Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2016C00267
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Competition and Consumer Amendment (Payment Surcharges) Act 2016
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Treasury; Infrastructure and Regional Development; Industry, Innovation and Science; Communications and the Arts
Registered 11 Apr 2016
Start Date 10 Mar 2016
End Date 30 Jun 2016
Table of contents.
Skip Navigation Links.
Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part IVC—Payment surchargesPart IVC—Payment surcharges
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974

Compilation No. 103

Compilation date:                              10 March 2016

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 9, 2016

Registered:                                         11 April 2016

This compilation is in 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–119

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–179

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

 

 

 

This compilation includes commenced amendments made by Act No. 4, 2016

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 10 March 2016 (the compilation date).

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on the Legislation Register (www.legislation.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Editorial changes

For more information about any editorial changes made in this compilation, see the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on the Legislation Register for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 5

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 16

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 18

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 21

4D......................... Exclusionary provisions................................................... 22

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 23

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 23

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                24

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              24

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 24

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 25

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 25

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 25

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    26

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 26

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  26

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     28

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 35

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     37

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 37

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 38

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 38

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 38

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  40

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 40

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 41

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 41

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 42

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 42

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    43

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 43

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 44

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by members.................................. 44

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 45

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 46

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 47

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 48

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 48

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 48

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             49

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          50

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   52

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 52

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 52

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           53

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 53

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 55

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 55

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 55

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 55

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 56

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 56

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 56

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 57

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 57

29K........................ Disclosure of interests by Councillors.............................. 57

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 58

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 59

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 59

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 60

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 60

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              62

29P........................ Definition.......................................................................... 62

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 62

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 62

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 63

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 63

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 63

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 63

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 65

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 66

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 66

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 66

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 66

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 66

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 67

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 67

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 68

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 68

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 69

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 69

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 69

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              70

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            70

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 70

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 70

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 70

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              72

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 72

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         72

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 72

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             73

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 73

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                73

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 74

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 75

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 75

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  77

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 77

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 77

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 77

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 78

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 78

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 79

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 79

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 80

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 80

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 81

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 81

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 81

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 81

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 82

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 82

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 82

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       83

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 83

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          83

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 83

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 84

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 85

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              85

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 85

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 87

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     88

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 89

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 89

44AAJ................... Annual report.................................................................... 90

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 90

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       92

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 92

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        93

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            93

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 93

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 93

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures.. 97

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister....................................... 98

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  99

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown................................................ 99

Division 2—Declared services                                                                             101

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                         101

44F........................ Person may request recommendation.............................. 101

44FA..................... Council may request information.................................... 102

44G....................... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service  103

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 104

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 107

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 108

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              109

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 109

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 111

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 112

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 113

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 114

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 115

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 117

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 118

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   120

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      120

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 120

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          120

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 120

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 122

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 123

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 125

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 126

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 127

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 127

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 129

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     130

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 130

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  132

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 132

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        133

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            135

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 135

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           136

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                136

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        136

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 137

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 137

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 137

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          139

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 139

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 140

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 140

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            142

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 142

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 144

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 146

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 147

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  147

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           147

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               149

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          149

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   150

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 150

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 151

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 152

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 152

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 154

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 156

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 157

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 158

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 160

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              162

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  162

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         163

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      163

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 163

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              163

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 163

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 164

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               164

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 164

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 164

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 165

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 167

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 168

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 170

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              170

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      171

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 171

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 171

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 171

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 172

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 172

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 172

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 172

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 173

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 174

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 174

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 175

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 175

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               176

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      176

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 177

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 177

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               179

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 179

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        180

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 180

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 182

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             183

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 183

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 184

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                184

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               185

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 185

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    186

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 186

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 186

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   187

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 187

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 187

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 188

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 189

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  190

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 190

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       191

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              191

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 191

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 193

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 195

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 197

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 199

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               200

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            200

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       201

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 201

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            203

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 203

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 205

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 206

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 207

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  208

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 208

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            210

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 210

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               211

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 211

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     212

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 212

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 214

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 215

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                215

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          217

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 217

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 218

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 219

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 219

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 219

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 219

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 220

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 220

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     221

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 221

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 221

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 222

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 223

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 223

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 224

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 224

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 226

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 228

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 228

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 231

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 232

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 232

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      233

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   233

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               233

44ZZRA................ Simplified outline............................................................ 233

