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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2017C00375
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Competition and Consumer Amendment (Abolition of Limited Merits Review) Act 2017
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Communications and the Arts; Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities; Industry, Innovation and Science
Registered 29 Nov 2017
Start Date 06 Nov 2017
End Date 31 Aug 2018
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part IVC—Payment surchargesPart IVC—Payment surcharges
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations and notificationsPart VII—Authorisations and notifications
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 112

Compilation date:                              6 November 2017

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 116, 2017

Registered:                                         29 November 2017

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–110

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–185

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

 

 

 

This compilation includes commenced amendments made by Act No. 87, 2017 and Act No. 114, 2017

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 6 November 2017 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 16

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 19

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 21

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 22

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 22

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                23

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              23

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 24

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 24

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 25

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 25

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    25

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 25

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  26

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     27

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 34

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     35

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 35

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 36

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 36

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 37

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  38

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 38

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 39

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 40

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 40

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 41

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    41

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 42

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 42

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by Chairperson............................. 42

17A....................... Disclosure of certain interests by members of the Commission when taking part in determinations of matters.......................................................................................... 42

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 43

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 44

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 45

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 46

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 46

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 47

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             47

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          48

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   50

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 50

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 50

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           51

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 52

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 53

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 53

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 53

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 54

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 54

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 54

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 55

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 55

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 55

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 56

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 56

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 57

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 57

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 57

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              59

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 59

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 59

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 59

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 60

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 60

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 60

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 62

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 62

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 63

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 63

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 63

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 63

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 64

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 64

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 64

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 65

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 65

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 66

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 66

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              67

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            67

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 67

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 67

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 67

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              69

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 69

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         69

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 69

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             70

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 70

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                70

44AIA................... No merits review of AER decisions................................. 71

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 71

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 72

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 73

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  74

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 74

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 74

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 74

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 75

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 75

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 76

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 76

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 77

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 77

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 78

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 78

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 78

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 78

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 79

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 79

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 79

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       80

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 80

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          81

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 81

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 81

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 82

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              82

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 82

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 84

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     85

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 86

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 87

44AAJ................... Annual report.................................................................... 87

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 87

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       89

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 89

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        90

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            90

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 90

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 90

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures.. 94

44CA..................... Meaning of declaration criteria........................................ 95

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister....................................... 96

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  97

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown................................................ 98

Division 2—Declared services                                                                               99

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                           99

44F........................ Person may request recommendation................................ 99

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 101

44G....................... Criteria for the Council recommending declaration of a service               102

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 102

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 104

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 106

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              107

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 107

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 107

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 108

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 109

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 110

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 111

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 113

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 114

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   116

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      116

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 116

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          116

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 116

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 118

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 119

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 121

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 122

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 123

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 123

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 125

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     125

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 125

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  127

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 127

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        129

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            131

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 131

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           132

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                132

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        132

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 133

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 133

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 133

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          135

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 135

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 136

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 136

Subdivision CA—Revocation of Commonwealth Minister’s decision      137

44NBA.................. Recommendation by Council.......................................... 137

44NBB.................. Council may request information.................................... 139

44NBC.................. Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 140

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            140

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 140

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 143

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 145

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 146

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  147

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           147

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               148

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          148

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   150

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 150

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 151

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 152

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 152

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 154

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 156

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 157

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 158

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 160

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              162

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  162

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         163

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      163

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 163

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              163

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 163

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 164

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               164

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 164

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 164

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 166

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 168

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 169

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 170

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              171

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      171

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 171

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 171

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 172

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 172

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 172

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 173

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 173

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 174

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 175

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 175

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 175

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 176

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               176

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      177

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 177

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 177

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               179

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 179

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        181

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 181

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 182

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             183

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 183

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 184

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                184

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               185

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 186

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    186

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 186

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 186

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   187

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 187

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 187

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 188

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 189

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  190

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 190

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       191

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              191

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 191

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 193

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 195

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 197

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 199

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               200

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            200

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       201

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 201

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            203

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 203

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 205

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 206

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 207

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  208

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 208

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            210

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 210

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               211

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 211

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     212

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 212

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 214

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 215

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                215

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          217

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 217

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 218

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 219

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 219

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 219

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 219

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 220

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 220

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     221

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 221

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 221

44ZZMAA............ No merits review by Tribunal of decisions under energy laws                222

