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Primary content

A Bill for an Act to establish an inquiry into banking and financial services in Australia, and for related purposes
For authoritative information on the progress of bills and on amendments proposed to them, please see the House of Representatives Votes and Proceedings, and the Journals of the Senate as available on the Parliament House website.
Registered 27 Mar 2017
Introduced Senate 22 Mar 2017

2016‑2017

 

The Parliament of the

Commonwealth of Australia

 

THE SENATE

 

 

 

 

Presented and read a first time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry Bill 2017

 

No.      , 2017

 

(Senators Whish‑Wilson, Hanson, Hinch, Lambie, Roberts and Xenophon)

 

 

 

A Bill for an Act to establish an inquiry into banking and financial services in Australia, and for related purposes

  

  

  


Contents

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                             1

1............ Short title............................................................................................. 1

2............ Commencement................................................................................... 2

3............ Simplified outline of this Act.............................................................. 2

4............ Act binds Crown................................................................................. 2

5............ Definitions.......................................................................................... 3

Part 2—Establishing the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry          5

6............ Establishment of Commission............................................................. 5

7............ Terms of reference.............................................................................. 5

8............ Report to the Parliament...................................................................... 7

Part 3—Powers of the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry               9

9............ Hearings.............................................................................................. 9

10.......... Counsel assisting the Commission.................................................... 10

11.......... Power to summon witnesses and take evidence................................ 10

12.......... Arrest of witness failing to appear.................................................... 10

13.......... Search warrants................................................................................. 11

14.......... Access to certain material held by ASIC, APRA or RBA................ 12

15.......... Powers of Commission in relation to documents and other things.... 13

Part 4—Offences                                                                                                                  14

16.......... Unauthorised presence at hearing or publication of evidence............ 14

17.......... Failure of witnesses to attend or produce documents........................ 14

18.......... Refusal to be sworn or give evidence................................................ 15

19.......... Acts or omissions on different days to constitute separate offences.. 15

20.......... False or misleading evidence............................................................. 15

21.......... Destroying documents or other things.............................................. 15

22.......... Intimidation or dismissal of witnesses.............................................. 16

23.......... Preventing witnesses from attending................................................. 16

24.......... Bribery of witness............................................................................. 17

25.......... Fraud on witness............................................................................... 17

26.......... Contempt of Commission................................................................. 17

Part 5—Operation of the Commission                                                                    19

27.......... Death or incapacity of member.......................................................... 19

28.......... Remuneration and allowances........................................................... 19

29.......... Staff of the Commission................................................................... 19

30.......... Protection of member and others....................................................... 19

31.......... Legal and financial assistance............................................................ 20

32.......... Reimbursement of witness expenses................................................. 20

33.......... Commission may communicate information..................................... 21

34.......... Rules................................................................................................. 21

 


A Bill for an Act to establish an inquiry into banking and financial services in Australia, and for related purposes

The Parliament of Australia enacts:

Part 1Preliminary

  

1  Short title

                   This Act is the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry Act 2017.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provisions

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day after this Act receives the Royal Assent.

 

2.  Sections 3 to 34

The day the Consolidated Revenue Fund is appropriated to fund the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry.

 

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally enacted. It will not be amended to deal with any later amendments of this Act.

             (2)  Any information in column 3 of the table is not part of this Act. Information may be inserted in this column, or information in it may be edited, in any published version of this Act.

3  Simplified outline of this Act

This Act requires the Senate to appoint a member to a Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry that reports to Parliament on particular matters relating to the banking and financial services industry.

4  Act binds Crown

                   This Act binds the Crown in each of its capacities.

5  Definitions

                   In this Act:

APRA means the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority.

ASIC means the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.

