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Criminal Code Act 1995

Authoritative Version
Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Crimes Legislation Amendment (Sexual Crimes Against Children and Community Protection Measures) Act 2020
An Act relating to the criminal law
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 05 Aug 2020
Start Date 20 Jul 2020
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Criminal Code Act 1995

No. 12, 1995

Compilation No. 134

Compilation date:                              20 July 2020

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 70, 2020

Registered:                                         5 August 2020

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–5

                        Schedule (sections 1.1–261.3)

Volume 2:       Schedule (sections 268.1–490.7)

                        Schedule (Dictionary)

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Criminal Code Act 1995 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 20 July 2020 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Schedule—The Criminal Code                                                                        1

Chapter 8—Offences against humanity and related offences                    1

Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court                                        1

Subdivision A—Introductory                                                                                  1

268.1..................... Purpose of Division............................................................ 1

268.2..................... Outline of offences............................................................. 1

Subdivision B—Genocide                                                                                         2

268.3..................... Genocide by killing............................................................. 2

268.4..................... Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm........... 2

268.5..................... Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction        2

268.6..................... Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births 3

268.7..................... Genocide by forcibly transferring children......................... 3

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity                                                           4

268.8..................... Crime against humanity—murder....................................... 4

268.9..................... Crime against humanity—extermination............................. 4

268.10................... Crime against humanity—enslavement............................... 5

268.11................... Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population  5

268.12................... Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty          6

268.13................... Crime against humanity—torture........................................ 7

268.14................... Crime against humanity—rape............................................ 7

268.15................... Crime against humanity—sexual slavery............................ 9

268.16................... Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution.................. 9

268.17................... Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy..................... 11

268.18................... Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation................ 11

268.19................... Crime against humanity—sexual violence........................ 12

268.20................... Crime against humanity—persecution.............................. 13

268.21................... Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons 14

268.22................... Crime against humanity—apartheid.................................. 15

268.23................... Crime against humanity—other inhumane act................... 16

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions                                                                                  16

268.24................... War crime—wilful killing................................................. 16

268.25................... War crime—torture........................................................... 17

268.26................... War crime—inhumane treatment....................................... 17

268.27................... War crime—biological experiments.................................. 18

268.28................... War crime—wilfully causing great suffering.................... 18

268.29................... War crime—destruction and appropriation of property..... 19

268.30................... War crime—compelling service in hostile forces.............. 19

268.31................... War crime—denying a fair trial......................................... 20

268.32................... War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer................... 21

268.33................... War crime—unlawful confinement................................... 21

268.34................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 22

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict 22

268.35................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 22

268.36................... War crime—attacking civilian objects............................... 23

268.37................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 23

268.38................... War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage 24

268.39................... War crime—attacking undefended places......................... 25

268.40................... War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat             25

268.41................... War crime—improper use of a flag of truce...................... 26

268.42................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party          26

268.43................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations       27

268.44................... War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions  27

268.45................... War crime—transfer of population................................... 28

268.46................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 28

268.47................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 29

268.48................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 30

268.49................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 31

268.50................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 31

268.51................... War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property.. 32

268.52................... War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions              32

268.53................... War crime—compelling participation in military operations 33

268.54................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 33

268.55................... War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons...... 34

268.56................... War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices    34

268.57................... War crime—employing prohibited bullets........................ 34

268.58................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 35

268.59................... War crime—rape............................................................... 35

268.60................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 37

268.61................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 37

268.62................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 39

268.63................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 39

268.64................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 40

268.65................... War crime—using protected persons as shields................ 41

268.66................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      42

268.67................... War crime—starvation as a method of warfare................. 42

268.68................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 43

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict            45

268.69................... Definition of religious personnel...................................... 45

268.70................... War crime—murder.......................................................... 45

268.71................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 46

268.72................... War crime—cruel treatment.............................................. 48

268.73................... War crime—torture........................................................... 49

268.74................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 50

268.75................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 51

268.76................... War crime—sentencing or execution without due process 52

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict           54

268.77................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 54

268.78................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      54

268.79................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 55

268.80................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 56

268.81................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 56

268.82................... War crime—rape............................................................... 57

268.83................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 58

268.84................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 59

268.85................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 60

268.86................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 61

268.87................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 61

268.88................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 63

268.89................... War crime—displacing civilians....................................... 65

268.90................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 65

268.91................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 66

268.92................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 66

268.93................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 67

268.94................... War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property 68

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions               69

268.95................... War crime—medical procedure......................................... 69

268.96................... War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation         70

268.97................... War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians.................................................... 70

268.98................... War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones             71

268.99................... War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians  72

268.100................. War crime—apartheid....................................................... 72

268.101................. War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 73

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court   73

268.102................. Perjury.............................................................................. 73

268.103................. Falsifying evidence........................................................... 74

268.104................. Destroying or concealing evidence................................... 74

268.105................. Deceiving witnesses......................................................... 75

268.106................. Corrupting witnesses or interpreters................................. 75

268.107................. Threatening witnesses or interpreters................................ 76

268.108................. Preventing witnesses or interpreters................................. 76