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 222

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 223

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 224

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 224

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 224

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 226

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 228

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 229

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 232

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 232

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 232

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      234

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   234

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               234

45AA.................... Simplified outline............................................................ 234

45AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 234

45AC..................... Extended meaning of party............................................. 236

45AD.................... Cartel provisions............................................................. 236

45AE..................... Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 242

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              243

45AF..................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 243

45AG.................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 244

45AH.................... Determining guilt............................................................ 245

45AI...................... Court may make related civil orders................................ 245

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         245

45AJ...................... Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 245

45AK..................... Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 246

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  246

45AL..................... Conduct notified............................................................. 246

45AM.................... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 247

45AN.................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         247

45AO.................... Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 248

45AP..................... Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 249

45AQ.................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 250

45AR..................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 250

45AS..................... Dual listed company arrangement................................... 251

45AT..................... Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 252

45AU.................... Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   252

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               254

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            254

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             258

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               259

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 259

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 260

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 262

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 266

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 269

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              270

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 270

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          272

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  274

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 275

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 281

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 282

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            283

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 285

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 288

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 293

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            294

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          294

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 294

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              296

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 296

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   297

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 297

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 297

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 298

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 298

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 299

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 299

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                300

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 300

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   303

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 303

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       304

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 304

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       306

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        308

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  308

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 308

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 309

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 309

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     310

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 310

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 310

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               311

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          311

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 311

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 311

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    313

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 313

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              314

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 314

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 314

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 315

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       316

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 316

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 316

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 317

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 317

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 317

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 318

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                318

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 319

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              321

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          321

60.......................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 321

60AA.................... Objects etc...................................................................... 322

60A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 323

60B........................ Regulated goods............................................................. 328

Division 2—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                 329

60C........................ Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal...... 329

60CA..................... Failure to pass on cost savings—250% penalty.............. 329

60D....................... Notice to entity that is considered to have engaged in price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 331

60E........................ Commission may issue notice to aid prevention of price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 332

60F........................ Acquisition of property................................................... 333

Division 2A—Carbon tax removal substantiation notices                    334

60FA..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation notices...................... 334

60FB..................... Extending periods for complying with carbon tax removal substantiation notices   335

60FC..................... Compliance with carbon tax removal substantiation notices 335

Division 2B—Carbon tax removal substantiation statements            337

60FD..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation statements................. 337

Division 2C—Statements for customers                                                         340

60FE...................... Statements for customers................................................ 340

Division 3—Price monitoring in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 342

60G....................... Commission may monitor prices in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 342

60H....................... Information‑gathering powers........................................ 344

60J......................... Reporting........................................................................ 346

Division 4—False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices                                                                                                                    347

60K........................ False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices     347

Division 5—Infringement notices                                                                       348

60L........................ Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 348

60M....................... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 349

60N....................... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 350

60P........................ Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                350

60Q....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 351

60R........................ Effect of this Division..................................................... 352

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    354

75B........................ Interpretation................................................................... 354

76.......................... Pecuniary penalties......................................................... 354

76A....................... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 92  358

76B........................ What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 92 and an offence?........................................................................................ 359

77.......................... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 360

77A....................... Indemnification of officers.............................................. 360

77B........................ Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void               361

77C........................ Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate        361

78.......................... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV     362

79.......................... Offences against section 45AF or 45AG........................ 362

79A....................... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................... 363

79B........................ Preference must be given to compensation for victims... 365

80.......................... Injunctions...................................................................... 366

80A....................... Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal—orders limiting prices or requiring refunds of money........................................................................................ 369

80AB..................... Stay of injunctions.......................................................... 370

80AC..................... Injunctions to prevent mergers if authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information  371

81.......................... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A 372

81A....................... Divestiture where merger done under authorisation granted on false etc. information             374

82.......................... Actions for damages....................................................... 375

83.......................... Findings and admissions of fact in proceedings to be evidence               376

