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Criminal Code Act 1995

Authoritative Version
  • - C2018C00386
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Criminal Code Amendment (Food Contamination) Act 2018
An Act relating to the criminal law
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 22 Sep 2018
Start Date 22 Sep 2018
End Date 08 Dec 2018
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Criminal Code Act 1995

No. 12, 1995

Compilation No. 123

Compilation date:                              22 September 2018

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 98, 2018

Registered:                                         22 September 2018

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–5

                        Schedule (sections 1.1–261.3)

Volume 2:       Schedule (sections 268.1–490.7)

                        Schedule (Dictionary)

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Criminal Code Act 1995 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 22 September 2018 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Schedule—The Criminal Code                                                                        1

Chapter 8—Offences against humanity and related offences                    1

Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court                                        1

Subdivision A—Introductory                                                                                  1

268.1..................... Purpose of Division............................................................ 1

268.2..................... Outline of offences............................................................. 1

Subdivision B—Genocide                                                                                         2

268.3..................... Genocide by killing............................................................. 2

268.4..................... Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm........... 2

268.5..................... Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction        2

268.6..................... Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births 3

268.7..................... Genocide by forcibly transferring children......................... 3

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity                                                           4

268.8..................... Crime against humanity—murder....................................... 4

268.9..................... Crime against humanity—extermination............................. 4

268.10................... Crime against humanity—enslavement............................... 5

268.11................... Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population  5

268.12................... Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty          6

268.13................... Crime against humanity—torture........................................ 7

268.14................... Crime against humanity—rape............................................ 7

268.15................... Crime against humanity—sexual slavery............................ 9

268.16................... Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution.................. 9

268.17................... Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy..................... 11

268.18................... Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation................ 11

268.19................... Crime against humanity—sexual violence........................ 12

268.20................... Crime against humanity—persecution.............................. 13

268.21................... Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons 14

268.22................... Crime against humanity—apartheid.................................. 15

268.23................... Crime against humanity—other inhumane act................... 16

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions                                                                                  16

268.24................... War crime—wilful killing................................................. 16

268.25................... War crime—torture........................................................... 17

268.26................... War crime—inhumane treatment....................................... 17

268.27................... War crime—biological experiments.................................. 18

268.28................... War crime—wilfully causing great suffering.................... 18

268.29................... War crime—destruction and appropriation of property..... 19

268.30................... War crime—compelling service in hostile forces.............. 19

268.31................... War crime—denying a fair trial......................................... 20

268.32................... War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer................... 21

268.33................... War crime—unlawful confinement................................... 21

268.34................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 22

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict 22

268.35................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 22

268.36................... War crime—attacking civilian objects............................... 23

268.37................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 23

268.38................... War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage 24

268.39................... War crime—attacking undefended places......................... 25

268.40................... War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat             25

268.41................... War crime—improper use of a flag of truce...................... 26

268.42................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party          26

268.43................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations       27

268.44................... War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions  27

268.45................... War crime—transfer of population................................... 28

268.46................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 28

268.47................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 29

268.48................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 30

268.49................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 31

268.50................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 31

268.51................... War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property.. 32

268.52................... War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions              32

268.53................... War crime—compelling participation in military operations 33

268.54................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 33

268.55................... War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons...... 34

268.56................... War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices    34

268.57................... War crime—employing prohibited bullets........................ 34

268.58................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 35

268.59................... War crime—rape............................................................... 35

268.60................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 37

268.61................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 37

268.62................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 39

268.63................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 39

268.64................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 40

268.65................... War crime—using protected persons as shields................ 41

268.66................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      42

268.67................... War crime—starvation as a method of warfare................. 42

268.68................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 43

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict            45

268.69................... Definition of religious personnel...................................... 45

268.70................... War crime—murder.......................................................... 45

268.71................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 46

268.72................... War crime—cruel treatment.............................................. 48

268.73................... War crime—torture........................................................... 49

268.74................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 50

268.75................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 51

268.76................... War crime—sentencing or execution without due process 52

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict           54

268.77................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 54

268.78................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      54

268.79................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 55

268.80................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 56

268.81................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 56

268.82................... War crime—rape............................................................... 57

268.83................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 58

268.84................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 59

268.85................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 60

268.86................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 61

268.87................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 61

268.88................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 63

268.89................... War crime—displacing civilians....................................... 65

268.90................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 65

268.91................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 66

268.92................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 66

268.93................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 67

268.94................... War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property 68

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions               69

268.95................... War crime—medical procedure......................................... 69

268.96................... War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation         70

268.97................... War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians.................................................... 70

268.98................... War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones             71

268.99................... War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians  72

268.100................. War crime—apartheid....................................................... 72

268.101................. War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 73

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court   73

268.102................. Perjury.............................................................................. 73

268.103................. Falsifying evidence........................................................... 74

268.104................. Destroying or concealing evidence................................... 74

268.105................. Deceiving witnesses......................................................... 75

268.106................. Corrupting witnesses or interpreters................................. 75

268.107................. Threatening witnesses or interpreters................................ 76

268.108................. Preventing witnesses or interpreters................................. 76

268.109................. Preventing production of things in evidence..................... 77

268.110................. Reprisals against witnesses............................................... 77

268.111................. Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court 78

268.112................. Perverting the course of justice......................................... 78

268.113................. Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court    79

268.114................. Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct...................... 79

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous                                                                             80

268.115................. Responsibility of commanders and other superiors.......... 80

268.116................. Defence of superior orders............................................... 81

268.117................. Geographical jurisdiction.................................................. 81

268.118................. Double jeopardy............................................................... 81

268.119................. Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court             82

268.120................. Saving of other laws......................................................... 82

268.121................. Bringing proceedings under this Division........................ 82

268.122................. Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final               82

