     (a)  supply broadcasting services to the public; or

                     (b)  supply a secondary carriage service by means of the main carrier signal of a primary broadcasting service;

or both.

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(h), a network is an exempt network if:

                     (a)  the network is used, or for use, for the sole purpose of supplying carriage services on a non‑commercial basis; or

                     (b)  the network is of a kind specified in the regulations.

             (4)  In this section:

broadcaster means:

                     (a)  the Australian Broadcasting Corporation; or

                     (b)  the Special Broadcasting Service Corporation; or

                     (c)  the holder of a licence under the Broadcasting Services Act 1992; or

                     (d)  a person who provides a broadcasting service under a class licence under the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

35  Fixed radiocommunications link

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a fixed radiocommunications link is a facility, or a combination of facilities, where:

                     (a)  the facility or combination is used, or for use, in connection with the supply of a carriage service between 2 or more fixed points by means of radiocommunication; and

                     (b)  some or all of the communications carried by means of the facility or combination have the characteristic of double‑ended interconnection (as defined by subsection (3)); and

                     (c)  the facility or combination does not consist of:

                              (i)  one or more base stations that are part of a terrestrial radiocommunications customer access network; or

                             (ii)  one or more base stations that would be part of such a network if paragraph 34(1)(h) had not been enacted.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a fixed point is a fixed point on:

                     (a)  land; or

                     (b)  a building or structure on land.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, if:

                     (a)  a communication is carried over a line link or other facility that, apart from this section, is an eligible network unit; and

                     (b)  the communication is then carried (immediately or with a transmission delay of not longer than 30 seconds), by means of radiocommunication, between 2 or more fixed points; and

                     (c)  the communication is then carried (immediately or with a transmission delay of not longer than 30 seconds) over another line link or other facility that, apart from this section, is an eligible network unit;

the communication referred to in paragraph (b) has the characteristic of double‑ended interconnection.

             (4)  In this section:

eligible network unit means a network unit:

                     (a)  that is owned by one or more carriers; or

                     (b)  in relation to which a nominated carrier declaration is in force.

Division 4Distinct places

36  Distinct places—basic rules

             (1)  Places are distinct unless they are all in the same area because of subsection (2), (3) or (4).

             (2)  Places are in the same area if they are all situated in the same property as defined by section 37.

             (3)  Places are in the same area if they are situated in properties each of which forms part of a combined area as defined by section 38 and:

                     (a)  the same person or persons is or are the principal user (as defined by section 39) of all the properties that together constitute that combined area; or

                     (b)  because of a determination in force under section 40, that combined area is an eligible combined area for the purposes of this paragraph.

             (4)  Places are in the same area if they are all situated in the same eligible Territory.

             (5)  The later provisions of this Division have effect only for the purposes of this Division.

37  Properties

             (1)  An area of land is a property if:

                     (a)  there is a single freehold or leasehold title in relation to that area (whether or not that title is registered under a law of a State or Territory relating to the registration of interests in land); and

                     (b)  no part of that area is subject to a lease granted by the holder of that title; and

                     (c)  the title to the area is defined by reference to geographical coordinates.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  there is a single freehold or leasehold title (as mentioned in paragraph (1)(a)) in relation to an area of land; and

                     (b)  some but not all of that area is subject to a lease granted by the holder of that title;

then, an area of land:

                     (c)  all of which is within the area referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection; and

                     (d)  none of which is subject to such a lease;

is a property unless it is only part of another such area.

             (3)  An area of land is not a property except as provided in this section.

             (4)  The regulations may prescribe the circumstances in which an area of land in relation to which there is a single freehold or leasehold title is not to constitute a property for the purposes of this Division.

             (5)  Despite paragraph (1)(c), the regulations may prescribe the circumstances in which an area of land, the title to which is defined otherwise than by reference to geographical coordinates, is a property.

             (6)  In this section:

land includes premises and a part of premises, but does not include unalienated Crown land.

lease includes sublease and leasehold title has a corresponding meaning.

38  Combined areas

             (1)  2 contiguous properties form a combined area.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a property is contiguous with another property; and

                     (b)  the other property forms part of a combined area;

the first‑mentioned property, and the combined area referred to in paragraph (b), together form a combined area.