44ZZRB................ Definitions...................................................................... 233

44ZZRC................ Extended meaning of party............................................. 235

44ZZRD................ Cartel provisions............................................................. 235

44ZZRE................. Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 241

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              241

44ZZRF................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 241

44ZZRG................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 242

44ZZRH................ Determining guilt............................................................ 243

44ZZRI.................. Court may make related civil orders................................ 244

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         244

44ZZRJ................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 244

44ZZRK................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 244

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  245

44ZZRL................. Conduct notified............................................................. 245

44ZZRM............... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 245

44ZZRN................ Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         246

44ZZRO................ Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 246

44ZZRP................. Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 249

44ZZRQ................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 252

44ZZRR................ Resale price maintenance................................................ 252

44ZZRS................. Exclusive dealing............................................................ 253

44ZZRT................. Dual listed company arrangement................................... 254

44ZZRU................ Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 254

44ZZRV................ Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   255

Division 1A—Anti‑competitive disclosure of pricing and other information      256

44ZZS................... Definitions...................................................................... 256

44ZZT................... Goods and services to which this Division applies......... 256

44ZZU................... Provisions affecting whether a corporation has disclosed information to a person  257

44ZZV................... Meaning of private disclosure to competitors................ 258

44ZZW.................. Corporation must not make private disclosure of pricing information etc. to competitors        259

44ZZX................... Corporation must not make disclosure of pricing information etc. for purpose of substantially lessening competition..................................................................... 260

44ZZY................... Exceptions that apply to sections 44ZZW and 44ZZX.... 261

44ZZZ................... Additional exceptions that only apply to section 44ZZW 263

44ZZZA................ Burden of proof.............................................................. 266

44ZZZB................. Mere receipt of information does not constitute being knowingly involved in contravention   267

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               268

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            268

45B........................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 271

45C........................ Covenants in relation to prices........................................ 275

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             277

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               278

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 279

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 280

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 282

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 285

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 289

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              289

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 289

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          294

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  296

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 296

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 303

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 303

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            305

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 307

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 310

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 315

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            316

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          316

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 316

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              318

51ACB.................. Contravention of industry codes..................................... 318

Division 2A—Infringement notices                                                                   319

51ACC.................. Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 319

51ACD.................. Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 319

51ACE.................. Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 320

51ACF.................. Amount of penalty.......................................................... 320

51ACG.................. Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 321

51ACH.................. Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 321

51ACI................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                322

51ACJ................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 322

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   325

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 325

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       326

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 326

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       328

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        330

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  330

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 330

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 331

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 331

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     332

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 332

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 332

Part IVC—Payment surcharges                                                                               333

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          333

55.......................... Object of this Part........................................................... 333

55A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 333

Division 2—Limit on payment surcharges                                                    335

55B........................ Payment surcharges must not be excessive..................... 335

Division 3—Information about payment surcharges                              336

55C........................ Surcharge information notices........................................ 336

55D....................... Extending periods for complying with notices................ 336

55E........................ Participant must comply with notice............................... 337

Division 4—Infringement notices                                                                       338

55F........................ Purpose and effect of this Division................................. 338

55G....................... Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 338

55H....................... Matters to be included in an infringement notice............. 339

55J......................... Amount of penalty.......................................................... 339

55K........................ Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 339

55L........................ Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 340

55M....................... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                340

55N....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 341

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              343

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          343

60.......................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 343

60AA.................... Objects etc...................................................................... 344

60A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 345

60B........................ Regulated goods............................................................. 350

Division 2—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                 351

60C........................ Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal...... 351

60CA..................... Failure to pass on cost savings—250% penalty.............. 351

60D....................... Notice to entity that is considered to have engaged in price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 353

60E........................ Commission may issue notice to aid prevention of price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 354

60F........................ Acquisition of property................................................... 355

Division 2A—Carbon tax removal substantiation notices                    356

60FA..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation notices...................... 356

60FB..................... Extending periods for complying with carbon tax removal substantiation notices   357

60FC..................... Compliance with carbon tax removal substantiation notices 357

Division 2B—Carbon tax removal substantiation statements            359

60FD..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation statements................. 359

Division 2C—Statements for customers                                                         362

60FE...................... Statements for customers................................................ 362

Division 3—Price monitoring in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 364

60G....................... Commission may monitor prices in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 364

60H....................... Information‑gathering powers........................................ 366

60J......................... Reporting........................................................................ 368

Division 4—False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices                                                                                                                    369