268.123................. Legal representation.......................................................... 83

268.124................. Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions           84

268.125................. Meaning of civilian........................................................... 84

Division 270—Slavery and slavery‑like offences                                            85

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 85

270.1A.................. Definitions for Division 270............................................. 85

Subdivision B—Slavery                                                                                          87

270.1..................... Definition of slavery......................................................... 87

270.2..................... Slavery is unlawful........................................................... 87

270.3..................... Slavery offences............................................................... 87

270.3A.................. Slavery offences—geographical jurisdiction..................... 88

270.3B................... Prosecutions..................................................................... 88

Subdivision C—Slavery‑like offences                                                                 89

270.4..................... Definition of servitude...................................................... 89

270.5..................... Servitude offences............................................................ 89

270.6..................... Definition of forced labour............................................... 91

270.6A.................. Forced labour offences..................................................... 91

270.7..................... Deceptive recruiting for labour or services....................... 92

270.7A.................. Definition of forced marriage.......................................... 93

270.7B................... Forced marriage offences.................................................. 94

270.7C................... Offence of debt bondage................................................... 95

270.8..................... Slavery‑like offences—aggravated offences..................... 95

270.9..................... Slavery‑like offences—jurisdictional requirement............ 96

270.10................... Slavery‑like offences—relevant evidence......................... 96

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 270: general                                98

270.11................... Offences against Division 270—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      98

270.12................... Offences against Division 270—other laws not excluded 98

270.13................... Offences against Division 270—double jeopardy............ 99

Division 271—Trafficking in persons                                                              100

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  100

271.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 100

271.1A.................. Definition of exploitation................................................ 100

Subdivision B—Offences relating to trafficking in persons                       101

271.2..................... Offence of trafficking in persons.................................... 101

271.3..................... Trafficking in persons—aggravated offence................... 104

271.4..................... Offence of trafficking in children.................................... 105

271.5..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in persons..................... 106

271.6..................... Domestic trafficking in persons—aggravated offence.... 107

271.7..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in children..................... 108

Subdivision BA—Organ trafficking                                                                 109

271.7A.................. Removal of organs contrary to this Subdivision............. 109

271.7B................... Offence of organ trafficking—entry into and exit from Australia            109

271.7C................... Organ trafficking—aggravated offence........................... 110

271.7D.................. Offence of domestic organ trafficking............................ 111

271.7E................... Domestic organ trafficking—aggravated offence............ 111

Subdivision BB—Harbouring a victim                                                            112

271.7F................... Harbouring a victim........................................................ 112

271.7G.................. Harbouring a victim—aggravated offence...................... 113

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 271: general                              114

271.10................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences other than domestic trafficking in persons or organs   114

271.11................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences of domestic trafficking in persons or organs               114

271.11A................ Offences against Division 271—relevant evidence......... 115

271.11B................. Offences against Division 271—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      116

271.12................... Offences against Division 271—other laws not excluded 116

271.13................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 117

Division 271A—Overseas travel by certain registered offenders             118

271A.1.................. Restrictions on overseas travel by certain registered offenders                118

Division 272—Child sex offences outside Australia                                      119

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               119

272.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 119

272.2..................... When conduct causes a person to engage in sexual intercourse or other sexual activity          119

272.3..................... Meaning of position of trust or authority....................... 119

272.4..................... Meaning of sexual intercourse....................................... 120

272.5..................... Meaning of offence against this Division and extension of criminal responsibility  121

272.6..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        122

272.7..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 122

Subdivision B—Sexual offences against children outside Australia         123

272.8..................... Sexual intercourse with child outside Australia.............. 123

272.9..................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with child outside Australia             124

272.10................... Aggravated offence—child with mental impairment or under care, supervision or authority of defendant........................................................................................ 125

272.11................... Persistent sexual abuse of child outside Australia........... 126

272.12................... Sexual intercourse with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority     129

272.13................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority............................................................. 130

272.14................... Procuring child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia  131

272.15................... “Grooming” child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia              132

272.16................... Defence based on belief about age.................................. 133

272.17................... Defence based on valid and genuine marriage................ 134

Subdivision C—Offences of benefiting from, encouraging or preparing for sexual offences against children outside Australia                                                                                     135

272.18................... Benefiting from offence against this Division................. 135

272.19................... Encouraging offence against this Division...................... 136

272.20................... Preparing for or planning offence against this Division.. 136

Subdivision E—Other rules about conduct of trials                                      137

272.27................... Evidence relating to a person’s age................................. 137

272.28................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 138

272.29................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 139

272.30................... Sentencing...................................................................... 139

272.31................... Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    139

Division 273—Offences involving child pornography material or child abuse material outside Australia          141

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               141

273.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 141

273.2..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        142

273.2A.................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    142

273.3..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 142

273.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 142

Subdivision B—Offences committed overseas involving child pornography material or child abuse material  143

273.5..................... Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child pornography material outside Australia........................................................................................ 143

273.6..................... Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child abuse material outside Australia       143

273.7..................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             144

273.8..................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 145

Subdivision C—Defences                                                                                      145

273.9..................... Defences to offences against this Division..................... 145

Division 274—Torture                                                                                          148

274.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 148

274.2..................... Torture............................................................................ 148

274.3..................... Prosecutions................................................................... 149

274.4..................... No defence of exceptional circumstances or superior orders 150

274.5..................... Jurisdiction of State/Territory courts preserved.............. 150

274.6..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 151

274.7..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 151

Division 279—Video link evidence                                                                    152

279.1..................... Proceedings to which this Division applies.................... 152

279.2..................... When court may take evidence by video link.................. 152

279.3..................... Technical requirements for video link............................. 152

279.4..................... Application of laws about witnesses............................... 153

279.5..................... Administration of oaths and affirmations........................ 153