268.109................. Preventing production of things in evidence..................... 77

268.110................. Reprisals against witnesses............................................... 77

268.111................. Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court 78

268.112................. Perverting the course of justice......................................... 78

268.113................. Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court    79

268.114................. Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct...................... 79

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous                                                                             80

268.115................. Responsibility of commanders and other superiors.......... 80

268.116................. Defence of superior orders............................................... 81

268.117................. Geographical jurisdiction.................................................. 81

268.118................. Double jeopardy............................................................... 81

268.119................. Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court             82

268.120................. Saving of other laws......................................................... 82

268.121................. Bringing proceedings under this Division........................ 82

268.122................. Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final               82

268.123................. Legal representation.......................................................... 83

268.124................. Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions           84

268.125................. Meaning of civilian........................................................... 84

Division 270—Slavery and slavery‑like offences                                            85

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 85

270.1A.................. Definitions for Division 270............................................. 85

Subdivision B—Slavery                                                                                          87

270.1..................... Definition of slavery......................................................... 87

270.2..................... Slavery is unlawful........................................................... 87

270.3..................... Slavery offences............................................................... 87

270.3A.................. Slavery offences—geographical jurisdiction..................... 88

270.3B................... Prosecutions..................................................................... 88

Subdivision C—Slavery‑like offences                                                                 89

270.4..................... Definition of servitude...................................................... 89

270.5..................... Servitude offences............................................................ 89

270.6..................... Definition of forced labour............................................... 91

270.6A.................. Forced labour offences..................................................... 91

270.7..................... Deceptive recruiting for labour or services....................... 92

270.7A.................. Definition of forced marriage.......................................... 93

270.7B................... Forced marriage offences.................................................. 94

270.7C................... Offence of debt bondage................................................... 95

270.8..................... Slavery‑like offences—aggravated offences..................... 95

270.9..................... Slavery‑like offences—jurisdictional requirement............ 96

270.10................... Slavery‑like offences—relevant evidence......................... 96

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 270: general                                98

270.11................... Offences against Division 270—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      98

270.12................... Offences against Division 270—other laws not excluded 98

270.13................... Offences against Division 270—double jeopardy............ 99

Division 271—Trafficking in persons                                                              100

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  100

271.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 100

271.1A.................. Definition of exploitation................................................ 100

Subdivision B—Offences relating to trafficking in persons                       101

271.2..................... Offence of trafficking in persons.................................... 101

271.3..................... Trafficking in persons—aggravated offence................... 104

271.4..................... Offence of trafficking in children.................................... 105

271.5..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in persons..................... 106

271.6..................... Domestic trafficking in persons—aggravated offence.... 107

271.7..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in children..................... 108

Subdivision BA—Organ trafficking                                                                 109

271.7A.................. Removal of organs contrary to this Subdivision............. 109

271.7B................... Offence of organ trafficking—entry into and exit from Australia            109

271.7C................... Organ trafficking—aggravated offence........................... 110

271.7D.................. Offence of domestic organ trafficking............................ 111

271.7E................... Domestic organ trafficking—aggravated offence............ 111

Subdivision BB—Harbouring a victim                                                            112

271.7F................... Harbouring a victim........................................................ 112

271.7G.................. Harbouring a victim—aggravated offence...................... 113

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 271: general                              114

271.10................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences other than domestic trafficking in persons or organs   114

271.11................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences of domestic trafficking in persons or organs               114

271.11A................ Offences against Division 271—relevant evidence......... 115

271.11B................. Offences against Division 271—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      116

271.12................... Offences against Division 271—other laws not excluded 116

271.13................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 117

Division 271A—Overseas travel by certain registered offenders             118

271A.1.................. Restrictions on overseas travel by certain registered offenders                118

Division 272—Child sex offences outside Australia                                      119

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               119

272.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 119

272.2..................... When conduct causes a person to engage in sexual intercourse or other sexual activity          119

272.3..................... Meaning of position of trust or authority....................... 119

272.4..................... Meaning of sexual intercourse....................................... 120

272.5..................... Meaning of offence against this Division and extension of criminal responsibility  121

272.6..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        122

272.7..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 122

Subdivision B—Sexual offences against children outside Australia         123

272.8..................... Sexual intercourse with child outside Australia.............. 123

272.9..................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with child outside Australia             124

272.10................... Aggravated offence—sexual intercourse or other sexual activity with child outside Australia 125

272.11................... Persistent sexual abuse of child outside Australia........... 127

272.12................... Sexual intercourse with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority     129

272.13................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority............................................................. 130

272.14................... Procuring child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia  131

272.15................... “Grooming” child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia              132

272.15A................ “Grooming” person to make it easier to engage in sexual activity with a child outside Australia             133

272.16................... Defence based on belief about age.................................. 134

272.17................... Defence based on valid and genuine marriage................ 135

Subdivision C—Offences of benefiting from, encouraging or preparing for sexual offences against children outside Australia                                                                                     136

272.18................... Benefiting from offence against this Division................. 136

272.19................... Encouraging offence against this Division...................... 136

272.20................... Preparing for or planning offence against this Division.. 137

