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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2020C00068
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Communications Legislation Amendment (Deregulation and Other Measures) Act 2019
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Industry, Science, Energy and Resources; Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications
Registered 05 Feb 2020
Start Date 12 Dec 2019
End Date 02 Feb 2020
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part IVC—Payment surchargesPart IVC—Payment surcharges
Expand Part IVD—Consumer data rightPart IVD—Consumer data right
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations and notificationsPart VII—Authorisations and notifications
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 123

Compilation date:                              12 December 2019

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 120, 2019

Registered:                                         5 February 2020

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–110

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–186

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 12 December 2019 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 18

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 21

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 24

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 24

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 25

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                25

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              26

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 26

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 27

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 27

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 27

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    27

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 28

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  28

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     29

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 37

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     38

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 38

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 39

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 39

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 40

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  41

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 41

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 42

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 43

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 43

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 44

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    44

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 45

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 45

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by Chairperson............................. 45

17A....................... Disclosure of certain interests by members of the Commission when taking part in determinations of matters.......................................................................................... 45

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 46

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 47

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 48

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 49

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 50

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 51

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             51

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          52

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   54

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 54

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 54

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           55

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 56

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 57

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 57

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 57

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 58

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 58

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 58

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 59

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 59

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 59

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 60

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 60

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 61

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 61

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 61

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              63

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 63

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 63

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 63

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 64

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 64

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 64

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 66

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 66

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 67

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 67

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 67

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 67

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 68

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 68

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 68

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 69

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 69

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 70

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 70

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              71

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            71

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 71

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 71

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 71

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              73

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 73

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         73

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 73

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             74

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 74

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                74

44AIA................... No merits review of AER decisions................................. 75

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 75

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 77

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 77

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  78

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 78

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 78

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 78

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 79

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 79

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 80

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 80

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 81

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 81

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 82

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 82

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 82

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 82

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 83

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 83

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 83

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       84

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 84

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          85

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 85

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 85

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 86

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              86

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 86

44AAFA............... Power of AER to obtain information and documents....... 89

44AAFB............... Failure to comply with notice to give information etc. is an offence         90

44AAFC............... AER may inspect, copy and retain documents.................. 91

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 91

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     93

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 94

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 94

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 94

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       96

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 96

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        97

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            97

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 97

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 97

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures 101

44CA..................... Meaning of declaration criteria...................................... 102

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister..................................... 103

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  104

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown.............................................. 105

Division 2—Declared services                                                                             106

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                         106

44F........................ Person may request recommendation.............................. 106

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 108

44G....................... Criteria for the Council recommending declaration of a service               109

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 109

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 111

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 113

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              114

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 114

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 114

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 115

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 116

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 117

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 118

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 120

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 121

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   123

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      123

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 123

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          123

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 123

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 125

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 126

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 128

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 129

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 130

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 130

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 132

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     132

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 132

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  134

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 134

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        136

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            138

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 138

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           139

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                139

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        139

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 140

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 140

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 140

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          142

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 142

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 143

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 143

Subdivision CA—Revocation of Commonwealth Minister’s decision      144

44NBA.................. Recommendation by Council.......................................... 144

44NBB.................. Council may request information.................................... 146

44NBC.................. Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 147

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            147

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 147

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 150

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 152

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 153

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  154

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           154

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               155

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          155

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   157

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 157

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 158

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 159

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 159

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 161

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 163

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 164

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 165

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 167

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              169

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  169

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         170

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      170

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 170

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              170

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 170

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 171

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               171

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 171

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 171

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 173

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 175

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 176

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 177

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              178

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      178

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 178

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 178

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 179

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 179

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 179

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 180

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 180

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 181

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 182

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 182

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 182

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 183

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               183

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      184

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 184

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 184

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               186

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 186

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        188

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 188

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 189

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             190

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 190

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 191

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                191

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               192

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 193

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    193

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 193

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 193

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   194

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 194

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 194

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 195

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 196

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  197

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 197

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       198

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              198

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 198

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 200

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 202

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 204

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 206

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               207

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            207

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       208

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 208

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            210

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 210

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 212

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 213

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 214

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  215

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 215

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            217

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 217

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               218

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 218

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     219

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 219

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 221

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 222

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                222

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          224

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 224

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 225

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 226

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 226

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 226

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 226

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 227

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 227

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     228

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 228

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 228

44ZZMAA............ No merits review by Tribunal of decisions under energy laws                229

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 229

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 230

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 231

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 231

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 231

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 233

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 235

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 236

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 239

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 239

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 239

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      241

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   241

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               241

45AA.................... Simplified outline............................................................ 241

45AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 241

45AC..................... Extended meaning of party............................................. 243

45AD.................... Cartel provisions............................................................. 243

45AE..................... Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 249

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              250

45AF..................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 250

45AG.................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 251

45AH.................... Determining guilt............................................................ 252