279.6..................... Expenses......................................................................... 154

279.7..................... Other laws about foreign evidence not affected.............. 154

Chapter 9—Dangers to the community                                                                155

Part 9.1—Serious drug offences                                                                         155

Division 300—Preliminary                                                                                 155

300.1..................... Purpose........................................................................... 155

300.2..................... Definitions...................................................................... 155

300.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 158

300.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 158

300.5..................... Particular identity of drugs, plants and precursors.......... 159

300.6..................... Recklessness as to nature of substance or plant sufficient for offence of attempt to commit an offence against this Part........................................................................... 159

Division 301—Serious drugs and precursors                                                  161

Subdivision A—Serious drugs and precursors: definitions                         161

301.1..................... Meaning of controlled drug............................................ 161

301.2..................... Meaning of controlled plant........................................... 161

301.3..................... Meaning of controlled precursor................................... 162

301.4..................... Meaning of border controlled drug................................ 162

301.5..................... Meaning of border controlled plant............................... 163

301.6..................... Meaning of border controlled precursor....................... 163

301.7..................... Serious drugs—conditions for listing by regulation....... 164

301.8..................... Serious drug precursors—conditions for listing by regulation 164

301.9..................... Meaning of drug analogue............................................. 164

Subdivision B—Serious drugs and precursors: commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities      166

301.10................... Meaning of commercial quantity.................................... 166

301.11................... Meaning of marketable quantity..................................... 167

301.12................... Meaning of trafficable quantity....................................... 168

Subdivision C—Serious drugs and precursors: emergency determinations 168

301.13................... Emergency determinations—serious drugs..................... 168

301.14................... Emergency determinations—serious drug precursors..... 169

301.15................... Emergency determinations—commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities       170

301.16................... Emergency determinations—effectiveness...................... 170

301.17................... Emergency determinations—publication......................... 171

Division 302—Trafficking controlled drugs                                                  172

302.1..................... Meaning of traffics......................................................... 172

302.2..................... Trafficking commercial quantities of controlled drugs.... 172

302.3..................... Trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs..... 173

302.4..................... Trafficking controlled drugs........................................... 173

302.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 173

302.6..................... Purchase of controlled drugs is not an ancillary offence. 174

Division 303—Commercial cultivation of controlled plants                      175

303.1..................... Meanings of cultivate and cultivates a plant................... 175

303.2..................... Meaning of product of a plant........................................ 175

303.3..................... Meaning of cultivates a plant for a commercial purpose 175

303.4..................... Cultivating commercial quantities of controlled plants.... 176

303.5..................... Cultivating marketable quantities of controlled plants..... 176

303.6..................... Cultivating controlled plants........................................... 176

303.7..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 177

Division 304—Selling controlled plants                                                           178

304.1..................... Selling commercial quantities of controlled plants.......... 178

304.2..................... Selling marketable quantities of controlled plants........... 178

304.3..................... Selling controlled plants.................................................. 178

Division 305—Commercial manufacture of controlled drugs                   180

305.1..................... Meanings of manufacture and manufactures a substance 180

305.2..................... Meaning of manufactures a substance for a commercial purpose          180

305.3..................... Manufacturing commercial quantities of controlled drugs 180

305.4..................... Manufacturing marketable quantities of controlled drugs 181

305.5..................... Manufacturing controlled drugs...................................... 181

305.6..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 182

Division 306—Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors                                  183

306.1..................... Meaning of pre‑traffics................................................... 183

306.2..................... Pre‑trafficking commercial quantities of controlled precursors                183

306.3..................... Pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors 184

306.4..................... Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors.............................. 184

306.5..................... Presumption for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—sale 185

306.6..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for drug manufacture  185

306.7..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for sale        186

306.8..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—possession      187

Division 307—Import‑export offences                                                             189

Subdivision A—Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              189

307.1..................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants   189

307.2..................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants    189

307.3..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants          190

307.4..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants—no defence relating to lack of commercial intent............................................................ 190

Subdivision B—Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants 191

307.5..................... Possessing commercial quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 191

307.6..................... Possessing marketable quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 191

307.7..................... Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              192

Subdivision C—Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported                                                                193

307.8..................... Possessing commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 193

307.9..................... Possessing marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 193

307.10................... Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported........................................................ 194

Subdivision D—Importing and exporting border controlled precursors 195

307.11................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled precursors      195

307.12................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors       195

307.13................... Importing and exporting border controlled precursors.... 195

Division 308—Possession offences                                                                    197

308.1..................... Possessing controlled drugs........................................... 197

308.2..................... Possessing controlled precursors.................................... 198

308.3..................... Possessing plant material, equipment or instructions for commercial cultivation of controlled plants      198

308.4..................... Possessing substance, equipment or instructions for commercial manufacture of controlled drugs         199

Division 309—Drug offences involving children                                           200

309.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    200

309.2..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children........................... 200

309.3..................... Supplying marketable quantities of controlled drugs to children for trafficking       200

309.4..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking.... 201

309.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 201

309.6..................... Meaning of procures an individual to traffic.................. 201

309.7..................... Procuring children for trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs            202

309.8..................... Procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs......... 202

309.9..................... Meaning of procures an individual to pre‑traffic........... 203

309.10................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors              203

309.11................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 203

309.12................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................. 204

309.13................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         205

309.14................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors     205

309.15................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            206

Division 310—Harm and danger to children under 14 from serious drug offences     208

310.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    208

310.2..................... Danger from exposure to unlawful manufacturing......... 208

310.3..................... Harm from exposure to unlawful manufacturing............ 209

310.4..................... Aggravated offences—manufacturing controlled drugs and controlled precursors  210

Division 311—Combining quantities of drugs, plants or precursors        212

Subdivision A—Combining different parcels on the same occasion         212

311.1..................... Combining different parcels on the same occasion......... 212

