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Criminal Code Act 1995

Authoritative Version
  • - C2015C00601
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Crimes Legislation Amendment (Harming Australians) Act 2015
An Act relating to the criminal law
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 15 Dec 2015
Start Date 01 Dec 2015
End Date 29 Feb 2016
Table of contents.

Criminal Code Act 1995

No. 12, 1995

Compilation No. 102

Compilation date:                              1 December 2015

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 163, 2015

Registered:                                         15 December 2015

This compilation is in 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–5

                        Schedule (sections 1.1–261.3)

Volume 2:       Schedule (sections 268.1–480.6)

                        Schedule (Dictionary)

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Criminal Code Act 1995 that shows the text of the law as amended and in force on 1 December 2015 (the compilation date).

This compilation was prepared on 9 December 2015.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of provisions of the compiled law.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not shown in the text of the compiled law. Any uncommenced amendments affecting the law are accessible on ComLaw (www.comlaw.gov.au). The details of amendments made up to, but not commenced at, the compilation date are underlined in the endnotes. For more information on any uncommenced amendments, see the series page on ComLaw for the compiled law.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment of the compiled law is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Modifications

If the compiled law is modified by another law, the compiled law operates as modified but the modification does not amend the text of the law. Accordingly, this compilation does not show the text of the compiled law as modified. For more information on any modifications, see the series page on ComLaw for the compiled law.

Self‑repealing provisions

If a provision of the compiled law has been repealed in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Schedule—The Criminal Code                                                                        1

Chapter 8—Offences against humanity and related offences                    1

Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court                                        1

Subdivision A—Introductory                                                                                  1

268.1..................... Purpose of Division............................................................ 1

268.2..................... Outline of offences............................................................. 1

Subdivision B—Genocide                                                                                         2

268.3..................... Genocide by killing............................................................. 2

268.4..................... Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm........... 2

268.5..................... Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction        2

268.6..................... Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births 3

268.7..................... Genocide by forcibly transferring children......................... 3

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity                                                           4

268.8..................... Crime against humanity—murder....................................... 4

268.9..................... Crime against humanity—extermination............................. 4

268.10................... Crime against humanity—enslavement............................... 5

268.11................... Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population  5

268.12................... Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty          6

268.13................... Crime against humanity—torture........................................ 7

268.14................... Crime against humanity—rape............................................ 7

268.15................... Crime against humanity—sexual slavery............................ 9

268.16................... Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution.................. 9

268.17................... Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy..................... 11

268.18................... Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation................ 11

268.19................... Crime against humanity—sexual violence........................ 12

268.20................... Crime against humanity—persecution.............................. 13

268.21................... Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons 14

268.22................... Crime against humanity—apartheid.................................. 15

268.23................... Crime against humanity—other inhumane act................... 16

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions                                                                                  16

268.24................... War crime—wilful killing................................................. 16

268.25................... War crime—torture........................................................... 17

268.26................... War crime—inhumane treatment....................................... 17

268.27................... War crime—biological experiments.................................. 18

268.28................... War crime—wilfully causing great suffering.................... 18

268.29................... War crime—destruction and appropriation of property..... 19

268.30................... War crime—compelling service in hostile forces.............. 19

268.31................... War crime—denying a fair trial......................................... 20

268.32................... War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer................... 21

268.33................... War crime—unlawful confinement................................... 21

268.34................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 22

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict 22

268.35................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 22

268.36................... War crime—attacking civilian objects............................... 23

268.37................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 23

268.38................... War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage 24

268.39................... War crime—attacking undefended places......................... 25

268.40................... War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat             25

268.41................... War crime—improper use of a flag of truce...................... 26

268.42................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party          26

268.43................... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations       27

268.44................... War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions  27

268.45................... War crime—transfer of population................................... 28

268.46................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 28

268.47................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 29

268.48................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 30

268.49................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 31

268.50................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 31

268.51................... War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property.. 32

268.52................... War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions              32

268.53................... War crime—compelling participation in military operations 33

268.54................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 33

268.55................... War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons...... 34

268.56................... War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices    34

268.57................... War crime—employing prohibited bullets........................ 34

268.58................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 35

268.59................... War crime—rape............................................................... 35

268.60................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 37

268.61................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 37

268.62................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 39

268.63................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 39

268.64................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 40

268.65................... War crime—using protected persons as shields................ 41

268.66................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      42

268.67................... War crime—starvation as a method of warfare................. 42

268.68................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 43

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict            45

268.69................... Definition of religious personnel...................................... 45

268.70................... War crime—murder.......................................................... 45

268.71................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 45

268.72................... War crime—cruel treatment.............................................. 47

268.73................... War crime—torture........................................................... 48

268.74................... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity..................... 48

268.75................... War crime—taking hostages............................................. 49

268.76................... War crime—sentencing or execution without due process 50

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict           52

268.77................... War crime—attacking civilians......................................... 52

268.78................... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions      52

268.79................... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission.......................................................................................... 53

268.80................... War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 54

268.81................... War crime—pillaging........................................................ 54

268.82................... War crime—rape............................................................... 55

268.83................... War crime—sexual slavery............................................... 56

268.84................... War crime—enforced prostitution..................................... 57

268.85................... War crime—forced pregnancy.......................................... 58

268.86................... War crime—enforced sterilisation..................................... 59

268.87................... War crime—sexual violence............................................. 59

268.88................... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children....... 61

268.89................... War crime—displacing civilians....................................... 63

268.90................... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................... 63

268.91................... War crime—denying quarter............................................. 64

268.92................... War crime—mutilation...................................................... 64

268.93................... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................. 65

268.94................... War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property 66

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions               67

268.95................... War crime—medical procedure......................................... 67

268.96................... War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation         68

268.97................... War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians.................................................... 68

268.98................... War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones             69

268.99................... War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians  70

268.100................. War crime—apartheid....................................................... 70

268.101................. War crime—attacking protected objects............................ 71

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court   71

268.102................. Perjury.............................................................................. 71

268.103................. Falsifying evidence........................................................... 72

268.104................. Destroying or concealing evidence................................... 72

268.105................. Deceiving witnesses......................................................... 73

268.106................. Corrupting witnesses or interpreters................................. 73

268.107................. Threatening witnesses or interpreters................................ 74

268.108................. Preventing witnesses or interpreters................................. 74

268.109................. Preventing production of things in evidence..................... 75

268.110................. Reprisals against witnesses............................................... 75

268.111................. Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court 76

268.112................. Perverting the course of justice......................................... 76

268.113................. Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court    77

268.114................. Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct...................... 77

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous                                                                             78

268.115................. Responsibility of commanders and other superiors.......... 78

268.116................. Defence of superior orders............................................... 79

268.117................. Geographical jurisdiction.................................................. 79

268.118................. Double jeopardy............................................................... 79

268.119................. Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court             80

268.120................. Saving of other laws......................................................... 80

268.121................. Bringing proceedings under this Division........................ 80

268.122................. Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final               80

268.123................. Legal representation.......................................................... 81

268.124................. Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions           82

Division 270—Slavery and slavery‑like conditions                                        83

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 83

270.1A.................. Definitions for Division 270............................................. 83

Subdivision B—Slavery                                                                                          84

270.1..................... Definition of slavery......................................................... 84

270.2..................... Slavery is unlawful........................................................... 84

270.3..................... Slavery offences............................................................... 84

270.3A.................. Slavery offences—geographical jurisdiction..................... 86

270.3B................... Prosecutions..................................................................... 86

Subdivision C—Slavery‑like conditions                                                             86

270.4..................... Definition of servitude...................................................... 86

270.5..................... Servitude offences............................................................ 87

270.6..................... Definition of forced labour............................................... 88

270.6A.................. Forced labour offences..................................................... 89

270.7..................... Deceptive recruiting for labour or services....................... 89

270.7A.................. Definition of forced marriage.......................................... 90

270.7B................... Forced marriage offences.................................................. 91

270.8..................... Slavery‑like offences—aggravated offences..................... 92

270.9..................... Slavery‑like offences—jurisdictional requirement............ 93

270.10................... Slavery‑like offences—relevant evidence......................... 93

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 270: general                                94

270.11................... Offences against Division 270—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      94

270.12................... Offences against Division 270—other laws not excluded 94

270.13................... Offences against Division 270—double jeopardy............ 95

Division 271—Trafficking in persons and debt bondage                              96

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                    96

271.1..................... Definitions........................................................................ 96

271.1A.................. Definition of exploitation.................................................. 96

Subdivision B—Offences relating to trafficking in persons                         97

271.2..................... Offence of trafficking in persons...................................... 97

271.3..................... Trafficking in persons—aggravated offence................... 100

271.4..................... Offence of trafficking in children.................................... 101

271.5..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in persons..................... 102

271.6..................... Domestic trafficking in persons—aggravated offence.... 103

271.7..................... Offence of domestic trafficking in children..................... 104

Subdivision BA—Organ trafficking                                                                 105

271.7A.................. Removal of organs contrary to this Subdivision............. 105

