Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Criminal Code Act 1995

Authoritative Version
Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Crimes Legislation Amendment (Sexual Crimes Against Children and Community Protection Measures) Act 2020
An Act relating to the criminal law
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 05 Aug 2020
Start Date 20 Jul 2020
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Criminal Code Act 1995

No. 12, 1995

Compilation No. 134

Compilation date:                              20 July 2020

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 70, 2020

Registered:                                         5 August 2020

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–5

                        Schedule (sections 1.1–261.3)

Volume 2:       Schedule (sections 268.1–490.7)

                        Schedule (Dictionary)

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Criminal Code Act 1995 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 20 July 2020 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Commencement.................................................................. 1

3............................ The Criminal Code.............................................................. 1

3A......................... External Territories............................................................. 1

3B.......................... Offshore installations.......................................................... 1

4............................ Definitions.......................................................................... 1

5............................ Regulations......................................................................... 2

Schedule—The Criminal Code                                                                        4

Chapter 1—Codification                                                                                                   4

Division 1                                                                                                                      4

1.1......................... Codification........................................................................ 4

Chapter 2—General principles of criminal responsibility                            5

Part 2.1—Purpose and application                                                                       5

Division 2                                                                                                                      5

2.1......................... Purpose............................................................................... 5

2.2......................... Application......................................................................... 5

2.3......................... Application of provisions relating to intoxication............... 5

Part 2.2—The elements of an offence                                                                  6

Division 3—General                                                                                                  6

3.1......................... Elements............................................................................. 6

3.2......................... Establishing guilt in respect of offences.............................. 6

Division 4—Physical elements                                                                                7

4.1......................... Physical elements................................................................ 7

4.2......................... Voluntariness...................................................................... 7

4.3......................... Omissions........................................................................... 8

Division 5—Fault elements                                                                                      9

5.1......................... Fault elements..................................................................... 9

5.2......................... Intention.............................................................................. 9

5.3......................... Knowledge.......................................................................... 9

5.4......................... Recklessness....................................................................... 9

5.5......................... Negligence........................................................................ 10

5.6......................... Offences that do not specify fault elements....................... 10

Division 6—Cases where fault elements are not required                             11

6.1......................... Strict liability..................................................................... 11

6.2......................... Absolute liability............................................................... 11

Part 2.3—Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility 12

Division 7—Circumstances involving lack of capacity                                  12

7.1......................... Children under 10............................................................. 12

7.2......................... Children over 10 but under 14.......................................... 12

7.3......................... Mental impairment............................................................ 12

Division 8—Intoxication                                                                                        14

8.1......................... Definition—self‑induced intoxication............................... 14

8.2......................... Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)................... 14

8.3......................... Intoxication (negligence as fault element)......................... 15

8.4......................... Intoxication (relevance to defences).................................. 15

8.5......................... Involuntary intoxication.................................................... 16

Division 9—Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance                        17

9.1......................... Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence)         17

9.2......................... Mistake of fact (strict liability).......................................... 17

9.3......................... Mistake or ignorance of statute law.................................. 18

9.4......................... Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation................ 18

9.5......................... Claim of right.................................................................... 19

Division 10—Circumstances involving external factors                               20

10.1....................... Intervening conduct or event............................................. 20

10.2....................... Duress.............................................................................. 20

10.3....................... Sudden or extraordinary emergency................................. 20

10.4....................... Self‑defence...................................................................... 21

10.5....................... Lawful authority............................................................... 22

Part 2.4—Extensions of criminal responsibility                                           23

Division 11                                                                                                                 23

11.1....................... Attempt............................................................................. 23

11.2....................... Complicity and common purpose..................................... 24

11.2A.................... Joint commission.............................................................. 25

11.3....................... Commission by proxy...................................................... 27

11.4....................... Incitement......................................................................... 27

11.5....................... Conspiracy........................................................................ 29

11.6....................... References in Acts to offences.......................................... 30

Part 2.5—Corporate criminal responsibility                                                 32

Division 12                                                                                                                 32

12.1....................... General principles............................................................. 32

12.2....................... Physical elements.............................................................. 32

12.3....................... Fault elements other than negligence................................. 32

12.4....................... Negligence........................................................................ 34

12.5....................... Mistake of fact (strict liability).......................................... 34

12.6....................... Intervening conduct or event............................................. 35

Part 2.6—Proof of criminal responsibility                                                      36

Division 13                                                                                                                 36

13.1....................... Legal burden of proof—prosecution................................. 36

13.2....................... Standard of proof—prosecution....................................... 36

13.3....................... Evidential burden of proof—defence................................ 36

13.4....................... Legal burden of proof—defence....................................... 37

13.5....................... Standard of proof—defence.............................................. 37

13.6....................... Use of averments.............................................................. 37

Part 2.7—Geographical jurisdiction                                                                  39

Division 14—Standard geographical jurisdiction                                           39

14.1....................... Standard geographical jurisdiction.................................... 39

Division 15—Extended geographical jurisdiction                                           42

15.1....................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A.............. 42

15.2....................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category B.............. 44

15.3....................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C.............. 47

15.4....................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D.............. 49

Division 16—Miscellaneous                                                                                  50

16.1....................... Attorney‑General’s consent required for prosecution if alleged conduct occurs wholly in a foreign country in certain circumstances........................................................ 50

16.2....................... When conduct taken to occur partly in Australia............... 50

16.3....................... Meaning of Australia........................................................ 51

16.4....................... Result of conduct.............................................................. 51

Chapter 4—The integrity and security of the international community and foreign governments        52

Division 70—Bribery of foreign public officials                                             52

70.1....................... Definitions........................................................................ 52

70.2....................... Bribing a foreign public official........................................ 55

70.3....................... Defence—conduct lawful in foreign public official’s country  58

70.4....................... Defence—facilitation payments........................................ 61

70.5....................... Territorial and nationality requirements............................. 63

70.6....................... Saving of other laws......................................................... 64

Division 71—Offences against United Nations and associated personnel 65

71.1....................... Purpose............................................................................. 65

71.2....................... Murder of a UN or associated person............................... 65

71.3....................... Manslaughter of a UN or associated person..................... 65

71.4....................... Intentionally causing serious harm to a UN or associated person            66

71.5....................... Recklessly causing serious harm to a UN or associated person               66

71.6....................... Intentionally causing harm to a UN or associated person. 67

71.7....................... Recklessly causing harm to a UN or associated person.... 67

71.8....................... Unlawful sexual penetration............................................. 68

71.9....................... Kidnapping a UN or associated person............................. 69

71.10..................... Unlawful detention of UN or associated person............... 70

71.11..................... Intentionally causing damage to UN or associated person’s property etc.                70

71.12..................... Threatening to commit other offences............................... 71

71.13..................... Aggravated offences......................................................... 72

71.14..................... Defence—activities involving serious harm...................... 72

71.15..................... Defence—medical or hygienic procedures........................ 73

71.16..................... Jurisdictional requirement................................................. 73

71.17..................... Exclusion of this Division if State/Territory laws provide for corresponding offences            74

71.18..................... Double jeopardy............................................................... 74

71.19..................... Saving of other laws......................................................... 74

71.20..................... Bringing proceedings under this Division........................ 75

71.21..................... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings.................. 75

71.22..................... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved............................... 75

71.23..................... Definitions........................................................................ 76

Division 72—Explosives and lethal devices                                                      78

Subdivision A—International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices     78

72.1....................... Purpose............................................................................. 78

72.2....................... ADF members not liable for prosecution.......................... 78

72.3....................... Offences........................................................................... 78

72.4....................... Jurisdictional requirement................................................. 79

72.5....................... Saving of other laws......................................................... 80

72.6....................... Double jeopardy and foreign offences.............................. 81

72.7....................... Bringing proceedings under this Subdivision................... 81

72.8....................... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings.................. 81

72.9....................... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved............................... 82

72.10..................... Definitions........................................................................ 82

Subdivision B—Plastic explosives                                                                       83

72.11..................... Purpose............................................................................. 83

72.12..................... Trafficking in unmarked plastic explosives etc................. 83

72.13..................... Importing or exporting unmarked plastic explosives etc... 83

72.14..................... Manufacturing unmarked plastic explosives etc................ 84

72.15..................... Possessing unmarked plastic explosives etc..................... 84

72.16..................... Defences........................................................................... 85

72.17..................... Packaging requirements for plastic explosives.................. 86

72.18..................... Authorisation for research etc........................................... 86

72.19..................... Authorisation for defence and police purposes—15 year limit 88

72.22..................... Authorisation for overseas defence purposes—7 day limit 89

72.23..................... Authorisation for overseas Australian Federal Police purposes—7 day limit          90

72.24..................... Forfeited plastic explosives............................................... 90

72.25..................... Surrendered plastic explosives.......................................... 91

72.26..................... Destruction of plastic explosives obtained overseas for defence purposes               92

72.27..................... Destruction of plastic explosives obtained overseas for Australian Federal Police purposes   92

72.28..................... Delegation by AFP Minister............................................. 92

72.29..................... Delegation by Minister for Defence.................................. 92

72.30..................... Review by Administrative Appeals Tribunal of authorisation decisions  93

72.31..................... Geographical jurisdiction.................................................. 94

72.32..................... Saving of other laws......................................................... 94

72.33..................... Marking requirements....................................................... 94

72.34..................... Detection agents and minimum manufacture concentrations 95

72.35..................... Presumption as to concentration of detection agent........... 95

72.36..................... Definitions........................................................................ 96

Subdivision C—Cluster munitions and explosive bomblets                          99

72.37..................... Purpose............................................................................. 99

72.38..................... Offences relating to cluster munitions............................... 99

72.39..................... Defence—acquisition or retention authorised by Defence Minister         100

72.40..................... Defence—transfer for destruction etc............................. 101

72.41..................... Defence—acts by Australians in military cooperation with countries not party to Convention on Cluster Munitions....................................................................... 102

72.42..................... Defence—acts by military personnel of countries not party to Convention on Cluster Munitions           103

72.43..................... Forfeiture of cluster munition......................................... 104

72.44..................... Application of this Subdivision to explosive bomblets... 104

72.45..................... Definitions...................................................................... 104

Division 73—People smuggling and related offences                                   106

Subdivision A—People smuggling offences                                                    106

73.1....................... Offence of people smuggling.......................................... 106

73.2....................... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (danger of death or serious harm etc.)     106

73.3....................... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (at least 5 people) 107

73.3A.................... Supporting the offence of people smuggling.................. 108

73.4....................... Jurisdictional requirement............................................... 108

73.5....................... Attorney‑General’s consent required.............................. 109

Subdivision B—Document offences related to people smuggling and unlawful entry into foreign countries        109

73.6....................... Meaning of travel or identity document.......................... 109

73.7....................... Meaning of false travel or identity document.................. 109

73.8....................... Making, providing or possessing a false travel or identity document       110

73.9....................... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document issued or altered dishonestly or as a result of threats........................................................................................ 111

73.10..................... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document to be used by a person who is not the rightful user........................................................................................ 112

73.11..................... Taking possession of or destroying another person’s travel or identity document   112

73.12..................... Jurisdictional requirement............................................... 113

Chapter 5—The security of the Commonwealth                                            114

Part 5.1—Treason and related offences                                                         114

Division 80—Treason, urging violence and advocating terrorism or genocide            114

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               114

80.1A.................... Definitions...................................................................... 114

80.1AAA.............. Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979             114

Subdivision B—Treason                                                                                       114

80.1....................... Treason........................................................................... 114

80.1AA................. Treason—assisting enemy to engage in armed conflict... 115

80.1AB.................. Proclamation of enemy engaged in armed conflict.......... 117

80.1AC.................. Treachery........................................................................ 117

Subdivision C—Urging violence and advocating terrorism or genocide 117

80.2....................... Urging violence against the Constitution etc................... 117

80.2A.................... Urging violence against groups...................................... 119

80.2B..................... Urging violence against members of groups................... 120

80.2C..................... Advocating terrorism...................................................... 121

80.2D.................... Advocating genocide...................................................... 123

Subdivision D—Common provisions                                                                124

80.3....................... Defence for acts done in good faith................................ 124

80.4....................... Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences............. 126

80.6....................... Division not intended to exclude State or Territory law.. 126

Division 82—Sabotage                                                                                          127

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               127

82.1....................... Definitions...................................................................... 127

82.2....................... Public infrastructure........................................................ 128

82.2A.................... Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979             129

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                      129

82.3....................... Offence of sabotage involving foreign principal with intention as to national security             129