Commission means the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry established under section 6.

financial service entity means an entity (other than a Commonwealth entity or company) that provides banking or financial services including the following:

                     (a)  an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) within the meaning of the Banking Act 1959;

                     (b)  an entity that carries on the business of undertaking liability, by way of insurance (including reinsurance), in respect of any loss or damage, including liability to pay damages or compensation, contingent upon the happening of a specified event, including:

                              (i)  a general insurer within the meaning of the Insurance Act 1973; and

                             (ii)  an entity undertaking life insurance business within the meaning of the Life Insurance Act 1995;

                     (c)  an entity required by section 911A of the Corporations Act 2001 to hold an Australian financial services licence or hold an authorisation from a licensee;

                     (d)  an entity that engages in a credit activity within the meaning of the National Consumer Credit Protection Act 2009;

                     (e)  a superannuation entity within the meaning of the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993.

Judge means a Judge of a court created by the Parliament or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

legal practitioner means a barrister, a solicitor, a barrister and solicitor, or a legal practitioner, of the High Court or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

member means the member of the Commission appointed under section 6.

misconduct includes conduct that:

                     (a)  constitutes an offence against a Commonwealth law; or

                     (b)  constitutes negligence, breach of trust or breach of duty; or

                     (c)  is unconscionable or unethical; or

                     (d)  breaches a professional standard.

President means the President of the Senate.

RBA means the Reserve Bank of Australia.

rules means rules made under section 34.

Speaker means the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Part 2Establishing the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry

  

6  Establishment of Commission

             (1)  A Commission is established by this subsection, to be known as the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry.

             (2)  The Commission is constituted by one member appointed for this subsection by a resolution of the Senate.

             (3)  A person is not eligible for appointment as the member unless the person is a former Judge.

7  Terms of reference

             (1)  The Commission must inquire and advise the Parliament on the following in relation to the banking and financial services industry:

                     (a)  the nature, extent and effect of any misconduct by directors, officers, employees, auditors, actuaries, advisers or agents who hold, or have held, a position of responsibility in relation to a financial service entity (including the effect of any misconduct on the stability of the Australian financial system and the broader Australian economy);

                     (b)  whether any practices within financial service entities have contributed to any misconduct mentioned in paragraph (a), including (without limitation) the ethical standards, culture and structures of those entities and the employment and remuneration practices of entities and the provision of money or other benefits to directors, officers or employees of those entities;

                     (c)  whether existing schemes and prudential frameworks providing for an Australian Government guarantee (including the Financial Claims Scheme):

                              (i)  are adequately limiting the risk to the Commonwealth to provide the guarantee; and

                             (ii)  are structured to ensure the liabilities of financial service entities are appropriately shared by relevant financial service entities; and

                     (d)  the adequacy of existing laws and policies relating to financial service entities to regulate and address misconduct in the industry including (without limitation):

                              (i)  the notification of misconduct within a financial service entity (including protections available to persons who disclose instances of misconduct in the public interest); and

                             (ii)  the investigation and enforcement of contraventions of laws and policies; and

                            (iii)  the penalties for contraventions of the law;

                     (e)  the effectiveness of mechanisms for consumers of financial services who suffer detriment as a result of misconduct by a financial service entity, including (without limitation) the processes for:

                              (i)  making complaints about services provided by financial service entities; and

                             (ii)  seeking and receiving compensation or addressing any dispute;

                      (f)  the funding, independence and performance of regulators of financial service entities and dispute resolution bodies (relevant entities), including (without limitation):

                              (i)  whether the relevant entities are sufficiently funded to perform their functions; and

                             (ii)  whether the relevant entities are independently performing their functions in the public interest;

                     (g)  the activities of financial service entities in relation to any political parties (within the meaning of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918) and the impact of those activities on the effective regulation of the industry, including (without limitation):

                              (i) the lobbying activities of financial service entities and any representative bodies for the industry; and

                             (ii)  donations made by financial service entities to political parties;

                     (h)  any matter reasonably incidental to a matter mentioned in the above paragraphs.