Subdivision E—Other rules about conduct of trials                                      138

272.27................... Evidence relating to a person’s age................................. 138

272.28................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 139

272.29................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 140

272.30................... Sentencing...................................................................... 140

272.31................... Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    141

Division 273—Offences involving child abuse material outside Australia 142

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               142

273.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 142

273.2..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        143

273.2A.................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    143

273.3..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 143

273.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 143

Subdivision B—Offences committed overseas involving child abuse material             144

273.6..................... Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child abuse material outside Australia       144

273.7..................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             144

273.8..................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 145

Subdivision C—Defences                                                                                      146

273.9..................... Defences to offences against this Division..................... 146

Division 273A—Possession of child‑like sex dolls etc.                                  148

273A.1.................. Possession of child‑like sex dolls etc.............................. 148

273A.2.................. Defences......................................................................... 148

273A.3.................. Saving of other laws....................................................... 149

Division 273B—Protection of children                                                            150

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               150

273B.1................... Definitions...................................................................... 150

273B.2................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 151

273B.3................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 152

Subdivision B—Offences relating to the protection of children                152

273B.4................... Failing to protect child at risk of child sexual abuse offence 152

273B.5................... Failing to report child sexual abuse offence.................... 153

Subdivision C—Rules about conduct of trials                                                 156

273B.6................... Consent to commence proceedings................................. 156

273B.7................... Evidence relating to a person’s age................................. 156

Subdivision D—Relationship with other laws                                                 156

273B.8................... Relationship with State and Territory laws..................... 156

273B.9................... Protection from other laws etc. for complying with this Division            157

Division 274—Torture                                                                                          160

274.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 160

274.2..................... Torture............................................................................ 160

274.3..................... Prosecutions................................................................... 161

274.4..................... No defence of exceptional circumstances or superior orders 162

274.5..................... Jurisdiction of State/Territory courts preserved.............. 162

274.6..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 163

274.7..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 163

Division 279—Video link evidence                                                                    164

279.1..................... Proceedings to which this Division applies.................... 164

279.2..................... When court may take evidence by video link.................. 164

279.3..................... Technical requirements for video link............................. 164

279.4..................... Application of laws about witnesses............................... 165

279.5..................... Administration of oaths and affirmations........................ 165

279.6..................... Expenses......................................................................... 166

279.7..................... Other laws about foreign evidence not affected.............. 166

Chapter 9—Dangers to the community                                                                167

Part 9.1—Serious drug offences                                                                         167

Division 300—Preliminary                                                                                 167

300.1..................... Purpose........................................................................... 167

300.2..................... Definitions...................................................................... 167

300.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 170

300.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 170

300.5..................... Particular identity of drugs, plants and precursors.......... 171

300.6..................... Recklessness as to nature of substance or plant sufficient for offence of attempt to commit an offence against this Part........................................................................... 171

Division 301—Serious drugs and precursors                                                  173

Subdivision A—Serious drugs and precursors: definitions                         173

301.1..................... Meaning of controlled drug............................................ 173

301.2..................... Meaning of controlled plant........................................... 173

301.3..................... Meaning of controlled precursor................................... 174

301.4..................... Meaning of border controlled drug................................ 174

301.5..................... Meaning of border controlled plant............................... 175

301.6..................... Meaning of border controlled precursor....................... 175

301.7..................... Serious drugs—conditions for listing by regulation....... 176

301.8..................... Serious drug precursors—conditions for listing by regulation 176

301.9..................... Meaning of drug analogue............................................. 176

Subdivision B—Serious drugs and precursors: commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities      178

301.10................... Meaning of commercial quantity.................................... 178

301.11................... Meaning of marketable quantity..................................... 179

301.12................... Meaning of trafficable quantity....................................... 180

Subdivision C—Serious drugs and precursors: emergency determinations 180

301.13................... Emergency determinations—serious drugs..................... 180

301.14................... Emergency determinations—serious drug precursors..... 181

301.15................... Emergency determinations—commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities       182

301.16................... Emergency determinations—effectiveness...................... 182

301.17................... Emergency determinations—publication......................... 183

Division 302—Trafficking controlled drugs                                                  184

302.1..................... Meaning of traffics......................................................... 184

302.2..................... Trafficking commercial quantities of controlled drugs.... 184

302.3..................... Trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs..... 185

302.4..................... Trafficking controlled drugs........................................... 185

302.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 185

302.6..................... Purchase of controlled drugs is not an ancillary offence. 186

Division 303—Commercial cultivation of controlled plants                      187

303.1..................... Meanings of cultivate and cultivates a plant................... 187

303.2..................... Meaning of product of a plant........................................ 187

303.3..................... Meaning of cultivates a plant for a commercial purpose 187

303.4..................... Cultivating commercial quantities of controlled plants.... 188

303.5..................... Cultivating marketable quantities of controlled plants..... 188

303.6..................... Cultivating controlled plants........................................... 188

303.7..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 189

Division 304—Selling controlled plants                                                           190

304.1..................... Selling commercial quantities of controlled plants.......... 190

304.2..................... Selling marketable quantities of controlled plants........... 190