82.4....................... Offence of sabotage involving foreign principal reckless as to national security      130

82.5....................... Offence of sabotage with intention as to national security 131

82.6....................... Offence of sabotage reckless as to national security....... 131

82.7....................... Offence of introducing vulnerability with intention as to national security               132

82.8....................... Offence of introducing vulnerability reckless as to national security        132

82.9....................... Preparing for or planning sabotage offence.................... 133

82.10..................... Defences......................................................................... 134

82.11..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 134

82.12..................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 134

82.13..................... Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions. 135

Division 83—Other threats to security                                                             137

83.1A.................... Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979             137

83.1....................... Advocating mutiny......................................................... 137

83.2....................... Assisting prisoners of war to escape.............................. 138

83.3....................... Military‑style training involving foreign government principal etc.          139

83.4....................... Interference with political rights and duties..................... 140

83.5....................... Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions. 141

Part 5.2—Espionage and related offences                                                    142

Division 90—Preliminary                                                                                    142

90.1....................... Definitions...................................................................... 142

90.2....................... Definition of foreign principal........................................ 144

90.3....................... Definition of foreign government principal.................... 144

90.4....................... Definition of national security........................................ 145

90.5....................... Definition of security classification................................ 145

90.6....................... Expressions also used in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979             146

Division 91—Espionage                                                                                       148

Subdivision A—Espionage                                                                                   148

91.1....................... Espionage—dealing with information etc. concerning national security which is or will be communicated or made available to foreign principal.................................. 148

91.2....................... Espionage—dealing with information etc. which is or will be communicated or made available to foreign principal.......................................................................... 149

91.3....................... Espionage—security classified information etc............... 150

91.4....................... Defences......................................................................... 151

91.5....................... Matters affecting sentencing for offence against subsection 91.1(1)        152

91.6....................... Aggravated espionage offence........................................ 152

91.7....................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 153

Subdivision B—Espionage on behalf of foreign principal                          153

91.8....................... Espionage on behalf of foreign principal........................ 153

91.9....................... Defences......................................................................... 155

91.10..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 156

Subdivision C—Espionage‑related offences                                                   156

91.11..................... Offence of soliciting or procuring an espionage offence or making it easier to do so              156

91.12..................... Offence of preparing for an espionage offence............... 157

91.13..................... Defences......................................................................... 158

91.14..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 158

Division 92—Foreign interference                                                                    159

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               159

92.1....................... Definitions...................................................................... 159

Subdivision B—Foreign interference                                                               159

92.2....................... Offence of intentional foreign interference...................... 159

92.3....................... Offence of reckless foreign interference......................... 161

92.4....................... Offence of preparing for a foreign interference offence.. 162

92.5....................... Defence........................................................................... 163

92.6....................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 163

Subdivision C—Foreign interference involving foreign intelligence agencies              163

92.7....................... Knowingly supporting foreign intelligence agency......... 163

92.8....................... Recklessly supporting foreign intelligence agency.......... 164

92.9....................... Knowingly funding or being funded by foreign intelligence agency        164

92.10..................... Recklessly funding or being funded by foreign intelligence agency         165

92.11..................... Defence........................................................................... 165

Division 92A—Theft of trade secrets involving foreign government principal            166

92A.1.................... Theft of trade secrets involving foreign government principal 166

92A.2.................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 167

Division 93—Prosecutions and hearings                                                          168

93.1....................... Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions. 168

93.2....................... Hearing in camera etc...................................................... 169

93.4....................... Fault elements for attempted espionage offences............ 169

93.5....................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 170

Division 94—Forfeiture                                                                                       171

94.1....................... Forfeiture of articles etc.................................................. 171

Part 5.3—Terrorism                                                                                                 172

Division 100—Preliminary                                                                                 172

100.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 172

100.2..................... Referring States.............................................................. 177

100.3..................... Constitutional basis for the operation of this Part........... 178

100.4..................... Application of provisions............................................... 179

100.5..................... Application of Acts Interpretation Act 1901................... 181

100.6..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 182

100.7..................... Regulations may modify operation of this Part to deal with interaction between this Part and State and Territory laws................................................................. 182

100.8..................... Approval for changes to or affecting this Part................ 183

Division 101—Terrorism                                                                                     184

101.1..................... Terrorist acts................................................................... 184

101.2..................... Providing or receiving training connected with terrorist acts 184

101.4..................... Possessing things connected with terrorist acts.............. 185

101.5..................... Collecting or making documents likely to facilitate terrorist acts              186

101.6..................... Other acts done in preparation for, or planning, terrorist acts.. 187

Division 102—Terrorist organisations                                                            189

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  189

102.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 189

102.1AA............... Including or removing names of prescribed terrorist organisations          192

102.1A.................. Reviews by Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security                193

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                      195

102.2..................... Directing the activities of a terrorist organisation............ 195

102.3..................... Membership of a terrorist organisation........................... 195

102.4..................... Recruiting for a terrorist organisation............................. 196

102.5..................... Training involving a terrorist organisation...................... 196

102.6..................... Getting funds to, from or for a terrorist organisation...... 197

102.7..................... Providing support to a terrorist organisation................... 198

102.8..................... Associating with terrorist organisations.......................... 199

Subdivision C—General provisions relating to offences                             201

102.9..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences............. 201

102.10................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 202

Division 103—Financing terrorism                                                                  203

103.1..................... Financing terrorism......................................................... 203

103.2..................... Financing a terrorist........................................................ 203

103.3..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences............. 204

Division 104—Control orders                                                                             205

Subdivision A—Objects of this Division                                                           205

104.1..................... Objects of this Division.................................................. 205

Subdivision B—Making an interim control order                                         205

104.2..................... AFP Minister’s consent to request an interim control order 205

104.3..................... Requesting the court to make an interim control order.... 207

104.4..................... Making an interim control order..................................... 208

104.5..................... Terms of an interim control order................................... 210

Subdivision C—Making an urgent interim control order                           214

104.6..................... Requesting an urgent interim control order by electronic means              214

104.7..................... Making an urgent interim control order by electronic means 215

104.8..................... Requesting an urgent interim control order in person..... 216

104.9..................... Making an urgent interim control order in person........... 217

104.10................... Obtaining the AFP Minister’s consent within 8 hours... 217

104.11................... Court to assume that exercise of power not authorised by urgent interim control order           218

Subdivision CA—Varying an interim control order                                     218

104.11A................ Varying an interim control order..................................... 218

Subdivision D—Confirming an interim control order                                 219

104.12................... Service, explanation and notification of an interim control order              219

104.12A................ Election to confirm control order.................................... 221

104.13................... Lawyer may request a copy of an interim control order.. 223

104.14................... Confirming an interim control order............................... 223

104.15................... When a declaration, or a revocation, variation or confirmation of a control order, is in force   225

104.16................... Terms of a confirmed control order................................ 226

104.17................... Service of a declaration, or a revocation, variation or confirmation of a control order              226

Subdivision E—Rights in respect of a control order                                     228

104.18................... Application by the person for a revocation or variation of a control order               228

104.19................... Application by the AFP Commissioner for a revocation or variation of a control order          229

104.20................... Revocation or variation of a control order....................... 230

104.21................... Lawyer may request a copy of a control order................ 231

104.22................... Treatment of photographs and impressions of fingerprints 231

Subdivision F—Adding obligations, prohibitions or restrictions to a control order    232

104.23................... Application by the AFP Commissioner for addition of obligations, prohibitions or restrictions              232

104.24................... Varying a control order................................................... 235

104.25................... Terms of a varied control order....................................... 236

104.26................... Service and explanation of a varied control order........... 236

Subdivision G—Offences relating to control orders                                     238

104.27................... Offence for contravening a control order........................ 238

104.27A................ Offence relating to tracking devices................................ 238

Subdivision H—Special rules for young people (14 to 17)                          239

104.28................... Special rules for young people........................................ 239

Subdivision I—Miscellaneous                                                                             240

104.28A................ Interlocutory proceedings............................................... 240

104.28AA............. Costs in control order proceedings................................. 240

104.28B................. Giving documents to persons detained in custody.......... 240

104.29................... Reporting requirements................................................... 241

104.30................... Requirement to notify AFP Minister of declarations, revocations or variations       242

104.31................... Queensland public interest monitor functions and powers not affected    243

104.32................... Sunset provision............................................................. 243

Division 105—Preventative detention orders                                                 244

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               244

105.1..................... Object............................................................................. 244

105.2..................... Issuing authorities for continued preventative detention orders                244

105.3..................... Police officer detaining person under a preventative detention order        245

Subdivision B—Preventative detention orders                                               245

105.4..................... Basis for applying for, and making, preventative detention orders           245

105.5..................... No preventative detention order in relation to person under 16 years of age            247

105.5A.................. Special assistance for person with inadequate knowledge of English language or disability    248

105.6..................... Restrictions on multiple preventative detention orders.... 248

105.7..................... Application for initial preventative detention order......... 250

105.8..................... Senior AFP member may make initial preventative detention order         252

105.9..................... Duration of initial preventative detention order............... 255

105.10................... Extension of initial preventative detention order............. 256

105.10A................ Notice of application for continued preventative detention order              256

105.11................... Application for continued preventative detention order... 257

105.12................... Judge, AAT member or retired judge may make continued preventative detention order         258

105.13................... Duration of continued preventative detention order........ 260

105.14................... Extension of continued preventative detention order....... 261

105.14A................ Basis for applying for, and making, prohibited contact order.. 262

105.15................... Prohibited contact order (person in relation to whom preventative detention order is being sought)        263

105.16................... Prohibited contact order (person in relation to whom preventative detention order is already in force)    265

105.17................... Revocation of preventative detention order or prohibited contact order    267

105.18................... Status of person making continued preventative detention order              269

Subdivision C—Carrying out preventative detention orders                     270

105.19................... Power to detain person under preventative detention order 270

105.20................... Endorsement of order with date and time person taken into custody        272

105.21................... Requirement to provide name etc.................................... 272

105.22................... Power to enter premises.................................................. 273

105.23................... Power to conduct a frisk search...................................... 274

105.24................... Power to conduct an ordinary search.............................. 274

105.25................... Warrant under Division 3 of Part III of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979      275

105.26................... Release of person from preventative detention................ 275

105.27................... Arrangement for detainee to be held in State or Territory prison or remand centre  277

Subdivision D—Informing person detained about preventative detention order          278

105.28................... Effect of initial preventative detention order to be explained to person detained       278

105.29................... Effect of continued preventative detention order to be explained to person detained                280

105.30................... Person being detained to be informed of extension of preventative detention order 282

105.31................... Compliance with obligations to inform........................... 282

105.32................... Copy of preventative detention order.............................. 283

Subdivision E—Treatment of person detained                                               284

105.33................... Humane treatment of person being detained................... 284

105.33A................ Detention of persons under 18........................................ 285

105.34................... Restriction on contact with other people......................... 285

105.35................... Contacting family members etc....................................... 286

105.36................... Contacting Ombudsman etc............................................ 287

105.37................... Contacting lawyer........................................................... 288

105.38................... Monitoring contact under section 105.35 or 105.37....... 290

105.39................... Special contact rules for person under 18 or incapable of managing own affairs     291

105.40................... Entitlement to contact subject to prohibited contact order 293

105.41................... Disclosure offences........................................................ 293

105.42................... Questioning of person prohibited while person is detained 299

105.43................... Taking fingerprints, recordings, samples of handwriting or photographs                300

105.44................... Use of identification material.......................................... 303

105.45................... Offences of contravening safeguards.............................. 303

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                            304

105.46................... Nature of functions of Federal Circuit Court Judge........ 304

105.47................... Annual report.................................................................. 304

105.48................... Certain functions and powers not affected...................... 305

105.49................... Queensland public interest monitor functions and powers not affected    305

105.50................... Law relating to legal professional privilege not affected. 305

105.51................... Legal proceedings in relation to preventative detention orders 306

105.52................... Review by State and Territory courts.............................. 307

105.53................... Sunset provision............................................................. 309

Division 105A—Continuing detention orders                                                 310

Subdivision A—Object and definitions                                                             310

105A.1.................. Object............................................................................. 310

105A.2.................. Definitions...................................................................... 310

105A.2A............... Persons who have escaped from custody....................... 311

Subdivision B—Continuing detention orders                                                  311

105A.3.................. Who a continuing detention order may apply to and effect of an order    311

105A.4.................. Treatment of a terrorist offender in a prison under a continuing detention order      313