60K........................ False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices     369

Division 5—Infringement notices                                                                       370

60L........................ Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 370

60M....................... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 371

60N....................... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 372

60P........................ Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                372

60Q....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 373

60R........................ Effect of this Division..................................................... 374

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    376

75B........................ Interpretation................................................................... 376

76.......................... Pecuniary penalties......................................................... 376

76A....................... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN          380

76B........................ What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?.......................................................................... 381

76C........................ Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions 382

77.......................... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 383

77A....................... Indemnification of officers.............................................. 383

77B........................ Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void               384

77C........................ Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate        384

78.......................... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV     384

79.......................... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG............... 385

79A....................... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................... 386

79B........................ Preference must be given to compensation for victims... 388

80.......................... Injunctions...................................................................... 389

80A....................... Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal—orders limiting prices or requiring refunds of money........................................................................................ 392

80AB..................... Stay of injunctions.......................................................... 392

80AC..................... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information..................................................................... 394

81.......................... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A 395

81A....................... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information          397

82.......................... Actions for damages....................................................... 399

83.......................... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................ 399

84.......................... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................... 400

85.......................... Defences......................................................................... 402

86.......................... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................... 402

86AA.................... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Circuit Court................. 404

86A....................... Transfer of matters.......................................................... 404

86C........................ Non‑punitive orders........................................................ 405

86D....................... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................. 407

86E........................ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations 408

86F........................ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              409

87.......................... Other orders.................................................................... 410

87AA.................... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   415

87B........................ Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 416

87C........................ Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department 417

87CA..................... Intervention by Commission........................................... 417

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              418

87CB..................... Application of Part.......................................................... 418

87CC..................... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment      418

87CD..................... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............... 419

87CE..................... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   420

87CF..................... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................. 421

87CG..................... Subsequent actions......................................................... 421

87CH..................... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.... 421

87CI...................... Application of Part.......................................................... 421

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 423

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        423

87D....................... Definitions...................................................................... 423

87E........................ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................ 425

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            426

87F........................ Basic rule........................................................................ 426

87G....................... Date of discoverability.................................................... 427

87H....................... Long‑stop period............................................................ 429

87J......................... The effect of minority or incapacity................................ 429

87K........................ The effect of close relationships...................................... 430

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                431

87L........................ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................... 431

87M....................... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss... 431

87N....................... Index numbers................................................................ 432

87P........................ Most extreme cases......................................................... 432

87Q....................... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case                433

87R........................ Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case         433

87S........................ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case.............. 434

87T........................ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....... 434

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    435

87U....................... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity..... 435

87V....................... Average weekly earnings................................................ 435

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             437

87W....................... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             437

87X....................... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services     438

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            440

87Y....................... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......... 440

87Z........................ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........... 440

87ZA..................... Interest on damages........................................................ 441

87ZB..................... Exemplary and aggravated damages............................... 442

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   443

87ZC..................... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements        443

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices              444

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        444

87ZP...................... Definitions...................................................................... 444

88.......................... Power of Commission to grant authorisations................ 444

89.......................... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register. 452

90.......................... Determination of applications for authorisations............. 455

90A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        462

90B........................ Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC          466

91.......................... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................. 467

91A....................... Minor variations of authorizations.................................. 469

91B........................ Revocation of an authorization........................................ 471

91C........................ Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement            473

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        476

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing and private disclosure of pricing information       476

93.......................... Notification of exclusive dealing or private disclosure of pricing information         476

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             482

93AA.................... Definitions...................................................................... 482

93AB..................... Notification of collective bargaining............................... 482

93AC..................... Commission’s objection notice....................................... 487

93AD.................... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          489

93AE..................... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice..................... 490

93AEA.................. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given      491

93AF..................... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given         492

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               492

93A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice   492

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         495

95.......................... Register of notifications.................................................. 495

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 499

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               499

95AA.................... Simplified outline of this Division.................................. 499

95AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 500

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                   501

95AC..................... Commission may grant clearance for a merger............... 501

95AD.................... Application for clearance................................................ 502

95AE..................... Requirements for valid clearance application.................. 502

95AF..................... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid. 502

95AG.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 502

95AH.................... Merger clearance register................................................ 503

95AI...................... Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 503

95AJ...................... Commission may seek additional information from applicant  505

95AK..................... Commission may seek further information and consult others 505

95AL..................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 505

95AM.................... Commission to make determination on application......... 505

95AN.................... When clearance must not be granted............................... 506