84.......................... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................... 376

85.......................... Defences......................................................................... 378

86.......................... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................... 379

86AA.................... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Circuit Court................. 380

86A....................... Transfer of matters.......................................................... 380

86C........................ Non‑punitive orders........................................................ 381

86D....................... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................. 383

86E........................ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations 384

86F........................ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              385

87.......................... Other orders.................................................................... 386

87AA.................... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   391

87B........................ Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 392

87C........................ Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department 393

87CA..................... Intervention by Commission........................................... 393

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              394

87CB..................... Application of Part.......................................................... 394

87CC..................... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment      394

87CD..................... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............... 395

87CE..................... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   396

87CF..................... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................. 397

87CG..................... Subsequent actions......................................................... 397

87CH..................... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.... 397

87CI...................... Application of Part.......................................................... 397

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 399

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        399

87D....................... Definitions...................................................................... 399

87E........................ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................ 401

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            402

87F........................ Basic rule........................................................................ 402

87G....................... Date of discoverability.................................................... 403

87H....................... Long‑stop period............................................................ 405

87J......................... The effect of minority or incapacity................................ 405

87K........................ The effect of close relationships...................................... 406

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                407

87L........................ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................... 407

87M....................... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss... 407

87N....................... Index numbers................................................................ 408

87P........................ Most extreme cases......................................................... 408

87Q....................... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case                409

87R........................ Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case         409

87S........................ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case.............. 410

87T........................ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....... 410

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    411

87U....................... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity..... 411

87V....................... Average weekly earnings................................................ 411

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             413

87W....................... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             413

87X....................... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services     414

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            416

87Y....................... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......... 416

87Z........................ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........... 416

87ZA..................... Interest on damages........................................................ 417

87ZB..................... Exemplary and aggravated damages............................... 418

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   419

87ZC..................... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements        419

Part VII—Authorisations and notifications                                                       420

Division 1—Authorisations                                                                                    420

87ZP...................... Definitions...................................................................... 420

88.......................... Commission may grant authorisations............................ 420

89.......................... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register. 422

90.......................... Determination of applications for authorisations............. 425

90A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        430

90B........................ Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC          434

91.......................... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................. 435

91A....................... Minor variations of authorizations.................................. 437

91B........................ Revocation of an authorization........................................ 440

91C........................ Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement            442

92.......................... Providing false or misleading information...................... 445

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        447

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing and resale price maintenance             447

93.......................... Notification of exclusive dealing or resale price maintenance.. 447

93AAA................. Imposing conditions relating to notifications.................. 453

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             454

93AA.................... Definitions...................................................................... 454

93AB..................... Notification of collective bargaining............................... 454

93AC..................... Commission’s objection notice....................................... 459

93ACA.................. Imposing conditions relating to collective boycott conduct 461

93AD.................... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          462

93AE..................... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice..................... 465

93AEA.................. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given      465

93AF..................... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given         466

93AG.................... Stop notice for collective boycott conduct....................... 466

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               468

93A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice   468

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         471

95.......................... Register of notifications.................................................. 471

Division 3—Class exemptions                                                                              475

95AA.................... Commission may determine class exemptions................ 475

95AB..................... Commission may withdraw the benefit of class exemption in particular case          476

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 478

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          478

95A....................... Interpretation................................................................... 478

95B........................ Exempt supplies.............................................................. 482

95C........................ Application of Part.......................................................... 482

95D....................... Crown to be bound......................................................... 483

95E........................ Object of this Part........................................................... 483

95F........................ Simplified overview of this Part..................................... 484

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               485

95G....................... Commission’s functions under this Part......................... 485

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    487

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                487

95H....................... Price inquiries................................................................. 487

95J......................... Content of inquiry notices............................................... 488

95K........................ Period for completing inquiry......................................... 489

95L........................ Notice of holding of inquiry........................................... 490

95M....................... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry..... 490

95N....................... Price restrictions............................................................. 491

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                494

95P........................ Copies of report to be made available............................. 494

95Q....................... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..... 494

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            495

95R........................ Public inquiries etc.......................................................... 495

95S........................ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation...................... 496

95T........................ Failure of witness to attend............................................. 497