Subdivision C—Making a continuing detention order                                 314

105A.5.................. Applying for a continuing detention order...................... 314

105A.6.................. Appointment of and assessment by relevant expert........ 317

105A.7.................. Making a continuing detention order.............................. 319

105A.8.................. Matters a Court must have regard to in making a continuing detention order           320

105A.9.................. Interim detention orders.................................................. 321

Subdivision D—Review of continuing detention order                                 322

105A.10................ Periodic review of continuing detention order................ 322

105A.11................ Review of continuing detention order on application...... 323

105A.12................ Process for reviewing a continuing detention order........ 324

Subdivision E—Provisions relating to continuing detention order proceedings           326

105A.13................ Civil evidence and procedure rules in relation to continuing detention order proceedings        326

105A.14................ Adducing evidence and making submissions................. 326

105A.15................ Giving terrorist offenders documents............................. 326

105A.15A............. When a terrorist offender is unable to engage a legal representative         327

105A.16................ Reasons for decisions..................................................... 327

105A.17................ Right of appeal................................................................ 328

105A.18................ Consequences of release of terrorist offender................. 329

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                            331

105A.19................ Sharing information........................................................ 331

105A.20................ Delegation by the AFP Minister..................................... 332

105A.21................ Arrangement with States and Territories......................... 332

105A.22................ Annual report.................................................................. 332

105A.23................ Warning about continuing detention orders when sentencing for certain offences   333

105A.24................ Effect of continuing detention orders on bail or parole laws 333

105A.25................ Sunset provision............................................................. 334

Division 106—Transitional provisions                                                            335

106.1..................... Saving—regulations originally made for the purposes of paragraph (c) of the definition of terrorist organisation................................................................... 335

106.2..................... Saving—regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (a) of the definition of terrorist organisation........................................................................................ 335

106.3..................... Application provision..................................................... 336

106.4..................... Saving—Federal Magistrates.......................................... 336

106.5..................... Application provisions for certain amendments in the Counter‑Terrorism Legislation Amendment (Foreign Fighters) Act 2014.......................................................... 336

106.6..................... Application provisions for certain amendments in the Counter‑Terrorism Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2014................................................................................ 338

106.7..................... Application provision for certain amendments in the Counter‑Terrorism Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2016................................................................................ 339

106.8..................... Application provision for amendments in the Criminal Code Amendment (High Risk Terrorist Offenders) Act 2016................................................................................ 340

106.9..................... Application—Counter‑Terrorism Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2018          341

106.10................... Application—Counter‑Terrorism Legislation Amendment (2019 Measures No. 1) Act 2019                342

Part 5.4—Harming Australians                                                                          344

Division 115—Harming Australians                                                                 344

115.1..................... Murder of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia 344

115.2..................... Manslaughter of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia              345

115.3..................... Intentionally causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia              346

115.4..................... Recklessly causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia 346

115.5..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 347

115.6..................... Bringing proceedings under this Division...................... 347

115.7..................... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings................ 347

115.8..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 347

115.9..................... Meaning of causes death or harm................................... 348

Part 5.5—Foreign incursions and recruitment                                           349

Division 117—Preliminary                                                                                 349

117.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 349

117.2..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............ 351

Division 119—Foreign incursions and recruitment                                      352

119.1..................... Incursions into foreign countries with the intention of engaging in hostile activities                352

119.2..................... Entering, or remaining in, declared areas........................ 353

119.3..................... Declaration of areas for the purposes of section 119.2... 355

119.4..................... Preparations for incursions into foreign countries for purpose of engaging in hostile activities               357

119.5..................... Allowing use of buildings, vessels and aircraft to commit offences         361

119.6..................... Recruiting persons to join organisations engaged in hostile activities against foreign governments         362

119.7..................... Recruiting persons to serve in or with an armed force in a foreign country             363

119.8..................... Declaration in relation to specified armed forces............. 365

119.9..................... Exception—conduct for defence or international relations of Australia    366

119.10................... Mode of trial................................................................... 366

119.11................... Consent of Attorney‑General required for prosecutions. 366

119.12................... Declarations for the purposes of proceedings................. 367

Part 5.6—Secrecy of information                                                                      368

Division 121—Preliminary                                                                                 368

121.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 368

121.2..................... Definition of proper place of custody............................. 371

Division 122—Secrecy of information                                                             372

122.1..................... Communication and other dealings with inherently harmful information by current and former Commonwealth officers etc...................................................................... 372

122.2..................... Conduct by current and former Commonwealth officers etc. causing harm to Australia’s interests         374

122.3..................... Aggravated offence......................................................... 376

122.4..................... Unauthorised disclosure of information by current and former Commonwealth officers etc.  377

122.4A.................. Communicating and dealing with information by non‑Commonwealth officers etc.                377

122.5..................... Defences......................................................................... 379

Division 123—Miscellaneous                                                                                387

123.1..................... Injunctions...................................................................... 387

123.2..................... Forfeiture of articles etc.................................................. 387

123.3..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............ 388

123.4..................... Effect of this Part on other rights, privileges, immunities or defences      388

123.5..................... Requirements before proceedings can be initiated........... 388

Chapter 7—The proper administration of Government                           389

Part 7.1—Preliminary                                                                                              389

Division 130—Preliminary                                                                                 389

130.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 389

130.2..................... When property belongs to a person................................ 390

130.3..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 391

130.4..................... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact 391

Part 7.2—Theft and other property offences                                              392

Division 131—Theft                                                                                              392

131.1..................... Theft............................................................................... 392

131.2..................... Special rules about the meaning of dishonesty................ 392

131.3..................... Appropriation of property............................................... 393

131.4..................... Theft of land or things forming part of land.................... 393

131.5..................... Trust property................................................................. 393

131.6..................... Obligation to deal with property in a particular way....... 394

131.7..................... Property obtained because of fundamental mistake......... 394

131.8..................... Property of a corporation sole......................................... 395

131.9..................... Property belonging to 2 or more persons........................ 395

131.10................... Intention of permanently depriving a person of property 395

131.11................... General deficiency.......................................................... 396

Division 132—Other property offences                                                           397

132.1..................... Receiving........................................................................ 397

132.2..................... Robbery.......................................................................... 400

132.3..................... Aggravated robbery........................................................ 401

132.4..................... Burglary.......................................................................... 402

132.5..................... Aggravated burglary....................................................... 404

132.6..................... Making off without payment.......................................... 405

132.7..................... Going equipped for theft or a property offence............... 406

132.8..................... Dishonest taking or retention of property....................... 407

132.8A.................. Damaging Commonwealth property............................... 408

132.9..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 409

Part 7.3—Fraudulent conduct                                                                             410

Division 133—Preliminary                                                                                 410

133.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 410

Division 134—Obtaining property or a financial advantage by deception 411

134.1..................... Obtaining property by deception..................................... 411

134.2..................... Obtaining a financial advantage by deception................. 414

134.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 414

Division 135—Other offences involving fraudulent conduct                     415

135.1..................... General dishonesty......................................................... 415

135.2..................... Obtaining financial advantage......................................... 416

135.4..................... Conspiracy to defraud..................................................... 417

135.5..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 420

Part 7.4—False or misleading statements                                                     421

Division 136—False or misleading statements in applications                  421

136.1..................... False or misleading statements in applications................ 421

Division 137—False or misleading information or documents                 424

137.1..................... False or misleading information...................................... 424

137.1A.................. Aggravated offence for giving false or misleading information               425

137.2..................... False or misleading documents....................................... 426

137.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 427

Part 7.5—Unwarranted demands                                                                      428

Division 138—Preliminary                                                                                 428

138.1..................... Unwarranted demand with menaces............................... 428

138.2..................... Menaces.......................................................................... 428

Division 139—Unwarranted demands                                                              430

139.1..................... Unwarranted demands of a Commonwealth public official 430

139.2..................... Unwarranted demands made by a Commonwealth public official            430

139.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 431

Part 7.6—Bribery and related offences                                                          432

Division 140—Preliminary                                                                                 432

140.1..................... Definition........................................................................ 432

140.2..................... Obtaining........................................................................ 432

Division 141—Bribery                                                                                          433

141.1..................... Bribery of a Commonwealth public official.................... 433

Division 142—Offences relating to bribery                                                    436

142.1..................... Corrupting benefits given to, or received by, a Commonwealth public official        436

142.2..................... Abuse of public office.................................................... 437

142.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 438

Part 7.7—Forgery and related offences                                                         439

Division 143—Preliminary                                                                                 439

143.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 439

143.2..................... False documents............................................................. 440

143.3..................... False Commonwealth documents................................... 441

143.4..................... Inducing acceptance of false documents......................... 442

Division 144—Forgery                                                                                         443

144.1..................... Forgery........................................................................... 443

Division 145—Offences relating to forgery                                                    445

145.1..................... Using forged document.................................................. 445

145.2..................... Possession of forged document...................................... 446

145.3..................... Possession, making or adaptation of devices etc. for making forgeries    448

145.4..................... Falsification of documents etc......................................... 450

145.5..................... Giving information derived from false or misleading documents             451

145.6..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 452

Part 7.8—Causing harm to or obstructing Commonwealth public officials and impersonating Commonwealth public officials or bodies                            453

Division 146—Preliminary                                                                                 453

146.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 453

146.2..................... Causing harm.................................................................. 454

Division 147—Causing harm to Commonwealth public officials             455

147.1..................... Causing harm to a Commonwealth public official etc..... 455

147.2..................... Threatening to cause harm to a Commonwealth public official etc.          457

147.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 459

Division 148—Impersonation of Commonwealth public officials            460

148.1..................... Impersonation of an official by a non‑official................. 460

148.2..................... Impersonation of an official by another official.............. 461

148.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 463

Division 149—Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials                 464

149.1..................... Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials.............. 464

Division 150—False representations in relation to a Commonwealth body 466

Subdivision A—Offences                                                                                      466

150.1..................... False representations in relation to a Commonwealth body 466

Subdivision B—Injunctions                                                                                 468

150.5..................... Injunctions...................................................................... 468

Part 7.20—Miscellaneous                                                                                       469

Division 261—Miscellaneous                                                                              469

261.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 469

261.2..................... Contempt of court........................................................... 469

261.3..................... Ancillary offences........................................................... 469


An Act relating to the criminal law

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Criminal Code Act 1995.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), this Act commences on a day to be fixed by Proclamation.

             (2)  If this Act does not commence under subsection (1) within the period of 5 years beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, it commences on the first day after the end of that period.

3  The Criminal Code

             (1)  The Schedule has effect as a law of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  The Schedule may be cited as the Criminal Code.

3A  External Territories

                   The Criminal Code extends to every external Territory.

3B  Offshore installations

                   Unless the contrary intention appears, an installation (within the meaning of the Customs Act 1901) that is deemed by section 5C of the Customs Act 1901 to be part of Australia is also taken to be part of Australia for the purposes of the Criminal Code.

4  Definitions

             (1)  Expressions used in the Code (or in a particular provision of the Code) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of the Code have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary.

             (2)  Definitions in the Code of expressions used in the Code apply to its construction except insofar as the context or subject matter otherwise indicates or requires.

5  Regulations

             (1)  The Governor‑General may make regulations prescribing matters:

                     (a)  required or permitted by this Act to be prescribed; or

                     (b)  necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act.

             (2)  For the purposes of the Legislation Act 2003, the Minister administering the Australian Federal Police Act 1979 is the rule‑maker for regulations made for the purposes of the following provisions of the Criminal Code:

                     (a)  Division 71 (offences against United Nations and associated personnel);

                     (b)  Division 72 (explosives and lethal devices);

                     (c)  Division 73 (people smuggling and related offences);

                     (d)  Part 5.1 (treason and related offences);

                     (e)  Part 5.2 (espionage and related offences);

                      (f)  Part 5.3 (terrorism), other than Division 100 (preliminary provisions);

                     (g)  Part 5.4 (harming Australians);

                     (h)  Part 5.5 (foreign incursions and recruitment);

                      (i)  Division 270 (slavery and slavery‑like conditions);

                      (j)  Division 271 (trafficking in persons and debt bondage);

                     (k)  Division 272 (child sex offences outside Australia);

                      (l)  Division 273 (offences involving child abuse material outside Australia);

                    (la)  Division 273A (possession of child‑like sex dolls etc.);

                    (lb)  Division 273B (protection of children);

                    (m)  Chapter 9 (dangers to the community);

                     (n)  Chapter 10 (national infrastructure).