304.3..................... Selling controlled plants.................................................. 190

Division 305—Commercial manufacture of controlled drugs                   192

305.1..................... Meanings of manufacture and manufactures a substance 192

305.2..................... Meaning of manufactures a substance for a commercial purpose          192

305.3..................... Manufacturing commercial quantities of controlled drugs 192

305.4..................... Manufacturing marketable quantities of controlled drugs 193

305.5..................... Manufacturing controlled drugs...................................... 193

305.6..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 194

Division 306—Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors                                  195

306.1..................... Meaning of pre‑traffics................................................... 195

306.2..................... Pre‑trafficking commercial quantities of controlled precursors                195

306.3..................... Pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors 196

306.4..................... Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors.............................. 196

306.5..................... Presumption for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—sale 197

306.6..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for drug manufacture  197

306.7..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for sale        198

306.8..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—possession      199

Division 307—Import‑export offences                                                             201

Subdivision A—Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              201

307.1..................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants   201

307.2..................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants    201

307.3..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants          202

307.4..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants—no defence relating to lack of commercial intent............................................................ 202

Subdivision B—Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants 203

307.5..................... Possessing commercial quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 203

307.6..................... Possessing marketable quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 203

307.7..................... Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              204

Subdivision C—Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported                                                                205

307.8..................... Possessing commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 205

307.9..................... Possessing marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 205

307.10................... Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported........................................................ 206

Subdivision D—Importing and exporting border controlled precursors 207

307.11................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled precursors      207

307.12................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors       207

307.13................... Importing and exporting border controlled precursors.... 207

Division 308—Possession offences                                                                    209

308.1..................... Possessing controlled drugs........................................... 209

308.2..................... Possessing controlled precursors.................................... 210

308.3..................... Possessing plant material, equipment or instructions for commercial cultivation of controlled plants      210

308.4..................... Possessing substance, equipment or instructions for commercial manufacture of controlled drugs         211

Division 309—Drug offences involving children                                           212

309.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    212

309.2..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children........................... 212

309.3..................... Supplying marketable quantities of controlled drugs to children for trafficking       212

309.4..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking.... 213

309.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 213

309.6..................... Meaning of procures an individual to traffic.................. 213

309.7..................... Procuring children for trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs            214

309.8..................... Procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs......... 214

309.9..................... Meaning of procures an individual to pre‑traffic........... 215

309.10................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors              215

309.11................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 215

309.12................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................. 216

309.13................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         217

309.14................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors     217

309.15................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            218

Division 310—Harm and danger to children under 14 from serious drug offences     220

310.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    220

310.2..................... Danger from exposure to unlawful manufacturing......... 220

310.3..................... Harm from exposure to unlawful manufacturing............ 221

310.4..................... Aggravated offences—manufacturing controlled drugs and controlled precursors  222

Division 311—Combining quantities of drugs, plants or precursors        224

Subdivision A—Combining different parcels on the same occasion         224

311.1..................... Combining different parcels on the same occasion......... 224

Subdivision B—Combining parcels from organised commercial activities 225

311.2..................... Business of trafficking controlled drugs......................... 225

311.3..................... Business of pre‑trafficking by selling controlled precursors 226

311.4..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         227

311.5..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled precursors            227

311.6..................... Business of supplying controlled drugs to children........ 228

311.7..................... General rules—combining parcels from organised commercial activities 229

Subdivision C—Combining parcels from multiple offences                       230

311.8..................... Multiple offences—trafficking controlled drugs............. 230

311.9..................... Multiple offences—cultivating controlled plants............. 230

311.10................... Multiple offences—selling controlled plants................... 231

311.11................... Multiple offences—manufacturing controlled drugs....... 231

311.12................... Multiple offences—pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 231

311.13................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants             232

311.14................... Multiple offences—possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 232

311.15................... Multiple offences—possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported.................................... 233

311.16................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled precursors                233

311.17................... Multiple offences—supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking              234

311.18................... Multiple offences—procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs   234

311.19................... Multiple offences—procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors     235

311.20................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................................. 235

311.21................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            236

311.22................... General rules—combining parcels from multiple offences 237

Division 312—Working out quantities of drugs, plants or precursors     238

312.1..................... Working out quantities of drugs and precursors in mixtures 238

312.2..................... Working out quantities where different kinds of drugs, plants or precursors are involved      239

Division 313—Defences and alternative verdicts                                          242

313.1..................... Defence—conduct justified or excused by or under a law of a State or Territory    242

313.2..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  242

313.3..................... Alternative verdict—offence not proved......................... 242

313.4..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to quantity of drug, plant or precursor   243

313.5..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to identity of drug, plant or precursor    244

Part 9.2—Psychoactive substances                                                                   245

Division 320—Psychoactive substances                                                           245

320.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 245

320.2..................... Importing psychoactive substances................................. 246

320.3..................... Importing substances represented to be serious drug alternatives            248

Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons                                                                            251

Division 360—Cross‑border firearms trafficking                                        251

360.1..................... Disposal and acquisition of a firearm or firearm part...... 251