271.7B................... Offence of organ trafficking—entry into and exit from Australia            105

271.7C................... Organ trafficking—aggravated offence........................... 106

271.7D.................. Offence of domestic organ trafficking............................ 107

271.7E................... Domestic organ trafficking—aggravated offence............ 107

Subdivision BB—Harbouring a victim                                                            108

271.7F................... Harbouring a victim........................................................ 108

271.7G.................. Harbouring a victim—aggravated offence...................... 109

Subdivision C—Offences relating to debt bondage                                       110

271.8..................... Offence of debt bondage................................................. 110

271.9..................... Debt bondage—aggravated offence................................ 110

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 271: general                              111

271.10................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences other than domestic trafficking in persons or organs   111

271.11................... Jurisdictional requirements—offences of domestic trafficking in persons or organs               111

271.11A................ Offences against Division 271—relevant evidence......... 112

271.11B................. Offences against Division 271—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence      113

271.12................... Offences against Division 271—other laws not excluded 113

271.13................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 114

Division 272—Child sex offences outside Australia                                      115

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               115

272.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 115

272.2..................... When conduct causes a person to engage in sexual intercourse or other sexual activity          115

272.3..................... Meaning of position of trust or authority....................... 115

272.4..................... Meaning of sexual intercourse....................................... 116

272.5..................... Meaning of offence against this Division and extension of criminal responsibility  117

272.6..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        118

272.7..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 118

Subdivision B—Sexual offences against children outside Australia         119

272.8..................... Sexual intercourse with child outside Australia.............. 119

272.9..................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with child outside Australia             120

272.10................... Aggravated offence—child with mental impairment or under care, supervision or authority of defendant........................................................................................ 121

272.11................... Persistent sexual abuse of child outside Australia........... 122

272.12................... Sexual intercourse with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority     125

272.13................... Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with young person outside Australia—defendant in position of trust or authority............................................................. 126

272.14................... Procuring child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia  127

272.15................... “Grooming” child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia              128

272.16................... Defence based on belief about age.................................. 129

272.17................... Defence based on valid and genuine marriage................ 130

Subdivision C—Offences of benefiting from, encouraging or preparing for sexual offences against children outside Australia                                                                                     131

272.18................... Benefiting from offence against this Division................. 131

272.19................... Encouraging offence against this Division...................... 132

272.20................... Preparing for or planning offence against this Division.. 132

Subdivision E—Other rules about conduct of trials                                      133

272.27................... Evidence relating to a person’s age................................. 133

272.28................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 134

272.29................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 135

272.30................... Sentencing...................................................................... 135

272.31................... Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    135

Division 273—Offences involving child pornography material or child abuse material outside Australia          137

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               137

273.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 137

273.2..................... Who can be prosecuted for an offence committed outside Australia        138

273.2A.................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    138

273.3..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 138

273.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 138

Subdivision B—Offences committed overseas involving child pornography material or child abuse material  139

273.5..................... Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child pornography material outside Australia........................................................................................ 139

273.6..................... Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child abuse material outside Australia       139

273.7..................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             140

273.8..................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 141

Subdivision C—Defences                                                                                      141

273.9..................... Defences to offences against this Division..................... 141

Division 274—Torture                                                                                          144

274.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 144

274.2..................... Torture............................................................................ 144

274.3..................... Prosecutions................................................................... 145

274.4..................... No defence of exceptional circumstances or superior orders 146

274.5..................... Jurisdiction of State/Territory courts preserved.............. 146

274.6..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 147

274.7..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 147

Division 279—Video link evidence                                                                    148

279.1..................... Proceedings to which this Division applies.................... 148

279.2..................... When court may take evidence by video link.................. 148

279.3..................... Technical requirements for video link............................. 148

279.4..................... Application of laws about witnesses............................... 149

279.5..................... Administration of oaths and affirmations........................ 149

279.6..................... Expenses......................................................................... 150

279.7..................... Other laws about foreign evidence not affected.............. 150

Chapter 9—Dangers to the community                                                                151

Part 9.1—Serious drug offences                                                                         151

Division 300—Preliminary                                                                                 151

300.1..................... Purpose........................................................................... 151

300.2..................... Definitions...................................................................... 151

300.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 154

300.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 154

300.5..................... Particular identity of drugs, plants and precursors.......... 155

300.6..................... Recklessness as to nature of substance or plant sufficient for offence of attempt to commit an offence against this Part........................................................................... 155

Division 301—Serious drugs and precursors                                                  157

Subdivision A—Serious drugs and precursors: definitions                         157

301.1..................... Meaning of controlled drug............................................ 157

301.2..................... Meaning of controlled plant........................................... 157

301.3..................... Meaning of controlled precursor................................... 158

301.4..................... Meaning of border controlled drug................................ 158

301.5..................... Meaning of border controlled plant............................... 159

301.6..................... Meaning of border controlled precursor....................... 159

301.7..................... Serious drugs—conditions for listing by regulation....... 160

301.8..................... Serious drug precursors—conditions for listing by regulation 160

301.9..................... Meaning of drug analogue............................................. 160

Subdivision B—Serious drugs and precursors: commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities      162

301.10................... Meaning of commercial quantity.................................... 162

301.11................... Meaning of marketable quantity..................................... 163

301.12................... Meaning of trafficable quantity....................................... 164

Subdivision C—Serious drugs and precursors: emergency determinations 164

301.13................... Emergency determinations—serious drugs..................... 164

301.14................... Emergency determinations—serious drug precursors..... 165

301.15................... Emergency determinations—commercial, marketable and trafficable quantities       165

301.16................... Emergency determinations—effectiveness...................... 166

301.17................... Emergency determinations—publication......................... 167

Division 302—Trafficking controlled drugs                                                  168

302.1..................... Meaning of traffics......................................................... 168

302.2..................... Trafficking commercial quantities of controlled drugs.... 168

302.3..................... Trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs..... 169

302.4..................... Trafficking controlled drugs........................................... 169

302.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 169

302.6..................... Purchase of controlled drugs is not an ancillary offence. 170

Division 303—Commercial cultivation of controlled plants                      171

303.1..................... Meanings of cultivate and cultivates a plant................... 171

303.2..................... Meaning of product of a plant........................................ 171

303.3..................... Meaning of cultivates a plant for a commercial purpose 171

303.4..................... Cultivating commercial quantities of controlled plants.... 172

303.5..................... Cultivating marketable quantities of controlled plants..... 172

303.6..................... Cultivating controlled plants........................................... 172

303.7..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 173

Division 304—Selling controlled plants                                                           174

304.1..................... Selling commercial quantities of controlled plants.......... 174

304.2..................... Selling marketable quantities of controlled plants........... 174

304.3..................... Selling controlled plants.................................................. 174

Division 305—Commercial manufacture of controlled drugs                   176

305.1..................... Meanings of manufacture and manufactures a substance 176

305.2..................... Meaning of manufactures a substance for a commercial purpose          176

305.3..................... Manufacturing commercial quantities of controlled drugs 176

305.4..................... Manufacturing marketable quantities of controlled drugs 177

305.5..................... Manufacturing controlled drugs...................................... 177

305.6..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 178

Division 306—Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors                                  179

306.1..................... Meaning of pre‑traffics................................................... 179

306.2..................... Pre‑trafficking commercial quantities of controlled precursors                179

306.3..................... Pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors 180

306.4..................... Pre‑trafficking controlled precursors.............................. 180

306.5..................... Presumption for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—sale 181

306.6..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for drug manufacture  181

306.7..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—manufacture for sale        182

306.8..................... Presumptions for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors—possession      183

Division 307—Import‑export offences                                                             185

Subdivision A—Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              185

307.1..................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants   185

307.2..................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants    185

307.3..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants          186

307.4..................... Importing and exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants—no defence relating to lack of commercial intent............................................................ 186

Subdivision B—Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants 187

307.5..................... Possessing commercial quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 187

307.6..................... Possessing marketable quantities of unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 187

307.7..................... Possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants              188

Subdivision C—Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported                                                                189

307.8..................... Possessing commercial quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 189

307.9..................... Possessing marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported............................... 189

307.10................... Possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported........................................................ 190

Subdivision D—Importing and exporting border controlled precursors 191

307.11................... Importing and exporting commercial quantities of border controlled precursors      191

307.12................... Importing and exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors       191

307.13................... Importing and exporting border controlled precursors.... 191

Division 308—Possession offences                                                                    193

308.1..................... Possessing controlled drugs........................................... 193

308.2..................... Possessing controlled precursors.................................... 194

308.3..................... Possessing plant material, equipment or instructions for commercial cultivation of controlled plants      194

308.4..................... Possessing substance, equipment or instructions for commercial manufacture of controlled drugs         195

Division 309—Drug offences involving children                                           196

309.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    196

309.2..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children........................... 196

309.3..................... Supplying marketable quantities of controlled drugs to children for trafficking       196

309.4..................... Supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking.... 197

309.5..................... Presumption where trafficable quantities are involved.... 197