             (3)  Subsection (2) applies despite subsection 6(1) of the Legislation Act 2003.


ScheduleThe Criminal Code

Section 3

Chapter 1Codification

  

Division 1  

1.1  Codification

                   The only offences against laws of the Commonwealth are those offences created by, or under the authority of, this Code or any other Act.

Note:          Under subsection 38(1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, Act means an Act passed by the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

Chapter 2General principles of criminal responsibility

Part 2.1Purpose and application

Division 2  

2.1  Purpose

                   The purpose of this Chapter is to codify the general principles of criminal responsibility under laws of the Commonwealth.  It contains all the general principles of criminal responsibility that apply to any offence, irrespective of how the offence is created.

2.2  Application

             (1)  This Chapter applies to all offences against this Code.

             (2)  Subject to section 2.3, this Chapter applies on and after 15 December 2001 to all other offences.

             (3)  Section 11.6 applies to all offences.

2.3  Application of provisions relating to intoxication

                   Subsections 4.2(6) and (7) and Division 8 apply to all offences. For the purpose of interpreting those provisions in connection with an offence, the other provisions of this Chapter may be considered, whether or not those other provisions apply to the offence concerned.

Part 2.2The elements of an offence

Division 3General

3.1  Elements

             (1)  An offence consists of physical elements and fault elements.

             (2)  However, the law that creates the offence may provide that there is no fault element for one or more physical elements.

             (3)  The law that creates the offence may provide different fault elements for different physical elements.

3.2  Establishing guilt in respect of offences

                   In order for a person to be found guilty of committing an offence the following must be proved:

                     (a)  the existence of such physical elements as are, under the law creating the offence, relevant to establishing guilt;

                     (b)  in respect of each such physical element for which a fault element is required, one of the fault elements for the physical element.

Note 1:       See Part 2.6 on proof of criminal responsibility.

Note 2:       See Part 2.7 on geographical jurisdiction.

Division 4Physical elements

4.1  Physical elements

             (1)  A physical element of an offence may be:

                     (a)  conduct; or

                     (b)  a result of conduct; or

                     (c)  a circumstance in which conduct, or a result of conduct, occurs.

             (2)  In this Code:

conduct means an act, an omission to perform an act or a state of affairs.

engage in conduct means:

                     (a)  do an act; or

                     (b)  omit to perform an act.

4.2  Voluntariness

             (1)  Conduct can only be a physical element if it is voluntary.

             (2)  Conduct is only voluntary if it is a product of the will of the person whose conduct it is.

             (3)  The following are examples of conduct that is not voluntary:

                     (a)  a spasm, convulsion or other unwilled bodily movement;

                     (b)  an act performed during sleep or unconsciousness;

                     (c)  an act performed during impaired consciousness depriving the person of the will to act.

             (4)  An omission to perform an act is only voluntary if the act omitted is one which the person is capable of performing.

             (5)  If the conduct constituting an offence consists only of a state of affairs, the state of affairs is only voluntary if it is one over which the person is capable of exercising control.

             (6)  Evidence of self‑induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether conduct is voluntary.

             (7)  Intoxication is self‑induced unless it came about:

                     (a)  involuntarily; or

                     (b)  as a result of fraud, sudden or extraordinary emergency, accident, reasonable mistake, duress or force.

4.3  Omissions

                   An omission to perform an act can only be a physical element if:

                     (a)  the law creating the offence makes it so; or

                     (b)  the law creating the offence impliedly provides that the offence is committed by an omission to perform an act that there is a duty to perform by a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory, or at common law.

Division 5Fault elements

5.1  Fault elements

             (1)  A fault element for a particular physical element may be intention, knowledge, recklessness or negligence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not prevent a law that creates a particular offence from specifying other fault elements for a physical element of that offence.

5.2  Intention

             (1)  A person has intention with respect to conduct if he or she means to engage in that conduct.

             (2)  A person has intention with respect to a circumstance if he or she believes that it exists or will exist.

             (3)  A person has intention with respect to a result if he or she means to bring it about or is aware that it will occur in the ordinary course of events.

5.3  Knowledge

                   A person has knowledge of a circumstance or a result if he or she is aware that it exists or will exist in the ordinary course of events.

5.4  Recklessness

             (1)  A person is reckless with respect to a circumstance if:

                     (a)  he or she is aware of a substantial risk that the circumstance exists or will exist; and

                     (b)  having regard to the circumstances known to him or her, it is unjustifiable to take the risk.

             (2)  A person is reckless with respect to a result if:

                     (a)  he or she is aware of a substantial risk that the result will occur; and

                     (b)  having regard to the circumstances known to him or her, it is unjustifiable to take the risk.

             (3)  The question whether taking a risk is unjustifiable is one of fact.

             (4)  If recklessness is  a fault element for a physical element of an offence, proof of intention, knowledge or recklessness will satisfy that fault element.

5.5  Negligence

                   A person is negligent with respect to a physical element of an offence if his or her conduct involves:

                     (a)  such a great falling short of the standard of care that a reasonable person would exercise in the circumstances; and

                     (b)  such a high risk that the physical element exists or will exist;

that the conduct merits criminal punishment for the offence.

5.6  Offences that do not specify fault elements

             (1)  If the law creating the offence does not specify a fault element for a physical element that consists only of conduct, intention is the fault element for that physical element.

             (2)  If the law creating the offence does not specify a fault element for a physical element that consists of a circumstance or a result, recklessness is the fault element for that physical element.

Note:          Under subsection 5.4(4), recklessness can be established by proving intention, knowledge or recklessness.

Division 6Cases where fault elements are not required

6.1  Strict liability

             (1)  If a law that creates an offence provides that the offence is an offence of strict liability:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for any of the physical elements of the offence; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is available.

             (2)  If a law that creates an offence provides that strict liability applies to a particular physical element of the offence:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for that physical element; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is available in relation to that physical element.

             (3)  The existence of strict liability does not make any other defence unavailable.

6.2  Absolute liability

             (1)  If a law that creates an offence provides that the offence is an offence of absolute liability:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for any of the physical elements of the offence; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is unavailable.

             (2)  If a law that creates an offence provides that absolute liability applies to a particular physical element of the offence:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for that physical element; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is unavailable in relation to that physical element.

             (3)  The existence of absolute liability does not make any other defence unavailable.

Part 2.3Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility

Note:       This Part sets out defences that are generally available. Defences that apply to a more limited class of offences are dealt with elsewhere in this Code and in other laws.

Division 7Circumstances involving lack of capacity

7.1  Children under 10

                   A child under 10 years old is not criminally responsible for an offence.

7.2  Children over 10 but under 14

             (1)  A child aged 10 years or more but under 14 years old can only be criminally responsible for an offence if the child knows that his or her conduct is wrong.

             (2)  The question whether a child knows that his or her conduct is wrong is one of fact. The burden of proving this is on the prosecution.

7.3  Mental impairment

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if, at the time of carrying out the conduct constituting the offence, the person was suffering from a mental impairment that had the effect that:

                     (a)  the person did not know the nature and quality of the conduct; or

                     (b)  the person did not know that the conduct was wrong (that is, the person could not reason with a moderate degree of sense and composure about whether the conduct, as perceived by reasonable people, was wrong); or

                     (c)  the person was unable to control the conduct.

             (2)  The question whether the person was suffering from a mental impairment is one of fact.

             (3)  A person is presumed not to have been suffering from such a mental impairment. The presumption is only displaced if it is proved on the balance of probabilities (by the prosecution or the defence) that the person was suffering from such a mental impairment.

             (4)  The prosecution can only rely on this section if the court gives leave.

             (5)  The tribunal of fact must return a special verdict that a person is not guilty of an offence because of mental impairment if and only if it is satisfied that the person is not criminally responsible for the offence only because of a mental impairment.

             (6)  A person cannot rely on a mental impairment to deny voluntariness or the existence of a fault element but may rely on this section to deny criminal responsibility.

             (7)  If the tribunal of fact is satisfied that a person carried out conduct as a result of a delusion caused by a mental impairment, the delusion cannot otherwise be relied on as a defence.

             (8)  In this Code:

mental impairment includes senility, intellectual disability, mental illness, brain damage and severe personality disorder.

             (9)  The reference in subsection (8) to mental illness is a reference to an underlying pathological infirmity of the mind, whether of long or short duration and whether permanent or temporary, but does not include a condition that results from the reaction of a healthy mind to extraordinary external stimuli. However, such a condition may be evidence of a mental illness if it involves some abnormality and is prone to recur.

Division 8Intoxication

8.1  Definition—self‑induced intoxication

                   For the purposes of this Division, intoxication is self‑induced unless it came about:

                     (a)  involuntarily; or

                     (b)  as a result of fraud, sudden or extraordinary emergency, accident, reasonable mistake, duress or force.

8.2  Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)

             (1)  Evidence of self‑induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether a fault element of basic intent existed.

             (2)  A fault element of basic intent is a fault element of intention for a physical element that consists only of conduct.

Note:          A fault element of intention with respect to a circumstance or with respect to a result is not a fault element of basic intent.

             (3)  This section does not prevent evidence of self‑induced intoxication being taken into consideration in determining whether conduct was accidental.

             (4)  This section does not prevent evidence of self‑induced intoxication being taken into consideration in determining whether a person had a mistaken belief about facts if the person had considered whether or not the facts existed.

             (5)  A person may be regarded as having considered whether or not facts existed if:

                     (a)  he or she had considered, on a previous occasion, whether those facts existed in circumstances surrounding that occasion; and

                     (b)  he or she honestly and reasonably believed that the circumstances surrounding the present occasion were the same, or substantially the same, as those surrounding the previous occasion.

8.3  Intoxication (negligence as fault element)

             (1)  If negligence is a fault element for a particular physical element of an offence, in determining whether that fault element existed in relation to a person who is intoxicated, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person who is not intoxicated.

             (2)  However, if intoxication is not self‑induced, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person intoxicated to the same extent as the person concerned.

8.4  Intoxication (relevance to defences)

             (1)  If any part of a defence is based on actual knowledge or belief, evidence of intoxication may be considered in determining whether that knowledge or belief existed.

             (2)  If any part of a defence is based on reasonable belief, in determining whether that reasonable belief existed, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person who is not intoxicated.

             (3)  If a person’s intoxication is not self‑induced, in determining whether any part of a defence based on reasonable belief exists, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person intoxicated to the same extent as the person concerned.

             (4)  If, in relation to an offence:

                     (a)  each physical element has a fault element of basic intent; and

                     (b)  any part of a defence is based on actual knowledge or belief;

evidence of self‑induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether that knowledge or belief existed.

             (5)  A fault element of basic intent is a fault element of intention for a physical element that consists only of conduct.

Note:          A fault element of intention with respect to a circumstance or with respect to a result is not a fault element of basic intent.

8.5  Involuntary intoxication

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if the person’s conduct constituting the offence was as a result of intoxication that was not self‑induced.

Division 9Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance

9.1  Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence)

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element for which there is a fault element other than negligence if:

                     (a)  at the time of the conduct constituting the physical element, the person is under a mistaken belief about, or is ignorant of, facts; and

                     (b)  the existence of that mistaken belief or ignorance negates any fault element applying to that physical element.

             (2)  In determining whether a person was under a mistaken belief about, or was ignorant of, facts, the tribunal of fact may consider whether the mistaken belief or ignorance was reasonable in the circumstances.

9.2  Mistake of fact (strict liability)

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element for which there is no fault element if:

                     (a)  at or before the time of the conduct constituting the physical element, the person considered whether or not facts existed, and is under a mistaken but reasonable belief about those facts; and

                     (b)  had those facts existed, the conduct would not have constituted an offence.

             (2)  A person may be regarded as having considered whether or not facts existed if:

                     (a)  he or she had considered, on a previous occasion, whether those facts existed in the circumstances surrounding that occasion; and

                     (b)  he or she honestly and reasonably believed that the circumstances surrounding the present occasion were the same, or substantially the same, as those surrounding the previous occasion.

 Note:         Section 6.2 prevents this section applying in situations of absolute liability.

9.3  Mistake or ignorance of statute law

             (1)  A person can be criminally responsible for an offence even if, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, he or she is mistaken about, or ignorant of, the existence or content of an Act that directly or indirectly creates the offence or directly or indirectly affects the scope or operation of the offence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply, and the person is not criminally responsible for the offence in those circumstances, if the Act is expressly to the contrary effect.