360.2..................... Cross‑border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm or firearm part            251

360.3..................... Taking or sending a firearm or firearm part across borders 252

360.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 253

Division 361—International firearms trafficking                                        255

361.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 255

361.2..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts into Australia 256

361.3..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts out of Australia             257

361.4..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  258

361.6..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 258

Part 9.5—Identity crime                                                                                         259

Division 370—Preliminary                                                                                 259

370.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 259

370.2..................... Definition of foreign indictable offence........................... 260

370.3..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 260

Division 372—Identity fraud offences                                                              261

372.1..................... Dealing in identification information............................... 261

372.1A.................. Dealing in identification information that involves use of a carriage service            262

372.2..................... Possession of identification information......................... 264

372.3..................... Possession of equipment used to make identification documentation       264

372.4..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A............ 265

372.5..................... Alternative verdict........................................................... 265

372.6..................... Attempt........................................................................... 265

Division 375—Victims’ certificates                                                                   266

375.1..................... Certificate may be issued by magistrate in relation to victim of identity crime          266

375.2..................... Content of certificate....................................................... 267

375.3..................... Relation to civil and criminal proceedings....................... 267

375.4..................... Power conferred on magistrate personally...................... 267

Division 376—False identity and air travel                                                    268

376.1..................... Definitions for Division 376........................................... 268

376.2..................... False identification information—at constitutional airports 268

376.3..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets obtained using a carriage service        269

376.4..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets for constitutional flights      270

376.5..................... False identification information—extended jurisdiction (Category D)     271

Part 9.6—Contamination of goods                                                                    272

380.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 272

380.2..................... Contaminating goods...................................................... 272

380.3..................... Threatening to contaminate goods................................... 276

380.4..................... Making false statements about contamination of goods.. 279

380.5..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............ 283

Part 9.9—Criminal associations and organisations                                 284

Division 390—Criminal associations and organisations                             284

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  284

390.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 284

390.2..................... State offences that have a federal aspect.......................... 286

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                      289

390.3..................... Associating in support of serious organised criminal activity  289

390.4..................... Supporting a criminal organisation................................. 291

390.5..................... Committing an offence for the benefit of, or at the direction of, a criminal organisation          292

390.6..................... Directing activities of a criminal organisation................. 294

390.7..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C............ 296

Chapter 10—National infrastructure                                                                    297

Part 10.2—Money laundering                                                                             297

Division 400—Money laundering                                                                      297

400.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 297

400.2..................... Definition of deals with money or other property.......... 299

400.2A.................. Application of offences relating to possible instruments of crime            299

400.3..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more 300

400.4..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more    302

400.5..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more      303

400.6..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more      304

400.7..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more        306

400.8..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value        307

400.9..................... Dealing with property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc.           308

400.10................... Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property...... 310

400.11................... Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required           311

400.12................... Combining several contraventions in a single charge...... 312

400.13................... Proof of other offences is not required........................... 312

400.14................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 312

400.15................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 313

400.16................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 316

Part 10.5—Postal services                                                                                     317

Division 470—Preliminary                                                                                 317

470.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 317

470.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 319

470.3..................... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact 319

470.4..................... Meaning of expressions used in Subdivisions B and C of Division 471 319

Division 471—Postal offences                                                                            321

Subdivision A—General postal offences                                                          321

471.1..................... Theft of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages..... 321

471.2..................... Receiving stolen mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages 322

471.3..................... Taking or concealing of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages      324

471.4..................... Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks....... 324

471.5..................... Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps             324

471.6..................... Damaging or destroying mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages     325

471.7..................... Tampering with mail‑receptacles..................................... 326

471.8..................... Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles....................... 326

471.9..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 326

471.10................... Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances............. 326

471.11................... Using a postal or similar service to make a threat........... 327

471.12................... Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence       328

471.13................... Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service   328

471.14................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 329

471.15................... Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post  330

Subdivision B—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service for child abuse material                330

471.19................... Using a postal or similar service for child abuse material 330

471.20................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a postal or similar service................................................................. 331

471.21................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 331

471.22................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             332

471.23................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 333

Subdivision C—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service involving sexual activity with person under 16                                                                                                       334

471.24................... Using a postal or similar service to procure persons under 16 334

471.25................... Using a postal or similar service to “groom” persons under 16               335

471.25A................ Using a postal or similar service to “groom” another person to make it easier to procure persons under 16........................................................................................ 336

471.26................... Using a postal or similar service to send indecent material to person under 16        337

471.27................... Age‑related provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision       338

471.28................... Other provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision 339

471.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 340

471.29A................ Sentencing...................................................................... 341

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            341

471.30................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 341

471.31................... Definition of carry by post does not apply..................... 342

Division 472—Miscellaneous                                                                              343

472.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 343

472.2..................... Interpretation of other laws............................................. 343

Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services                                                     344

Division 473—Preliminary                                                                                 344

473.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 344

473.2..................... Possession or control of data or material in the form of data 354

473.3..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data    355

473.4..................... Determining whether material is offensive...................... 355

473.5..................... Use of a carriage service................................................. 356