95AO.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 507

95AP..................... Clearance subject to conditions....................................... 507

95AQ.................... When clearance is in force.............................................. 508

95AR..................... Minor variations of clearances........................................ 509

95AS..................... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance          513

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                            517

95AT..................... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger................ 517

95AU.................... Application for authorisation.......................................... 518

95AV.................... Requirements for valid authorisation application............ 518

95AW.................... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid.. 519

95AX.................... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application 519

95AY.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 519

95AZ..................... Merger authorisation register.......................................... 519

95AZA.................. Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 520

95AZC.................. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant 521

95AZD.................. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc. 522

95AZE................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 522

95AZEA................ Tribunal must require Commission to give report........... 522

95AZF................... Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 522

95AZFA................ Commission may make enquiries................................... 523

95AZG.................. Tribunal to make determination on application................ 523

95AZH.................. When authorisation must not be granted......................... 524

95AZI.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 525

95AZJ................... Authorisation subject to conditions................................. 525

95AZK.................. When authorisation is in force........................................ 526

95AZL................... Minor variations of authorisations.................................. 526

95AZM................. Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation        530

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            535

95AZN.................. Providing false or misleading information...................... 535

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 537

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          537

95A....................... Interpretation................................................................... 537

95B........................ Exempt supplies.............................................................. 541

95C........................ Application of Part.......................................................... 541

95D....................... Crown to be bound......................................................... 542

95E........................ Object of this Part........................................................... 542

95F........................ Simplified overview of this Part..................................... 543

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               544

95G....................... Commission’s functions under this Part......................... 544

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    546

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                546

95H....................... Price inquiries................................................................. 546

95J......................... Content of inquiry notices............................................... 547

95K........................ Period for completing inquiry......................................... 548

95L........................ Notice of holding of inquiry........................................... 549

95M....................... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry..... 549

95N....................... Price restrictions............................................................. 550

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                553

95P........................ Copies of report to be made available............................. 553

95Q....................... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..... 553

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            554

95R........................ Public inquiries etc.......................................................... 554

95S........................ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation...................... 555

95T........................ Failure of witness to attend............................................. 556

95U....................... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................... 556

95V....................... Protection of witnesses................................................... 557

95W....................... Allowances to witnesses................................................. 558

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            559

95X....................... Declarations by Minister or Commission....................... 559

95Y....................... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.. 559

95Z........................ Price restrictions............................................................. 561

95ZA..................... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................... 564

95ZB..................... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............. 564

95ZC..................... Register of price notifications......................................... 565

95ZD..................... Delegation by Commission............................................. 567

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               568

95ZE...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry  568

95ZF...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business 568

95ZG..................... Exceptions to price monitoring....................................... 569

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               570

95ZH..................... Ministerial directions...................................................... 570

95ZI....................... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals               570

95ZJ...................... Withdrawal of notices..................................................... 571

95ZK..................... Power to obtain information or documents..................... 571

95ZL...................... Inspection of documents etc............................................ 574

95ZM.................... Retention of documents.................................................. 575

95ZN..................... Confidential information................................................. 575

95ZO..................... Immunity........................................................................ 576

95ZP...................... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc. 577

95ZQ..................... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission         578

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    581

96.......................... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance... 581

96A....................... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............. 583

97.......................... Recommended prices...................................................... 584

98.......................... Withholding the supply of goods.................................... 584

99.......................... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................. 585

100........................ Evidentiary provisions.................................................... 586

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       587

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)            587

101........................ Applications for review.................................................. 587

101A..................... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)               588

102........................ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 589

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               594

102A..................... Definition........................................................................ 594

103........................ Procedure generally........................................................ 594

104........................ Regulations as to certain matters..................................... 594

105........................ Power to take evidence on oath....................................... 595

106........................ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances 595

107........................ Evidence in form of written statement............................. 596

108........................ Taking of evidence by single member............................. 596

109........................ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................... 596

110........................ Representation................................................................ 597

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances     598

111........................ Applications for review.................................................. 598

112........................ Tribunal to notify Commission....................................... 599

113........................ Commission to give material to Tribunal........................ 599

114........................ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information.............. 599

115........................ Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 600

116........................ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission 600

117........................ Tribunal to make decision on review.............................. 600

118........................ Time limits for making review decision.......................... 601

119........................ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s............... 601


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                    (aa)  Part V;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 44ZZRD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

clearance means a clearance under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.