9.4  Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation

             (1)  A person can be criminally responsible for an offence even if, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, he or she is mistaken about, or ignorant of, the existence or content of the subordinate legislation that directly or indirectly creates the offence or directly or indirectly affects the scope or operation of the offence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply, and the person is not criminally responsible for the offence in those circumstances, if:

                     (a)  the subordinate legislation is expressly to the contrary effect; or

                     (c)  at the time of the conduct, the subordinate legislation:

                              (i)  has not been made available to the public (by means of the Register under the Legislation Act 2003 or otherwise); and

                             (ii)  has not otherwise been made available to persons likely to be affected by it in such a way that the person would have become aware of its contents by exercising due diligence.

             (3)  In this section:

available includes available by sale.

subordinate legislation means an instrument of a legislative character made directly or indirectly under an Act, or in force directly or indirectly under an Act.

9.5  Claim of right

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element relating to property if:

                     (a)  at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, the person is under a mistaken belief about a proprietary or possessory right; and

                     (b)  the existence of that right would negate a fault element for any physical element of the offence.

             (2)  A person is not criminally responsible for any other offence arising necessarily out of the exercise of the proprietary or possessory right that he or she mistakenly believes to exist.

             (3)  This section does not negate criminal responsibility for an offence relating to the use of force against a person.

Division 10Circumstances involving external factors

10.1  Intervening conduct or event

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element to which absolute liability or strict liability applies if:

                     (a)  the physical element is brought about by another person over whom the person has no control or by a non‑human act or event over which the person has no control; and

                     (b)  the person could not reasonably be expected to guard against the bringing about of that physical element.

10.2  Duress

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence under duress.

             (2)  A person carries out conduct under duress if and only if he or she reasonably believes that:

                     (a)  a threat has been made that will be carried out unless an offence is committed; and

                     (b)  there is no reasonable way that the threat can be rendered ineffective; and

                     (c)  the conduct is a reasonable response to the threat.

             (3)  This section does not apply if the threat is made by or on behalf of a person with whom the person under duress is voluntarily associating for the purpose of carrying out conduct of the kind actually carried out.

10.3  Sudden or extraordinary emergency

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence in response to circumstances of sudden or extraordinary emergency.

             (2)  This section applies if and only if the person carrying out the conduct reasonably believes that:

                     (a)  circumstances of sudden or extraordinary emergency exist; and

                     (b)  committing the offence is the only reasonable way to deal with the emergency; and

                     (c)  the conduct is a reasonable response to the emergency.

10.4  Self‑defence

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence in self‑defence.

             (2)  A person carries out conduct in self‑defence if and only if he or she believes the conduct is necessary:

                     (a)  to defend himself or herself or another person; or

                     (b)  to prevent or terminate the unlawful imprisonment of himself or herself or another person; or

                     (c)  to protect property from unlawful appropriation, destruction, damage or interference; or

                     (d)  to prevent criminal trespass to any land or premises; or

                     (e)  to remove from any land or premises a person who is committing criminal trespass;

and the conduct is a reasonable response in the circumstances as he or she perceives them.

             (3)  This section does not apply if the person uses force that involves the intentional infliction of death or really serious injury:

                     (a)  to protect property; or

                     (b)  to prevent criminal trespass; or

                     (c)  to remove a person who is committing criminal trespass.

             (4)  This section does not apply if:

                     (a)  the person is responding to lawful conduct; and

                     (b)  he or she knew that the conduct was lawful.

However, conduct is not lawful merely because the person carrying it out is not criminally responsible for it.

10.5  Lawful authority

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if the conduct constituting the offence is justified or excused by or under a law.

Part 2.4Extensions of criminal responsibility

Division 11  

11.1  Attempt

             (1)  A person who attempts to commit an offence commits the offence of attempting to commit that offence and is punishable as if the offence attempted had been committed.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty, the person’s conduct must be more than merely preparatory to the commission of the offence. The question whether conduct is more than merely preparatory to the commission of the offence is one of fact.

             (3)  For the offence of attempting to commit an offence, intention and knowledge are fault elements in relation to each physical element of the offence attempted.

Note:          Under section 3.2, only one of the fault elements of intention or knowledge would need to be established in respect of each physical element of the offence attempted.

          (3A)  Subsection (3) has effect subject to subsection (6A).

             (4)  A person may be found guilty even if:

                     (a)  committing the offence attempted is impossible; or

                     (b)  the person actually committed the offence attempted.

             (5)  A person who is found guilty of attempting to commit an offence cannot be subsequently charged with the completed offence.

             (6)  Any defences, procedures, limitations or qualifying provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of attempting to commit that offence.

          (6A)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of attempting to commit that offence.

             (7)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against section 11.2 (complicity and common purpose), section 11.2A (joint commission), section 11.3 (commission by proxy), section 11.5 (conspiracy to commit an offence) or section 135.4 (conspiracy to defraud).

11.2  Complicity and common purpose

             (1)  A person who aids, abets, counsels or procures the commission of an offence by another person is taken to have committed that offence and is punishable accordingly.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct must have in fact aided, abetted, counselled or procured the commission of the offence by the other person; and

                     (b)  the offence must have been committed by the other person.

             (3)  For the person to be guilty, the person must have intended that:

                     (a)  his or her conduct would aid, abet, counsel or procure the commission of any offence (including its fault elements) of the type the other person committed; or

                     (b)  his or her conduct would aid, abet, counsel or procure the commission of an offence and have been reckless about the commission of the offence (including its fault elements) that the other person in fact committed.

          (3A)  Subsection (3) has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (4)  A person cannot be found guilty of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence if, before the offence was committed, the person:

                     (a)  terminated his or her involvement; and

                     (b)  took all reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence.

             (5)  A person may be found guilty of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence even if the other person has not been prosecuted or has not been found guilty.

             (6)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also for the purposes of determining whether a person is guilty of that offence because of the operation of subsection (1).

             (7)  If the trier of fact is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that a person either:

                     (a)  is guilty of a particular offence otherwise than because of the operation of subsection (1); or

                     (b)  is guilty of that offence because of the operation of subsection (1);

but is not able to determine which, the trier of fact may nonetheless find the person guilty of that offence.

11.2A  Joint commission

Joint commission

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a person and at least one other party enter into an agreement to commit an offence; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  an offence is committed in accordance with the agreement (within the meaning of subsection (2)); or

                             (ii)  an offence is committed in the course of carrying out the agreement (within the meaning of subsection (3));

the person is taken to have committed the joint offence referred to in whichever of subsection (2) or (3) applies and is punishable accordingly.

Offence committed in accordance with the agreement

             (2)  An offence is committed in accordance with the agreement if:

                     (a)  the conduct of one or more parties in accordance with the agreement makes up the physical elements consisting of conduct of an offence (the joint offence) of the same type as the offence agreed to; and

                     (b)  to the extent that a physical element of the joint offence consists of a result of conduct—that result arises from the conduct engaged in; and

                     (c)  to the extent that a physical element of the joint offence consists of a circumstance—the conduct engaged in, or a result of the conduct engaged in, occurs in that circumstance.

Offence committed in the course of carrying out the agreement

             (3)  An offence is committed in the course of carrying out the agreement if the person is reckless about the commission of an offence (the joint offence) that another party in fact commits in the course of carrying out the agreement.

Intention to commit an offence

             (4)  For a person to be guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section, the person and at least one other party to the agreement must have intended that an offence would be committed under the agreement.

Agreement may be non‑verbal etc.

             (5)  The agreement:

                     (a)  may consist of a non‑verbal understanding; and

                     (b)  may be entered into before, or at the same time as, the conduct constituting any of the physical elements of the joint offence was engaged in.

Termination of involvement etc.

             (6)  A person cannot be found guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section if, before the conduct constituting any of the physical elements of the joint offence concerned was engaged in, the person:

                     (a)  terminated his or her involvement; and

                     (b)  took all reasonable steps to prevent that conduct from being engaged in.

Person may be found guilty even if another party not prosecuted etc.

             (7)  A person may be found guilty of an offence because of the operation of this section even if:

                     (a)  another party to the agreement has not been prosecuted or has not been found guilty; or

                     (b)  the person was not present when any of the conduct constituting the physical elements of the joint offence was engaged in.

Special liability provisions apply

             (8)  Any special liability provisions that apply to the joint offence apply also for the purposes of determining whether a person is guilty of that offence because of the operation of this section.

11.3  Commission by proxy

                   A person who:

                     (a)  has, in relation to each physical element of an offence, a fault element applicable to that physical element; and

                     (b)  procures conduct of another person that (whether or not together with conduct of the procurer) would have constituted an offence on the part of the procurer if the procurer had engaged in it;

is taken to have committed that offence and is punishable accordingly.

11.4  Incitement

             (1)  A person who urges the commission of an offence commits the offence of incitement.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty, the person must intend that the offence incited be committed.

          (2A)  Subsection (2) has effect subject to subsection (4A).

             (3)  A person may be found guilty even if committing the offence incited is impossible.

             (4)  Any defences, procedures, limitations or qualifying provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of incitement in respect of that offence.

          (4A)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of incitement in respect of that offence.

             (5)  It is not an offence to incite the commission of an offence against section 11.1 (attempt), this section or section 11.5 (conspiracy).

Penalty:

                     (a)  if the offence incited is punishable by life imprisonment—imprisonment for 10 years; or

                     (b)  if the offence incited is punishable by imprisonment for 14 years or more, but is not punishable by life imprisonment—imprisonment for 7 years; or

                     (c)  if the offence incited is punishable by imprisonment for 10 years or more, but is not punishable by imprisonment for 14 years or more—imprisonment for 5 years; or

                     (d)  if the offence is otherwise punishable by imprisonment—imprisonment for 3 years or for the maximum term of imprisonment for the offence incited, whichever is the lesser; or

                     (e)  if the offence incited is not punishable by imprisonment—the number of penalty units equal to the maximum number of penalty units applicable to the offence incited.

Note:          Under section 4D of the Crimes Act 1914, these penalties are only maximum penalties. Subsection 4B(2) of that Act allows a court to impose an appropriate fine instead of, or in addition to, a term of imprisonment. If a body corporate is convicted of the offence, subsection 4B(3) of that Act allows a court to impose a fine of an amount not greater than 5 times the maximum fine that the court could impose on an individual convicted of the same offence. Penalty units are defined in section 4AA of that Act.

11.5  Conspiracy

             (1)  A person who conspires with another person to commit an offence punishable by imprisonment for more than 12 months, or by a fine of 200 penalty units or more, commits the offence of conspiracy to commit that offence and is punishable as if the offence to which the conspiracy relates had been committed.

Note:          Penalty units are defined in section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty:

                     (a)  the person must have entered into an agreement with one or more other persons; and

                     (b)  the person and at least one other party to the agreement must have intended that an offence would be committed pursuant to the agreement; and

                     (c)  the person or at least one other party to the agreement must have committed an overt act pursuant to the agreement.

          (2A)  Subsection (2) has effect subject to subsection (7A).

             (3)  A person may be found guilty of conspiracy to commit an offence even if:

                     (a)  committing the offence is impossible; or

                     (b)  the only other party to the agreement is a body corporate; or

                     (c)  each other party to the agreement is at least one of the following:

                              (i)  a person who is not criminally responsible;

                             (ii)  a person for whose benefit or protection the offence exists; or

                     (d)  subject to paragraph (4)(a), all other parties to the agreement have been acquitted of the conspiracy.

             (4)  A person cannot be found guilty of conspiracy to commit an offence if:

                     (a)  all other parties to the agreement have been acquitted of the conspiracy and a finding of guilt would be inconsistent with their acquittal; or

                     (b)  he or she is a person for whose benefit or protection the offence exists.

             (5)  A person cannot be found guilty of conspiracy to commit an offence if, before the commission of an overt act pursuant to the agreement, the person:

                     (a)  withdrew from the agreement; and

                     (b)  took all reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence.

             (6)  A court may dismiss a charge of conspiracy if it thinks that the interests of justice require it to do so.

             (7)  Any defences, procedures, limitations or qualifying provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of conspiracy to commit that offence.

          (7A)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of conspiracy to commit that offence.

             (8)  Proceedings for an offence of conspiracy must not be commenced without the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions. However, a person may be arrested for, charged with, or remanded in custody or on bail in connection with, an offence of conspiracy before the necessary consent has been given.