95U....................... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................... 497

95V....................... Protection of witnesses................................................... 498

95W....................... Allowances to witnesses................................................. 499

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            500

95X....................... Declarations by Minister or Commission....................... 500

95Y....................... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.. 500

95Z........................ Price restrictions............................................................. 502

95ZA..................... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................... 505

95ZB..................... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............. 505

95ZC..................... Register of price notifications......................................... 506

95ZD..................... Delegation by Commission............................................. 508

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               509

95ZE...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry  509

95ZF...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business 509

95ZG..................... Exceptions to price monitoring....................................... 510

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               511

95ZH..................... Ministerial directions...................................................... 511

95ZI....................... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals               511

95ZJ...................... Withdrawal of notices..................................................... 512

95ZK..................... Power to obtain information or documents..................... 512

95ZL...................... Inspection of documents etc............................................ 515

95ZM.................... Retention of documents.................................................. 516

95ZN..................... Confidential information................................................. 516

95ZO..................... Immunity........................................................................ 517

95ZP...................... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc. 518

95ZPA................... Disclosure of protected information to the Energy Department                519

95ZQ..................... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission         521

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    523

96.......................... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance... 523

96A....................... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............. 526

97.......................... Recommended prices...................................................... 526

98.......................... Withholding the supply of goods.................................... 526

99.......................... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................. 527

100........................ Evidentiary provisions.................................................... 528

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       530

Division 1—Applications for review                                                                 530

101........................ Applications for review.................................................. 530

101A..................... Application for review of notices under Division 2 of Part VII               532

101B...................... Application for review of notice under section 95AB..... 532

102........................ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 532

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               542

103........................ Procedure generally........................................................ 542

104........................ Regulations as to certain matters..................................... 542

105........................ Power to take evidence on oath....................................... 543

106........................ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances 543

107........................ Evidence in form of written statement............................. 543

108........................ Taking of evidence by single member............................. 544

109........................ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................... 544

110........................ Representation................................................................ 544


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                    (aa)  Part V;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 45AD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

collective boycott conduct means conduct that has a purpose referred to in subsection 45AD(3) in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes:

                     (a)  competition from goods that are, or are capable of being, imported into Australia; and

                     (b)  competition from services that are rendered, or are capable of being rendered, in Australia by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

contract includes a covenant.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.

debenture includes debenture stock, bonds, notes and any other document evidencing or acknowledging indebtedness of a body corporate, whether constituting a charge on property of the body corporate or not.

Deputy Chairperson means a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the Tribunal, and includes a person appointed to act as a Deputy President of the Tribunal.

Deputy Registrar means a Deputy Registrar of the Tribunal.

designated Commonwealth energy law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (d)  the National Energy Retail Law and Regulations (Commonwealth) (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

document means any record of information, and includes:

                     (a)  anything on which there is writing; and

                     (b)  anything on which there are marks, figures, symbols or perforations having a meaning for persons qualified to interpret them; and

                     (c)  anything from which sounds, images or writings can be reproduced with or without the aid of anything else; and

                     (d)  a map, plan, drawing or photograph.

dual listed company arrangement has the same meaning as in section 125‑60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

electronic communication means a communication of information by means of guided and/or unguided electromagnetic energy:

                     (a)  whether in the form of text; or

                     (b)  whether in the form of data; or

                     (c)  whether in the form of speech, music or other sounds; or

                     (d)  whether in the form of visual images (animated or otherwise); or

                     (e)  whether in any other form; or

                      (f)  whether in any combination of forms.

