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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2020C00264
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Treasury Laws Amendment (2019 Measures No. 3) Act 2020
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Industry, Science, Energy and Resources; Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications
Registered 08 Sep 2020
Start Date 25 Aug 2020
End Date 30 Sep 2020
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 129

Compilation date:                              25 August 2020

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 64, 2020

Registered:                                         8 September 2020

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–110

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–186

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

This compilation includes commenced amendments made by Act No. 47, 2020

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 25 August 2020 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 19

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 21

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 24

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 25

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 25

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                25

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              26

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 26

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 27

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 27

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 27

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    27

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 28

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  28

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     29

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 37

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     38

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 38

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 39

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 39

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 39

8AB....................... AER members taken to be associate members.................. 41

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 41

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 42

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 42

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 43

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 43

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    44

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 45

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 45

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by Chairperson............................. 45

17A....................... Disclosure of certain interests by members of the Commission when taking part in determinations of matters.......................................................................................... 45

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 46

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 47

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 49

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 49

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 51

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 51

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             51

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          53

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   54

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 54

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 54

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           55

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 56

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 57

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 57

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 57

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 58

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 58

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 58

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 59

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 59

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 59

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 60

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 60

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 61

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 61

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 61

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              63

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 63

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 63

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 63

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 64

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 64

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 64

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 66

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 66

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 67

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 67

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 67

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 67

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 68

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 68

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 68

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 69

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 69

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 70

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 70

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              71

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            71

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 71

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 71

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 71

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              73

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 73

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         73

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 73

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             74

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 74

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                74

44AIA................... No merits review of AER decisions................................. 75

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 75

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 77

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 77

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  78

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 78

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER members.............. 78

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 78

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 79

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 79

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 80

44ARA.................. AER Deputy Chair........................................................... 80

44ARB.................. AER Deputy Chair to act as the AER Chair..................... 81

44AS..................... Acting AER Deputy Chair................................................ 81

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 82

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 82

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 82

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 83

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 83

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 83

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 84

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 84

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       85

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 85

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          85

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 85

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 86

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 86

Subdivision CA—Divisions of the AER                                                              87

44AAEB............... Divisions of the AER—functions and powers under a law of the Commonwealth 87

44AAEC............... Divisions of the AER—functions and powers under a State/Territory energy law or a local energy instrument.......................................................................................... 89

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              91

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 91

44AAFA............... Power of AER to obtain information and documents....... 93

44AAFB............... Failure to comply with notice to give information etc. is an offence         94

44AAFC............... AER may inspect, copy and retain documents.................. 95

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 96

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     97

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 98

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 98

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 98

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                     100

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law........................................ 100

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                      101

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          101

44AA.................... Objects of Part................................................................ 101

44B........................ Definitions...................................................................... 101

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures 105

44CA..................... Meaning of declaration criteria...................................... 106

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister..................................... 107

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  108

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown.............................................. 109

Division 2—Declared services                                                                             110

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                         110

44F........................ Person may request recommendation.............................. 110

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 112

44G....................... Criteria for the Council recommending declaration of a service               113

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 113

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 115

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 117

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              118

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 118

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 118

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 119

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 120

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 121

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 122

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 124

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 125

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   127

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      127

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 127

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          127

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 127

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 129

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 130

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 132

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 133

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 134

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 134

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 136

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     136

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 136

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  138

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 138

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        140

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            142

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 142

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           143

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                143

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        143

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 144

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 144

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 144

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          146

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 146

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 147

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 147

Subdivision CA—Revocation of Commonwealth Minister’s decision      148

44NBA.................. Recommendation by Council.......................................... 148

44NBB.................. Council may request information.................................... 150

44NBC.................. Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 151

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            151

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 151

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 154

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 156

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 157

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  158

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           158

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               159

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          159

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   161

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 161

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 162

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 163

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 163

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 165

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 167

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 168

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 169

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 171

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              173

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  173

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         174

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      174

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 174

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              174

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 174

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 175

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               175

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 175

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 175

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 177

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 179

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 180

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 181

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              182

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      182

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 182

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 182

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 183

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 183

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 183

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 184

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 184

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 185

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 186

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 186

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 186

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 187

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               187

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      188

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 188

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 188

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               190

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 190

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        192

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 192

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 193

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             194

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 194

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 195

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                195

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               196

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 197

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    197

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 197

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 197

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   198

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 198

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 198

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 199

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 200

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  201

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 201

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       202

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              202

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 202

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 204

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 206

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 208

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 210

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               211

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            211

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       212

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 212

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            214

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 214

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 216

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 217

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 218

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  219

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 219

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            221

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 221

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               222

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 222

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     223

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 223

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 225

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 226

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                226

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          228

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 228

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 229

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 230

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 230

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 230

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 230

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 231

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 231

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     232

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 232

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 232

44ZZMAA............ No merits review by Tribunal of decisions under energy laws                233