11.6  References in Acts to offences

             (1)  A reference in a law of the Commonwealth to an offence against a law of the Commonwealth (including this Code) includes a reference to an offence against section 11.1 (attempt), 11.4 (incitement) or 11.5 (conspiracy) of this Code that relates to such an offence.

             (2)  A reference in a law of the Commonwealth (including this Code) to a particular offence includes a reference to an offence against section 11.1 (attempt), 11.4 (incitement) or 11.5 (conspiracy) of this Code that relates to that particular offence.

             (3)  Subsection (1) or (2) does not apply if a law of the Commonwealth is expressly or impliedly to the contrary effect.

             (4)  In particular, an express reference in a law of the Commonwealth to:

                     (a)  an offence against, under or created by the Crimes Act 1914; or

                     (b)  an offence against, under or created by a particular provision of the Crimes Act 1914; or

                     (c)  an offence arising out of the first‑mentioned law or another law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (d)  an offence arising out of a particular provision; or

                     (e)  an offence against, under or created by the Taxation Administration Act 1953;

does not mean that the first‑mentioned law is impliedly to the contrary effect.

Note:          Sections 11.2 (complicity and common purpose), 11.2A (joint commission), and 11.3 (commission by proxy) of this Code operate as extensions of principal offences and are therefore not referred to in this section.

Part 2.5Corporate criminal responsibility

Division 12  

12.1  General principles

             (1)  This Code applies to bodies corporate in the same way as it applies to individuals. It so applies with such modifications as are set out in this Part, and with such other modifications as are made necessary by the fact that criminal liability is being imposed on bodies corporate rather than individuals.

             (2)  A body corporate may be found guilty of any offence, including one punishable by imprisonment.

Note:          Section 4B of the Crimes Act 1914 enables a fine to be imposed for offences that only specify imprisonment as a penalty.

12.2  Physical elements

                   If a physical element of an offence is committed by an employee, agent or officer of a body corporate acting within the actual or apparent scope of his or her employment, or within his or her actual or apparent authority, the physical element must also be attributed to the body corporate.

12.3  Fault elements other than negligence

             (1)  If intention, knowledge or recklessness is a fault element in relation to a physical element of an offence, that fault element must be attributed to a body corporate that expressly, tacitly or impliedly authorised or permitted the commission of the offence.

             (2)  The means by which such an authorisation or permission may be established include:

                     (a)  proving that the body corporate’s board of directors intentionally, knowingly or recklessly carried out the relevant conduct, or expressly, tacitly or impliedly authorised or permitted the commission of the offence; or

                     (b)  proving that a high managerial agent of the body corporate intentionally, knowingly or recklessly engaged in the relevant conduct, or expressly, tacitly or impliedly authorised or permitted the commission of the offence; or

                     (c)  proving that a corporate culture existed within the body corporate that directed, encouraged, tolerated or led to non‑compliance with the relevant provision; or

                     (d)  proving that the body corporate failed to create and maintain a corporate culture that required compliance with the relevant provision.

             (3)  Paragraph (2)(b) does not apply if the body corporate proves that it exercised due diligence to prevent the conduct, or the authorisation or permission.

             (4)  Factors relevant to the application of paragraph (2)(c) or (d) include:

                     (a)  whether authority to commit an offence of the same or a similar character had been given by a high managerial agent of the body corporate; and

                     (b)  whether the employee, agent or officer of the body corporate who committed the offence believed on reasonable grounds, or entertained a reasonable expectation, that a high managerial agent of the body corporate would have authorised or permitted the commission of the offence.

             (5)  If recklessness is not a fault element in relation to a physical element of an offence, subsection (2) does not enable the fault element to be proved by proving that the board of directors, or a high managerial agent, of the body corporate recklessly engaged in the conduct or recklessly authorised or permitted the commission of the offence.

             (6)  In this section:

board of directors means the body (by whatever name called) exercising the executive authority of the body corporate.

corporate culture means an attitude, policy, rule, course of conduct or practice existing within the body corporate generally or in the part of the body corporate in which the relevant activities takes place.

high managerial agent means an employee, agent or officer of the body corporate with duties of such responsibility that his or her conduct may fairly be assumed to represent the body corporate’s policy.

12.4  Negligence

             (1)  The test of negligence for a body corporate is that set out in section 5.5.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  negligence is a fault element in relation to a physical element of an offence; and

                     (b)  no individual employee, agent or officer of the body corporate has that fault element;

that fault element may exist on the part of the body corporate if the body corporate’s conduct is negligent when viewed as a whole (that is, by aggregating the conduct of any number of its employees, agents or officers).

             (3)  Negligence may be evidenced by the fact that the prohibited conduct was substantially attributable to:

                     (a)  inadequate corporate management, control or supervision of the conduct of one or more of its employees, agents or officers; or

                     (b)  failure to provide adequate systems for conveying relevant information to relevant persons in the body corporate.

12.5  Mistake of fact (strict liability)

             (1)  A body corporate can only rely on section 9.2 (mistake of fact (strict liability)) in respect of conduct that would, apart from this section, constitute an offence on its part if:

                     (a)  the employee, agent or officer of the body corporate who carried out the conduct was under a mistaken but reasonable belief about facts that, had they existed, would have meant that the conduct would not have constituted an offence; and

                     (b)  the body corporate proves that it exercised due diligence to prevent the conduct.

             (2)  A failure to exercise due diligence may be evidenced by the fact that the prohibited conduct was substantially attributable to:

                     (a)  inadequate corporate management, control or supervision of the conduct of one or more of its employees, agents or officers; or

                     (b)  failure to provide adequate systems for conveying relevant information to relevant persons in the body corporate.

12.6  Intervening conduct or event

                   A body corporate cannot rely on section 10.1 (intervening conduct or event) in respect of a physical element of an offence brought about by another person if the other person is an employee, agent or officer of the body corporate.

Part 2.6Proof of criminal responsibility

Division 13  

13.1  Legal burden of proof—prosecution

             (1)  The prosecution bears a legal burden of proving every element of an offence relevant to the guilt of the person charged.

Note:          See section 3.2 on what elements are relevant to a person’s guilt.

             (2)  The prosecution also bears a legal burden of disproving any matter in relation to which the defendant has discharged an evidential burden of proof imposed on the defendant.

             (3)  In this Code:

legal burden, in relation to a matter, means the burden of proving the existence of the matter.

13.2  Standard of proof—prosecution

             (1)  A legal burden of proof on the prosecution must be discharged beyond reasonable doubt.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply if the law creating the offence specifies a different standard of proof.

13.3  Evidential burden of proof—defence

             (1)  Subject to section 13.4, a burden of proof that a law imposes on a defendant is an evidential burden only.

             (2)  A defendant who wishes to deny criminal responsibility by relying on a provision of Part 2.3 (other than section 7.3) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

             (3)  A defendant who wishes to rely on any exception, exemption, excuse, qualification or justification provided by the law creating an offence bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter. The exception, exemption, excuse, qualification or justification need not accompany the description of the offence.

             (4)  The defendant no longer bears the evidential burden in relation to a matter if evidence sufficient to discharge the burden is adduced by the prosecution or by the court.

             (5)  The question whether an evidential burden has been discharged is one of law.

             (6)  In this Code:

evidential burden, in relation to a matter, means the burden of adducing or pointing to evidence that suggests a reasonable possibility that the matter exists or does not exist.

13.4  Legal burden of proof—defence

                   A burden of proof that a law imposes on the defendant is a legal burden if and only if the law expressly:

                     (a)  specifies that the burden of proof in relation to the matter in question is a legal burden; or

                     (b)  requires the defendant to prove the matter; or

                     (c)  creates a presumption that the matter exists unless the contrary is proved.

13.5  Standard of proof—defence

                   A legal burden of proof on the defendant must be discharged on the balance of probabilities.

13.6  Use of averments

                   A law that allows the prosecution to make an averment is taken not to allow the prosecution:

                     (a)  to aver any fault element of an offence; or

                     (b)  to make an averment in prosecuting for an offence that is directly punishable by imprisonment.

Part 2.7Geographical jurisdiction

Division 14Standard geographical jurisdiction

14.1  Standard geographical jurisdiction

             (1)  This section may apply to a particular offence in either of the following ways:

                     (a)  unless the contrary intention appears, this section applies to the following offences:

                              (i)  a primary offence, where the provision creating the offence commences at or after the commencement of this section;

                             (ii)  an ancillary offence, to the extent to which it relates to a primary offence covered by subparagraph (i);

                     (b)  if a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence—this section applies to that offence.

Note:          In the case of paragraph (b), the expression offence is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1) and 11.2A(1), section 11.3 and subsection 11.6(1).

             (2)  If this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence unless:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and a result of the conduct occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (c)  all of the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence;

                             (ii)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia;

                            (iii)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly or partly in Australia or wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship.

Defence—primary offence

             (3)  If this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                    (aa)  the alleged offence is a primary offence; and

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (b)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the first‑mentioned offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (3). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (4)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (3) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

Defence—ancillary offence

             (5)  If this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                     (a)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence; and

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (d)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the primary offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (5). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (6)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (5) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

Division 15Extended geographical jurisdiction

15.1  Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A

             (1)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence unless:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and a result of the conduct occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and:

                              (i)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is an Australian citizen; or

                             (ii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; or

                     (d)  all of the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence;

                             (ii)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia;

                            (iii)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly or partly in Australia or wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship.

Note:          The expression offence is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1) and 11.2A(1), section 11.3 and subsection 11.6(1).

Defence—primary offence

             (2)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                    (aa)  the alleged offence is a primary offence; and

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (b)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (c)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the first‑mentioned offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (2) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

Defence—ancillary offence

             (4)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                     (a)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence; and

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (d)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (e)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the primary offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (4). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (5)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (4) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

15.2  Extended geographical jurisdiction—category B

             (1)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence unless:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and a result of the conduct occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and:

                              (i)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is an Australian citizen; or

                             (ii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a resident of Australia; or

                            (iii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; or

                     (d)  all of the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence;

                             (ii)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia;

                            (iii)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly or partly in Australia or wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship.

Note:          The expression offence is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1) and 11.2A(1), section 11.3 and subsection 11.6(1).

Defence—primary offence

             (2)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                    (aa)  the alleged offence is a primary offence; and

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (b)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (c)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the first‑mentioned offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (2) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

Defence—ancillary offence

             (4)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person does not commit the offence if:

                     (a)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence; and

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (d)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (e)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the primary offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (4). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (5)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (4) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

15.3  Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C

             (1)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, the offence applies:

                     (a)  whether or not the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs in Australia; and

                     (b)  whether or not a result of the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs in Australia.

Note:          The expression offence is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1) and 11.2A(1), section 11.3 and subsection 11.6(1).

Defence—primary offence

             (2)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person is not guilty of the offence if:

                    (aa)  the alleged offence is a primary offence; and

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (b)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (c)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs;

                            a law of that foreign country, or that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the first‑mentioned offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (2) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

Defence—ancillary offence

             (4)  If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, a person is not guilty of the offence if:

                     (a)  the alleged offence is an ancillary offence; and

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (c)  the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur, wholly in a foreign country, but not on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; and

                     (d)  the person is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and

                     (e)  there is not in force in:

                              (i)  the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur; or

                             (ii)  the part of the foreign country where the conduct constituting the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates, or a result of that conduct, occurs, or is intended by the person to occur;

                            a law of that foreign country, or a law of that part of that foreign country, that creates an offence that corresponds to the primary offence.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (4). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (5)  For the purposes of the application of subsection 13.3(3) to an offence, subsection (4) of this section is taken to be an exception provided by the law creating the offence.

15.4  Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D

                   If a law of the Commonwealth provides that this section applies to a particular offence, the offence applies:

                     (a)  whether or not the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs in Australia; and

                     (b)  whether or not a result of the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs in Australia.

Note:          The expression offence is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1) and 11.2A(1), section 11.3 and subsection 11.6(1).

Division 16Miscellaneous

16.1  Attorney‑General’s consent required for prosecution if alleged conduct occurs wholly in a foreign country in certain circumstances

             (1)  Proceedings for an offence must not be commenced without the Attorney‑General’s written consent if:

                     (a)  section 14.1, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3 or 15.4 applies to the offence; and

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly in a foreign country; and

                     (c)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person alleged to have committed the offence is neither:

                              (i)  an Australian citizen; nor

                             (ii)  a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory.

             (2)  However, a person may be arrested for, charged with, or remanded in custody or released on bail in connection with an offence before the necessary consent has been given.