309.6..................... Meaning of procures an individual to traffic.................. 197

309.7..................... Procuring children for trafficking marketable quantities of controlled drugs            198

309.8..................... Procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs......... 198

309.9..................... Meaning of procures an individual to pre‑traffic........... 199

309.10................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking marketable quantities of controlled precursors              199

309.11................... Procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 199

309.12................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................. 200

309.13................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         201

309.14................... Procuring children for importing or exporting marketable quantities of border controlled precursors     201

309.15................... Procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            202

Division 310—Harm and danger to children under 14 from serious drug offences     204

310.1..................... Children not criminally responsible for offences against this Division    204

310.2..................... Danger from exposure to unlawful manufacturing......... 204

310.3..................... Harm from exposure to unlawful manufacturing............ 205

310.4..................... Aggravated offences—manufacturing controlled drugs and controlled precursors  206

Division 311—Combining quantities of drugs, plants or precursors        208

Subdivision A—Combining different parcels on the same occasion         208

311.1..................... Combining different parcels on the same occasion......... 208

Subdivision B—Combining parcels from organised commercial activities 209

311.2..................... Business of trafficking controlled drugs......................... 209

311.3..................... Business of pre‑trafficking by selling controlled precursors 210

311.4..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants         211

311.5..................... Business of importing or exporting border controlled precursors            211

311.6..................... Business of supplying controlled drugs to children........ 212

311.7..................... General rules—combining parcels from organised commercial activities 213

Subdivision C—Combining parcels from multiple offences                       214

311.8..................... Multiple offences—trafficking controlled drugs............. 214

311.9..................... Multiple offences—cultivating controlled plants............. 214

311.10................... Multiple offences—selling controlled plants................... 215

311.11................... Multiple offences—manufacturing controlled drugs....... 215

311.12................... Multiple offences—pre‑trafficking controlled precursors 215

311.13................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants             216

311.14................... Multiple offences—possessing unlawfully imported border controlled drugs or border controlled plants........................................................................................ 216

311.15................... Multiple offences—possessing border controlled drugs or border controlled plants reasonably suspected of having been unlawfully imported.................................... 217

311.16................... Multiple offences—importing or exporting border controlled precursors                217

311.17................... Multiple offences—supplying controlled drugs to children for trafficking              218

311.18................... Multiple offences—procuring children for trafficking controlled drugs   218

311.19................... Multiple offences—procuring children for pre‑trafficking controlled precursors     219

311.20................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled drugs or border controlled plants.............................................................................. 219

311.21................... Multiple offences—procuring children for importing or exporting border controlled precursors            220

311.22................... General rules—combining parcels from multiple offences 221

Division 312—Working out quantities of drugs, plants or precursors     222

312.1..................... Working out quantities of drugs and precursors in mixtures 222

312.2..................... Working out quantities where different kinds of drugs, plants or precursors are involved      223

Division 313—Defences and alternative verdicts                                          226

313.1..................... Defence—conduct justified or excused by or under a law of a State or Territory    226

313.2..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  226

313.3..................... Alternative verdict—offence not proved......................... 226

313.4..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to quantity of drug, plant or precursor   227

313.5..................... Alternative verdict—mistake as to identity of drug, plant or precursor    228

Part 9.2—Psychoactive substances                                                                   229

Division 320—Psychoactive substances                                                           229

320.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 229

320.2..................... Importing psychoactive substances................................. 230

320.3..................... Importing substances represented to be serious drug alternatives            232

Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons                                                                            235

Division 360—Cross‑border firearms trafficking                                        235

360.1..................... Disposal and acquisition of a firearm or firearm part...... 235

360.2..................... Cross‑border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm or firearm part            235

360.3..................... Taking or sending a firearm or firearm part across borders 236

360.4..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 237

Division 361—International firearms trafficking                                        239

361.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 239

361.2..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts into Australia 240

361.3..................... Trafficking prohibited firearms or firearm parts out of Australia             241

361.4..................... Defence—reasonable belief that conduct is justified or excused by or under a law  242

361.6..................... Double jeopardy............................................................. 242

Part 9.5—Identity crime                                                                                         243

Division 370—Preliminary                                                                                 243

370.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 243

370.2..................... Definition of foreign indictable offence........................... 244

370.3..................... Concurrent operation intended........................................ 244

Division 372—Identity fraud offences                                                              245

372.1..................... Dealing in identification information............................... 245

372.1A.................. Dealing in identification information that involves use of a carriage service            246

372.2..................... Possession of identification information......................... 248

372.3..................... Possession of equipment used to make identification documentation       248

372.4..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A............ 249

372.5..................... Alternative verdict........................................................... 249

372.6..................... Attempt........................................................................... 249

Division 375—Victims’ certificates                                                                   250

375.1..................... Certificate may be issued by magistrate in relation to victim of identity crime          250

375.2..................... Content of certificate....................................................... 251

375.3..................... Relation to civil and criminal proceedings....................... 251

375.4..................... Power conferred on magistrate personally...................... 251

Division 376—False identity and air travel                                                    252

376.1..................... Definitions for Division 376........................................... 252

376.2..................... False identification information—at constitutional airports 252

376.3..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets obtained using a carriage service        253

376.4..................... False identification information—air passenger tickets for constitutional flights      254

376.5..................... False identification information—extended jurisdiction (Category D)     255

Part 9.6—Contamination of goods                                                                    256

380.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 256

380.2..................... Contaminating goods...................................................... 256

380.3..................... Threatening to contaminate goods................................... 258

380.4..................... Making false statements about contamination of goods.. 260

380.5..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............ 262

Part 9.9—Criminal associations and organisations                                 263

Division 390—Criminal associations and organisations                             263

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                  263

390.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 263

390.2..................... State offences that have a federal aspect.......................... 265

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                      268

390.3..................... Associating in support of serious organised criminal activity  268

390.4..................... Supporting a criminal organisation................................. 270

390.5..................... Committing an offence for the benefit of, or at the direction of, a criminal organisation          271

390.6..................... Directing activities of a criminal organisation................. 273

390.7..................... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C............ 275

Chapter 10—National infrastructure                                                                    276

Part 10.2—Money laundering                                                                             276

Division 400—Money laundering                                                                      276

400.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 276

400.2..................... Definition of deals with money or other property.......... 278

400.2A.................. Application of offences relating to possible instruments of crime            278

400.3..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more 279

400.4..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more    281

400.5..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more      282

400.6..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more      283

400.7..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more        285

400.8..................... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value        286

400.9..................... Dealing with property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc.           287

400.10................... Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property...... 289

400.11................... Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required           290

400.12................... Combining several contraventions in a single charge...... 291

400.13................... Proof of other offences is not required........................... 291

400.14................... Alternative verdicts......................................................... 291

400.15................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 292

400.16................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 295

Part 10.5—Postal services                                                                                     296

Division 470—Preliminary                                                                                 296

470.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 296

470.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 298

470.3..................... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact 298

470.4..................... Meaning of expressions used in Subdivisions B and C of Division 471 298

Division 471—Postal offences                                                                            300

Subdivision A—General postal offences                                                          300

471.1..................... Theft of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages..... 300

471.2..................... Receiving stolen mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages 301

471.3..................... Taking or concealing of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages      303

471.4..................... Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks....... 303

471.5..................... Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps             303

471.6..................... Damaging or destroying mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages     304

471.7..................... Tampering with mail‑receptacles..................................... 305

471.8..................... Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles....................... 305

471.9..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 305

471.10................... Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances............. 305

471.11................... Using a postal or similar service to make a threat........... 306

471.12................... Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence       307

471.13................... Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service   307

471.14................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 308

471.15................... Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post  308

Subdivision B—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service for child pornography material or child abuse material                                                                                       309

471.16................... Using a postal or similar service for child pornography material             309

471.17................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a postal or similar service.................................................. 310

471.18................... Defences in respect of child pornography material......... 310

471.19................... Using a postal or similar service for child abuse material 311

471.20................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a postal or similar service................................................................. 312

471.21................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 312

471.22................... Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             313

471.23................... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 315

Subdivision C—Offences relating to use of postal or similar service involving sexual activity with person under 16                                                                                                       315

471.24................... Using a postal or similar service to procure persons under 16 315

471.25................... Using a postal or similar service to “groom” persons under 16               316

471.26................... Using a postal or similar service to send indecent material to person under 16        317

471.27................... Age‑related provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision       318

471.28................... Other provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision 319

471.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 320

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            321

471.30................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 321

471.31................... Definition of carry by post does not apply..................... 321

Division 472—Miscellaneous                                                                              322

472.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 322

472.2..................... Interpretation of other laws............................................. 322

Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services                                                     323

Division 473—Preliminary                                                                                 323

473.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 323

473.2..................... Possession or control of data or material in the form of data 331

473.3..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data    331

473.4..................... Determining whether material is offensive...................... 331

473.5..................... Use of a carriage service................................................. 332

Division 474—Telecommunications offences                                                 333

Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services                     333

474.1..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 333

474.2..................... General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider                333

Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications                               334

474.3..................... Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider... 334

474.4..................... Interception devices........................................................ 334

474.5..................... Wrongful delivery of communications............................ 335

474.6..................... Interference with facilities............................................... 336

474.7..................... Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier 337

474.8..................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier   338

474.9..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier.......................................................................... 339

474.10................... Copying subscription‑specific secure data...................... 341

474.11................... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier  342

474.12................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier   343

Subdivision C—General offences relating to use of telecommunications 345

474.14................... Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence    345

474.15................... Using a carriage service to make a threat........................ 346

474.16................... Using a carriage service for a hoax threat....................... 347

474.17................... Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence 347

474.18................... Improper use of emergency call service.......................... 348

Subdivision D—Offences relating to use of carriage service for child pornography material or child abuse material                                                                                                       348

474.19................... Using a carriage service for child pornography material. 348

474.20................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service............................................................... 349

474.21................... Defences in respect of child pornography material......... 350

474.22................... Using a carriage service for child abuse material............ 351

474.23................... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 352

474.24................... Defences in respect of child abuse material..................... 353

474.24A................ Aggravated offence—offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people             354

474.24B................. Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven....... 356

474.24C................. Consent to commencement of proceedings where defendant under 18    356

Subdivision E—Offence relating to obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts              356

474.25................... Obligations of internet service providers and internet content hosts         356

Subdivision F—Offences relating to use of carriage service involving sexual activity with person under 16      357

474.25A................ Using a carriage service for sexual activity with person under 16 years of age        357

474.25B................. Aggravated offence—child with mental impairment or under care, supervision or authority of defendant........................................................................................ 358

474.26................... Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age          359

474.27................... Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age        360

474.27A................ Using a carriage service to transmit indecent communication to person under 16 years of age                361

474.28................... Provisions relating to offences against this Subdivision. 362

474.29................... Defences to offences against this Subdivision................ 365

Subdivision G—Offences relating to use of carriage service for suicide related material         366

474.29A................ Using a carriage service for suicide related material........ 366

474.29B................. Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining suicide related material for use through a carriage service............................................................................. 368

Division 475—Miscellaneous                                                                              370

475.1A.................. Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons 370

475.1B................... Provisions relating to element of offence that particular conduct was engaged in using a carriage service........................................................................................ 370

475.1..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 371

475.2..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 371

Part 10.7—Computer offences                                                                            372

Division 476—Preliminary                                                                                 372

476.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 372

476.2..................... Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment                373

476.3..................... Geographical jurisdiction................................................ 374

476.4..................... Saving of other laws....................................................... 374

476.5..................... Liability for certain acts................................................... 374

Division 477—Serious computer offences                                                       377

477.1..................... Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence      377

477.2..................... Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment.. 378

477.3..................... Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication.. 378

Division 478—Other computer offences                                                          380

478.1..................... Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data 380

478.2..................... Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc.                380

478.3..................... Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence  380

478.4..................... Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence  381

Part 10.8—Financial information offences                                                   383

480.1..................... Definitions...................................................................... 383

480.2..................... Dishonesty...................................................................... 384

480.3..................... Constitutional application of this Part............................. 384

480.4..................... Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information          384

480.5..................... Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information........................................................................................ 384

480.6..................... Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information              385

Dictionary                                                                                                                           386

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  401

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          401

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              402

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           403

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         416


ScheduleThe Criminal Code

Chapter 8Offences against humanity and related offences

  

Division 268Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court

Subdivision A—Introductory

268.1  Purpose of Division

             (1)  The purpose of this Division is to create certain offences that are of international concern and certain related offences.

             (2)  It is the Parliament’s intention that the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court is to be complementary to the jurisdiction of Australia with respect to offences in this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of that Court.

             (3)  Accordingly, the International Criminal Court Act 2002 does not affect the primacy of Australia’s right to exercise its jurisdiction with respect to offences created by this Division that are also crimes within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.

268.2  Outline of offences

             (1)  Subdivision B creates offences each of which is called genocide.

             (2)  Subdivision C creates offences each of which is called a crime against humanity.

             (3)  Subdivisions D, E, F, G and H create offences each of which is called a war crime.

             (4)  Subdivision J creates offences each of which is called a crime against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court.

Subdivision B—Genocide

268.3  Genocide by killing

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.4  Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes serious bodily or mental harm to one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes serious bodily or mental harm includes, but is not restricted to, commits acts of torture, rape, sexual violence or inhuman or degrading treatment.

268.5  Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts certain conditions of life upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the conditions of life are intended to bring about the physical destruction of that group, in whole or in part.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

conditions of life includes, but is not restricted to, intentional deprivation of resources indispensable for survival, such as deprivation of food or medical services, or systematic expulsion from homes.

268.6  Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imposes certain measures upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the measures imposed are intended to prevent births within that group.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.7  Genocide by forcibly transferring children

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly transfers one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons belong to a particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to destroy, in whole or in part, that national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (d)  the transfer is from that group to another national, ethnical, racial or religious group; and

                     (e)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the person or persons are under that age.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly transfers one or more persons includes transfers one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity

268.8  Crime against humanity—murder

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.9  Crime against humanity—extermination

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct constitutes, or takes place as part of, a mass killing of members of a civilian population; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

causes the death of includes causes death by intentionally inflicting conditions of life (such as the deprivation of access to food or medicine) intended to bring about the destruction of part of a population.

268.10  Crime against humanity—enslavement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over one or more persons (including the exercise of a power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children); and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

exercises any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person includes purchases, sells, lends or barters a person or imposes on a person a similar deprivation of liberty and also includes exercise a power arising from a debt incurred or contract made by a person.

268.11  Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator forcibly displaces one or more persons, by expulsion or other coercive acts, from an area in which the person or persons are lawfully present to another country or location; and

                     (b)  the forcible displacement is contrary to paragraph 4 of article 12 or article 13 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the lawfulness of the presence of the person or persons in the area; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

forcibly displaces one or more persons includes displaces one or more persons:

                     (a)  by threat of force or coercion (such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power) against the person or persons or against another person; or

                     (b)  by taking advantage of a coercive environment.

268.12  Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator imprisons one or more persons or otherwise severely deprives one or more persons of physical liberty; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct violates article 9, 14 or 15 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.13  Crime against humanity—torture

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons who are in the custody or under the control of the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the pain or suffering does not arise only from, and is not inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.14  Crime against humanity—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.15  Crime against humanity—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.16  Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person or persons are consenting to engaging in the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.17  Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.18  Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.19  Crime against humanity—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.14 to 268.18; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.20  Crime against humanity—persecution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely deprives one or more persons of any of the rights referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the rights are those guaranteed in articles 6, 7, 8 and 9, paragraph 2 of article 14, article 18, paragraph 2 of article 20, paragraph 2 of article 23 and article 27 of the Covenant; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator targets the person or persons by reason of the identity of a group or collectivity or targets the group or collectivity as such; and

                     (d)  the grounds on which the targeting is based are political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender or other grounds that are recognised in paragraph 1 of article 2 of the Covenant; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in connection with another act that is:

                              (i)  a proscribed inhumane act; or

                             (ii)  genocide; or

                            (iii)  a war crime; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the rights are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (d).

268.21  Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator arrests, detains or abducts one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction is carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to remove the person or persons from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (e)  after the arrest, detention or abduction, the government or organisation refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom of, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of, the person or persons.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  one or more persons have been arrested, detained or abducted; and

                     (b)  the arrest, detention or abduction was carried out by, or with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of, the government of a country or a political organisation; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator refuses to acknowledge the deprivation of freedom, or to give information on the fate or whereabouts, of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the refusal occurs with the authorisation, support or acquiescence of the government of the country or the political organisation; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the refusal was preceded or accompanied by the deprivation of freedom; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator intends that the person or persons be removed from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time; and

                     (g)  the arrest, detention or abduction occurred, and the refusal occurs, as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population; and

                     (h)  the perpetrator knows that the refusal is part of, or intends the refusal to be part of, such an attack.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.22  Crime against humanity—apartheid

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator commits against one or more persons an act that is a proscribed inhumane act (as defined by the Dictionary) or an act that is of a nature and gravity similar to any such proscribed inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish the character of the act; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator intends to maintain the regime by the conduct; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.23  Crime against humanity—other inhumane act

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health, by means of an inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the act is of a character similar to another proscribed inhumane act as defined by the Dictionary; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed intentionally or knowingly as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.24  War crime—wilful killing

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.25  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.26  War crime—inhumane treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.27  War crime—biological experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a particular biological experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health or integrity of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.28  War crime—wilfully causing great suffering

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes great physical or mental pain or suffering to, or serious injury to body or health of, one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.29  War crime—destruction and appropriation of property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or appropriates property; and

                     (b)  the destruction or appropriation is not justified by military necessity; and

                     (c)  the destruction or appropriation is extensive and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; and

                     (d)  the property is protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

268.30  War crime—compelling service in hostile forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons, by act or threat:

                              (i)  to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; or

                             (ii)  otherwise to serve in the forces of an adverse power; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.31  War crime—denying a fair trial

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of a fair and regular trial by denying to the person any of the judicial guarantees referred to in paragraph (b); and

                     (b)  the judicial guarantees are those defined in articles 84, 99 and 105 of the Third Geneva Convention and articles 66 and 71 of the Fourth Geneva Convention; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to:

                     (a)  the physical element of the offence referred to in paragraph (1)(a) that the judicial guarantees are those referred to in paragraph (1)(b); and

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b) and (c).