Subdivision B—Combining parcels from organised commercial activities 213

311.2..................... Business of trafficking controlled drugs......................... 213

311.3..................... Business of pre‑trafficking by selling controlled precursors 214

311.4..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         215

311.5..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled precursors            215

311.6..................... Business of supplying controlled drugs to children........ 216

311.7..................... General rules—combining parcels from organised commercial activities 217

Subdivision C—Combining parcels from multiple offences                       218

311.8..................... Multiple offences—trafficking controlled drugs............. 218

311.9..................... Multiple offences—cultivating controlled plants............. 218

311.10................... Multiple offences—selling controlled plants................... 219

311.11................... Multiple offences—manufacturing controlled drugs....... 219

311.12................... Multiple offences—pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 219

311.13................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants             220

311.14................... Multiple offences—possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 220

311.15................... Multiple offences—possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported.................................... 221

311.16................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled precursors                221

311.17................... Multiple offences—supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking              222

311.18................... Multiple offences—procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs   222

311.19................... Multiple offences—procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors     223

311.20................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................................. 223

311.21................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            224

311.22................... General rules—combining parcels from multiple offences 225

Division 312—Working out quantities of drugs, plants or precursors     226

312.1..................... Working out quantities of drugs and precursors in mixtures 226

312.2..................... Working out quantities where different kinds of drugs, plants or precursors are involved      227

Division 313—Defences and alternative verdicts                                          230

313.1..................... Defence—conduct justified or excused by or under a law of a State or Territory    230

313.2..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  230

313.3..................... Alternative verdict—offence not proved......................... 230

313.4..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to quantity of drug, plant or precursor   231

313.5..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to identity of drug, plant or precursor    232

Part 9.2—Psychoactive substances                                                                   233

Division 320—Psychoactive substances                                                           233

320.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 233

320.2..................... Importing psychoactive substances................................. 234

320.3..................... Importing substances represented to be serious drug alternatives            236

Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons                                                                            239

Division 360—Cross‑border firearms trafficking                                        239

360.1..................... Disposal and acquisition of a firearm or firearm part...... 239

360.2..................... Cross‑border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm or firearm part            239

360.3..................... Taking or sending a firearm or firearm part across borders 240

360.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 241

Division 361—International firearms trafficking                                        243

361.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 243

361.2..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts into Australia 244

361.3..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts out of Australia             245

361.4..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  246

361.6..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 246

Part 9.5—Identity crime                                                                                         247

Division 370—Preliminary                                                                                 247

370.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 247

370.2..................... Definition of foreign indictable offence........................... 248

370.3..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 248

Division 372—Identity fraud offences                                                              249

372.1..................... Dealing in identification information............................... 249

372.1A.................. Dealing in identification information that involves use of a carriage service            250

372.2..................... Possession of identification information......................... 252

372.3..................... Possession of equipment used to make identification documentation       252

372.4..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A............ 253

372.5..................... Alternative verdict........................................................... 253

372.6..................... Attempt........................................................................... 253

Division 375—Victims’ certificates                                                                   254

375.1..................... Certificate may be issued by magistrate in relation to victim of identity crime          254

375.2..................... Content of certificate....................................................... 255

375.3..................... Relation to civil and criminal proceedings....................... 255

375.4..................... Power conferred on magistrate personally...................... 255

Division 376—False identity and air travel                                                    256

376.1..................... Definitions for Division 376........................................... 256

376.2..................... False identification information—at constitutional airports 256

376.3..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets obtained using a carriage service        257

376.4..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets for constitutional flights      258

376.5..................... False identification information—extended jurisdiction (Category D)     259

Part 9.6—Contamination of goods                                                                    260

380.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 260

380.2..................... Contaminating goods...................................................... 260

380.3..................... Threatening to contaminate goods................................... 264

380.4..................... Making false statements about contamination of goods.. 267

380.5..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............ 271

Part 9.9—Criminal associations and organisations                                 272

Division 390—Criminal associations and organisations                             272

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  272

390.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 272

390.2..................... State offences that have a federal aspect.......................... 274

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                      277

390.3..................... Associating in support of serious organised criminal activity  277

390.4..................... Supporting a criminal organisation................................. 279

390.5..................... Committing an offence for the benefit of, or at the direction of, a criminal organisation          280

390.6..................... Directing activities of a criminal organisation................. 282

390.7..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C............ 284

Chapter 10—National infrastructure                                                                    285

Part 10.2—Money laundering                                                                             285

Division 400—Money laundering                                                                      285

400.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 285

400.2..................... Definition of deals with money or other property.......... 287

400.2A.................. Application of offences relating to possible instruments of crime            287

400.3..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more 288

400.4..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more    290

400.5..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more      291

400.6..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more      292

400.7..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more        294

400.8..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value        295

400.9..................... Dealing with property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc.           296

400.10................... Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property...... 298

400.11................... Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required           299

400.12................... Combining several contraventions in a single charge...... 300

400.13................... Proof of other offences is not required........................... 300

400.14................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 300

400.15................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 301

400.16................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 304

Part 10.5—Postal services                                                                                     305

Division 470—Preliminary                                                                                 305

470.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 305

470.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 307

470.3..................... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact 307

470.4..................... Meaning of expressions used in Subdivisions B and C of Division 471 307

Division 471—Postal offences                                                                            309

Subdivision A—General postal offences                                                          309

471.1..................... Theft of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages..... 309

471.2..................... Receiving stolen mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages 310

471.3..................... Taking or concealing of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages      312

471.4..................... Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks....... 312

471.5..................... Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps             312

471.6..................... Damaging or destroying mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages     313

471.7..................... Tampering with mail‑receptacles..................................... 314