Federal Circuit Court means the Federal Circuit Court of Australia.

financial corporation means a financial corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that carries on as its sole or principal business the business of banking (other than State banking not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned) or insurance (other than State insurance not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned).

foreign corporation means a foreign corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that is incorporated in an external Territory.

fully‑participating jurisdiction means a State or Territory that:

                     (a)  is a participating jurisdiction as defined in section 150A; and

                     (b)  is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

give effect to, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, includes do an act or thing in pursuance of or in accordance with or enforce or purport to enforce.

goods includes:

                     (a)  ships, aircraft and other vehicles;

                     (b)  animals, including fish;

                     (c)  minerals, trees and crops, whether on, under or attached to land or not; and

                     (d)  gas and electricity.

local energy instrument means a regulation, rule, order, declaration or other instrument if:

                     (a)  the instrument is made or has effect under a law of a State or Territory; and

                     (b)  the law of the State or Territory applies a uniform energy law as a law of its own jurisdiction.

member of the Commission includes the Chairperson and a person appointed to act as a member of the Commission but does not include an associate member of the Commission.

member of the Tribunal includes the President and a person appointed to act as a member of the Tribunal.

merger authorisation means an authorisation that:

                     (a)  is an authorisation for a person to engage in conduct to which section 50 or 50A would or might apply; but

                     (b)  is not an authorisation for a person to engage in conduct to which any provision of Part IV other than section 50 or 50A would or might apply.

New Zealand Commerce Commission means the Commission established by section 8 of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

New Zealand Crown corporation means a body corporate that is an instrument of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand.

organisation of employees means an organisation that exists or is carried on for the purpose, or for purposes that include the purpose, of furthering the interests of its members in relation to their employment.

overseas merger authorisation means a merger authorisation that is not an authorisation for a person to engage in conduct to which section 50 would or might apply.

party, to a contract that is a covenant, includes a person bound by, or entitled to the benefit of, the covenant.

personal injury includes:

                     (a)  pre‑natal injury; or

                     (b)  impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; or

                     (c)  disease;

but does not include an impairment of a person’s mental condition unless the impairment consists of a recognised psychiatric illness.

practice of exclusive dealing means the practice of exclusive dealing referred to in subsection 47(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) or (9).

practice of resale price maintenance means the practice of resale price maintenance referred to in Part VIII.

President means the President of the Tribunal and includes a person appointed to act as President of the Tribunal.

presidential member or presidential member of the Tribunal means the President or a Deputy President.

price includes a charge of any description.

provision, in relation to an understanding, means any matter forming part of the understanding.

registered charity means an entity that is registered under the Australian Charities and Not‑for‑profits Commission Act 2012 as the type of entity mentioned in column 1 of item 1 of the table in subsection 25‑5(5) of that Act.

Registrar means the Registrar of the Tribunal.

require, in relation to the giving of a covenant, means require or demand the giving of a covenant, whether by way of making a contract containing the covenant or otherwise, and whether or not a covenant is given in pursuance of the requirement or demand.

send includes deliver, and sent and sender have corresponding meanings.

services includes any rights (including rights in relation to, and interests in, real or personal property), benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes the rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred under:

                     (a)  a contract for or in relation to:

                              (i)  the performance of work (including work of a professional nature), whether with or without the supply of goods;

                             (ii)  the provision of, or the use or enjoyment of facilities for, amusement, entertainment, recreation or instruction; or

                            (iii)  the conferring of rights, benefits or privileges for which remuneration is payable in the form of a royalty, tribute, levy or similar exaction;

                     (b)  a contract of insurance;

                     (c)  a contract between a banker and a customer of the banker entered into in the course of the carrying on by the banker of the business of banking; or

                     (d)  any contract for or in relation to the lending of moneys;

but does not include rights or benefits being the supply of goods or the performance of work under a contract of service.

share includes stock.

South Australian Electricity Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 4 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Energy Retail Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as amended from time to time, made under Part 11 of the National Energy Retail Law.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time, includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as amended from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

State/Territory AER member means an AER member referred to in section 44AP.

State/Territory energy law means any of the following laws:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that applies as a law of a State or Territory;

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that applies a law mentioned in paragraph (a) as a law of its own jurisdiction;

                     (c)  any other provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

supply, when used as a verb, includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—supply (including re‑supply) by way of sale, exchange, lease, hire or hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—provide, grant or confer;

and, when used as a noun, has a corresponding meaning, and supplied and supplier have corresponding meanings.

Telstra has the same meaning as in the Telstra Corporation Act 1991.

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

the Court or the Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

the Family Court means the Family Court of Australia.

this Act includes Schedule 2 to the extent that it is applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

trade or commerce means trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

trading corporation means a trading corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution.