Division 474—Telecommunications offences                                                 357

Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services                     357

474.1..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 357

474.2..................... General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider                357

Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications                               358

474.3..................... Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider... 358

474.4..................... Interception devices........................................................ 358

474.5..................... Wrongful delivery of communications............................ 359

474.6..................... Interference with facilities............................................... 360

474.7..................... Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier 361

474.8..................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier   362

474.9..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier.......................................................................... 364

474.10................... Copying subscription‑specific secure data...................... 365

474.11................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier  366

474.12................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier   368

Subdivision C—General offences relating to use of telecommunications 369

474.14................... Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence    369

474.15................... Using a carriage service to make a threat........................ 370

474.16................... Using a carriage service for a hoax threat....................... 371

474.17................... Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence 371

474.17A................ Aggravated offences involving private sexual material—using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence............................................................................ 372

474.17B................. Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 374

474.18................... Improper use of emergency call service.......................... 375

Subdivision D—Offences relating to use of carriage service for child abuse material               376

474.22................... Using a carriage service for child abuse material............ 376

474.22A................ Possessing or controlling child abuse material obtained or accessed using a carriage service  377

474.23................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 377

474.23A................ Conduct for the purposes of electronic service used for child abuse material           378

474.24................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 379

474.24A................ Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             381

474.24B................. Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 382

474.24C................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    382

Subdivision E—Offence relating to obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts              383

474.25................... Obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts         383

Subdivision F—Offences relating to use of carriage service involving sexual activity with, or causing harm to, person under 16                                                                         383

474.25A................ Using a carriage service for sexual activity with person under 16 years of age        383

474.25B................. Aggravated offence—using a carriage service for sexual activity with person under 16 years of age      385

474.25C................. Using a carriage service to prepare or plan to cause harm to, engage in sexual activity with, or procure for sexual activity, persons under 16.................................... 386

474.26................... Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age          386

474.27................... Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age        388

474.27AA............. Using a carriage service to “groom” another person to make it easier to procure persons under 16 years of age........................................................................................ 389

474.27A................ Using a carriage service to transmit indecent communication to person under 16 years of age                390

474.28................... Provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision. 391

474.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 393

474.29AA............. Sentencing...................................................................... 395

Subdivision G—Offences relating to use of carriage service for suicide related material         395

474.29A................ Using a carriage service for suicide related material........ 395

474.29B................. Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining suicide related material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 397

Subdivision H—Offences relating to use of carriage service for sharing of abhorrent violent material               398

474.30................... Definitions...................................................................... 398

474.31................... Abhorrent violent material.............................................. 399

474.32................... Abhorrent violent conduct.............................................. 400

474.33................... Notification obligations of internet service providers, content service providers and hosting service providers........................................................................................ 402

474.34................... Removing, or ceasing to host, abhorrent violent material 402

474.35................... Notice issued by eSafety Commissioner in relation to a content service—presumptions         405

474.36................... Notice issued by eSafety Commissioner in relation to a hosting service—presumptions         406

474.37................... Defences in respect of abhorrent violent material............ 408

474.38................... Implied freedom of political communication................... 412

474.39................... Provider of content service............................................. 412

474.40................... Service of copies of notices by electronic means............ 412

474.41................... Giving a copy of a notice to a contact person etc............ 413

474.42................... Attorney‑General’s consent required for prosecution..... 414

474.43................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 414

474.44................... This Subdivision does not limit Schedule 5 or 7 to the Broadcasting Services Act 1992         415

474.45................... Review of this Subdivision............................................. 415

Subdivision J—Offences relating to use of carriage service for inciting trespass, property damage, or theft, on agricultural land                                                                       415

474.46................... Using a carriage service for inciting trespass on agricultural land            415

474.47................... Using a carriage service for inciting property damage, or theft, on agricultural land                417

474.48................... Implied freedom of political communication................... 418

Division 475—Miscellaneous                                                                              419

475.1A.................. Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons 419

475.1B................... Provisions relating to element of offence that particular conduct was engaged in using a carriage service........................................................................................ 419

475.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 420

475.2..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 420

Part 10.7—Computer offences                                                                            421

Division 476—Preliminary                                                                                 421

476.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 421

476.2..................... Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment                422

476.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 423

476.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 423

476.5..................... Liability for certain acts................................................... 423

Division 477—Serious computer offences                                                       426

477.1..................... Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence      426

477.2..................... Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment.. 427

477.3..................... Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication.. 427

Division 478—Other computer offences                                                          429

478.1..................... Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data 429

478.2..................... Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc.                429

478.3..................... Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence  429

478.4..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence  430

Part 10.8—Financial information offences                                                   432

480.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 432

480.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 433

480.3..................... Constitutional application of this Part............................. 433

480.4..................... Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information          433

480.5..................... Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information........................................................................................ 433

480.6..................... Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information              434

Part 10.9—Accounting records                                                                          435

Division 490—False dealing with accounting documents                            435

490.1..................... Intentional false dealing with accounting documents...... 435

490.2..................... Reckless false dealing with accounting documents......... 437

490.3..................... Meaning of annual turnover........................................... 438

490.4..................... Related bodies corporate................................................. 439

490.5..................... Proof of certain matters unnecessary.............................. 439

490.6..................... Consent to commencement of proceedings..................... 439

490.7..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 440

Dictionary                                                                                                                           441

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  457

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          457

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              459

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           460

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         479


ScheduleThe Criminal Code

Chapter 8Offences against humanity and related offences

  

Division 268Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court

Subdivision A—Introductory

268.1  Purpose of Division

             (1)  The purpose of this Division is to create certain offences that are of international concern and certain related offences.