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 233

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 234

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 235

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 235

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 235

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 237

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 239

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 240

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 243

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 243

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 243

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      245

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   245

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               245

45AA.................... Simplified outline............................................................ 245

45AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 245

45AC..................... Extended meaning of party............................................. 247

45AD.................... Cartel provisions............................................................. 247

45AE..................... Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 253

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              254

45AF..................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 254

45AG.................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 255

45AH.................... Determining guilt............................................................ 256

45AI...................... Court may make related civil orders................................ 256

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         256

45AJ...................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 256

45AK..................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 257

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  257

45AL..................... Conduct notified............................................................. 257

45AM.................... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 258

45AN.................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         258

45AO.................... Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 259

45AP..................... Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 260

45AQ.................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 261

45AR..................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 261

45AS..................... Dual listed company arrangement................................... 262

45AT..................... Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 263

45AU.................... Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   263

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               265

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            265

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             269

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               270

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 270

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 271

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 273

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 277

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 280

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              281

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 281

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          283

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  285

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 286

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 292

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 293

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            294

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 296

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 299

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 303

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            304

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          304

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 304

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              306

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 306

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   307

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 307

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 307

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 308

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 308

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 309

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 309

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                310

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 310

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   313

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 313

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       314

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 314

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       316

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        318

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  318

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 318

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 319

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 319

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     321

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 321

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 321

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               322

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          322

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 322

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 322

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    324

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 324

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              325

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 325

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 325

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 326

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       327

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 327

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 327

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 328

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 328

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 328

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 329

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                329

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 330

Part IVD—Consumer data right                                                                              332

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          332

Subdivision A—Object and simplified outline                                                332

56AA.................... Object of this Part........................................................... 332

56AB..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 332

Subdivision B—Designating sectors subject to the consumer data right  333

56AC..................... Designated sectors subject to the consumer data right.... 333

56AD.................... Minister’s tasks before designating a sector etc.............. 335

56AE..................... Commission must analyse, consult and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector        337

56AF..................... Information Commissioner must analyse and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector........................................................................................ 337

56AG.................... Commission may recommend that a sector be designated etc.  338

56AH.................... Other matters.................................................................. 339

Subdivision C—Meanings of key terms                                                            339

56AI...................... Meanings of CDR data, directly or indirectly derived and CDR consumer             339

56AJ...................... Meaning of data holder.................................................. 340

56AK..................... Meaning of accredited data recipient............................. 342

56AL..................... Meanings of CDR participant and designated gateway.. 342

56AM.................... Meanings of chargeable CDR data, chargeable circumstances and fee‑free CDR data          343

Subdivision D—Extension to external Territories and extraterritorial operation       344

56AN.................... Extension to external Territories..................................... 344

56AO.................... Extraterritorial operation of the CDR provisions............ 344

56AP..................... Geographical application of offences.............................. 346

Subdivision E—Application to government entities                                      346

56AQ.................... CDR provisions bind the Crown.................................... 346

56AR..................... Government entities may participate under this Part....... 346

56AS..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—declaration      348

56AT..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—revocation      348

Division 2—Consumer data right                                                                      350

Subdivision A—Power to make consumer data rules                                   350

56BA..................... Commission may make consumer data rules.................. 350

56BAA.................. Rules must include requirement to delete CDR data on request from CDR consumer             350

56BB..................... Matters that the consumer data rules may deal with........ 352

56BC..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of CDR data for which there are CDR consumers............................................................. 352

56BD..................... Limitations for rules about CDR data for which there are CDR consumers             354

56BE..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of product data               356

56BF..................... Limitations for rules about product data.......................... 356

56BG..................... Rules about designated gateways.................................... 357

56BH..................... Rules about accreditation of data recipients..................... 359

56BI...................... Rules about reporting, record keeping and auditing........ 361

56BJ...................... Rules about incidental or related matters......................... 362

56BK..................... Further limitations on the consumer data rules................ 363

Subdivision B—Compliance with consumer data rules                                365

56BL..................... Obligation to comply with consumer data rules.............. 365

56BM.................... Infringement notices....................................................... 365

56BN..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—offence..................... 366

56BO..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—civil penalty.............. 367

Subdivision C—Process for making consumer data rules etc.                   368

56BP..................... Matters to which Commission must have regard when making the rules 368

56BQ..................... Commission to consult before making the rules............. 368