471.8..................... Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles....................... 314

471.9..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 314

471.10................... Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances............. 314

471.11................... Using a postal or similar service to make a threat........... 315

471.12................... Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence       316

471.13................... Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service   316

471.14................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 317

471.15................... Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post  317

Subdivision B—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service for child pornography material or child abuse material                                                                                       318

471.16................... Using a postal or similar service for child pornography material             318

471.17................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a postal or similar service.................................................. 319

471.18................... Defences in respect of child pornography material......... 319

471.19................... Using a postal or similar service for child abuse material 320

471.20................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a postal or similar service................................................................. 321

471.21................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 321

471.22................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             322

471.23................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 324

Subdivision C—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service involving sexual activity with person under 16                                                                                                       324

471.24................... Using a postal or similar service to procure persons under 16 324

471.25................... Using a postal or similar service to “groom” persons under 16               325

471.26................... Using a postal or similar service to send indecent material to person under 16        326

471.27................... Age‑related provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision       327

471.28................... Other provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision 328

471.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 329

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            330

471.30................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 330

471.31................... Definition of carry by post does not apply..................... 330

Division 472—Miscellaneous                                                                              331

472.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 331

472.2..................... Interpretation of other laws............................................. 331

Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services                                                     332

Division 473—Preliminary                                                                                 332

473.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 332

473.2..................... Possession or control of data or material in the form of data 341

473.3..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data    341

473.4..................... Determining whether material is offensive...................... 341

473.5..................... Use of a carriage service................................................. 342

Division 474—Telecommunications offences                                                 343

Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services                     343

474.1..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 343

474.2..................... General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider                343

Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications                               344

474.3..................... Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider... 344

474.4..................... Interception devices........................................................ 344

474.5..................... Wrongful delivery of communications............................ 345

474.6..................... Interference with facilities............................................... 346

474.7..................... Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier 347

474.8..................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier   348

474.9..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier.......................................................................... 349

474.10................... Copying subscription‑specific secure data...................... 351

474.11................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier  352

474.12................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier   353

Subdivision C—General offences relating to use of telecommunications 355

474.14................... Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence    355

474.15................... Using a carriage service to make a threat........................ 356

474.16................... Using a carriage service for a hoax threat....................... 357

474.17................... Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence 357

474.17A................ Aggravated offences involving private sexual material—using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence............................................................................ 358

474.17B................. Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 360

474.18................... Improper use of emergency call service.......................... 361

Subdivision D—Offences relating to use of carriage service for child pornography material or child abuse material                                                                                                       362

474.19................... Using a carriage service for child pornography material. 362

474.20................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service............................................................... 362

474.21................... Defences in respect of child pornography material......... 363

474.22................... Using a carriage service for child abuse material............ 365

474.23................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 365

474.24................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 366

474.24A................ Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             368

474.24B................. Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 369

474.24C................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    369

Subdivision E—Offence relating to obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts              370

474.25................... Obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts         370

Subdivision F—Offences relating to use of carriage service involving sexual activity with, or causing harm to, person under 16                                                                         370

474.25A................ Using a carriage service for sexual activity with person under 16 years of age        370

474.25B................. Aggravated offence—child with mental impairment or under care, supervision or authority of defendant........................................................................................ 371

474.25C................. Using a carriage service to prepare or plan to cause harm to, engage in sexual activity with, or procure for sexual activity, persons under 16.................................... 372

474.26................... Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age          373

474.27................... Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age        374

474.27A................ Using a carriage service to transmit indecent communication to person under 16 years of age                375

474.28................... Provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision. 376

474.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 378

Subdivision G—Offences relating to use of carriage service for suicide related material         380

474.29A................ Using a carriage service for suicide related material........ 380

474.29B................. Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining suicide related material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 382

Division 475—Miscellaneous                                                                              384

475.1A.................. Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons 384

475.1B................... Provisions relating to element of offence that particular conduct was engaged in using a carriage service........................................................................................ 384

475.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 385

475.2..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 385

Part 10.7—Computer offences                                                                            386

Division 476—Preliminary                                                                                 386

476.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 386

476.2..................... Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment                387

476.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 388

476.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 388

476.5..................... Liability for certain acts................................................... 388

Division 477—Serious computer offences                                                       391

477.1..................... Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence      391

477.2..................... Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment.. 392

477.3..................... Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication.. 392

Division 478—Other computer offences                                                          394

478.1..................... Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data 394

478.2..................... Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc.                394

478.3..................... Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence  394

478.4..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence  395

Part 10.8—Financial information offences                                                   397

480.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 397

480.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 398

480.3..................... Constitutional application of this Part............................. 398

480.4..................... Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information          398

480.5..................... Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information........................................................................................ 398

480.6..................... Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information              399

Part 10.9—Accounting records                                                                          400

Division 490—False dealing with accounting documents                            400

490.1..................... Intentional false dealing with accounting documents...... 400

490.2..................... Reckless false dealing with accounting documents......... 402

490.3..................... Meaning of annual turnover........................................... 403

490.4..................... Related bodies corporate................................................. 404

490.5..................... Proof of certain matters unnecessary.............................. 404

490.6..................... Consent to commencement of proceedings..................... 404

490.7..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 405

Dictionary                                                                                                                           406

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  422

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          422

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              424

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           425

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         442


ScheduleThe Criminal Code

Chapter 8Offences against humanity and related offences

  

Division 268Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court

Subdivision A—Introductory

268.1  Purpose of Division

             (1)  The purpose of this Division is to create certain offences that are of international concern and certain related offences.

             (2)  It is the Parliament’s intention that the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court is to be complementary to the jurisdiction of Australia with respect to offences in this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of that Court.

             (3)  Accordingly, the International Criminal Court Act 2002 does not affect the primacy of Australia’s right to exercise its jurisdiction with respect to offences created by this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.