             (3)  Subsection (2) is recursive, that is, the reference in paragraph (2)(b) to a combined area is a reference to something that is a combined area because of any other application or applications of this section.

39  Principal user of a property

             (1)  The principal user of a property is the person who:

                     (a)  occupies the property; or

                     (b)  uses the property for the purpose that is the sole or principal purpose for which the property is used.

             (2)  However, if 2 or more persons:

                     (a)  together occupy a property; or

                     (b)  together use a property for the purpose that is the sole or principal purpose for which the property is used;

they are taken to together be the principal user of the property.

40  Eligible combined areas

                   The Minister may, by legislative instrument, determine that specified combined areas are eligible combined areas for the purposes of paragraph 36(3)(b).

Part 3Carriers

Division 1Simplified outline

41  Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Part:

•      The owner of a network unit that is used to supply carriage services to the public must hold a carrier licence unless:

               (a)     a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the network unit; or

              (b)     an exemption applies.

•      Carrier licences are granted by the ACMA.

•      The holder of a carrier licence is known as a carrier.

•      If responsibility for a network unit is transferred from the owner of the unit to a carrier, the ACMA may make a nominated carrier declaration that declares the carrier to be the nominated carrier in relation to the unit.

•      Carrier licences are subject to conditions.

Division 2Prohibitions relating to carriers

42  Network unit not to be used without carrier licence or nominated carrier declaration

             (1)  If there is only one owner of a network unit, the owner of the network unit must not use the unit, either alone or jointly with one or more other persons, to supply a carriage service to the public, unless:

                     (a)  the owner holds a carrier licence; or

                     (b)  a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit.

             (2)  If there is only one owner of a network unit, the owner of the network unit must not allow or permit another person to use the unit to supply a carriage service to the public unless:

                     (a)  the owner holds a carrier licence; or

                     (b)  a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit.

             (3)  If there are 2 or more owners of a network unit, an owner of the network unit must not use the unit, either alone or jointly with one or more other persons, to supply a carriage service to the public, unless:

                     (a)  the owner holds a carrier licence; or

                     (b)  a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit.

             (4)  If there are 2 or more owners of a network unit, an owner of the network unit must not, either alone or together with one or more other owners, allow or permit another person to use the unit to supply a carriage service to the public unless:

                     (a)  the owner holds a carrier licence; or

                     (b)  a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit.

             (5)  A person who contravenes subsection (1), (2), (3) or (4) commits an offence punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding 20,000 penalty units.

Note:          See also sections 4AA and 4B of the Crimes Act 1914.

43  Continuing offences

                   A person who contravenes section 42 commits a separate offence in respect of each day (including a day of a conviction under this section or any later day) during which the contravention continues.

44  Supply to the public

             (1)  This section sets out the circumstances in which a network unit is taken, for the purposes of section 42, to be used to supply a carriage service to the public.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  there is only one owner of a network unit; and

                     (b)  no nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit; and

                     (c)  any of the following conditions is satisfied:

                              (i)  the unit is used for the carriage of communications between 2 end‑users, where each end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the owner of the unit;

                             (ii)  the unit is used to supply point‑to‑multipoint services to end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the owner of the unit;

                            (iii)  the unit is used to supply designated content services (other than point‑to‑multipoint services) to one or more end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the owner of the unit;

the unit is used to supply a carriage service to the public.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  there are 2 or more owners of a network unit; and

                     (b)  no nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to the unit; and

                     (c)  any of the following conditions is satisfied:

                              (i)  the unit is used for the carriage of communications between 2 end‑users, where each end‑user is outside the overlap of the immediate circles of the owners of the unit;

                             (ii)  the unit is used to supply point‑to‑multipoint services to end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the overlap of the immediate circles of the owners of the unit;

                            (iii)  the unit is used to supply designated content services (other than point‑to‑multipoint services) to one or more end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the overlap of the immediate circles of the owners of the unit;

the unit is used to supply a carriage service to the public.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  a nominated carrier declaration is in force in relation to a network unit; and

                     (b)  any of the following conditions is satisfied:

                              (i)  the unit is used for the carriage of communications between 2 end‑users, where each end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the nominated carrier in relation to the unit;

                             (ii)  the unit is used to supply point‑to‑multipoint services to end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the nominated carrier in relation to the unit;

                            (iii)  the unit is used to supply designated content services (other than point‑to‑multipoint services) to one or more end‑users, where at least one end‑user is outside the immediate circle of the nominated carrier in relation to the unit;

the unit is used to supply a carriage service to the public.

