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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2017C00369
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Competition and Consumer Amendment (Abolition of Limited Merits Review) Act 2017
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Infrastructure and Regional Development; Industry, Innovation and Science; Communications and the Arts
Registered 15 Nov 2017
Start Date 31 Oct 2017
End Date 05 Nov 2017
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part IVC—Payment surchargesPart IVC—Payment surcharges
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Australia

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 111

Compilation date:                              31 October 2017

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 116, 2017

Registered:                                         15 November 2017

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–119

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–179

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 31 October 2017 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 16

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 18

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 21

4D......................... Exclusionary provisions................................................... 22

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 23

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 23

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                24

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              24

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 24

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 25

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 25

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 25

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    26

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 26

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  26

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     27

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 35

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     36

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 36

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 37

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 37

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 38

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  39

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 39

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 40

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 41

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 41

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 42

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    42

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 43

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 43

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by Chairperson............................. 43

17A....................... Disclosure of certain interests by members of the Commission when taking part in determinations of matters.......................................................................................... 43

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 44

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 45

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 46

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 47

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 47

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 48

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             48

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          49

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   51

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 51

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 51

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           52

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 53

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 54

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 54

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 54

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 55

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 55

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 55

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 56

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 56

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 56

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 57

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 57

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 58

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 58

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 58

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              60

29P........................ Definition.......................................................................... 60

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 60

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 60

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 61

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 61

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 61

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 61

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 63

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 64

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 64

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 64

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 64

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 64

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 65

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 65

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 66

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 66

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 67

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 67

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 67

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              68

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            68

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 68

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 68

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 68

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              70

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 70

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         70

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 70

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             71

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 71

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                71

44AIA................... No merits review of AER decisions................................. 72

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 72

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 73

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 74

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  75

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 75

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 75

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 75

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 76

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 76

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 77

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 77

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 78

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 78

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 79

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 79

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 79

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 79

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 80

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 80

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 80

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       81

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 81

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          82

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 82

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 82

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 83

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              83

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 83

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 85

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     86

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 87

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 88

44AAJ................... Annual report.................................................................... 88

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 88

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       90

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 90

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        91

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            91

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 91

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 91

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures.. 95

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister....................................... 96

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  97

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown................................................ 97

Division 2—Declared services                                                                               99

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                           99

44F........................ Person may request recommendation................................ 99

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 100

44G....................... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service  101

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 102

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 105

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 106

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              107

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 107

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 109

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 110

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 111

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 112

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 113

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 115

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 116

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   118

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      118

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 118

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          118

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 118

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 120

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 121

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 123

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 124

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 125

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 125

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 127

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     128

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 128

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  130

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 130

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        131

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            133

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 133

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           134

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                134

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        134

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 135

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 135

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 135

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          137

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 137

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 138

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 138

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            140

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 140

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 142

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 144

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 145

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  145

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           145

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               147

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          147

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   148

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 148

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 149

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 150

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 150

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 152

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 154

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 155

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 156

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 158

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              160

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  160

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         161

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      161

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 161

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              161

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 161

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 162

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               162

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 162

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 162

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 163

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 165

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 166

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 168

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              168

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      169

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 169

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 169

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 169

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 170

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 170

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 170

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 170

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 171

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 172

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 172

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 173

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 173

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               174

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      174

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 175

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 175

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               177

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 177

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        178

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 178

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 180

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             181

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 181

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 182

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                182

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               183

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 183

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    184

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 184

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 184

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   185

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 185

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 185

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 186

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 187

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  188

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 188

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       189

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              189

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 189

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 191

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 193

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 195

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 197

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               198

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            198

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       199

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 199

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            201

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 201

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 203

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 204

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 205

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  206

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 206

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            208

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 208

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               209

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 209

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     210

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 210

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 212

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 213

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                213

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          215

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 215

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 216

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 217

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 217

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 217

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 217

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 218

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 218

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     219

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 219

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 219

44ZZMAA............ No merits review by Tribunal of decisions under energy laws                220

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 220

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 221

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 222

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 222

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 222

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 224

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 226

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 227

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 230

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 230

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 230

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      232

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   232

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               232

44ZZRA................ Simplified outline............................................................ 232