             (2)  However, the Commission is not required to inquire, or to continue to inquire, into a particular matter to the extent that it is satisfied that the matter has been, is being, or will be, sufficiently and appropriately dealt with by:

                     (a)  another inquiry or investigation (including any inquiry or investigation being conducted by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission); or

                     (b)  a criminal or civil proceeding.

             (3)  In inquiring and advising in accordance with subsection (1), the Commission may give priority to matters which, in the Commission’s opinion, have greater potential for harm.

8  Report to the Parliament

             (1)  The Commission must submit to the President and the Speaker a report containing:

                     (a)  its findings of fact; and

                     (b)  any recommendations relevant to the inquiry that the Commission thinks fit.

             (2)  The report must be submitted on or before the end of the period of 1 year starting on the commencement of this section, unless that period is extended by a resolution of the Senate.

             (3)  The Commission must submit with its report a record of so much of the evidence before the Commission as the Commission thinks necessary to substantiate its findings of fact and its conclusions.

             (4)  If the Commission is of the opinion that, if any of its findings or conclusions or any of the evidence given before the Commission were to be laid before the Houses of the Parliament:

                     (a)  a person who has been or may be charged with an offence might not receive a fair trial for the offence; or

                     (b)  the conduct of an investigation of a breach or possible breach of the law might be prejudiced; or

                     (c)  the existence or identity of a confidential source of information in relation to the enforcement or administration of the law might be disclosed or a person enabled to ascertain the existence or identity of that source; or

                     (d)  there might be prejudice to the safety or reputation of a person;

the Commission may submit those findings or conclusions, or that evidence, to the President and the Speaker in a separate report, together with a statement of its opinion.

             (5)  As soon as practicable after receiving the report and record of evidence, the President and the Speaker must cause copies of the report and record, other than a separate report submitted under subsection (4), to be laid before the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Part 3Powers of the Banking and Financial Services Commission of Inquiry

  

9  Hearings

             (1)  For the purposes of its inquiry the Commission may hold hearings at places in Australia determined by the Commission.

             (2)  A hearing is to be public, unless the Commission thinks the circumstances in particular instances require otherwise.

             (3)  The member must preside at a hearing before the Commission.

             (4)  A person who appears before the Commission, or who is or is likely to be affected by evidence given before the Commission, may be represented by a legal practitioner.

             (5)  If a hearing is to be conducted in private, the only persons who may be present are persons authorised by the Commission and legal practitioners representing them.

             (6)  Subject to this Act, a hearing may be conducted as the Commission thinks fit.

             (7)  The Commission must make a record of a hearing.

             (8)  The following must not be published except in accordance with a direction of the Commission:

                     (a)  evidence given before the Commission;

                     (b)  the contents of a document, or a description of a thing, produced to the Commission or seized pursuant to a warrant issued under section 13;

                     (c)  any information that might enable a person who has given evidence before the Commission to be identified;

                     (d)  the fact that any person has given or may be about to give evidence at a hearing.

             (9)  The Commission must not give a direction to publish such material if to do so might prejudice the safety or reputation of a person or prejudice the fair trial of a person who has been or might be charged with an offence.

10  Counsel assisting the Commission

                   The Commission may appoint a legal practitioner to assist the Commission as counsel, either generally or in relation to a particular matter or matters.

11  Power to summon witnesses and take evidence

             (1)  The member may, by a written summons signed by the member and served on a person, summon the person to attend a hearing at a time and place specified in the summons:

                     (a)  to give evidence; or

                     (b)  to produce documents or things specified in the summons.

             (2)  At a hearing, the member may:

                     (a)  require a witness either to take an oath or to make an affirmation; and

                     (b)  administer the oath or affirmation to the witness.

             (3)  At a hearing, the following persons may, so far as the Commission thinks appropriate, examine or cross‑examine any witness on any matter that the Commission considers relevant:

                     (a)  counsel assisting the Commission;

                     (b)  a person summoned or otherwise authorised to appear before the Commission;

                     (c)  a legal practitioner authorised to appear before the Commission for the purposes of representing any person at the hearing.