45AI...................... Court may make related civil orders................................ 252

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         252

45AJ...................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 252

45AK..................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 253

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  253

45AL..................... Conduct notified............................................................. 253

45AM.................... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 254

45AN.................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         254

45AO.................... Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 255

45AP..................... Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 256

45AQ.................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 257

45AR..................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 257

45AS..................... Dual listed company arrangement................................... 258

45AT..................... Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 259

45AU.................... Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   259

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               261

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            261

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             265

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               266

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 266

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 267

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 269

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 273

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 276

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              277

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 277

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          279

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  281

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 282

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 288

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 289

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            290

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 292

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 295

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 299

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            300

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          300

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 300

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              302

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 302

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   303

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 303

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 303

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 304

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 304

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 305

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 305

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                306

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 306

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   309

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 309

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       310

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 310

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       312

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        314

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  314

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 314

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 315

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 315

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     316

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 316

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 316

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               317

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          317

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 317

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 317

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    319

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 319

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              320

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 320

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 320

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 321

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       322

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 322

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 322

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 323

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 323

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 323

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 324

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                324

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 325

Part IVD—Consumer data right                                                                              327

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          327

Subdivision A—Object and simplified outline                                                327

56AA.................... Object of this Part........................................................... 327

56AB..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 327

Subdivision B—Designating sectors subject to the consumer data right  328

56AC..................... Designated sectors subject to the consumer data right.... 328

56AD.................... Minister’s tasks before designating a sector etc.............. 330

56AE..................... Commission must analyse, consult and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector        332

56AF..................... Information Commissioner must analyse and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector........................................................................................ 332

56AG.................... Commission may recommend that a sector be designated etc.  333

56AH.................... Other matters.................................................................. 334

Subdivision C—Meanings of key terms                                                            334

56AI...................... Meanings of CDR data, directly or indirectly derived and CDR consumer             334

56AJ...................... Meaning of data holder.................................................. 335

56AK..................... Meaning of accredited data recipient............................. 337

56AL..................... Meanings of CDR participant and designated gateway.. 337

56AM.................... Meanings of chargeable CDR data, chargeable circumstances and fee‑free CDR data          338

Subdivision D—Extension to external Territories and extraterritorial operation       339

56AN.................... Extension to external Territories..................................... 339

56AO.................... Extraterritorial operation of the CDR provisions............ 339

56AP..................... Geographical application of offences.............................. 341

Subdivision E—Application to government entities                                      341

56AQ.................... CDR provisions bind the Crown.................................... 341

56AR..................... Government entities may participate under this Part....... 341

56AS..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—declaration      343

56AT..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—revocation      343

Division 2—Consumer data right                                                                      345

Subdivision A—Power to make consumer data rules                                   345

56BA..................... Commission may make consumer data rules.................. 345

56BAA.................. Rules must include requirement to delete CDR data on request from CDR consumer             345

56BB..................... Matters that the consumer data rules may deal with........ 347

56BC..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of CDR data for which there are CDR consumers............................................................. 347

56BD..................... Limitations for rules about CDR data for which there are CDR consumers             349

56BE..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of product data               351

56BF..................... Limitations for rules about product data.......................... 351

56BG..................... Rules about designated gateways.................................... 352

56BH..................... Rules about accreditation of data recipients..................... 354

56BI...................... Rules about reporting, record keeping and auditing........ 356

56BJ...................... Rules about incidental or related matters......................... 357

56BK..................... Further limitations on the consumer data rules................ 358

Subdivision B—Compliance with consumer data rules                                360

56BL..................... Obligation to comply with consumer data rules.............. 360

56BM.................... Infringement notices....................................................... 360

56BN..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—offence..................... 361

56BO..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—civil penalty.............. 362

Subdivision C—Process for making consumer data rules etc.                   363

56BP..................... Matters to which Commission must have regard when making the rules 363

56BQ..................... Commission to consult before making the rules............. 363

56BR..................... Ministerial consent to rules required............................... 364

56BS..................... Emergency rules: usual consultation and consent not required 364

56BT..................... Emergency rules: consequences if made......................... 364

Subdivision D—Fees for disclosing CDR data                                                365

56BU..................... Charging a fee in inappropriate circumstances when required to disclose CDR data               365

56BV..................... Commission may intervene if fee for disclosing or using chargeable CDR data is unreasonable etc.      366

56BW.................... Review by the Tribunal of determinations specifying particular CDR participants  368

56BX..................... Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 368

56BY..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 369

Division 3—Accreditation etc.                                                                             370

Subdivision A—Accreditation process                                                              370

56CA..................... Granting accreditations................................................... 370

56CB..................... Review of decisions refusing to accredit......................... 370

56CC..................... Prohibition on holding out—offence.............................. 370

56CD..................... Prohibition on holding out—civil penalty....................... 371

Subdivision B—Register of Accredited Persons                                             372

