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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2019C00264
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Treasury Laws Amendment (Consumer Data Right) Act 2019
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Communications and the Arts; Industry, Innovation and Science; Infrastructure, Transport, Cities and Regional Development
Registered 12 Sep 2019
Start Date 12 Sep 2019
End Date 28 Oct 2019
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part IVC—Payment surchargesPart IVC—Payment surcharges
Expand Part IVD—Consumer data rightPart IVD—Consumer data right
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations and notificationsPart VII—Authorisations and notifications
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 120

Compilation date:                              12 September 2019

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 63, 2019

Registered:                                         12 September 2019

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–110

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–186

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This compilation includes commenced amendments made by Act No. 15, 2019

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 12 September 2019 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 18

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 21

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 24

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 24

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 25

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                25

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              26

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 26

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 27

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 27

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 27

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    27

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 28

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  28

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     29

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 37

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     38

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 38

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 39

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 39

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 40

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  41

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 41

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 42

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 43

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 43

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 44

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    44

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 45

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 45

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by Chairperson............................. 45

17A....................... Disclosure of certain interests by members of the Commission when taking part in determinations of matters.......................................................................................... 45

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 46

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 47

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 48

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 49

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 50

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 51

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             51

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          52

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   54

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 54

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 54

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           55

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 56

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 57

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 57

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 57

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 58

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 58

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 58

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 59

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 59

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 59

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 60

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 60

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 61

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 61

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 61

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              63

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 63

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 63

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 63

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 64

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 64

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 64

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 66

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 66

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 67

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 67

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 67

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 67

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 68

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 68

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 68

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 69

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 69

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 70

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 70

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              71

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            71

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 71

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 71

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 71

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              73

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 73

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         73

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 73

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             74

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 74

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                74

44AIA................... No merits review of AER decisions................................. 75

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 75

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 76

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 77

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  78

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 78

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 78

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 78

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 79

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 79

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 80

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 80

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 81

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 81

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 82

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 82

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 82

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 82

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 83

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 83

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 83

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       84

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 84

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          85

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 85

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 85

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 86

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              86

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 86

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 88

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     90

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 91

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 91

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 91

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       93

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 93

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        94

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            94

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 94

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 94

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures.. 98

44CA..................... Meaning of declaration criteria........................................ 99

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister..................................... 100

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  101

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown.............................................. 102

Division 2—Declared services                                                                             103

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                         103

44F........................ Person may request recommendation.............................. 103

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 105

44G....................... Criteria for the Council recommending declaration of a service               106

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 106

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 108

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 110

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              111

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 111

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 111

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 112

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 113

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 114

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 115

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 117

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 118

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   120

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      120

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 120

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          120

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 120

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 122

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 123

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 125

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 126

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 127

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 127

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 129

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     129

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 129

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  131

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 131

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        133

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            135

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 135

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           136

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                136

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        136

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 137

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 137

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 137

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          139

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 139

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 140

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 140

Subdivision CA—Revocation of Commonwealth Minister’s decision      141

44NBA.................. Recommendation by Council.......................................... 141

44NBB.................. Council may request information.................................... 143

44NBC.................. Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 144

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            144

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 144

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 147

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 149

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 150

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  151

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           151

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               152

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          152

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   154

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 154

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 155

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 156

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 156

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 158

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 160

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 161

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 162

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 164

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              166

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  166

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         167

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      167

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 167

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              167

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 167

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 168

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               168

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 168

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 168

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 170

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 172

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 173

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 174

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              175

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      175

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 175

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 175

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 176

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 176

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 176

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 177

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 177

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 178

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 179

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 179

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 179

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 180

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               180

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      181

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 181

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 181

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               183

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 183

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        185

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 185

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 186

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             187

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 187

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 188

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                188

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               189

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 190

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    190

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 190

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 190

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   191

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 191

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 191

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 192

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 193

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  194

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 194

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       195

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              195

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 195

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 197

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 199

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 201

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 203

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               204

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            204

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       205

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 205

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            207

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 207

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 209

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 210

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 211

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  212

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 212

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            214

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 214

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               215

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 215

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     216

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 216

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 218

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 219

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                219

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          221

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 221

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 222

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 223

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 223

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 223

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 223

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 224

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 224

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     225

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 225

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 225

44ZZMAA............ No merits review by Tribunal of decisions under energy laws                226

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 226

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 227

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 228

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 228

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 228

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 230

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 232

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 233

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 236

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 236

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 236

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      238

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   238

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               238

45AA.................... Simplified outline............................................................ 238

45AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 238

45AC..................... Extended meaning of party............................................. 240

45AD.................... Cartel provisions............................................................. 240