             (4)  The Commission may require a witness to answer any question that the Commission considers relevant.

12  Arrest of witness failing to appear

             (1)  If a person served with a summons to attend before the Commission as a witness fails to attend in accordance with the summons, the member may, on proof of the service of the summons, issue a warrant to arrest the person.

             (2)  A warrant authorises the arrest of the witness, the bringing of the witness before the Commission and the detention of the witness in custody for that purpose until the witness is released by order of the member.

             (3)  A warrant may be executed by any member of the Australian Federal Police or of the police force of a State or Territory, and the person executing the warrant has power to break and enter any place, building or vessel in order to execute it.

             (4)  The arrest of the witness under this section does not relieve the witness from any liability incurred by reason of non‑compliance with the summons.

13  Search warrants

             (1)  The Commission may issue a search warrant if:

                     (a)  the Commission has reasonable grounds for suspecting that there may be relevant material, at that time or within the next 24 hours, upon any land or upon or in any premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle; and

                     (b)  the Commission believes on reasonable grounds that, if a summons were issued for the production of the material, it might be concealed, lost, mutilated or destroyed.

             (2)  A search warrant authorises a member of the Australian Federal Police or of the Police Force of a State or Territory, in accordance with its terms:

                     (a)  to enter upon the land or upon or into the premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle; and

                     (b)  to search the land, premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle for relevant material; and

                     (c)  to seize any relevant items found upon the land or upon or in the premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle and deliver things seized to the Commission; and

                     (d)  to make copies or extracts, including electronic copies or extracts, of any relevant documents found.

             (3)  A search warrant must:

                     (a)  state the purpose for which the warrant is issued; and

                     (b)  state whether entry is authorised to be made at any time of the day or night; and

                     (c)  include a description of the kinds of things authorised to be seized; and

                     (d)  specify a day, not later than one month after the date of issue of the warrant, at the expiration of which the warrant ceases to have effect.

             (4)  If, in the course of searching for relevant material in accordance with a search warrant, the person executing the warrant finds any other thing that the person believes on reasonable grounds to be connected with that material and the person believes on reasonable grounds that it is necessary to seize that thing in order to prevent its concealment, loss, mutilation or destruction, the warrant authorises the person to seize that thing.

             (5)  For this section, material or a document is relevant if it has evidential value relevant to the Commission’s inquiry.

14  Access to certain material held by ASIC, APRA or RBA

             (1)  The member, may, by notice in writing given to ASIC, APRA or RBA (the regulating entity), require the regulating entity:

                     (a)  to produce to the Commission documents and other materials relating to the inquiry; or

                     (b)  permit the Commission, together with such persons as are specified in the notice, to have access to documents or materials referred to in paragraph (a).

             (2)  The regulating entity must comply with a notice under subsection (1).

             (3)  The regulating entity may make available to the Commission, at the request of the member, documents or materials (other than documents or materials referred to in subsection (1)), being documents or materials relevant to the matter into which the Commission is inquiring.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, this section applies despite:

                     (a)  section 127 of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001; and

                     (b)  section 56 of the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority Act 1988; and

                     (c)  sections 79A and 79B of the Reserve Bank Act 1959.

15  Powers of Commission in relation to documents and other things

             (1)  The Commission, or a person authorised in writing by the member, may:

                     (a)  inspect any documents or other things produced before, or delivered to, the Commission; and

                     (b)  retain the documents or other things for so long as is reasonably necessary for the purposes of the Commission’s inquiry; and

                     (c)  in the case of documents produced before, or delivered to, the Commission, make copies of matter relevant to the Commission’s inquiry.

             (2)  When a document or other thing is no longer needed by the Commission for its inquiry, the Commission is to return the document or thing to the person who appears to be entitled to it, or deal with it at that person’s direction.