268.32  War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully deports or transfers one or more persons to another country or to another location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.33  War crime—unlawful confinement

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines or continues to confine one or more persons to a certain location; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.34  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are protected under one or more of the Geneva Conventions or under Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are so protected; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(d).

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict

268.35  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.36  War crime—attacking civilian objects

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is not a military objective; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.37  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.38  War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause incidental death or injury to civilians; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the death or injury will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause:

                              (i)  damage to civilian objects; or

                             (ii)  widespread, long‑term and severe damage to the natural environment; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the damage will be of such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.39  War crime—attacking undefended places

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks or bombards one or more towns, villages, dwellings or buildings; and

                     (b)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and

                     (c)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings do not constitute military objectives; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.40  War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator kills one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator injures one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the person or persons are hors de combat; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.41  War crime—improper use of a flag of truce

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag of truce; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag in order to feign an intention to negotiate when there is no such intention on the part of the perpetrator; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.42  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform while engaged in an attack or in order to shield, favour, protect or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.43  War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator uses the flag, insignia or uniform without the authority of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use of the flag, insignia or uniform; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.44  War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses an emblem; and

                     (b)  the emblem is one of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator uses the emblem for combatant purposes to invite the confidence of an adversary in order to lead him or her to believe that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the adversary is obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator, with intent to betray that confidence; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the illegal nature of such use; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct results in death or serious personal injury; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In this section:

emblem means any emblem, identity card, sign, signal, insignia or uniform.

268.45  War crime—transfer of population

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator:

                              (i)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the transfer, directly or indirectly, of parts of the civilian population of the perpetrator’s own country into territory that the country occupies; or

                             (ii)  authorises, organises or directs, or participates in the authorisation, organisation or direction of, or participates in, the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of territory occupied by the perpetrator’s own country within or outside that territory; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.46  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.47  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.48  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.49  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.50  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.51  War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 18 of the Third Geneva Convention, article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention or article 54 of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.52  War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator effects the abolition, suspension or termination of admissibility in a court of law of certain rights or actions; and

                     (b)  the abolition, suspension or termination is directed at the nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.53  War crime—compelling participation in military operations

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator coerces one or more persons by act or threat to take part in military operations against that person’s or those persons’ own country or forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are nationals of an adverse party; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  It is not a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) that the person or persons were in the service of the perpetrator at a time before the beginning of the international armed conflict.

268.54  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

268.55  War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a substance or employs a weapon that releases a substance as a result of its employment; and

                     (b)  the substance is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.56  War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs a gas or other analogous substance or device; and

                     (b)  the gas, substance or device is such that it causes death or serious damage to health in the ordinary course of events through its asphyxiating or toxic properties; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.57  War crime—employing prohibited bullets

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator employs certain bullets; and

                     (b)  the bullets are such that their use violates the Hague Declaration because they expand or flatten easily in the human body; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the nature of the bullets is such that their employment will uselessly aggravate suffering or the wounding effect; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.58  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of the body or bodies of one or more dead persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.59  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows about, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.60  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.61  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.62  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.63  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.64  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.59 to 268.63; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.65  War crime—using protected persons as shields

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses the presence of one or more civilians, prisoners of war, military, medical or religious personnel or persons who are hors de combat; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends the perpetrator’s conduct to render a military objective immune from attack or to shield, favour or impede military operations; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:

                     (a)  if the conduct results in the death of any of the persons referred to in paragraph (a)—imprisonment for life; or

                     (b)  otherwise—imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  In this section:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.66  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.67  War crime—starvation as a method of warfare

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses as a method of warfare:

                              (i)  any intentional deprivation of civilians of objects indispensable to their survival; or

                             (ii)  without limiting subparagraph (i)—the wilful impeding of relief supplies for civilians; and

                     (b)  if subparagraph (a)(ii) applies—the relief supplies are provided for under the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

268.68  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.69  Definition of religious personnel

                   In this Subdivision:

religious personnel includes non‑confessional, non‑combatant military personnel carrying out a similar function to religious personnel.

268.70  War crime—murder

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes the death of one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.71  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.72  War crime—cruel treatment

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.73  War crime—torture

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator inflicts severe physical or mental pain or suffering upon one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator inflicts the pain or suffering for the purpose of:

                              (i)  obtaining information or a confession; or

                             (ii)  a punishment, intimidation or coercion; or

                            (iii)  a reason based on discrimination of any kind; and

                     (c)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.74  War crime—outrages upon personal dignity

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator severely humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of one or more persons (whether or not the person or persons are alive); and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to a person or persons who:

                     (a)  are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  are civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities; or

                     (c)  are dead.

268.75  War crime—taking hostages

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator seizes, detains or otherwise holds hostage one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator threatens to kill, injure or continue to detain the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends to compel the government of a country, an international organisation or a person or group of persons to act or refrain from acting as an explicit or implicit condition for either the safety or the release of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

268.76  War crime—sentencing or execution without due process

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator passes a sentence on one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator executes one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances establishing that the person or persons are not taking an active part in the hostilities; and

                     (d)  either of the following applies:

                              (i)  there was no previous judgment pronounced by a court;

                             (ii)  the court that rendered judgment did not afford the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality or other judicial guarantees; and

                     (e)  if the court did not afford other judicial guarantees—those guarantees are guarantees set out in articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Covenant; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator knows of:

                              (i)  if subparagraph (d)(i) applies—the absence of a previous judgment; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (d)(ii) applies—the failure to afford the relevant guarantees and the fact that they are indispensable to a fair trial; and

                     (g)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(e) and (2)(e).

             (4)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) or (2) to a person or persons who are not taking an active part in the hostilities includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a person or persons who are hors de combat; or

                     (b)  civilians, medical personnel or religious personnel who are not taking an active part in the hostilities.

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict

268.77  War crime—attacking civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is a civilian population as such or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.78  War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more persons; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the persons so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more buildings, medical units or transports or other objects; and

                     (b)  the buildings, units or transports or other objects are using, in conformity with the Geneva Conventions or the Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, any of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator intends the buildings, units or transports or other objects so using such an emblem to be the object of the attack; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(b) and (2)(b).

268.79  War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and

                     (c)  the installations, material, units or vehicles are entitled to the protection given to civilian objects under the Geneva Conventions and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (2)(c).

268.80  War crime—attacking protected objects

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not military objectives:

                              (i)  buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes;

                             (ii)  historic monuments;

                            (iii)  hospitals or places where the sick and wounded are collected; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  The definitions of charitable purpose in subsection 12(1) of the Charities Act 2013 and section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 do not apply to this section.

268.81  War crime—pillaging

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator appropriates certain property; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to deprive the owner of the property and to appropriate it for private or personal use; and

                     (c)  the appropriation is without the consent of the owner; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

268.82  War crime—rape

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator sexually penetrates another person without the consent of that person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to sexually penetrate the perpetrator without the consent of the other person; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the lack of consent; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (3)  In this section:

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In this section:

sexually penetrate means:

                     (a)  penetrate (to any extent) the genitalia or anus of a person by any part of the body of another person or by any object manipulated by that other person; or

                     (b)  penetrate (to any extent) the mouth of a person by the penis of another person; or

                     (c)  continue to sexually penetrate as defined in paragraph (a) or (b).

             (5)  In this section, being reckless as to a lack of consent to sexual penetration includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to sexual penetration.

             (6)  In this section, the genitalia or other parts of the body of a person include surgically constructed genitalia or other parts of the body of the person.

268.83  War crime—sexual slavery

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual slavery; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual slavery; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, sexual slavery is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:

                     (a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services; or

                     (b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.

             (3)  In this section:

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of force; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.

268.84  War crime—enforced prostitution

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator causes one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends that he or she, or another person, will obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for, or in connection with, the acts of a sexual nature; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (3)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.85  War crime—forced pregnancy

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator unlawfully confines one or more women forcibly made pregnant; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator intends to affect the ethnic composition of any population or to destroy, wholly or partly, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

forcibly made pregnant includes made pregnant by a consent that was affected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, this section does not affect any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.86  War crime—enforced sterilisation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator deprives one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity; and

                     (b)  the deprivation is not effected by a birth‑control measure that has a non‑permanent effect in practice; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out with the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent does not include consent effected by deception or by natural, induced or age‑related incapacity.