268.2  Outline of offences

             (1)  Subdivision B creates offences each of which is called genocide.

             (2)  Subdivision C creates offences each of which is called a crime against humanity.

             (3)  Subdivisions D, E, F, G and H create offences each of which is called a war crime.

             (4)  Subdivision J creates offences each of which is called a crime against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court.

Subdivision B—Genocide

268.3  Genocide by killing

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.4  Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes serious bodily or mental harm to one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes serious bodily or mental harm includes, but is not restricted to, commits acts of torture, rape, sexual violence or inhuman or degrading treatment.

268.5  Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts certain conditions of life upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the conditions of life are intended to bring about the physical destruction of that group, in whole or in part.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

conditions of life includes, but is not restricted to, intentional deprivation of resources indispensable for survival, such as deprivation of food or medical services, or systematic expulsion from homes.

268.6  Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imposes certain measures upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the measures imposed are intended to prevent births within that group.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.7  Genocide by forcibly transferring children

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly transfers one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the transfer is from that group to another national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (e)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the person or persons are under that age.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly transfers one or more persons includes transfers one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity

268.8  Crime against humanity—murder

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.9  Crime against humanity—extermination

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct constitutes, or takes place as part of, a mass killing of members of a civilian population; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes the death of includes causes death by intentionally inflicting conditions of life (such as the deprivation of access to food or medicine) intended to bring about the destruction of part of a population.

268.10  Crime against humanity—enslavement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over one or more persons (including the exercise of a power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children); and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person includes purchases, sells, lends or barters a person or imposes on a person a similar deprivation of liberty and also includes exercise a power arising from a debt incurred or contract made by a person.

268.11  Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly displaces one or more persons, by expulsion or other coercive acts, from an area in which the person or persons are lawfully present to another country or location; and

                     (b)  the forcible displacement is contrary to paragraph 4 of article 12 or article 13 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the lawfulness of the presence of the person or persons in the area; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

forcibly displaces one or more persons includes displaces one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

268.12  Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imprisons one or more persons or otherwise severely deprives one or more persons of physical liberty; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct violates article 9, 14 or 15 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.13  Crime against humanity—torture

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons who are in the custody or under the control of the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the pain or suffering does not arise only from, and is not inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.14  Crime against humanity—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.15  Crime against humanity—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.16  Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person or persons are consenting to engaging in the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.17  Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.18  Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.19  Crime against humanity—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.14 to 268.18; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.20  Crime against humanity—persecution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely deprives one or more persons of any of the rights referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the rights are those guaranteed in articles 6, 7, 8 and 9, paragraph 2 of article 14, article 18, paragraph 2 of article 20, paragraph 2 of article 23 and article 27 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator targets the person or persons by reason of the identity of a group or collectivity or targets the group or collectivity as such; and

                     (d)  the grounds on which the targeting is based are political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender or other grounds that are recognised in paragraph 1 of article 2 of the Covenant; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in connection with another act that is:

                              (i)  a proscribed inhumane act; or

                             (ii)  genocide; or

                            (iii)  a war crime; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the rights are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (d).

268.21  Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator arrests, detains or abducts one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction is carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to remove the person or persons from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (e)  after the arrest, detention or abduction, the government or organisation refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom of, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of, the person or persons.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  one or more persons have been arrested, detained or abducted; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction was carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts, of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the refusal occurs with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of the government of the country or the political organisation; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the refusal was preceded or accompanied by the deprivation of freedom; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator intends that the person or persons be removed from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (g)  the arrest, detention or abduction occurred, and the refusal occurs, as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (h)  the perpetrator knows that the refusal is part of, or intends the refusal to be part of, such an attack.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.22  Crime against humanity—apartheid

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator commits against one or more persons an act that is a proscribed inhumane act (as defined by the Dictionary) or an act that is of a nature and gravity similar to any such proscribed inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the character of the act; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator intends to maintain the regime by the conduct; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.23  Crime against humanity—other inhumane act

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health, by means of an inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the act is of a character similar to another proscribed inhumane act as defined by the Dictionary; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.24  War crime—wilful killing

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.25  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.26  War crime—inhumane treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.27  War crime—biological experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a particular biological experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health or integrity of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.28  War crime—wilfully causing great suffering

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great physical or mental pain or suffering to, or serious injury to body or health of, one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.29  War crime—destruction and appropriation of property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or appropriates property; and

                     (b)  the destruction or appropriation is not justified by military necessity; and

                     (c)  the destruction or appropriation is extensive and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; and

                     (d)  the property is protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.30  War crime—compelling service in hostile forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons, by act or threat:

                              (i)  to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; or

                             (ii)  otherwise to serve in the forces of an adverse power; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.31  War crime—denying a fair trial

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of a fair and regular trial by denying to the person any of the judicial guarantees referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the judicial guarantees are those defined in articles 84, 99 and 105 of the Third Geneva Convention and articles 66 and 71 of the Fourth Geneva Convention; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the judicial guarantees are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

268.32  War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully deports or transfers one or more persons to another country or to another location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.33  War crime—unlawful confinement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines or continues to confine one or more persons to a certain location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.34  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict

268.35  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.36  War crime—attacking civilian objects

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is not a military objective; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.37  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.38  War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause incidental death or injury to civilians; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the death or injury will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause:

                              (i)  damage to civilian objects; or

                             (ii)  widespread, long‑term and severe damage to the natural environment; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the damage will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.39  War crime—attacking undefended places

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks or bombards one or more towns, villages, dwellings or buildings; and

                     (b)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and

                     (c)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings do not constitute military objectives; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.40  War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator kills one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator injures one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.41  War crime—improper use of a flag of truce

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag of truce; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.42  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform while engaged in an attack or in order to shield, favour, protect or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.43  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform without the authority of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.44  War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses an emblem; and

                     (b)  the emblem is one of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator uses the emblem for combatant purposes to invite the confidence of an adversary in order to lead him or her to believe that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the adversary is obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator, with intent to betray that confidence; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In this section:

emblem means any emblem, identity card, sign, signal, insignia or uniform.