16.2  When conduct taken to occur partly in Australia

Sending things

             (1)  For the purposes of this Part, if a person sends a thing, or causes a thing to be sent:

                     (a)  from a point outside Australia to a point in Australia; or

                     (b)  from a point in Australia to a point outside Australia;

that conduct is taken to have occurred partly in Australia.

Sending electronic communications

             (2)  For the purposes of this Part, if a person sends, or causes to be sent, an electronic communication:

                     (a)  from a point outside Australia to a point in Australia; or

                     (b)  from a point in Australia to a point outside Australia;

that conduct is taken to have occurred partly in Australia.

Point

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, point includes a mobile or potentially mobile point, whether on land, underground, in the atmosphere, underwater, at sea or anywhere else.

16.3  Meaning of Australia

             (1)  For the purposes of the application of this Part to a particular primary offence, Australia has the same meaning it would have if it were used in a geographical sense in the provision creating the primary offence.

             (2)  For the purposes of the application of this Part to a particular ancillary offence, Australia has the same meaning it would have if it were used in a geographical sense in the provision creating the primary offence to which the ancillary offence relates.

             (3)  For the purposes of this Part, if a provision creating an offence extends to an external Territory, it is to be assumed that if the expression Australia were used in a geographical sense in that provision, that expression would include that external Territory.

             (4)  This section does not affect the meaning of the expressions Australian aircraft, Australian citizen or Australian ship.

16.4  Result of conduct

                   A reference in this Part to a result of conduct constituting an offence is a reference to a result that is a physical element of the offence (within the meaning of subsection 4.1(1)).

Chapter 4The integrity and security of the international community and foreign governments

  

Division 70Bribery of foreign public officials

70.1  Definitions

                   In this Division:

benefit includes any advantage and is not limited to property.

business advantage means an advantage in the conduct of business.

control, in relation to a company, body or association, includes control as a result of, or by means of, trusts, agreements, arrangements, understandings and practices, whether or not having legal or equitable force and whether or not based on legal or equitable rights.

duty, in relation to a foreign public official, means any authority, duty, function or power that:

                     (a)  is conferred on the official; or

                     (b)  that the official holds himself or herself out as having.

foreign government body means:

                     (a)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                     (b)  an authority of the government of a foreign country; or

                     (c)  an authority of the government of part of a foreign country; or

                     (d)  a foreign local government body or foreign regional government body; or

                     (e)  a foreign public enterprise.

foreign public enterprise means a company or any other body or association where:

                     (a)  in the case of a company—one of the following applies:

                              (i)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country holds more than 50% of the issued share capital of the company;

                             (ii)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country holds more than 50% of the voting power in the company;

                            (iii)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country is in a position to appoint more than 50% of the company’s board of directors;

                            (iv)  the directors (however described) of the company are accustomed or under an obligation (whether formal or informal) to act in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country;

                             (v)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country is in a position to exercise control over the company; and

                     (b)  in the case of any other body or association—either of the following applies:

                              (i)  the members of the executive committee (however described) of the body or association are accustomed or under an obligation (whether formal or informal) to act in accordance with the directions, instructions or wishes of the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country;

                             (ii)  the government of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country is in a position to exercise control over the body or association; and

                     (c)  the company, body or association:

                              (i)  enjoys special legal rights or a special legal status under a law of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                             (ii)  enjoys special benefits or privileges under a law of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country;

                            because of the relationship of the company, body or association with the government of the foreign country or of the part of the foreign country, as the case may be.

foreign public official means:

                     (a)  an employee or official of a foreign government body; or

                     (b)  an individual who performs work for a foreign government body under a contract; or

                     (c)  an individual who holds or performs the duties of an appointment, office or position under a law of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                     (d)  an individual who holds or performs the duties of an appointment, office or position created by custom or convention of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                     (e)  an individual who is otherwise in the service of a foreign government body (including service as a member of a military force or police force); or

                      (f)  a member of the executive, judiciary or magistracy of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                     (g)  an employee of a public international organisation; or

                     (h)  an individual who performs work for a public international organisation under a contract; or

                      (i)  an individual who holds or performs the duties of an office or position in a public international organisation; or

                      (j)  an individual who is otherwise in the service of a public international organisation; or

                     (k)  a member or officer of the legislature of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country; or

                      (l)  an individual who:

                              (i)  is an authorised intermediary of a foreign public official covered by any of the above paragraphs; or

                             (ii)  holds himself or herself out to be the authorised intermediary of a foreign public official covered by any of the above paragraphs.

public international organisation means:

                     (a)  an organisation:

                              (i)  of which 2 or more countries, or the governments of 2 or more countries, are members; or

                             (ii)  that is constituted by persons representing 2 or more countries, or representing the governments of 2 or more countries; or

                     (b)  an organisation established by, or a group of organisations constituted by:

                              (i)  organisations of which 2 or more countries, or the governments of 2 or more countries, are members; or

                             (ii)  organisations that are constituted by the representatives of 2 or more countries, or the governments of 2 or more countries; or

                     (c)  an organisation that is:

                              (i)  an organ of, or office within, an organisation described in paragraph (a) or (b); or

                             (ii)  a commission, council or other body established by an organisation so described or such an organ; or

                            (iii)  a committee, or subcommittee of a committee, of an organisation described in paragraph (a) or (b), or of such an organ, council or body.

share includes stock.

70.2  Bribing a foreign public official

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  provides a benefit to another person; or

                             (ii)  causes a benefit to be provided to another person; or

                            (iii)  offers to provide, or promises to provide, a benefit to another person; or

                            (iv)  causes an offer of the provision of a benefit, or a promise of the provision of a benefit, to be made to another person; and

                     (b)  the benefit is not legitimately due to the other person; and

                     (c)  the first‑mentioned person does so with the intention of influencing a foreign public official (who may be the other person) in the exercise of the official’s duties as a foreign public official in order to:

                              (i)  obtain or retain business; or

                             (ii)  obtain or retain a business advantage that is not legitimately due to the recipient, or intended recipient, of the business advantage (who may be the first‑mentioned person).

Note:          For defences see sections 70.3 and 70.4.

          (1A)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c):

                     (a)  the first‑mentioned person does not need to intend to influence a particular foreign public official; and

                     (b)  business, or a business advantage, does not need to be actually obtained or retained.

Benefit that is not legitimately due

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, in working out if a benefit is not legitimately due to a person in a particular situation, disregard the following:

                     (a)  the fact that the benefit may be, or be perceived to be, customary, necessary or required in the situation;

                     (b)  the value of the benefit;

                     (c)  any official tolerance of the benefit.

Business advantage that is not legitimately due

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, in working out if a business advantage is not legitimately due to a person in a particular situation, disregard the following:

                     (a)  the fact that the business advantage may be customary, or perceived to be customary, in the situation;

                     (b)  the value of the business advantage;

                     (c)  any official tolerance of the business advantage.

Penalty for individual

             (4)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by an individual is punishable on conviction by imprisonment for not more than 10 years, a fine not more than 10,000 penalty units, or both.

Penalty for body corporate

             (5)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by a body corporate is punishable on conviction by a fine not more than the greatest of the following:

                     (a)  100,000 penalty units;

                     (b)  if the court can determine the value of the benefit that the body corporate, and any body corporate related to the body corporate, have obtained directly or indirectly and that is reasonably attributable to the conduct constituting the offence—3 times the value of that benefit;

                     (c)  if the court cannot determine the value of that benefit—10% of the annual turnover of the body corporate during the period (the turnover period) of 12 months ending at the end of the month in which the conduct constituting the offence occurred.

             (6)  For the purposes of this section, the annual turnover of a body corporate, during the turnover period, is the sum of the values of all the supplies that the body corporate, and any body corporate related to the body corporate, have made, or are likely to make, during that period, other than the following supplies:

                     (a)  supplies made from any of those bodies corporate to any other of those bodies corporate;

                     (b)  supplies that are input taxed;

                     (c)  supplies that are not for consideration (and are not taxable supplies under section 72‑5 of the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999);

                     (d)  supplies that are not made in connection with an enterprise that the body corporate carries on.

             (7)  Expressions used in subsection (6) that are also used in the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 have the same meaning in that subsection as they have in that Act.

             (8)  The question whether 2 bodies corporate are related to each other is to be determined for the purposes of this section in the same way as for the purposes of the Corporations Act 2001.

70.3  Defence—conduct lawful in foreign public official’s country

             (1)  A person does not commit an offence against section 70.2 in the cases set out in the following table:

 

Defence of lawful conduct

Item

In a case where the person’s conduct occurred in relation to this kind of foreign public official...

and if it were assumed that the person’s conduct had occurred wholly...

this written law requires or permits the provision of the benefit ...

1

an employee or official of a foreign government body

in the place where the central administration of the body is located

a written law in force in that place

2

an individual who performs work for a foreign government body under a contract

in the place where the central administration of the body is located

a written law in force in that place

3

an individual who holds or performs the duties of an appointment, office or position under a law of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country

in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

a written law in force in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

4

an individual who holds or performs the duties of an appointment, office or position created by custom or convention of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country

in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

a written law in force in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

5

an individual who is otherwise in the service of a foreign government body (including service as a member of a military force or police force)

in the place where the central administration of the body is located

a written law in force in that place

6

a member of the executive, judiciary or magistracy of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country

in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

a written law in force in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

7

an employee of a public international organisation

in the place where the headquarters of the organisation is located

a written law in force in that place

8

an individual who performs work for a public international organisation under a contract

in the place where the headquarters of the organisation is located

a written law in force in that place

9

an individual who holds or performs the duties of a public office or position in a public international organisation

in the place where the headquarters of the organisation is located

a written law in force in that place

10

an individual who is otherwise in the service of a public international organisation

in the place where the headquarters of the organisation is located

a written law in force in that place

11

a member or officer of the legislature of a foreign country or of part of a foreign country

in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

a written law in force in the foreign country or in the part of the foreign country, as the case may be

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  A person does not commit an offence against section 70.2 if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct occurred in relation to a foreign public official covered by paragraph (l) of the definition of foreign public official in section 70.1 (which deals with intermediaries of foreign public officials covered by other paragraphs of that definition); and

                     (b)  assuming that the first‑mentioned person’s conduct had occurred instead in relation to:

                              (i)  the other foreign public official of whom the first‑mentioned foreign public official was an authorised intermediary; or

                             (ii)  the other foreign public official in relation to whom the first‑mentioned foreign public official held himself or herself out to be an authorised intermediary;

                            subsection (1) would have applied in relation to the first‑mentioned person.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  To avoid doubt, if:

                     (a)  a person’s conduct occurred in relation to a foreign public official covered by 2 or more paragraphs of the definition of foreign public official in section 70.1; and

                     (b)  at least one of the corresponding items in subsection (1) is applicable to the conduct of the first‑mentioned person;

subsection (1) applies to the conduct of the first‑mentioned person.

70.4  Defence—facilitation payments

             (1)  A person does not commit an offence against section 70.2 if:

                     (a)  the value of the benefit was of a minor nature; and

                     (b)  the person’s conduct was engaged in for the sole or dominant purpose of expediting or securing the performance of a routine government action of a minor nature; and

                     (c)  as soon as practicable after the conduct occurred, the person made a record of the conduct that complies with subsection (3); and

                     (d)  any of the following subparagraphs applies:

                              (i)  the person has retained that record at all relevant times;

                             (ii)  that record has been lost or destroyed because of the actions of another person over whom the first‑mentioned person had no control, or because of a non‑human act or event over which the first‑mentioned person had no control, and the first‑mentioned person could not reasonably be expected to have guarded against the bringing about of that loss or that destruction;

                            (iii)  a prosecution for the offence is instituted more than 7 years after the conduct occurred.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1). See subsection 13.3(3).

Routine government action

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a routine government action is an action of a foreign public official that:

                     (a)  is ordinarily and commonly performed by the official; and

                     (b)  is covered by any of the following subparagraphs:

                              (i)  granting a permit, licence or other official document that qualifies a person to do business in a foreign country or in a part of a foreign country;

                             (ii)  processing government papers such as a visa or work permit;

                            (iii)  providing police protection or mail collection or delivery;

                            (iv)  scheduling inspections associated with contract performance or related to the transit of goods;

                             (v)  providing telecommunications services, power or water;

                            (vi)  loading and unloading cargo;

                           (vii)  protecting perishable products, or commodities, from deterioration;

                          (viii)  any other action of a similar nature; and

                     (c)  does not involve a decision about:

                              (i)  whether to award new business; or

                             (ii)  whether to continue existing business with a particular person; or

                            (iii)  the terms of new business or existing business; and

                     (d)  does not involve encouraging a decision about:

                              (i)  whether to award new business; or

                             (ii)  whether to continue existing business with a particular person; or

                            (iii)  the terms of new business or existing business.