268.87  War crime—sexual violence

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator does either of the following:

                              (i)  commits an act or acts of a sexual nature against one or more persons;

                             (ii)  causes one or more persons to engage in an act or acts of a sexual nature;

                            without the consent of the person or persons, including by being reckless as to whether there is consent; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct is of a gravity comparable to the offences referred to in sections 268.82 to 268.87; and

                     (c)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(b).

             (3)  In subsection (1):

consent means free and voluntary agreement.

The following are examples of circumstances in which a person does not consent to an act:

(a)    the person submits to the act because of force or the fear of force to the person or to someone else;

(b)    the person submits to the act because the person is unlawfully detained;

(c)    the person is asleep or unconscious, or is so affected by alcohol or another drug as to be incapable of consenting;

(d)    the person is incapable of understanding the essential nature of the act;

(e)    the person is mistaken about the essential nature of the act (for example, the person mistakenly believes that the act is for medical or hygienic purposes);

(f)    the person submits to the act because of psychological oppression or abuse of power;

(g)    the person submits to the act because of the perpetrator taking advantage of a coercive environment.

threat of force or coercion includes:

                     (a)  a threat of force or coercion such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against the person or another person; or

                     (b)  taking advantage of a coercive environment.

             (4)  In subsection (1), being reckless as to whether there is consent to one or more acts of a sexual nature includes not giving any thought to whether or not the person is consenting to the act or acts of a sexual nature.

268.88  War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children

National armed forces

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (3)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 15 years; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

Other armed forces and groups

             (4)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator uses one or more persons to participate actively in hostilities other than as members of the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (5)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator conscripts one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years.

             (6)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator enlists one or more persons into an armed force or group other than the national armed forces; and

                     (b)  the person or persons are under the age of 18 years; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.89  War crime—displacing civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator orders a displacement of a civilian population; and

                     (b)  the order is not justified by the security of the civilians involved or by imperative military necessity; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.90  War crime—treacherously killing or injuring

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator kills the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in killing the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator invites the confidence or belief of one or more persons that the perpetrator is entitled to protection, or that the person or persons are obliged to accord protection to the perpetrator; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator injures the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator makes use of that confidence or belief in injuring the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons belong to an adverse party; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.91  War crime—denying quarter

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator declares or orders that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (b)  the declaration or order is given with the intention of threatening an adversary or conducting hostilities on the basis that there are to be no survivors; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator is in a position of effective command or control over the subordinate forces to which the declaration or order is directed; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.92  War crime—mutilation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to mutilation, such as by permanently disfiguring, or permanently disabling or removing organs or appendages of, the person or persons; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator’s conduct seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.93  War crime—medical or scientific experiments

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment causes the death of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

             (2)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical or scientific experiment; and

                     (b)  the experiment seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is neither justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the person or persons nor carried out in the interest or interests of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the person or persons are in the power of another party to the conflict; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty for a contravention of this subsection: Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.94  War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator destroys or seizes certain property; and

                     (b)  the property is property of an adversary; and

                     (c)  the property is protected from the destruction or seizure under article 14 of Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless as to, the factual circumstances that establish that the property is so protected; and

                     (e)  the destruction or seizure is not justified by military necessity; and

                      (f)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 15 years

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

268.95  War crime—medical procedure

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator subjects one or more persons to a medical procedure; and

                     (b)  the procedure seriously endangers the physical or mental health, or the integrity, of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is not justified by the state of health of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator knows that, or is reckless as to whether, the conduct is consistent with generally accepted medical standards that would be applied under similar medical circumstances to persons who are of the same nationality as the perpetrator and are in no way deprived of liberty; and

                     (e)  the person or persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, the country of the perpetrator as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                      (f)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

268.96  War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator removes from one or more persons blood, tissue or organs for transplantation; and

                     (b)  in the case of the removal of blood—the removal:

                              (i)  is not for transfusion; or

                             (ii)  is for transfusion without the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (c)  in the case of the removal of skin—the removal:

                              (i)  is not for grafting; or

                             (ii)  is for grafting without the consent of the person or persons; and

                     (d)  the intent of the removal is non‑therapeutic; and

                     (e)  the removal is not carried out under conditions consistent with generally accepted medical standards and controls designed for the benefit of the person or persons and of the recipient; and

                      (f)  the person or persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, an adverse party as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                     (g)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  In subsection (1):

consent means consent given voluntarily and without any coercion or inducement.

268.97  War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator launches an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces; and

                     (b)  the attack is such that it will cause loss of life, injury to civilians, or damage to civilian objects, to such an extent as to be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator knows that the attack will cause loss of life, injury to civilians, or damage to civilian objects, to such an extent; and

                     (d)  the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and

                     (e)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.98  War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator attacks one or more towns, villages, dwellings, buildings or demilitarized zones; and

                     (b)  the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and

                     (c)  the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for life.

268.99  War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians

             (1)  A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  one or more persons are in the power of, or are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty by, an adverse party as a result of an international armed conflict; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator unjustifiably delays the repatriation of the person or persons to the person’s own country or the persons’ own countries; and

                     (c)  the delay is in violation of Part IV of the Third Geneva Convention or Chapter XII of Section IV of Part III of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (1)(c).

268.100  War crime—apartheid

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator commits against one or more persons an act that is a proscribed inhumane act or is of a nature and gravity similar to any proscribed inhumane act; and

                     (b)  the perpetrator knows of, or is reckless at to, the factual circumstances that establish the character of the act; and

                     (c)  the perpetrator’s conduct is committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups; and

                     (d)  the perpetrator intends to maintain the regime by the conduct; and

                     (e)  the conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

268.101  War crime—attacking protected objects

                   A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the perpetrator directs an attack; and

                     (b)  the object of the attack is any one or more of the following that are not used in support of the military effort and are not located in the immediate proximity of military objectives:

                              (i)  clearly recognised historic monuments;

                             (ii)  works of art;

                            (iii)  places of worship; and

                     (c)  the monuments, works of art and places of worship constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and have been given special protection by special arrangement (for example, within the framework of a competent international organisation); and

                     (d)  the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court

268.102  Perjury

             (1)  A person commits the offence of perjury if:

                     (a)  the person makes a sworn statement in or for the purposes of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; and

                     (b)  the statement is false.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  A person who is an interpreter commits the offence of perjury if:

                     (a)  the person, by a sworn statement, gives an interpretation of a statement or other thing in or for the purposes of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; and

                     (b)  the interpretation is false or misleading.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

268.103  Falsifying evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person makes false evidence with the intention of:

                     (a)  influencing a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  influencing the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person:

                     (a)  uses evidence that is false evidence and that the person believes is false evidence; and

                     (b)  is reckless as to whether or not the use of the evidence could:

                              (i)  influence a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                             (ii)  influence the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, making evidence includes altering evidence, but does not include perjury.

268.104  Destroying or concealing evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person destroys or conceals evidence with the intention of:

                     (a)  influencing a decision on the institution of a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  influencing the outcome of such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, destroying evidence includes making the evidence illegible, indecipherable or otherwise incapable of being identified.

268.105  Deceiving witnesses

                   A person commits an offence if the person deceives another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  give false evidence in a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.106  Corrupting witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person provides, or offers or promises to provide, a benefit to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person asks for, or receives or agrees to receive, a benefit for himself, herself or another person with the intention that he, she or another person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (3)  A person commits an offence if the person provides, or offers or promises to provide, a benefit to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as an interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give a false or misleading interpretation as an interpreter at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.107  Threatening witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as a witness at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give false evidence at such a proceeding; or

                     (c)  withhold true evidence at such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person with the intention that the other person or a third person will:

                     (a)  not attend as an interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court; or

                     (b)  give a false or misleading interpretation as an interpreter in such a proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 7 years.

268.108  Preventing witnesses or interpreters

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally prevents another person from attending as a witness or interpreter at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  This section does not apply to conduct that constitutes an offence against section 268.105, 268.106, 268.107, 268.109 or 268.110.

268.109  Preventing production of things in evidence

                   A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally prevents another person from producing in evidence at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court a thing that is legally required to be produced.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.110  Reprisals against witnesses

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who was a witness in a proceeding before the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by the other person in or for the purposes of the proceeding; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the other person was a witness who had done that thing.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) that:

                     (a)  the detriment to the witness was not (apart from this section) an offence; and

                     (b)  the witness committed perjury in the proceeding before the International Criminal Court.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (2). See subsection 13.3(3).

             (3)  In this section:

witness includes:

                     (a)  a person who attends at a proceeding before the International Criminal Court as a witness but is not called as a witness; or

                     (b)  an interpreter.

268.111  Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who is an official of the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by the other person; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the other person was an official of that Court who had done that thing for the purposes of a proceeding before that Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  A person commits an offence if the person causes or threatens to cause any detriment to another person who is an official of the International Criminal Court:

                     (a)  because of anything done by a third person who is an official of that Court; and

                     (b)  in the belief that the third person was an official of that Court who had done that thing for the purposes of a proceeding before that Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

268.112  Perverting the course of justice

             (1)  A person commits an offence if the person, by his or her conduct, intentionally perverts the course of justice in respect of the International Criminal Court.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  This section does not apply to conduct that constitutes the publication of any matter.