56CE..................... Register of Accredited Persons....................................... 372

56CF..................... Evidentiary value of the register...................................... 372

Subdivision C—Data Recipient Accreditor                                                     372

56CG..................... Appointment of the Data Recipient Accreditor............... 372

56CH..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 373

56CI...................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 374

56CJ...................... Delegation....................................................................... 374

Subdivision D—Accreditation Registrar                                                          375

56CK..................... Appointment of the Accreditation Registrar.................... 375

56CL..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 375

56CM.................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 376

56CN..................... Delegation....................................................................... 377

Division 4—External dispute resolution                                                         378

56DA.................... Commission may recognise external dispute resolution schemes             378

Division 5—Privacy safeguards                                                                          380

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               380

56EA..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 380

56EB..................... Kinds of CDR data to which the privacy safeguards apply 380

56EC..................... Relationship with other laws........................................... 381

Subdivision B—Consideration of CDR data privacy                                    382

56ED..................... Privacy safeguard 1—open and transparent management of CDR data   382

56EE...................... Privacy safeguard 2—anonymity and pseudonymity...... 385

Subdivision C—Collecting CDR data                                                                385

56EF...................... Privacy safeguard 3—soliciting CDR data from CDR participants          385

56EG..................... Privacy safeguard 4—dealing with unsolicited CDR data from CDR participants   386

56EH..................... Privacy safeguard 5—notifying of the collection of CDR data                386

Subdivision D—Dealing with CDR data                                                           387

56EI....................... Privacy safeguard 6—use or disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients or designated gateways........................................................................................ 387

56EJ...................... Privacy safeguard 7—use or disclosure of CDR data for direct marketing by accredited data recipients or designated gateways....................................................... 388

56EK..................... Privacy safeguard 8—overseas disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients             389

56EL...................... Privacy safeguard 9—adoption or disclosure of government related identifiers by accredited data recipients........................................................................................ 390

56EM.................... Privacy safeguard 10—notifying of the disclosure of CDR data             391

Subdivision E—Integrity of CDR data                                                             392

56EN..................... Privacy safeguard 11—quality of CDR data................... 392

56EO..................... Privacy safeguard 12—security of CDR data, and destruction or de‑identification of redundant CDR data........................................................................................ 394

Subdivision F—Correction of CDR data                                                          395

56EP...................... Privacy safeguard 13—correction of CDR data.............. 395

Subdivision G—Compliance with the privacy safeguards                          396

56EQ..................... Information Commissioner to promote compliance etc... 396

56ER..................... Information Commissioner may conduct an assessment relating to the management and handling of CDR data........................................................................................ 397

56ES...................... Notification of CDR data security breaches.................... 398

56ET...................... Investigating breaches of the privacy safeguards etc....... 399

56EU..................... Civil penalty provisions.................................................. 402

56EV..................... Civil penalty provisions—maximum amount of penalty. 404

56EW.................... Enforceable undertakings................................................ 405

56EX..................... Injunctions...................................................................... 406

56EY..................... Actions for damages....................................................... 406

56EZ...................... Delegation to the Commission etc................................... 408

Division 6—Data standards etc.                                                                         410

Subdivision A—Data standards                                                                          410

56FA..................... Making data standards.................................................... 410

56FB..................... What data standards can set out etc................................. 411

56FC..................... Data standards must be published................................... 411

56FD..................... Legal effect of data standards.......................................... 411

56FE...................... Enforcement of binding data standards........................... 412

Subdivision B—Data Standards Chair                                                             413

56FF...................... Data Standards Chair...................................................... 413

56FG..................... Appointment of the Data Standards Chair...................... 413

56FH..................... Functions and powers of the Data Standards Chair........ 413

56FI....................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 414

Subdivision C—Data Standards Body                                                              414

56FJ...................... Appointment of the Data Standards Body...................... 414

56FK..................... Function and powers of the Data Standards Body.......... 415

Subdivision D—Administrative provisions                                                     415

56FL...................... Acting appointments....................................................... 415

56FM.................... Terms and conditions...................................................... 416

56FN..................... Remuneration.................................................................. 416

56FO..................... Leave.............................................................................. 416

56FP...................... Application of the finance law etc................................... 417

56FQ..................... Resignation..................................................................... 417

56FR..................... Termination of appointment............................................ 418

56FS...................... Delegation....................................................................... 418

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                     420

56GA.................... CDR functions of the Information Commissioner.......... 420

56GB..................... Referring to instruments as in force from time to time.... 420

56GC..................... Complying with requirements to provide CDR data: protection from liability         421

56GD.................... Exemptions by the Commission..................................... 421

56GE..................... Exemptions and modifications by regulations................. 422

56GF..................... Constitutional basis......................................................... 423

56GG.................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 425

56GH.................... Review of the operation of this Part................................ 425

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              427

Division 1—Preliminary