44ZZRB................ Definitions...................................................................... 232

44ZZRC................ Extended meaning of party............................................. 234

44ZZRD................ Cartel provisions............................................................. 234

44ZZRE................. Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 240

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              240

44ZZRF................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 240

44ZZRG................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 241

44ZZRH................ Determining guilt............................................................ 242

44ZZRI.................. Court may make related civil orders................................ 243

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         243

44ZZRJ................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 243

44ZZRK................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 243

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  244

44ZZRL................. Conduct notified............................................................. 244

44ZZRM............... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 244

44ZZRN................ Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         245

44ZZRO................ Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 245

44ZZRP................. Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 248

44ZZRQ................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 251

44ZZRR................ Resale price maintenance................................................ 251

44ZZRS................. Exclusive dealing............................................................ 252

44ZZRT................. Dual listed company arrangement................................... 253

44ZZRU................ Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 253

44ZZRV................ Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   254

Division 1A—Anti‑competitive disclosure of pricing and other information      255

44ZZS................... Definitions...................................................................... 255

44ZZT................... Goods and services to which this Division applies......... 255

44ZZU................... Provisions affecting whether a corporation has disclosed information to a person  256

44ZZV................... Meaning of private disclosure to competitors................ 257

44ZZW.................. Corporation must not make private disclosure of pricing information etc. to competitors        258

44ZZX................... Corporation must not make disclosure of pricing information etc. for purpose of substantially lessening competition..................................................................... 259

44ZZY................... Exceptions that apply to sections 44ZZW and 44ZZX.... 260

44ZZZ................... Additional exceptions that only apply to section 44ZZW 262

44ZZZA................ Burden of proof.............................................................. 265

44ZZZB................. Mere receipt of information does not constitute being knowingly involved in contravention   266

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               267

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            267

45B........................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 270

45C........................ Covenants in relation to prices........................................ 274

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             276

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               277

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 278

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 279

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 281

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 284

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 288

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              288

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 288

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          293

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  295

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 295

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 302

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 302

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            304

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 306

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 309

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 314

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            315

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          315

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 315

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              317

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 317

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   318

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 318

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 318

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 319

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 319

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 320

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 320

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                321

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 321

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   324

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 324

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       325

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 325

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       327

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        329

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  329

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 329

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 330

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 330

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     331

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 331

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 331

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               332

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          332

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 332

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 332

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    334

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 334

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              335

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 335

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 335

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 336

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       337

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 337

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 337

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 338

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 338

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 338

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 339

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                339

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 340

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              342

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          342

60.......................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 342

60AA.................... Objects etc...................................................................... 343

60A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 344

60B........................ Regulated goods............................................................. 349

Division 2—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                 350

60C........................ Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal...... 350

60CA..................... Failure to pass on cost savings—250% penalty.............. 350

60D....................... Notice to entity that is considered to have engaged in price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 352

60E........................ Commission may issue notice to aid prevention of price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 353

60F........................ Acquisition of property................................................... 354

Division 2A—Carbon tax removal substantiation notices                    355

60FA..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation notices...................... 355

60FB..................... Extending periods for complying with carbon tax removal substantiation notices   356

60FC..................... Compliance with carbon tax removal substantiation notices 356

Division 2B—Carbon tax removal substantiation statements            358

60FD..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation statements................. 358

Division 2C—Statements for customers                                                         361

60FE...................... Statements for customers................................................ 361

Division 3—Price monitoring in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 363

60G....................... Commission may monitor prices in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 363

60H....................... Information‑gathering powers........................................ 365

60J......................... Reporting........................................................................ 367

Division 4—False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices                                                                                                                    368

60K........................ False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices     368

Division 5—Infringement notices                                                                       369

60L........................ Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 369

60M....................... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 370

60N....................... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 371

60P........................ Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                371

60Q....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 372

60R........................ Effect of this Division..................................................... 373

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    375

75B........................ Interpretation................................................................... 375

76.......................... Pecuniary penalties......................................................... 375

76A....................... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN          379

76B........................ What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?.......................................................................... 380

76C........................ Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions 381

77.......................... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 382

77A....................... Indemnification of officers.............................................. 382