45AE..................... Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 246

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              247

45AF..................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 247

45AG.................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 248

45AH.................... Determining guilt............................................................ 249

45AI...................... Court may make related civil orders................................ 249

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         249

45AJ...................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 249

45AK..................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 250

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  250

45AL..................... Conduct notified............................................................. 250

45AM.................... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 251

45AN.................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         251

45AO.................... Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 252

45AP..................... Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 253

45AQ.................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 254

45AR..................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 254

45AS..................... Dual listed company arrangement................................... 255

45AT..................... Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 256

45AU.................... Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   256

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               258

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            258

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             262

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               263

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 263

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 264

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 266

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 270

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 273

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              274

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 274

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          276

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  278

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 279

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 285

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 286

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            287

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 289

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 292

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 296

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            297

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          297

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 297

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              299

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 299

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   300

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 300

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 300

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 301

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 301

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 302

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 302

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                303

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 303

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   306

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 306

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       307

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 307

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       309

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        311

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  311

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 311

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 312

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 312

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     313

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 313

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 313

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               314

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          314

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 314

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 314

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    316

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 316

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              317

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 317

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 317

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 318

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       319

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 319

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 319

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 320

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 320

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 320

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 321

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                321

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 322

Part IVD—Consumer data right                                                                              324

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          324

Subdivision A—Object and simplified outline                                                324

56AA.................... Object of this Part........................................................... 324

56AB..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 324

Subdivision B—Designating sectors subject to the consumer data right  325

56AC..................... Designated sectors subject to the consumer data right.... 325

56AD.................... Minister’s tasks before designating a sector etc.............. 327

56AE..................... Commission must analyse, consult and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector        329

56AF..................... Information Commissioner must analyse and report about an instrument proposing to designate a sector........................................................................................ 329

56AG.................... Commission may recommend that a sector be designated etc.  330

56AH.................... Other matters.................................................................. 331

Subdivision C—Meanings of key terms                                                            331

56AI...................... Meanings of CDR data, directly or indirectly derived and CDR consumer             331

56AJ...................... Meaning of data holder.................................................. 332

56AK..................... Meaning of accredited data recipient............................. 334

56AL..................... Meanings of CDR participant and designated gateway.. 334

56AM.................... Meanings of chargeable CDR data, chargeable circumstances and fee‑free CDR data          335

Subdivision D—Extension to external Territories and extraterritorial operation       336

56AN.................... Extension to external Territories..................................... 336

56AO.................... Extraterritorial operation of the CDR provisions............ 336

56AP..................... Geographical application of offences.............................. 338

Subdivision E—Application to government entities                                      338

56AQ.................... CDR provisions bind the Crown.................................... 338

56AR..................... Government entities may participate under this Part....... 338

56AS..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—declaration      340

56AT..................... Participating government entities of a State or Territory—revocation      340

Division 2—Consumer data right                                                                      342

Subdivision A—Power to make consumer data rules                                   342

56BA..................... Commission may make consumer data rules.................. 342

56BB..................... Matters that the consumer data rules may deal with........ 342

56BC..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of CDR data for which there are CDR consumers............................................................. 343

56BD..................... Limitations for rules about CDR data for which there are CDR consumers             345

56BE..................... Rules about disclosure, collection, use, accuracy, storage, security or deletion of product data               346

56BF..................... Limitations for rules about product data.......................... 347

56BG..................... Rules about designated gateways.................................... 348

56BH..................... Rules about accreditation of data recipients..................... 350

56BI...................... Rules about reporting, record keeping and auditing........ 351

56BJ...................... Rules about incidental or related matters......................... 353

56BK..................... Further limitations on the consumer data rules................ 354

Subdivision B—Compliance with consumer data rules                                355

56BL..................... Obligation to comply with consumer data rules.............. 355

56BM.................... Infringement notices....................................................... 355

56BN..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—offence..................... 356

56BO..................... Misleading or deceptive conduct—civil penalty.............. 357

Subdivision C—Process for making consumer data rules etc.                   358

56BP..................... Matters to which Commission must have regard when making the rules 358

56BQ..................... Commission to consult before making the rules............. 358

56BR..................... Ministerial consent to rules required............................... 359

56BS..................... Emergency rules: usual consultation and consent not required 359

56BT..................... Emergency rules: consequences if made......................... 360

Subdivision D—Fees for disclosing CDR data                                                361

56BU..................... Charging a fee in inappropriate circumstances when required to disclose CDR data               361

56BV..................... Commission may intervene if fee for disclosing or using chargeable CDR data is unreasonable etc.      362

56BW.................... Review by the Tribunal of determinations specifying particular CDR participants  363

56BX..................... Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 364