             (2)  It is the Parliament’s intention that the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court is to be complementary to the jurisdiction of Australia with respect to offences in this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of that Court.

             (3)  Accordingly, the International Criminal Court Act 2002 does not affect the primacy of Australia’s right to exercise its jurisdiction with respect to offences created by this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.

268.2  Outline of offences

             (1)  Subdivision B creates offences each of which is called genocide.

             (2)  Subdivision C creates offences each of which is called a crime against humanity.

             (3)  Subdivisions D, E, F, G and H create offences each of which is called a war crime.

             (4)  Subdivision J creates offences each of which is called a crime against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court.

Subdivision B—Genocide

268.3  Genocide by killing

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.4  Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes serious bodily or mental harm to one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes serious bodily or mental harm includes, but is not restricted to, commits acts of torture, rape, sexual violence or inhuman or degrading treatment.

268.5  Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts certain conditions of life upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the conditions of life are intended to bring about the physical destruction of that group, in whole or in part.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

conditions of life includes, but is not restricted to, intentional deprivation of resources indispensable for survival, such as deprivation of food or medical services, or systematic expulsion from homes.

268.6  Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imposes certain measures upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the measures imposed are intended to prevent births within that group.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.7  Genocide by forcibly transferring children

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly transfers one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the transfer is from that group to another national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (e)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the person or persons are under that age.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly transfers one or more persons includes transfers one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity

268.8  Crime against humanity—murder

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.9  Crime against humanity—extermination

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct constitutes, or takes place as part of, a mass killing of members of a civilian population; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes the death of includes causes death by intentionally inflicting conditions of life (such as the deprivation of access to food or medicine) intended to bring about the destruction of part of a population.

268.10  Crime against humanity—enslavement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over one or more persons (including the exercise of a power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children); and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person includes purchases, sells, lends or barters a person or imposes on a person a similar deprivation of liberty and also includes exercise a power arising from a debt incurred or contract made by a person.

268.11  Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly displaces one or more persons, by expulsion or other coercive acts, from an area in which the person or persons are lawfully present to another country or location; and

                     (b)  the forcible displacement is contrary to paragraph 4 of article 12 or article 13 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the lawfulness of the presence of the person or persons in the area; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

forcibly displaces one or more persons includes displaces one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

268.12  Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imprisons one or more persons or otherwise severely deprives one or more persons of physical liberty; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct violates article 9, 14 or 15 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.13  Crime against humanity—torture

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons who are in the custody or under the control of the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the pain or suffering does not arise only from, and is not inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.14  Crime against humanity—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.15  Crime against humanity—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.16  Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person or persons are consenting to engaging in the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.17  Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.18  Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.19  Crime against humanity—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.14 to 268.18; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.20  Crime against humanity—persecution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely deprives one or more persons of any of the rights referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the rights are those guaranteed in articles 6, 7, 8 and 9, paragraph 2 of article 14, article 18, paragraph 2 of article 20, paragraph 2 of article 23 and article 27 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator targets the person or persons by reason of the identity of a group or collectivity or targets the group or collectivity as such; and

                     (d)  the grounds on which the targeting is based are political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender or other grounds that are recognised in paragraph 1 of article 2 of the Covenant; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in connection with another act that is:

                              (i)  a proscribed inhumane act; or

                             (ii)  genocide; or

                            (iii)  a war crime; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the rights are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (d).

268.21  Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator arrests, detains or abducts one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction is carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to remove the person or persons from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (e)  after the arrest, detention or abduction, the government or organisation refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom of, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of, the person or persons.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  one or more persons have been arrested, detained or abducted; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction was carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts, of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the refusal occurs with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of the government of the country or the political organisation; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the refusal was preceded or accompanied by the deprivation of freedom; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator intends that the person or persons be removed from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (g)  the arrest, detention or abduction occurred, and the refusal occurs, as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (h)  the perpetrator knows that the refusal is part of, or intends the refusal to be part of, such an attack.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.22  Crime against humanity—apartheid

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator commits against one or more persons an act that is a proscribed inhumane act (as defined by the Dictionary) or an act that is of a nature and gravity similar to any such proscribed inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the character of the act; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator intends to maintain the regime by the conduct; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.23  Crime against humanity—other inhumane act

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health, by means of an inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the act is of a character similar to another proscribed inhumane act as defined by the Dictionary; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.24  War crime—wilful killing

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.25  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.26  War crime—inhumane treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.27  War crime—biological experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a particular biological experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health or integrity of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.28  War crime—wilfully causing great suffering