77B........................ Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void               383

77C........................ Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate        383

78.......................... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV     383

79.......................... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG............... 384

79A....................... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................... 385

79B........................ Preference must be given to compensation for victims... 387

80.......................... Injunctions...................................................................... 388

80A....................... Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal—orders limiting prices or requiring refunds of money........................................................................................ 391

80AB..................... Stay of injunctions.......................................................... 391

80AC..................... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information..................................................................... 393

81.......................... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A 394

81A....................... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information          396

82.......................... Actions for damages....................................................... 398

83.......................... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................ 398

84.......................... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................... 399

85.......................... Defences......................................................................... 401

86.......................... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................... 401

86AA.................... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Circuit Court................. 403

86A....................... Transfer of matters.......................................................... 403

86C........................ Non‑punitive orders........................................................ 404

86D....................... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................. 406

86E........................ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations 407

86F........................ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              408

87.......................... Other orders.................................................................... 409

87AA.................... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   414

87B........................ Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 415

87C........................ Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department 416

87CA..................... Intervention by Commission........................................... 416

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              417

87CB..................... Application of Part.......................................................... 417

87CC..................... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment      417

87CD..................... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............... 418

87CE..................... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   419

87CF..................... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................. 420

87CG..................... Subsequent actions......................................................... 420

87CH..................... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.... 420

87CI...................... Application of Part.......................................................... 420

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 422

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        422

87D....................... Definitions...................................................................... 422

87E........................ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................ 424

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            425

87F........................ Basic rule........................................................................ 425

87G....................... Date of discoverability.................................................... 426

87H....................... Long‑stop period............................................................ 428

87J......................... The effect of minority or incapacity................................ 428

87K........................ The effect of close relationships...................................... 429

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                430

87L........................ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................... 430

87M....................... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss... 430

87N....................... Index numbers................................................................ 431

87P........................ Most extreme cases......................................................... 431

87Q....................... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case                432

87R........................ Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case         432

87S........................ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case.............. 433

87T........................ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....... 433

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    434

87U....................... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity..... 434

87V....................... Average weekly earnings................................................ 434

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             436

87W....................... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             436

87X....................... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services     437

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            439

87Y....................... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......... 439

87Z........................ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........... 439

87ZA..................... Interest on damages........................................................ 440

87ZB..................... Exemplary and aggravated damages............................... 441

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   442

87ZC..................... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements        442

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices              443

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        443

87ZP...................... Definitions...................................................................... 443

88.......................... Power of Commission to grant authorisations................ 443

89.......................... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register. 451

90.......................... Determination of applications for authorisations............. 454

90A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        461

90B........................ Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC          465

91.......................... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................. 466

91A....................... Minor variations of authorizations.................................. 468

91B........................ Revocation of an authorization........................................ 470

91C........................ Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement            472

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        475

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing and private disclosure of pricing information       475

93.......................... Notification of exclusive dealing or private disclosure of pricing information         475

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             481

93AA.................... Definitions...................................................................... 481

93AB..................... Notification of collective bargaining............................... 481

93AC..................... Commission’s objection notice....................................... 486

93AD.................... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          488

93AE..................... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice..................... 489

93AEA.................. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given      490

93AF..................... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given         491

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               491

93A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice   491

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         494

95.......................... Register of notifications.................................................. 494

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 498

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               498

95AA.................... Simplified outline of this Division.................................. 498

95AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 499

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                   500

95AC..................... Commission may grant clearance for a merger............... 500

95AD.................... Application for clearance................................................ 501

95AE..................... Requirements for valid clearance application.................. 501

95AF..................... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid. 501

95AG.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 501

95AH.................... Merger clearance register................................................ 502

95AI...................... Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 502

95AJ...................... Commission may seek additional information from applicant  504

95AK..................... Commission may seek further information and consult others 504

95AL..................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 504

95AM.................... Commission to make determination on application......... 504

95AN.................... When clearance must not be granted............................... 505

95AO.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 506

95AP..................... Clearance subject to conditions....................................... 506

95AQ.................... When clearance is in force.............................................. 507

95AR..................... Minor variations of clearances........................................ 508

95AS..................... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance          512

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                            516

95AT..................... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger................ 516