Part 4Offences

  

16  Unauthorised presence at hearing or publication of evidence

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is present at a private hearing of the Commission without being authorised under subsection 9(5); or

                     (b)  the person publishes material in contravention of subsection 9(8).

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

17  Failure of witnesses to attend or produce documents

             (1)  A person commits an offence if, when served with a summons to appear at a hearing before the Commission:

                     (a)  the person fails to attend as required by the summons; or

                     (b)  the person fails to attend from day to day unless excused, or released from further attendance, by the member.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence in subsection (1) if the person has a reasonable excuse.

             (3)  A person attending a hearing before the Commission commits an offence if the person refuses or fails to produce a document or other thing that the person was required to produce by a summons under this Act served on the person or that the person was required to produce by the member.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

             (4)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence in subsection (3) if:

                     (a)  the document or other thing was not relevant to the matter into which the Commission was inquiring; or

                     (b)  the person has a reasonable excuse.

18  Refusal to be sworn or give evidence

                   A person appearing as a witness at a hearing before the Commission commits an offence if, without reasonable excuse:

                     (a)  the person refuses or fails to comply when required pursuant to subsection 11(2) either to take an oath or make an affirmation; or

                     (b)  the person refuses or fails to answer a question that the person is required to answer by the member.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

19  Acts or omissions on different days to constitute separate offences

                   If a person commits an offence under section 17, and the person does or omits to do the same thing at a hearing of the Commission held on some other day, each such act or omission constitutes a separate offence.

20  False or misleading evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if, at a hearing before the Commission, the person gives evidence that is to the knowledge of the person false or misleading with respect to any matter that is material to the inquiry being made by the Commission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  A court of summary jurisdiction may hear and determine proceedings in respect of such an offence if the court is satisfied that it is proper to do so and the defendant and prosecutor consent.

21  Destroying documents or other things

             (1)  A person commits an offence if, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that a document or other thing is or may be required in evidence before the Commission, the person wilfully:

                     (a)  conceals, mutilates or destroys the document or thing; or

                     (b)  renders the document or thing incapable of identification; or

                     (c)  in the case of a document, renders it illegible or indecipherable.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  A court of summary jurisdiction may hear and determine proceedings in respect of such an offence if the court is satisfied that it is proper to do so and the defendant and the prosecutor consent.

22  Intimidation or dismissal of witnesses

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person uses, causes, inflicts, or procures any violence, punishment, damage, loss or disadvantage to a person because the person appeared as a witness before the Commission or because of any evidence given by the person before the Commission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  An employer commits an offence if the employer dismisses an employee from employment or prejudices an employee in employment because the employee:

                     (a)  appeared as a witness before the Commission; or

                     (b)  gave evidence before the Commission; or

                     (c)  produced a document or thing pursuant to a summons or requirement under section 11.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not apply if the employee was dismissed or prejudiced in his or her employment for some reason other than the reasons listed in that subsection.

23  Preventing witnesses from attending

                   A person commits an offence if the person wilfully prevents or wilfully endeavours to prevent a person who has been summoned to attend as a witness before the Commission from attending or from producing anything in evidence in accordance with the summons.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 months.

24  Bribery of witness

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person gives, confers, or procures, or promises or offers to give or confer, or to procure or attempt to procure, any property or benefit of any kind to, upon, or for, any person, upon any agreement or understanding that any person called or to be called as a witness before the Commission will give false testimony or withhold true testimony; or

                     (b)  the person attempts by any means to induce a person called or to be called as a witness before the Commission to give false testimony or to withhold true testimony; or

                     (c)  the person asks, receives or obtains or agrees or attempts to receive or obtain any property or benefit of any kind, whether for the person or for any other person, upon any agreement or understanding that any person will as a witness before the Commission give false testimony or withhold true testimony.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

25  Fraud on witness

                   A person commits an offence if the person practises any fraud or deceit, or knowingly makes or exhibits any false statement, representation, token, or writing, to any person called or to be called as a witness before the Commission with intent to affect the testimony of that person as a witness

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

26  Contempt of Commission

                   A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person wilfully disturbs or disrupts a hearing of the Commission; or

                     (b)  the person makes any statement that is false and defamatory of the Commission; or

                     (c)  the person commits any wilful contempt of the Commission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 months.