             (3)  In this section:

perverts includes obstructs, prevents or defeats.

268.113  Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court

             (1)  A person who is an official of the International Criminal Court commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  asks for a benefit for himself, herself or another person; or

                             (ii)  receives or obtains a benefit for himself, herself or another person; or

                            (iii)  agrees to receive or obtain a benefit for himself, herself or another person; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention that the exercise of the person’s duties as an official of the International Criminal Court will be influenced.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), it is immaterial whether the benefit is in the nature of a reward.

268.114  Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct

             (1)  This Subdivision does not apply to a person in respect of:

                     (a)  conduct that results in a failure or refusal to issue a certificate under section 22 or 29 of the International Criminal Court Act 2002; or

                     (b)  a failure or refusal to issue such a certificate; or

                     (c)  conduct engaged in reliance on the absence of such a certificate.

             (2)  In this section:

conduct includes any one or more acts or omissions.

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous

268.115  Responsibility of commanders and other superiors

             (1)  The criminal responsibility imposed by this section is in addition to other grounds of criminal responsibility under the law in force in Australia for acts or omissions that are offences under this Division.

             (2)  A military commander or person effectively acting as a military commander is criminally responsible for offences under this Division committed by forces under his or her effective command and control, or effective authority and control, as the case may be, as a result of his or her failure to exercise control properly over those forces, where:

                     (a)  the military commander or person either knew or, owing to the circumstances at the time, was reckless as to whether the forces were committing or about to commit such offences; and

                     (b)  the military commander or person failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or repress their commission or to submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution.

             (3)  With respect to superior and subordinate relationships not described in subsection (2), a superior is criminally responsible for offences against this Division committed by subordinates under his or her effective authority and control, as a result of his or her failure to exercise control properly over those subordinates, where:

                     (a)  the superior either knew, or consciously disregarded information that clearly indicated, that the subordinates were committing or about to commit such offences; and

                     (b)  the offences concerned activities that were within the effective responsibility and control of the superior; and

                     (c)  the superior failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or repress their commission or to submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution.

268.116  Defence of superior orders

             (1)  The fact that genocide or a crime against humanity has been committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian, does not relieve the person of criminal responsibility.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (3), the fact that a war crime has been committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian, does not relieve the person of criminal responsibility.

             (3)  It is a defence to a war crime that:

                     (a)  the war crime was committed by a person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or civilian; and

                     (b)  the person was under a legal obligation to obey the order; and

                     (c)  the person did not know that the order was unlawful; and

                     (d)  the order was not manifestly unlawful.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in establishing the elements in subsection (3). See subsection 13.3(3).

268.117  Geographical jurisdiction

             (1)  Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—Category D) applies to genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

             (2)  Section 15.3 (extended geographical jurisdiction—Category C) applies to crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court.

268.118  Double jeopardy

                   A person cannot be tried by a federal court or a court of a State or Territory for an offence under this Division if the person has already been convicted or acquitted by the International Criminal Court for an offence constituted by substantially the same conduct as constituted the offence under this Division.

268.119  Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court

             (1)  A person must not:

                     (a)  intentionally contravene an order that the International Criminal Court makes while sitting in Australia; or

                     (b)  otherwise intentionally hinder the International Criminal Court in performing its functions while sitting in Australia.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  In this section:

Australia includes all the external Territories.

268.120  Saving of other laws

                   This Division is not intended to exclude or limit any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

268.121  Bringing proceedings under this Division

             (1)  Proceedings for an offence under this Division must not be commenced without the Attorney‑General’s written consent.

             (2)  An offence against this Division may only be prosecuted in the name of the Attorney‑General.

             (3)  However, a person may be arrested, charged, remanded in custody, or released on bail, in connection with an offence under this Division before the necessary consent has been given.

268.122  Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final

             (1)  Subject to any jurisdiction of the High Court under the Constitution, a decision by the Attorney‑General to give, or to refuse to give, a consent under section 268.121:

                     (a)  is final; and

                     (b)  must not be challenged, appealed against, reviewed, quashed or called in question; and

                     (c)  is not subject to prohibition, mandamus, injunction, declaration or certiorari.

             (2)  The reference in subsection (1) to a decision includes a reference to the following:

                     (a)  a decision to vary, suspend, cancel or revoke a consent that has been given;

                     (b)  a decision to impose a condition or restriction in connection with the giving of, or a refusal to give, a consent or to remove a condition or restriction so imposed;

                     (c)  a decision to do anything preparatory to the making of a decision to give, or to refuse to give, a consent or preparatory to the making of a decision referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), including a decision for the taking of evidence or the holding of an inquiry or investigation;

                     (d)  a decision doing or refusing to do anything else in connection with a decision to give, or to refuse to give, a consent or a decision referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c);

                     (e)  a failure or refusal to make a decision whether or not to give a consent or a decision referred to in a paragraph (a), (b), (c) or (d).

             (3)  Any jurisdiction of the High Court referred to in subsection (1) is exclusive of the jurisdiction of any other court.

268.123  Legal representation

                   The provisions of section 12 (other than subsection 12(2)) of the Geneva Conventions Act 1957 apply in relation to the trial of a person for an offence against this Division in the same way as they apply in relation to the trial of a protected prisoner of war.

268.124  Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions

                   If, in proceedings under this Division in respect of a grave breach of any of the Geneva Conventions or of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, a question arises under:

                     (a)  Article 2 of the Geneva Convention concerned (which relates to the circumstances in which the Convention applies); or

                     (b)  Article 1 of that Protocol (which relates to the circumstances in which the Protocol applies);

a certificate signed by the Minister responsible for legislation relating to foreign affairs certifying to any matter relevant to that question is prima facie evidence of the matter so certified.

Division 270Slavery and slavery‑like conditions

Subdivision A—Preliminary

270.1A  Definitions for Division 270

                   In this Division:

coercion includes coercion by any of the following:

                     (a)  force;

                     (b)  duress;

                     (c)  detention;

                     (d)  psychological oppression;

                     (e)  abuse of power;

                      (f)  taking advantage of a person’s vulnerability.

conducting a business includes:

                     (a)  taking any part in the management of the business; and

                     (b)  exercising control or direction over the business; and

                     (c)  providing finance for the business.

deceive has the same meaning as in Division 271 (see section 271.1).

Note:          Deception has a corresponding meaning (see section 18A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

forced labour has the meaning given by section 270.6.

forced marriage has the meaning given by section 270.7A.

servitude has the meaning given by section 270.4.

slavery has the meaning given by section 270.1.

slavery‑like offence means an offence against any of the following provisions:

                     (a)  section 270.5 (servitude offences);

                     (b)  section 270.6A (forced labour offences);

                     (c)  section 270.7 (deceptive recruiting for labour or services);

                     (d)  section 270.7B (forced marriage offences).

threat means:

                     (a)  a threat of coercion; or

                     (b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation or removal from Australia; or

                     (c)  a threat of any other detrimental action, unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of labour or services by a person.

Note:          Threat includes a threat made by any conduct, whether express or implied and whether conditional or unconditional (see the definition in the Dictionary).

Subdivision B—Slavery

270.1  Definition of slavery

                   For the purposes of this Division, slavery is the condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised, including where such a condition results from a debt or contract made by the person.

270.2  Slavery is unlawful

                   Slavery remains unlawful and its abolition is maintained, despite the repeal by the Criminal Code Amendment (Slavery and Sexual Servitude) Act 1999 of Imperial Acts relating to slavery.

270.3  Slavery offences

             (1)  A person who, whether within or outside Australia, intentionally:

                    (aa)  reduces a person to slavery; or

                     (a)  possesses a slave or exercises over a slave any of the other powers attaching to the right of ownership; or

                     (b)  engages in slave trading; or

                     (c)  enters into any commercial transaction involving a slave; or

                     (d)  exercises control or direction over, or provides finance for:

                              (i)  any act of slave trading; or

                             (ii)  any commercial transaction involving a slave;

is guilty of an offence.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person who:

                     (a)  whether within or outside Australia:

                              (i)  enters into any commercial transaction involving a slave; or

                             (ii)  exercises control or direction over, or provides finance for, any commercial transaction involving a slave; or

                            (iii)  exercises control or direction over, or provides finance for, any act of slave trading; and

                     (b)  is reckless as to whether the transaction or act involves a slave, slavery, slave trading or the reduction of a person to slavery;

is guilty of an offence.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 17 years.

             (3)  In this section:

commercial transaction involving a slave includes a commercial transaction by which a person is reduced to slavery.

slave trading includes:

                     (a)  the capture, transport or disposal of a person with the intention of reducing the person to slavery; or

                     (b)  the purchase or sale of a slave.

             (4)  A person who engages in any conduct with the intention of securing the release of a person from slavery is not guilty of an offence against this section.