268.45  War crime—transfer of population

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator:

                              (i)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the transfer, directly or indirectly, of parts of the civilian population of the perpetrator’s own country into territory that the country occupies; or

                             (ii)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of territory occupied by the perpetrator’s own country within or outside that territory; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.46  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.47  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.48  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.49  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.50  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.51  War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 18 of the Third Geneva Convention, article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention or article 54 of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.52  War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator effects the abolition, suspension or termination of admissibility in a court of law of certain rights or actions; and

                     (b)  the abolition, suspension or termination is directed at the nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.53  War crime—compelling participation in military operations

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons by act or threat to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  It is not a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) that the person or persons were in the service of the perpetrator at a time before the beginning of the international armed conflict.

268.54  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.55  War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a substance or employs a weapon that releases a substance as a result of its employment; and

                     (b)  the substance is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.56  War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a gas or other analogous substance or device; and

                     (b)  the gas, substance or device is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its asphyxiating or toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.57  War crime—employing prohibited bullets

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs certain bullets; and

                     (b)  the bullets are such that their use violates the Hague Declaration because they expand or flatten easily in the human body; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the nature of the bullets is such that their employment will uselessly aggravate suffering or the wounding effect; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.58  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of the body or bodies of one or more dead persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.59  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.60  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.61  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.62  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.63  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.64  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.59 to 268.63; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.65  War crime—using protected persons as shields

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses the presence of one or more civilians, prisoners of war, medical or religious personnel or persons who are hors de combat; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends the perpetrator’s conduct to render a military objective immune from attack or to shield, favour or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:

                     (a)  if the conduct results in the death of any of the persons referred to in paragraph (a)—imprisonment for life; or

                     (b)  otherwise—imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  In this section:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.66  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.67  War crime—starvation as a method of warfare

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses as a method of warfare:

                              (i)  any intentional deprivation of civilians of objects indispensable to their survival; or

                             (ii)  without limiting subparagraph (i)—the wilful impeding of relief supplies for civilians; and

                     (b)  if subparagraph (a)(ii) applies—the relief supplies are provided for under the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.68  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.69  Definition of religious personnel

                   In this Subdivision:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.70  War crime—murder

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the death of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.71  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the death of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

          (2A)  Subsection (2) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the serious endangerment of the physical or mental health, or integrity, of the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.72  War crime—cruel treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are neither taking an active part in the hostilities nor are members of an organised armed group; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the infliction of the severe physical or mental pain or suffering on the person or persons occurs in the course of, or as a result of, an attack on a military objective; and

                     (b)  at the time the attack was launched:

                              (i)  the perpetrator did not expect that the attack would result in the incidental death of, or injury to, civilians that would have been excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                             (ii)  it was reasonable in all the circumstances that the perpetrator did not have such an expectation.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, the expression members of an organised armed group does not include members of an organised armed group who are hors de combat.

268.73  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.74  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons (whether or not the person or persons are alive); and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to a person or persons who:

                     (a)  are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  are civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities; or

                     (c)  are dead.

268.75  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.76  War crime—sentencing or execution without due process

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator passes a sentence on one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator executes one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(e) and (2)(e).

             (4)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.77  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.78  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.79  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.80  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.81  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.82  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.83  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.84  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.85  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.86  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.87  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.82 to 268.87; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against the person or another person; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.88  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.89  War crime—displacing civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator orders a displacement of a civilian population; and

                     (b)  the order is not justified by the security of the civilians involved or by imperative military necessity; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.90  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.91  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.92  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.93  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.94  War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adversary; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 14 of Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.95  War crime—medical procedure

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical procedure; and

                     (b)  the procedure seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is not justified by the state of health of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the conduct is consistent with generally accepted medical standards that would be applied under similar medical circumstances to persons who are of the same nationality as the perpetrator and are in no way deprived of liberty; and

                     (e)  the person or persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, the country of the perpetrator as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.96  War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator removes from one or more persons blood, tissue or organs for transplantation; and

                     (b)  in the case of the removal of blood—the removal:

                              (i)  is not for transfusion; or

                             (ii)  is for transfusion without the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  in the case of the removal of skin—the removal:

                              (i)  is not for grafting; or

                             (ii)  is for grafting without the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the intent of the removal is non‑therapeutic; and

                     (e)  the removal is not carried out under conditions consistent with generally accepted medical standards and controls designed for the benefit of the person or persons and of the recipient; and

                      (f)  the person or persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, an adverse party as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                     (g)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means consent given voluntarily and without any coercion or inducement.