Part 5Operation of the Commission

  

27  Death or incapacity of member

                   If the member dies, becomes physically or mentally incapable of performing his or her functions or, by notice in writing to the President, resigns his or her appointment, the member’s position becomes vacant and the Senate is to appoint a new member in accordance with section 6.

28  Remuneration and allowances

             (1)  The member is to be paid the remuneration and allowances applicable to an acting Justice of the Federal Court.

             (2)  A person appointed as the member ceases to hold office in that capacity 7 days after submitting the report of the Commission to the President and the Speaker.

29  Staff of the Commission

             (1)  The Commission may appoint staff as considered necessary for the performance of the inquiry.

             (2)  The terms and conditions of appointment (including remuneration) are to be determined by the Commission.

             (3)  While a person is performing services for the Commission pursuant to this section, that person must perform his or her functions and duties in accordance with the directions of the Commission.

30  Protection of member and others

             (1)  The member has, in the performance of his or her functions and the exercise of his or her powers, the same protection and immunity as a Justice of the High Court.

             (2)  A legal practitioner assisting the Commission or representing a person at a hearing before the Commission has the same protection and immunity as a barrister has in appearing for a party in proceedings in the High Court.

             (3)  Subject to this Act, a person summoned to attend or appearing before the Commission as a witness has the same protection as a witness in proceedings in the High Court.

31  Legal and financial assistance

             (1)  A person who is appearing or is about to appear, or a person who is entitled to appear, before the Commission may apply to the Commission for assistance under this section.

             (2)  The Commission must obtain the advice of the President in relation to an application.

             (3)  The President may, if he or she is satisfied that:

                     (a)  it would involve substantial hardship to the person to refuse the application; or

                     (b)  the circumstances of the case are of such a nature that the application should be granted;

request the Commission to authorise the provision by the Commonwealth to that person such legal or financial assistance in respect of that person’s appearance as the President determine.

             (4)  Any request by the President under this section is to be either subject to conditions or unconditional.

             (5)  The Commission must comply with a request under subsection (3).

32  Reimbursement of witness expenses

             (1)  A witness (other than a representative of a financial service entity) who appears before the Commission in answer to a summons may be paid expenses in accordance with the scale that applies to witnesses appearing before the High Court.

             (2)  The Commission may direct that a witness who appears before a Commission without a summons may be paid expenses in accordance with that scale.

             (3)  In applying that scale to a witness, the Commission has the powers and functions of the taxing officer.

33  Commission may communicate information

                   If, in the course of its inquiry, the Commission obtains information that relates, or may relate, to the commission of an offence, or evidence of the commission of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory, the Commission may, if in the opinion of the Commission it is appropriate to do so, communicate the information or give the evidence to:

                     (a)  the Attorney‑General of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; or

                     (b)  APRA; or

                     (c)  ASIC; or

                     (d)  RBA; or

                     (e)  the Australian Crime Commission; or

                      (f)  the Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police or of the Police Force of a State or Territory; or

                     (g)  the authority or person responsible for the administration or enforcement of that law.

34  Rules

             (1)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument (and subject to subsection (2)), make rules prescribing matters:

                     (a)  required or permitted by this Act to be prescribed by the rules; or

                     (b)  necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, the rules may not do the following:

                     (a)  create an offence or civil penalty;

                     (b)  provide powers of:

                              (i)  arrest or detention; or

                             (ii)  entry, search or seizure;

                     (c)  impose a tax;

                     (d)  set an amount to be appropriated from the Consolidated Revenue Fund under an appropriation in this Act;

                     (e)  directly amend the text of this Act.