Tribunal means the Australian Competition Tribunal, and includes a member of that Tribunal or a Division of that Tribunal performing functions of that Tribunal.

uniform energy law means:

                     (a)  the South Australian Electricity Legislation; or

                     (b)  the South Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                    (ca)  the South Australian Energy Retail Legislation; or

                     (d)  provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this subparagraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

Western Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

             (2)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to engaging in conduct shall be read as a reference to doing or refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the engaging in of a concerted practice;

                     (b)  a reference to conduct, when that expression is used as a noun otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (a), shall be read as a reference to the doing of or the refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the engaging in of a concerted practice;

                     (c)  a reference to refusing to do an act includes a reference to:

                              (i)  refraining (otherwise than inadvertently) from doing that act; or

                             (ii)  making it known that that act will not be done; and

                     (d)  a reference to a person offering to do an act, or to do an act on a particular condition, includes a reference to the person making it known that the person will accept applications, offers or proposals for the person to do that act or to do that act on that condition, as the case may be.

             (3)  Where a provision of this Act is expressed to render a provision of a contract unenforceable if the provision of the contract has or is likely to have a particular effect, that provision of this Act applies in relation to the provision of the contract at any time when the provision of the contract has or is likely to have that effect notwithstanding that:

                     (a)  at an earlier time the provision of the contract did not have that effect or was not regarded as likely to have that effect; or

                     (b)  the provision of the contract will not or may not have that effect at a later time.

             (4)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of shares in the capital of a body corporate shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such shares; and

                     (b)  a reference to the acquisition of assets of a person shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such assets but does not include a reference to an acquisition by way of charge only or an acquisition in the ordinary course of business.

4A  Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another body corporate if:

                     (a)  that other body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of the first‑mentioned body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one‑half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first‑mentioned body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds more than one‑half of the allotted share capital of the first‑mentioned body corporate (excluding any part of that allotted share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or

                     (b)  the first‑mentioned body corporate is a subsidiary of any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary (including any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary by another application or other applications of this paragraph).

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the composition of a body corporate’s board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another body corporate if that other body corporate, by the exercise of some power exercisable by it without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors, and for the purposes of this provision that other body corporate shall be deemed to have power to make such an appointment if:

                     (a)  a person cannot be appointed as a director without the exercise in his or her favour by that other body corporate of such a power; or

                     (b)  a person’s appointment as a director follows necessarily from his or her being a director or other officer of that other body corporate.

             (3)  In determining whether a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate:

                     (a)  any shares held or power exercisable by that other body corporate in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it;

                     (b)  subject to paragraphs (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable:

                              (i)  by any person as a nominee for that other body corporate (except where that other body corporate is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity); or

                             (ii)  by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other body corporate, not being a subsidiary that is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity;

                            shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other body corporate;

                     (c)  any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first‑mentioned body corporate, or of a trust deed for securing any allotment of such debentures, shall be disregarded; and

                     (d)  any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other body corporate or its subsidiary (not being held or exercisable as mentioned in paragraph (c)) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other body corporate if the ordinary business of that other body corporate or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business.

             (4)  A reference in this Act to the holding company of a body corporate shall be read as a reference to a body corporate of which that other body corporate is a subsidiary.

             (5)  Where a body corporate:

                     (a)  is the holding company of another body corporate;

                     (b)  is a subsidiary of another body corporate; or

                     (c)  is a subsidiary of the holding company of another body corporate;

that first‑mentioned body corporate and that other body corporate shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be related to each other.

          (5A)  For the purposes of Parts IV, VI and VII:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is a party to a dual listed company arrangement is taken to be related to the other body corporate that is a party to the arrangement; and

                     (b)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to the other party to the arrangement; and

                     (c)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to each body corporate that is related to the other party to the arrangement.

             (6)  In proceedings under this Act, whether in the Court or before the Tribunal or the Commission, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that bodies corporate are not, or were not at a particular time, related to each other.

4B  Consumers

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular goods as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;

                            and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of prod