56BY..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 364

Division 3—Accreditation etc.                                                                             365

Subdivision A—Accreditation process                                                              365

56CA..................... Granting accreditations................................................... 365

56CB..................... Review of decisions refusing to accredit......................... 365

56CC..................... Prohibition on holding out—offence.............................. 365

56CD..................... Prohibition on holding out—civil penalty....................... 366

Subdivision B—Register of Accredited Persons                                             367

56CE..................... Register of Accredited Persons....................................... 367

56CF..................... Evidentiary value of the register...................................... 367

Subdivision C—Data Recipient Accreditor                                                     367

56CG..................... Appointment of the Data Recipient Accreditor............... 367

56CH..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 368

56CI...................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 369

56CJ...................... Delegation....................................................................... 369

Subdivision D—Accreditation Registrar                                                          370

56CK..................... Appointment of the Accreditation Registrar.................... 370

56CL..................... Functions, powers and annual report.............................. 370

56CM.................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 371

56CN..................... Delegation....................................................................... 372

Division 4—External dispute resolution                                                         373

56DA.................... Commission may recognise external dispute resolution schemes             373

Division 5—Privacy safeguards                                                                          375

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               375

56EA..................... Simplified outline............................................................ 375

56EB..................... Kinds of CDR data to which the privacy safeguards apply 375

56EC..................... Relationship with other laws........................................... 376

Subdivision B—Consideration of CDR data privacy                                    377

56ED..................... Privacy safeguard 1—open and transparent management of CDR data   377

56EE...................... Privacy safeguard 2—anonymity and pseudonymity...... 380

Subdivision C—Collecting CDR data                                                                380

56EF...................... Privacy safeguard 3—soliciting CDR data from CDR participants          380

56EG..................... Privacy safeguard 4—dealing with unsolicited CDR data from CDR participants   381

56EH..................... Privacy safeguard 5—notifying of the collection of CDR data                381

Subdivision D—Dealing with CDR data                                                           382

56EI....................... Privacy safeguard 6—use or disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients or designated gateways........................................................................................ 382

56EJ...................... Privacy safeguard 7—use or disclosure of CDR data for direct marketing by accredited data recipients or designated gateways....................................................... 383

56EK..................... Privacy safeguard 8—overseas disclosure of CDR data by accredited data recipients             384

56EL...................... Privacy safeguard 9—adoption or disclosure of government related identifiers by accredited data recipients........................................................................................ 385

56EM.................... Privacy safeguard 10—notifying of the disclosure of CDR data             386

Subdivision E—Integrity of CDR data                                                             387

56EN..................... Privacy safeguard 11—quality of CDR data................... 387

56EO..................... Privacy safeguard 12—security of CDR data, and destruction or de‑identification of redundant CDR data........................................................................................ 389

Subdivision F—Correction of CDR data                                                          390

56EP...................... Privacy safeguard 13—correction of CDR data.............. 390

Subdivision G—Compliance with the privacy safeguards                          391

56EQ..................... Information Commissioner to promote compliance etc... 391

56ER..................... Information Commissioner may conduct an assessment relating to the management and handling of CDR data........................................................................................ 392

56ES...................... Notification of CDR data security breaches.................... 393

56ET...................... Investigating breaches of the privacy safeguards etc....... 394

56EU..................... Civil penalty provisions.................................................. 397

56EV..................... Civil penalty provisions—maximum amount of penalty. 399

56EW.................... Enforceable undertakings................................................ 400

56EX..................... Injunctions...................................................................... 401

56EY..................... Actions for damages....................................................... 401

56EZ...................... Delegation to the Commission etc................................... 403

Division 6—Data standards etc.                                                                         405

Subdivision A—Data standards                                                                          405

56FA..................... Making data standards.................................................... 405

56FB..................... What data standards can set out etc................................. 406

56FC..................... Data standards must be published................................... 406

56FD..................... Legal effect of data standards.......................................... 406

56FE...................... Enforcement of binding data standards........................... 407

Subdivision B—Data Standards Chair                                                             408

56FF...................... Data Standards Chair...................................................... 408

56FG..................... Appointment of the Data Standards Chair...................... 408

56FH..................... Functions and powers of the Data Standards Chair........ 408

56FI....................... Directions by Minister.................................................... 409

Subdivision C—Data Standards Body                                                              409

56FJ...................... Appointment of the Data Standards Body...................... 409

56FK..................... Function and powers of the Data Standards Body.......... 410

Subdivision D—Administrative provisions                                                     410

56FL...................... Acting appointments....................................................... 410

56FM.................... Terms and conditions...................................................... 411

56FN..................... Remuneration.................................................................. 411

56FO.......