56BR..................... Ministerial consent to rules required............................... 369

56BS..................... Emergency rules: usual consultation and consent not required 369

56BT..................... Emergency rules: consequences if made......................... 369

Subdivision D—Fees for disclosing CDR data                                                370

56BU..................... Charging a fee in inappropriate circumstances when required to disclose CDR data               370

56BV..................... Commission may intervene if fee for disclosing or using chargeable CDR data is unreasonable etc.      371

56BW.................... Review by the Tribunal of determinations specifying particular CDR participants  373

56BX..................... Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 373

56BY..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 374

Division 3—Accreditation etc.                                                                             375

Subdivision A—Accreditation process                                                              375

56CA..................... Granting accreditations................................................... 375

56CB..................... Review of decisions refusing to accredit......................... 375

56CC..................... Prohibition on holding out—offence.............................. 375

56CD..................... Prohibition on holding out—civil penalty....................... 376

Subdivision B—Register of Accredited Persons                                             377

56CE..................... Register of Accredited Persons....................................... 377

56CF..................... Evidentiary value of the register...................................... 377

Subdivision C—Data Recipient Accreditor                                                     377

56CG..................... Appointment of the Data Recipient Accreditor............... 377

56CH..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 378

56CI...................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 379

56CJ...................... Delegation....................................................................... 379

Subdivision D—Accreditation Registrar                                                          380

56CK..................... Appointment of the Accreditation Registrar.................... 380

56CL..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 380

56CM.................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 381

56CN..................... Delegation....................................................................... 382

Division 4—External dispute resolution                                                         383

56DA.................... Commission may recognise external dispute resolution schemes             383

Division 5—Privacy safeguards                                                                          385

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               385

56EA..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 385

56EB..................... Kinds of CDR data to which the privacy safeguards apply 385

56EC..................... Relationship with other laws........................................... 386

Subdivision B—Consideration of CDR data privacy                                    387

56ED..................... Privacy safeguard 1—open and transparent management of CDR data   387

56EE...................... Privacy safeguard 2—anonymity and pseudonymity...... 390

Subdivision C—Collecting CDR data                                                                390

56EF...................... Privacy safeguard 3—soliciting CDR data from CDR participants          390

56EG..................... Privacy safeguard 4—dealing with unsolicited CDR data from CDR participants   391

56EH..................... Privacy safeguard 5—notifying of the collection of CDR data                391

Subdivision D—Dealing with CDR data                                                           392

56EI....................... Privacy safeguard 6—use or disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients or designated gateways........................................................................................ 392

56EJ...................... Privacy safeguard 7—use or disclosure of CDR data for direct marketing by accredited data recipients or designated gateways....................................................... 393

56EK..................... Privacy safeguard 8—overseas disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients             394

56EL...................... Privacy safeguard 9—adoption or disclosure of government related identifiers by accredited data recipients........................................................................................ 395

56EM.................... Privacy safeguard 10—notifying of the disclosure of CDR data             396

Subdivision E—Integrity of CDR data                                                             397

56EN..................... Privacy safeguard 11—quality of CDR data................... 397

56EO..................... Privacy safeguard 12—security of CDR data, and destruction or de‑identification of redundant CDR data........................................................................................ 399

Subdivision F—Correction of CDR data                                                          400

56EP...................... Privacy safeguard 13—correction of CDR data.............. 400

Subdivision G—Compliance with the privacy safeguards                          401

56EQ..................... Information Commissioner to promote compliance etc... 401

56ER..................... Information Commissioner may conduct an assessment relating to the management and handling of CDR data........................................................................................ 402

56ES...................... Notification of CDR data security breaches.................... 403

56ET...................... Investigating breaches of the privacy safeguards etc....... 404

56EU..................... Civil penalty provisions.................................................. 407

56EV..................... Civil penalty provisions—maximum amount of penalty. 409

56EW.................... Enforceable undertakings................................................ 410

56EX..................... Injunctions...................................................................... 411

56EY..................... Actions for damages....................................................... 411

56EZ...................... Delegation to the Commission etc................................... 413

Division 6—Data standards etc.                                                                         415

Subdivision A—Data standards                                                                          415

56FA..................... Making data standards.................................................... 415

56FB..................... What data standards can set out etc................................. 416

56FC..................... Data standards must be published................................... 416

56FD..................... Legal effect of data standards.......................................... 416

56FE...................... Enforcement of binding data standards........................... 417

Subdivision B—Data Standards Chair                                                             418

56FF...................... Data Standards Chair...................................................... 418

56FG..................... Appointment of the Data Standards Chair...................... 418