Content of records

             (3)  A record of particular conduct engaged in by a person complies with this subsection if the record sets out:

                     (a)  the value of the benefit concerned; and

                     (b)  the date on which the conduct occurred; and

                     (c)  the identity of the foreign public official in relation to whom the conduct occurred; and

                     (d)  if that foreign public official is not the other person mentioned in paragraph 70.2(1)(a)—the identity of that other person; and

                     (e)  particulars of the routine government action that was sought to be expedited or secured by the conduct; and

                      (f)  the person’s signature or some other means of verifying the person’s identity.

70.5  Territorial and nationality requirements

             (1)  A person does not commit an offence against section 70.2 unless:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and:

                              (i)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is an Australian citizen; or

                             (ii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a resident of Australia; or

                            (iii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory.

Note:          The expression offence against section 70.2 is given an extended meaning by subsections 11.2(1), 11.2A(1) and 11.6(2).

             (2)  Proceedings for an offence against section 70.2 must not be commenced without the Attorney‑General’s written consent if:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia; and

                     (b)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person alleged to have committed the offence is:

                              (i)  a resident of Australia; and

                             (ii)  not an Australian citizen.

             (3)  However, a person may be arrested for, charged with, or remanded in custody or released on bail in connection with an offence against section 70.2 before the necessary consent has been given.

70.6  Saving of other laws

                   This Division is not intended to exclude or limit the operation of any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

Division 71Offences against United Nations and associated personnel

71.1  Purpose

                   The purpose of this Division is to protect United Nations and associated personnel and give effect to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel.

71.2  Murder of a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes the death of another person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, the death of the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

Note:          Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.3  Manslaughter of a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes the death of another person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, serious harm to the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Note:          Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.4  Intentionally causing serious harm to a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes serious harm to another person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person intends to cause serious harm to the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence):                 Imprisonment for 25 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.5  Recklessly causing serious harm to a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes serious harm to another person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person is reckless as to causing serious harm to the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence): Imprisonment for 19 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.6  Intentionally causing harm to a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes harm to another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person intends to cause harm to the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence):                 Imprisonment for 13 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.7  Recklessly causing harm to a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes harm to another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person is reckless as to causing harm to the UN or associated person or any other person by the conduct.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence): Imprisonment for 9 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.8  Unlawful sexual penetration

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence):                 Imprisonment for 20 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

             (3)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (4)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (5)  In this section, the genitalia or others parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

71.9  Kidnapping a UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person takes or detains another person without his or her consent; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                     (d)  the first‑mentioned person takes or detains the UN or associated person with the intention of:

                              (i)  holding him or her to ransom or as a hostage; or

                             (ii)  taking or sending him or her out of the country; or

                            (iii)  committing a serious offence against him or her or another person.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence): Imprisonment for 19 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

             (3)  In this section, serious offence means an offence under a law of the Commonwealth, a State or Territory or a foreign law the maximum penalty for which is death, or imprisonment for not less than 12 months.

71.10  Unlawful detention of UN or associated person

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person takes or detains another person without that other person’s consent; and

                     (b)  that other person is a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

Penalty (aggravated offence):                 Imprisonment for 6 years.

Note 1:       Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

Note 2:       Section 71.13 defines aggravated offence.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

71.11  Intentionally causing damage to UN or associated person’s property etc.

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct causes damage to official premises, private accommodation or a means of transportation (the property); and

                     (b)  the property is occupied or used by a UN or associated person; and

                     (c)  the conduct gives rise to a danger of serious harm to a person; and

                     (d)  that person is the UN or associated person referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (e)  the UN or associated person is engaged in a UN operation that is not a UN enforcement action; and

                      (f)  the first‑mentioned person intends to cause the damage to the property; and

                     (g)  the first‑mentioned person is reckless as to the danger to the person referred to in paragraph (c).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Note:          Section 71.23 defines UN enforcement action, UN operation and UN or associated person.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b), (d) and (e).

71.12  Threatening to commit other offences

                   A person commits an offence if the person:

                     (a)  threatens to commit an offence (the threatened offence) under any of sections 71.2 to 71.11; and

                     (b)  intends to compel any other person to do or omit to do an act by making the threat.

Penalty: 

                     (a)  if the threatened offence is the offence under section 71.2 (murder of a UN or associated person)—imprisonment for 10 years; or

                     (b)  if the threatened offence is the offence under section 71.3, 71.4, 71.5, 71.8 or 71.9 (manslaughter of, causing serious harm to, kidnapping, or sexually penetrating, a UN or associated person)—imprisonment for 7 years; or

                     (c)  if the threatened offence is the offence under section 71.6 or 71.11 (causing harm to, or damaging the property etc. of, a UN or associated person)—imprisonment for 5 years; or

                     (d)  if the threatened offence is the offence under section 71.7 or 71.10 (recklessly causing harm to, or unlawful detention of, a UN or associated person)—imprisonment for 3 years.

Note:          Section 71.23 defines UN or associated person.

71.13  Aggravated offences

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, an offence against section 71.4, 71.5, 71.6, 71.7, 71.8, 71.9 or 71.10 is an aggravated offence if:

                     (a)  the offence was committed during the deliberate and systematic infliction of severe pain over a period of time; or

                     (b)  the offence was committed by the use or threatened use of an offensive weapon; or

                     (c)  the offence was committed against a person in an abuse of authority.

             (2)  If the prosecution intends to prove an aggravated offence, the charge must allege the relevant aggravated offence.

             (3)  In order to prove an aggravated offence, the prosecution must prove that the defendant intended to commit, or was reckless as to committing, the matters referred to in paragraph (1)(a), (b) or (c).

             (4)  In this section:

offensive weapon includes:

                     (a)  an article made or adapted for use for causing injury to, or incapacitating, a person; or

                     (b)  an article where the person who has the article intends, or threatens to use, the article to cause injury to, or to incapacitate, another person.

71.14  Defence—activities involving serious harm

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence against section 71.4 or 71.5 if the conduct causing serious harm to another person is engaged in by the first‑mentioned person:

                     (a)  for the purpose of benefiting the other person or in pursuance of a socially acceptable function or activity; and

                     (b)  having regard to the purpose, function or activity, the conduct was reasonable.

Note 1:       If a person causes less than serious harm to another person, the prosecution is obliged to prove that the harm was caused without the consent of the person harmed (see for example section 71.6).

Note 2:       A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this section, see subsection 13.3(3).

71.15  Defence—medical or hygienic procedures

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence against section 71.8 in respect of any sexual penetration carried out in the course of a procedure in good faith for medical or hygienic purposes.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in this section, see subsection 13.3(3).

71.16  Jurisdictional requirement

                   A person commits an offence under this Division only if:

                     (a)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs:

                              (i)  wholly or partly in Australia; or

                             (ii)  wholly or partly on board an Australian aircraft or an Australian ship; or

                     (b)  the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia and:

                              (i)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is an Australian citizen; or

                             (ii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a body corporate incorporated by or under a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; or

                            (iii)  at the time of the alleged offence, the person is a stateless person whose habitual residence is in Australia; or

                            (iv)  the conduct is subject to the jurisdiction of another State Party to the Convention established in accordance with paragraph 1 or 2 of article 10 and the person enters Australia; or

                     (c)  the alleged offence is committed against an Australian citizen; or

                     (d)  by engaging in the conduct constituting the alleged offence, the person intends to compel a legislative, executive or judicial institution of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory to do or omit to do an act.

71.17  Exclusion of this Division if State/Territory laws provide for corresponding offences

             (1)  A State or Territory court does not have jurisdiction to determine a charge of an offence under this Division if the conduct constituting the offence also constitutes an offence (the State offence) against the law of that State or Territory.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a prosecution is brought against a person under this Division; and

                     (b)  a court finds that there is a corresponding State offence;

then this section does not prevent the person from being prosecuted for the State offence.

71.18  Double jeopardy

                   If a person has been convicted or acquitted of an offence in respect of conduct under the law of a foreign country, the person cannot be convicted of an offence under this Division in respect of that conduct.

71.19  Saving of other laws

                   This Division is not intended to exclude or limit the operation of any other law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory.

71.20  Bringing proceedings under this Division

             (1)  Proceedings for an offence under this Division must not be commenced without the Attorney‑General’s written consent.

             (2)  However, a person may be arrested, charged, remanded in custody, or released on bail, in connection with an offence under this Division before the necessary consent has been given.

71.21  Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings

             (1)  The Foreign Affairs Minister may issue a certificate stating any of the following matters:

                     (a)  the Convention entered into force for Australia on a specified day;

                     (b)  the Convention remains in force for Australia or any other State Party on a specified day;

                     (c)  a matter relevant to the establishment of jurisdiction by a State Party under paragraph 1 or 2 of article 10 of the Convention;

                     (d)  a matter relevant to whether a person is or was a UN or associated person;

                     (e)  a matter relevant to whether an operation is or was a UN operation.

             (2)  The Immigration Minister may issue a certificate stating that:

                     (a)  a person is or was an Australian citizen at a particular time; or

                     (b)  a person is or was a stateless person whose habitual residence is or was in Australia.

             (3)  In any proceedings, a certificate under this section is prima facie evidence of the matters in the certificate.

71.22  Jurisdiction of State courts preserved

                   For the purposes of section 38 of the Judiciary Act 1903, a matter arising under this Act, including a question of interpretation of the Convention, is taken not to be a matter arising directly under a treaty.

71.23  Definitions

             (1)  In this Division:

associated personnel means:

                     (a)  persons assigned by a government, or an intergovernmental organisation, with the agreement of the competent organ of the United Nations; or

                     (b)  persons engaged by the Secretary‑General of the United Nations, a specialised agency or the International Atomic Energy Agency; or

                     (c)  persons deployed by a humanitarian non‑governmental organisation or agency under an agreement with the Secretary‑General of the United Nations, a specialised agency or the International Atomic Energy Agency;

to carry out activities in support of the fulfilment of the mandate of a UN operation.

Convention means the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, done at New York on 9 December 1994.

Note:          The text of the Convention is set out in Australian Treaty Series 1995 No. 1. In 2000 this was available in the Australian Treaties Library of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessible through that Department’s website.

Foreign Affairs Minister means the Minister administering the Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities Act 1967.

Immigration Minister means the Minister administering the Migration Act 1958.

UN enforcement action means a UN operation:

                     (a)  that is authorised by the Security Council as an enforcement action under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (b)  in which any of the UN or associated personnel are engaged as combatants against organised armed forces; and

                     (c)  to which the law of international armed conflict applies.

UN operation means an operation established by the competent organ of the United Nations in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and conducted under United Nations authority and control if:

                     (a)  the operation is for the purpose of maintaining or restoring international peace and security; or

                     (b)  the Security Council or the General Assembly has declared, for the purposes of the Convention, that there exists an exceptional risk to the safety of the personnel engaged in the operation.

UN or associated person means a person who is a member of any UN personnel or associated personnel.

UN personnel means:

                     (a)  persons engaged or deployed by the Secretary‑General of the United Nations as members of the military, police or civilian components of a UN operation; or

                     (b)  any other officials or experts on mission of the United Nations, its specialised agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency who are present in an official capacity in the area where a UN operation is being conducted.

             (2)  In this Division, a person’s conduct causes death or harm if it substantially contributes to the death or harm.

Division 72Explosives and lethal devices

Subdivision A—International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices

72.1  Purpose

                   The purpose of this Subdivision is to create offences relating to international terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices and give effect to the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, done at New York on 15 December 1997.

Note:          The text of the Convention is available in the Australian Treaties Library of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessible through that Department’s website.

72.2  ADF members not liable for prosecution

                   Nothing in this Subdivision makes a member of the Australian Defence Force acting in connection with the defence or security of Australia liable to be prosecuted for an offence.

72.3  Offences

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person intentionally delivers, places, discharges or detonates a device; and

                     (b)  the device is an explosive or other lethal device and the person is reckless as to that fact; and

                     (c)  the device is delivered, placed, discharged, or detonated, to, in, into or against:

                              (i)  a place of public use; or

                             (ii)  a government facility; or