268.97  War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces; and

                     (b)  the attack is such that it will cause loss of life, injury to civilians, or damage to civilian objects, to such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause loss of life, injury to civilians, or damage to civilian objects, to such an extent; and

                     (d)  the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.98  War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more towns, villages, dwellings, buildings or demilitarized zones; and

                     (b)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and

                     (c)  the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.99  War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  one or more persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, an adverse party as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator unjustifiably delays the repatriation of the person or persons to the person’s own country or the persons’ own countries; and

                     (c)  the delay is in violation of Part IV of the Third Geneva Convention or Chapter XII of Section IV of Part III of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.100  War crime—apartheid

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator commits against one or more persons an act that is a proscribed inhumane act or is of a nature and gravity similar to any proscribed inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless at to, the factual circumstances that establish the character of the act; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator intends to maintain the regime by the conduct; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.101  War crime—attacking protected objects

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not used in support of the military effort and are not located in the immediate proximity of military objectives:

                              (i)  clearly recognised historic monuments;

                             (ii)  works of art;

                            (iii)  places of worship; and

                     (c)  the monuments, works of art and places of worship constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and have been given special protection by special arrangement (for example, within the framework of a competent international organisation); and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court

268.102  Perjury

             (1)  A person commits the offence of perjury if:

                     (a)  the person makes a sworn statement in or for the purposes of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; and

                     (b)  the statement is false.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  A person who is an interpreter commits the offence of perjury if:

                     (a)  the person, by a sworn statement, gives an interpretation of a statement or other thing in or for the purposes of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; and

                     (b)  the interpretation is false or misleading.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.103  Falsifying evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person makes false evidence with the intention of:

                     (a)  influencing a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  influencing the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person:

                     (a)  uses evidence that is false evidence and that the person believes is false evidence; and

                     (b)  is reckless as to whether or not the use of the evidence could:

                              (i)  influence a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                             (ii)  influence the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, making evidence includes altering evidence, but does not include perjury.

268.104  Destroying or concealing evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person destroys or conceals evidence with the intention of:

                     (a)  influencing a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  influencing the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, destroying evidence includes making the evidence illegible, indecipherable or otherwise incapable of being identified.

268.105  Deceiving witnesses

                   A person commits an offence if the person deceives another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  give false evidence in a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.106  Corrupting witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person provides, or offers or promises to provide, a benefit to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person asks for, or receives or agrees to receive, a benefit for himself, herself or another person with the intention that he, she or another person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (3)  A person commits an offence if the person provides, or offers or promises to provide, a benefit to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as an interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give a false or misleading interpretation as an interpreter at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.107  Threatening witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as an interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give a false or misleading interpretation as an interpreter in such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

268.108  Preventing witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally prevents another person from attending as a witness or interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  This section does not apply to conduct that constitutes an offence against section 268.105, 268.106, 268.107, 268.109 or 268.110.

268.109  Preventing production of things in evidence

                   A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally prevents another person from producing in evidence at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court a thing that is legally required to be produced.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.110  Reprisals against witnesses

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who was a witness in a proceeding before the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by the other person in or for the purposes of the proceeding; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the other person was a witness who had done that thing.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) that:

                     (a)  the detriment to the witness was not (apart from this section) an offence; and

                     (b)  the witness committed perjury in the proceeding before the International Criminal Court.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  In this section:

witness includes:

                     (a)  a person who attends at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court as a witness but is not called as a witness; or

                     (b)  an interpreter.

268.111  Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who is an official of the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by the other person; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the other person was an official of that Court who had done that thing for the purposes of a proceeding before that Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who is an official of the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by a third person who is an official of that Court; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the third person was an official of that Court who had done that thing for the purposes of a proceeding before that Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.112  Perverting the course of justice

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally perverts the course of justice in respect of the International Criminal Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  This section does not apply to conduct that constitutes the publication of any matter.

             (3)  In this section:

perverts includes obstructs, prevents or defeats.

268.113  Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court

             (1)  A person who is an official of the International Criminal Court commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  asks for a benefit for himself, herself or another person; or

                             (ii)  receives or obtains a benefit for himself, herself or another person; or

                            (iii)  agrees to receive or obtain a benefit for himself, herself or another person; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention that the exercise of the person’s duties as an official of the International Criminal Court will be influenced.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), it is immaterial whether the benefit is in the nature of a reward.

268.114  Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct

             (1)  This Subdivision does not apply to a person in respect of:

                     (a)  conduct that results in a failure or refusal to issue a certificate under section 22 or 29 of the International Criminal Court Act 2002; or

                     (b)  a failure or refusal to issue such a certificate; or

                     (c)  conduct engaged in reliance on the absence of such a certificate.

             (2)  In this section:

conduct includes any one or more acts or omissions.

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous

268.115  Responsibility of commanders and other superiors

             (1)  The criminal responsibility imposed by this section is in addition to other grounds of criminal responsibility under the law in force in Australia for acts or omissions that are offences under this Division.

             (2)  A military commander or person effectively acting as a military commander is criminally responsible for offences under this Division committed by forces under his or her effective command and control, or effective authority and control, as the case may be, as a result of his or her failure to exercise control properly over those forces, where:

                     (a)  the military commander or person either knew or, owing to the circumstances at the time, was reckless as to whether the forces were committing or about to commit such offences; and

                     (b)  the military commander or person failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or repress their commission or to submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution.

             (3)  With respect to superior and subordinate relationships not described in subsection (2), a superior is criminally responsible for offences against this Division committed by subordinates under his or her effective authority and control, as a result of his or her failure to exercise control properly over those subordinates, where:

                     (a)  the superior either knew, or consciously disregarded information that clearly indicated, that the subordinates were committing or about to commit such offences; and

                     (b)  the offences concerned activities that were within the effective responsibility and control of the superior; and

                     (c)  the superior failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or repress their commission or to submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution.

268.116  Defence of superior orders

             (1)  The fact that genocide or a crime against humanity has been committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian, does not relieve the person of criminal responsibility.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (3), the fact that a war crime has been committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian, does not relieve the person of criminal responsibility.

             (3)  It is a defence to a war crime that:

                     (a)  the war crime was committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian; and

                     (b)  the person was under a legal obligation to obey the order; and

                     (c)  the person did not know that the order was unlawful; and

                     (d)  the order was not manifestly unlawful.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in establishing the elements in subsection (3). See subsection 13.3(3).

268.117  Geographical jurisdiction

             (1)  Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—Category D) applies to genocide, crimes against hu