56FH..................... Functions and powers of the Data Standards Chair........ 418

56FI....................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 419

Subdivision C—Data Standards Body                                                              419

56FJ...................... Appointment of the Data Standards Body...................... 419

56FK..................... Function and powers of the Data Standards Body.......... 420

Subdivision D—Administrative provisions                                                     420

56FL...................... Acting appointments....................................................... 420

56FM.................... Terms and conditions...................................................... 421

56FN..................... Remuneration.................................................................. 421

56FO..................... Leave.............................................................................. 421

56FP...................... Application of the finance law etc................................... 422

56FQ..................... Resignation..................................................................... 422

56FR..................... Termination of appointment............................................ 423

56FS...................... Delegation....................................................................... 423

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                     425

56GA.................... CDR functions of the Information Commissioner.......... 425

56GB..................... Referring to instruments as in force from time to time.... 425

56GC..................... Complying with requirements to provide CDR data: protection from liability         426

56GD.................... Exemptions by the Commission..................................... 426

56GE..................... Exemptions and modifications by regulations................. 427

56GF..................... Constitutional basis......................................................... 428

56GG.................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 430

56GH.................... Review of the operation of this Part................................ 430

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              432

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          432

60.......................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 432

60AA.................... Objects etc...................................................................... 433

60A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 434

60B........................ Regulated goods............................................................. 439

Division 2—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                 440

60C........................ Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal...... 440

60CA..................... Failure to pass on cost savings—250% penalty.............. 440

60D....................... Notice to entity that is considered to have engaged in price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 442

60E........................ Commission may issue notice to aid prevention of price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 443

60F........................ Acquisition of property................................................... 444

Division 2A—Carbon tax removal substantiation notices                    445

60FA..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation notices...................... 445

60FB..................... Extending periods for complying with carbon tax removal substantiation notices   446

60FC..................... Compliance with carbon tax removal substantiation notices 446

Division 2B—Carbon tax removal substantiation statements            448

60FD..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation statements................. 448

Division 2C—Statements for customers                                                         451

60FE...................... Statements for customers................................................ 451

Division 3—Price monitoring in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 453

60G....................... Commission may monitor prices in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 453

60H....................... Information‑gathering powers........................................ 455

60J......................... Reporting........................................................................ 457

Division 4—False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices                                                                                                                    458

60K........................ False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices     458

Division 5—Infringement notices                                                                       459

60L........................ Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 459

60M....................... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 460

60N....................... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 461

60P........................ Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                461

60Q....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 462

60R........................ Effect of this Division..................................................... 463

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    465

75B........................ Interpretation................................................................... 465

76.......................... Pecuniary penalties......................................................... 465

76A....................... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 92  469

76B........................ Consequences in some cases if substantially the same conduct contravenes a provision of this Act and is an offence............................................................................ 470

77.......................... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 472

77A....................... Indemnification of officers.............................................. 472

77B........................ Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void               473

77C........................ Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate        473

78.......................... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV     473

79.......................... Offences against section 45AF or 45AG........................ 474

79A....................... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................... 475

79B........................ Preference must be given to compensation for victims... 477

80.......................... Injunctions...................................................................... 478

80A....................... Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal—orders limiting prices or requiring refunds of money........................................................................................ 481

80AB..................... Stay of injunctions.......................................................... 481

80AC..................... Injunctions to prevent mergers if authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information  483

81.......................... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A 484

81A....................... Divestiture where merger done under authorisation granted on false etc. information             485

82.......................... Actions for damages....................................................... 487

83.......................... Findings and admissions of fact in proceedings to be evidence               489

84.......................... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................... 489

85.......................... Defences......................................................................... 492

86.......................... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................... 492

86AA.................... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Circuit Court................. 493

86A....................... Transfer of matters.......................................................... 494

86C........................ Non‑punitive orders........................................................ 495

86D....................... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................. 497

86E........................ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations 498

86F........................ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              499

87.......................... Other orders.................................................................... 500

87AA.................... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   505

87B........................ Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 506

87C........................ Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department 507

87CA..................... Intervention by Commission........................................... 507

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              509

87CB..................... Application of Part.......................................................... 509

87CC..................... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment      509

87CD..................... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............... 510

87CE..................... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   511

87CF..................... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................. 512

87CG..................... Subsequent actions......................................................... 512

87CH..................... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.... 512

87CI...................... Application of Part.......................................................... 512

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 514

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        514

87D....................... Definitions...................................................................... 514

87E........................ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................ 516

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            517

87F........................ Basic rule........................................................................ 517

87G....................... Date of discoverability.................................................... 518

87H....................... Long‑stop period............................................................ 520

87J......................... The effect of minori