             (5)  For the purposes of this section, a person is outside the overlap of the immediate circles of the owners of a network unit unless the person is:

                     (a)  within the immediate circles of each of the owners of the unit; or

                     (b)  the owner, or one of the owners, of the unit.

             (6)  For the purposes of this section, a designated content service is a content service of a kind specified in a written determination made by the Minister.

             (7)  A determination under subsection (6) is a legislative instrument.

45  Exemption—defence

             (1)  If the sole use of a network unit is use by, or on behalf of, a defence organisation to carry communications necessary or desirable for defence purposes, section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the principal use of a network unit is use by, or on behalf of, a defence organisation to carry communications necessary or desirable for defence purposes; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (3)  In this section:

defence organisation means:

                     (a)  the Defence Department; or

                     (b)  the Australian Defence Force; or

                     (c)  an organisation of a foreign country, so far as the organisation:

                              (i)  has functions corresponding to functions of, or of a part of, the Defence Department or the Australian Defence Force; and

                             (ii)  is authorised by the Commonwealth to operate or train in Australia or an external Territory; or

                     (d)  a part of such an organisation or body.

46  Exemption—intelligence operations

                   Section 42 does not apply to a network unit that is used wholly or principally:

                     (a)  by the Australian Secret Intelligence Service; or

                     (b)  by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation; or

                     (c)  by the Australian Signals Directorate.

47  Exemption—transport authorities

             (1)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if the sole use of the unit is use by Airservices Australia to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of aviation services.

             (3)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if the sole use of the unit is use by a State or Territory transport authority to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of any or all of the following services:

                     (a)  train services of a kind provided by the authority;

                     (b)  bus or other road services of a kind provided by the authority;

                     (c)  tram services of a kind provided by the authority.

             (4)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if the sole use of the unit is use by a rail corporation to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of train services.

             (5)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if:

                     (a)  the principal use of the unit is use by Airservices Australia to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of aviation services; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services.

             (7)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if:

                     (a)  the principal use of the unit is use by a State or Territory transport authority to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of any or all of the following services:

                              (i)  train services of a kind provided by the authority;

                             (ii)  bus or other road services of a kind provided by the authority;

                            (iii)  tram services of a kind provided by the authority; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services.

             (8)  Section 42 does not apply to a network unit if:

                     (a)  the principal use of the unit is use by a rail corporation to carry communications necessary or desirable for the workings of train services; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services.

             (9)  In this section:

rail corporation means a body corporate that manages or operates either or both of the following:

                     (a)  rail transport services;

                     (b)  rail transport infrastructure.

48  Exemption—broadcasting services

             (1)  If :

                     (a)  the sole use of a network unit is use to carry communications that are necessary or desirable for either or both of the following purposes:

                              (i)  the supply of broadcasting services to the public;

                             (ii)  the supply of a secondary carriage service by means of the main carrier signal of a primary broadcasting service; and

                     (b)  the unit does not consist of, or include, a facility used to carry communications between:

                              (i)  the head end of a cable transmission system; and

                             (ii)  the equipment used by an end‑user to receive a broadcasting service; and

                     (c)  the unit does not consist of a broadcasting transmitter transmitting a signal of a broadcasting service to its intended audience;

section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the principal use of a network unit is use to carry communications that are necessary or desirable for either or both of the following purposes:

                              (i)  the supply of broadcasting services to the public;

                             (ii)  the supply of a secondary carriage service by means of the main carrier signal of a primary broadcasting service; and

                     (b)  the unit does not consist of, or include, a facility used to carry communications between:

                              (i)  the head end of a cable transmission system; and

                             (ii)  the equipment used by an end‑user to receive a broadcasting service; and

                     (c)  the unit does not consist of a broadcasting transmitter transmitting a signal of a broadcasting service to its intended audience; and

                     (d)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (3)  If the sole use of a line link is use for the purpose of a re‑transmission of a kind mentioned in paragraph 212(1)(a) or (b) of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992, section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  the principal use of a line link is use for the purpose of a re‑transmission of a kind mentioned in paragraph 212(1)(a) or (b) of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the line link is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

          (4A)  For the purposes of this section, disregard subsection 212(3) of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

             (5)  In this section:

broadcasting transmitter means a radiocommunications transmitter used, or for use, to deliver a broadcasting service.

head end of a cable transmission system means a facility that:

                     (a)  is connected to a line link; and

                     (b)  is used, or for use, in connection with the delivery of a broadcasting service; and

                     (c)  processes signals for delivery by the line link to end‑users having equipment appropriate for receiving the service.

49  Exemption—electricity supply bodies

             (1)  If the sole use of a network unit is use by an electricity supply body to carry communications necessary or desirable for:

                     (a)  managing the generation, transmission, distribution or supply of electricity; or

                     (b)  charging for the supply of electricity;

section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the principal use of a network unit is use by an electricity supply body to carry communications necessary or desirable for:

                              (i)  managing the generation, transmission, distribution or supply of electricity; or

                             (ii)  charging for the supply of electricity; and

                     (b)  the remaining use of the unit is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 does not apply to the unit.

             (3)  In this section:

electricity supply body means an authority, or a body corporate, that carries on a business, or performs a function, of:

                     (a)  generating, transmitting, distributing or supplying electricity; or

                     (b)  managing the generation, transmission, distribution or supply of electricity.

50  Exemption—line links authorised by or under previous laws

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under paragraph 13(1)(a) of the Telecommunications Act 1975 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the sole use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under paragraph 13(1)(a) of the Telecommunications Act 1975 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the principal use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation; and

                     (c)  the remaining use of the line link is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (3)  If a line link consists of facilities that:

                     (a)  were installed before the repeal of section 45 of the Telecommunications Act 1989; and

                     (b)  immediately before that repeal, were permitted by that section to be maintained and operated;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under section 46 of the Telecommunications Act 1989 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the sole use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under section 46 of the Telecommunications Act 1989 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the principal use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation; and

                     (c)  the remaining use of the line link is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under section 108 of the Telecommunications Act 1991 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the sole use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

             (7)  If:

                     (a)  a line link consists of facilities in relation to which an authorisation was in force under section 108 of the Telecommunications Act 1991 immediately before the repeal of that Act; and

                     (b)  the principal use of the line link is use as provided in, and in accordance with any conditions specified in, the authorisation; and

                     (c)  the remaining use of the line link is use by one or more carriers, or by one or more exempt network‑users, to supply carriage services and/or content services;

section 42 of this Act does not apply to the line link.

51  Exemption—Ministerial determination

             (1)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, determine that section 42 does not apply in relation to:

                     (a)  a specified network unit; or

                     (b)  a specified person; or

                     (c)  a specified use of a network unit.

             (2)  A determination under this section may be unconditional or subject to such conditions (if any) as are specified in the determination.

             (3)  A determination under this section has effect accordingly.

Division 3Carrier licences

52  Applications for carrier licence

                   A person may apply to the ACMA for a carrier licence, so long as the person is:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation; or

                     (b)  an eligible partnership; or

                     (c)  a public body.

53  Form of application etc.

                   An application must be:

                     (a)  in writing; and

                     (b)  in accordance with the form approved in writing by the ACMA.

53A  Copy of application to be given to Communications Access Co‑ordinator

             (1)  The ACMA must give a copy of the application to the Communications Access Co‑ordinator.

             (2)  For the purposes of sections 56A and 59, the application is taken not to have been received by the ACMA until the copy is received by the Communications Access Co‑ordinator.

54  Application to be accompanied by charge

                   An application must be accompanied by the charge (if any) imposed on the application by Pa