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great physical or mental pain or suffering to, or serious injury to body or health of, one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.29  War crime—destruction and appropriation of property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or appropriates property; and

                     (b)  the destruction or appropriation is not justified by military necessity; and

                     (c)  the destruction or appropriation is extensive and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; and

                     (d)  the property is protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.30  War crime—compelling service in hostile forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons, by act or threat:

                              (i)  to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; or

                             (ii)  otherwise to serve in the forces of an adverse power; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.31  War crime—denying a fair trial

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of a fair and regular trial by denying to the person any of the judicial guarantees referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the judicial guarantees are those defined in articles 84, 99 and 105 of the Third Geneva Convention and articles 66 and 71 of the Fourth Geneva Convention; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the judicial guarantees are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

268.32  War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully deports or transfers one or more persons to another country or to another location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.33  War crime—unlawful confinement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines or continues to confine one or more persons to a certain location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.34  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict

268.35  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.36  War crime—attacking civilian objects

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is not a military objective; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.37  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.38  War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause incidental death or injury to civilians; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the death or injury will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause:

                              (i)  damage to civilian objects; or

                             (ii)  widespread, long‑term and severe damage to the natural environment; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the damage will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.39  War crime—attacking undefended places

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks or bombards one or more towns, villages, dwellings or buildings; and

                     (b)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and

                     (c)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings do not constitute military objectives; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.40  War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator kills one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator injures one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.41  War crime—improper use of a flag of truce

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag of truce; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.42  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform while engaged in an attack or in order to shield, favour, protect or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.43  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform without the authority of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.44  War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses an emblem; and

                     (b)  the emblem is one of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator uses the emblem for combatant purposes to invite the confidence of an adversary in order to lead him or her to believe that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the adversary is obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator, with intent to betray that confidence; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In this section:

emblem means any emblem, identity card, sign, signal, insignia or uniform.

268.45  War crime—transfer of population

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator:

                              (i)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the transfer, directly or indirectly, of parts of the civilian population of the perpetrator’s own country into territory that the country occupies; or

                             (ii)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of territory occupied by the perpetrator’s own country within or outside that territory; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.46  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.47  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.48  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.49  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.50  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.51  War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 18 of the Third Geneva Convention, article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention or article 54 of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.52  War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator effects the abolition, suspension or termination of admissibility in a court of law of certain rights or actions; and

                     (b)  the abolition, suspension or termination is directed at the nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.53  War crime—compelling participation in military operations

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons by act or threat to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  It is not a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) that the person or persons were in the service of the perpetrator at a time before the beginning of the international armed conflict.

268.54  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.55  War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a substance or employs a weapon that releases a substance as a result of its employment; and

                     (b)  the substance is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.56  War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a gas or other analogous substance or device; and

                     (b)  the gas, substance or device is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its asphyxiating or toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.57  War crime—employing prohibited bullets

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs certain bullets; and

                     (b)  the bullets are such that their use violates the Hague Declaration because they expand or flatten easily in the human body; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the nature of the bullets is such that their employment will uselessly aggravate suffering or the wounding effect; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.58  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of the body or bodies of one or more dead persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.59  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.60  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.61  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.62  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.63  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.64  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.59 to 268.63; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.65  War crime—using protected persons as shields

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses the presence of one or more civilians, prisoners of war, medical or religious personnel or persons who are hors de combat; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends the perpetrator’s conduct to render a military objective immune from attack or to shield, favour or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:

                     (a)  if the conduct results in the death of any of the persons referred to in paragraph (a)—imprisonment for life; or

                     (b)  otherwise—imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  In this section:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.66  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.67  War crime—starvation as a method of warfare

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses as a method of warfare:

                              (i)  any intentional deprivation of civilians of objects indispensable to their survival; or

                             (ii)  without limiting subparagraph (i)—the wilful impeding of relief supplies for civilians; and

                     (b)  if subparagraph (a)(ii) applies—the relief supplies are provided for under the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.68  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.69  Definition of religious personnel

                   In this Subdivision:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.70  War crime—murder

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the death of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.71  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the death of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

          (2A)  Subsection (2) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the serious endangerment of the physical or mental health, or integrity, of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.72  War crime—cruel treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the infliction of the severe physical or mental pain or suffering on the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.73  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.74  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons (whether or not the person or persons are alive); and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to a person or persons who:

                     (a)  are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  are civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities; or

                     (c)  are dead.

268.75  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.76  War crime—sentencing or execution without due process

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator passes a sentence on one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator executes one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(e) and (2)(e).

             (4)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.77  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.78  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.79  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.80  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.81  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.82  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.83  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.84  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.85  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.86  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.87  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.82 to 268.87; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against the person or another person; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.88  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.89  War crime—displacing civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator orders a displacement of a civilian population; and

                     (b)  the order is not justified by the security of the civilians involved or by imperative military necessity; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.90  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.91  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.92  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.93  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.94  War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adversary; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 14 of Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.95  War crime—medical procedure

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical procedure; and

                     (b)  the procedure seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is not justified by the state of health of the person or