95AU.................... Application for authorisation.......................................... 517

95AV.................... Requirements for valid authorisation application............ 517

95AW.................... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid.. 518

95AX.................... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application 518

95AY.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 518

95AZ..................... Merger authorisation register.......................................... 518

95AZA.................. Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 519

95AZC.................. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant 520

95AZD.................. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc. 521

95AZE................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 521

95AZEA................ Tribunal must require Commission to give report........... 521

95AZF................... Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 521

95AZFA................ Commission may make enquiries................................... 522

95AZG.................. Tribunal to make determination on application................ 522

95AZH.................. When authorisation must not be granted......................... 523

95AZI.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 524

95AZJ................... Authorisation subject to conditions................................. 524

95AZK.................. When authorisation is in force........................................ 525

95AZL................... Minor variations of authorisations.................................. 525

95AZM................. Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation        529

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            534

95AZN.................. Providing false or misleading information...................... 534

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 536

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          536

95A....................... Interpretation................................................................... 536

95B........................ Exempt supplies.............................................................. 540

95C........................ Application of Part.......................................................... 540

95D....................... Crown to be bound......................................................... 541

95E........................ Object of this Part........................................................... 541

95F........................ Simplified overview of this Part..................................... 542

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               543

95G....................... Commission’s functions under this Part......................... 543

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    545

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                545

95H....................... Price inquiries................................................................. 545

95J......................... Content of inquiry notices............................................... 546

95K........................ Period for completing inquiry......................................... 547

95L........................ Notice of holding of inquiry........................................... 548

95M....................... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry..... 548

95N....................... Price restrictions............................................................. 549

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                552

95P........................ Copies of report to be made available............................. 552

95Q....................... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..... 552

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            553

95R........................ Public inquiries etc.......................................................... 553

95S........................ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation...................... 554

95T........................ Failure of witness to attend............................................. 555

95U....................... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................... 555

95V....................... Protection of witnesses................................................... 556

95W....................... Allowances to witnesses................................................. 557

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            558

95X....................... Declarations by Minister or Commission....................... 558

95Y....................... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.. 558

95Z........................ Price restrictions............................................................. 560

95ZA..................... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................... 563

95ZB..................... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............. 563

95ZC..................... Register of price notifications......................................... 564

95ZD..................... Delegation by Commission............................................. 566

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               567

95ZE...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry  567

95ZF...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business 567

95ZG..................... Exceptions to price monitoring....................................... 568

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               569

95ZH..................... Ministerial directions...................................................... 569

95ZI....................... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals               569

95ZJ...................... Withdrawal of notices..................................................... 570

95ZK..................... Power to obtain information or documents..................... 570

95ZL...................... Inspection of documents etc............................................ 573

95ZM.................... Retention of documents.................................................. 574

95ZN..................... Confidential information................................................. 574

95ZO..................... Immunity........................................................................ 575

95ZP...................... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc. 576

95ZPA................... Disclosure of protected information to the Energy Department                577

95ZQ..................... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission         579

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    581

96.......................... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance... 581

96A....................... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............. 583

97.......................... Recommended prices...................................................... 584

98.......................... Withholding the supply of goods.................................... 584

99.......................... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................. 585

100........................ Evidentiary provisions.................................................... 586

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       587

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)            587

101........................ Applications for review.................................................. 587

101A..................... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)               588

102........................ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 589

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               594

102A..................... Definition........................................................................ 594

103........................ Procedure generally........................................................ 594

104........................ Regulations as to certain matters..................................... 594

105........................ Power to take evidence on oath....................................... 595

106........................ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances 595

107........................ Evidence in form of written statement............................. 596

108........................ Taking of evidence by single member............................. 596

109........................ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................... 596

110........................ Representation................................................................ 597

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances     598

111........................ Applications for review.................................................. 598

112........................ Tribunal to notify Commission....................................... 599

113........................ Commission to give material to Tribunal........................ 599

114........................ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information.............. 599

115........................ Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 600

116........................ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission 600

117........................ Tribunal to make decision on review.............................. 600

118........................ Time limits for making review decision.......................... 601

119........................ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s............... 601


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                    (aa)  Part V;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.