             (5)  The defendant bears a legal burden of proving the matter mentioned in subsection (4).

270.3A  Slavery offences—geographical jurisdiction

                   Section 15.4 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category D) applies to an offence against section 270.3.

270.3B  Prosecutions

             (1)  Proceedings for an offence against section 270.3, where the conduct constituting the alleged offence occurs wholly outside Australia, must not take place except with the consent in writing of the Attorney‑General.

             (2)  Even though a consent in accordance with subsection (1) has not been given in relation to an offence against section 270.3:

                     (a)  a person may be arrested for the offence, and a warrant for the arrest of a person for the offence may be issued and executed; and

                     (b)  a person may be charged with the offence; and

                     (c)  a person so charged may be remanded in custody or on bail;

but no further step in proceedings referred to in subsection (1) is to be taken until such a consent has been given.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not prevent the discharge of the accused if proceedings are not continued within a reasonable time.

Subdivision C—Slavery‑like conditions

270.4  Definition of servitude

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, servitude is the condition of a person (the victim) who provides labour or services, if, because of the use of coercion, threat or deception:

                     (a)  a reasonable person in the position of the victim would not consider himself or herself to be free:

                              (i)  to cease providing the labour or services; or

                             (ii)  to leave the place or area where the victim provides the labour or services; and

                     (b)  the victim is significantly deprived of personal freedom in respect of aspects of his or her life other than the provision of the labour or services.

             (2)  Subsection (1) applies whether the coercion, threat or deception is used against the victim or another person.

             (3)  The victim may be in a condition of servitude whether or not:

                     (a)  escape from the condition is practically possible for the victim; or

                     (b)  the victim has attempted to escape from the condition.

270.5  Servitude offences

Causing a person to enter into or remain in servitude

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct causes another person to enter into or remain in servitude.

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 20 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 15 years.

Conducting a business involving servitude

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person conducts any business; and

                     (b)  the business involves the servitude of another person (or persons).

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 20 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 15 years.

Alternative verdict of forced labour

             (3)  Subsection (4) applies if, in a prosecution for an offence (the servitude offence) against a provision listed in column 1 of the following table, the trier of fact:

                     (a)  is not satisfied that the defendant is guilty of that offence; but

                     (b)  is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty of an offence (the forced labour offence) against the corresponding provision listed in column 2 of the table.

 

Servitude and forced labour offences

Item

Column 1

Servitude offences

Column 2

Forced labour offences

1

Subsection (1) of this section

Subsection 270.6A(1)

2

Subsection (2) of this section

Subsection 270.6A(2)

             (4)  The trier of fact may find the defendant not guilty of the servitude offence, but guilty of the forced labour offence, so long as the defendant has been afforded procedural fairness in relation to that finding of guilt.

270.6  Definition of forced labour

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, forced labour is the condition of a person (the victim) who provides labour or services if, because of the use of coercion, threat or deception, a reasonable person in the position of the victim would not consider himself or herself to be free:

                     (a)  to cease providing the labour or services; or

                     (b)  to leave the place or area where the victim provides the labour or services.

             (2)  Subsection (1) applies whether the coercion, threat or deception is used against the victim or another person.

             (3)  The victim may be in a condition of forced labour whether or not:

                     (a)  escape from the condition is practically possible for the victim; or

                     (b)  the victim has attempted to escape from the condition.

270.6A  Forced labour offences

Causing a person to enter into or remain in forced labour

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct causes another person to enter into or remain in forced labour.

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 12 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 9 years.

Conducting a business involving forced labour

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person conducts any business; and

                     (b)  the business involves the forced labour of another person (or persons).

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 12 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 9 years.

Note:          On a trial for an offence against section 270.5 (servitude offences), the trier of fact may find a defendant not guilty of that offence but guilty of the corresponding offence under this section (see subsections 270.5(3) and (4)).

270.7  Deceptive recruiting for labour or services

                   A person (the recruiter) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the recruiter engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the recruiter engages in the conduct with the intention of inducing another person (the victim) to enter into an engagement to provide labour or services; and

                     (c)  the conduct causes the victim to be deceived about:

                              (i)  the extent to which the victim will be free to leave the place or area where the victim provides the labour or services; or

                             (ii)  the extent to which the victim will be free to cease providing the labour or services; or

                            (iii)  the extent to which the victim will be free to leave his or her place of residence; or

                            (iv)  if there is or will be a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the victim in connection with the engagement—the quantum, or the existence, of the debt owed or claimed to be owed; or

                             (v)  the fact that the engagement will involve exploitation, or the confiscation of the victim’s travel or identity documents; or

                            (vi)  if the engagement is to involve the provision of sexual services—that fact, or the nature of sexual services to be provided (for example, whether those services will require the victim to have unprotected sex).

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 9 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 7 years.

270.7A  Definition of forced marriage

             (1)  A marriage is a forced marriage if one party to the marriage (the victim) entered into the marriage without freely and fully consenting:

                     (a)  because of the use of coercion, threat or deception; or

                     (b)  because the party was incapable of understanding the nature and effect of the marriage ceremony.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), marriage includes the following:

                     (a)  a registered relationship within the meaning of section 2E of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901;

                     (b)  a marriage recognised under a law of a foreign country;

                     (c)  a relationship registered (however that process is described) under a law of a foreign country, if the relationship is of the same, or a similar, type as any registered relationship within the meaning of section 2E of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901;

                     (d)  a marriage (including a relationship or marriage mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c)) that is void, invalid, or not recognised by law, for any reason, including the following:

                              (i)  a party to the marriage has not freely or fully consented to the marriage (for example, because of natural, induced or age‑related incapacity);

                             (ii)  a party to the marriage is married (within the meaning of this subsection) to more than one person.

Note:          Section 2E of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 covers relationships registered under a law of a State or Territory that are prescribed by regulations under that Act.

             (3)  Paragraph (1)(a) applies whether the coercion, threat or deception is used against the victim or another person.

             (4)  For the purposes of proving an offence against this Division or Division 271, a person under 16 years of age is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, to be incapable of understanding the nature and effect of a marriage ceremony.

Note:          A defendant bears a legal burden in relation to proving the contrary (see section 13.4).

270.7B  Forced marriage offences

Causing a person to enter into a forced marriage

             (1)  A person (the first person) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person engages in conduct; and

                     (b)  the conduct causes another person to enter into a forced marriage as the victim of the marriage.

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 9 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 7 years.

Being a party to a forced marriage

             (2)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is a party to a marriage (within the meaning of section 270.7A); and

                     (b)  the marriage is a forced marriage; and

                     (c)  the person is not a victim of the forced marriage.

Penalty:

                     (a)  in the case of an aggravated offence (see section 270.8)—imprisonment for 9 years; or

                     (b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 7 years.

             (3)  Strict liability applies to paragraph (2)(c).

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1.

             (4)  Subsection (2) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (4) (see subsection 13.3(3)).

270.8  Slavery‑like offences—aggravated offences

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, a slavery‑like offence committed by a person (the offender) against another person (the victim) is an aggravated offence if any of the following applies:

                     (a)  the victim is under 18;

                     (b)  the offender, in committing the offence, subjects the victim to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment;

                     (c)  the offender, in committing the offence:

                              (i)  engages in conduct that gives rise to a danger of death or serious harm to the victim or another person; and

                             (ii)  is reckless as to that danger.

             (2)  If the prosecution intends to prove an aggravated offence, the charge must allege the relevant aggravated offence.

             (3)  If, on a trial for an aggravated offence, the trier of fact is not satisfied that the defendant is guilty of the aggravated offence, but is otherwise satisfied that the defendant is guilty of the corresponding slavery‑like offence, it may find the defendant not guilty of the aggravated offence, but guilty of the corresponding slavery‑like offence.

             (4)  Subsection (3) only applies if the defendant has been afforded procedural fairness in relation to the finding of guilt for the corresponding slavery‑like offence.

270.9  Slavery‑like offences—jurisdictional requirement

                   Section 15.2 (extended geographical jurisdiction—category B) applies to a slavery‑like offence.

270.10  Slavery‑like offences—relevant evidence

             (1)  For the purposes of proceedings for a slavery‑like offence, the trier of fact may have regard to any of the matters covered by subsection (2) in determining whether a person (the alleged victim) against whom the offence is alleged to have been committed has been coerced, threatened or deceived.

             (2)  The following matters are covered by this subsection:

                     (a)  the economic relationship between the alleged victim and the alleged offender;

                     (b)  the terms of any written or oral contract or agreement between the alleged victim and the alleged offender;

                     (c)  the personal circumstances of the alleged victim, including but not limited to:

                              (i)  whether he or she is entitled to be in Australia under the Migration Act 1958; and

                             (ii)  his or her ability to speak, write and understand English or another language; and

                            (iii)  the extent of his or her social and physical dependence on the alleged offender.

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not:

                     (a)  prevent the leading of any other evidence in the relevant proceedings; or

                     (b)  limit the manner in which evidence may be given or the admissibility of evidence.

Subdivision D—Offences against Division 270: general

270.11  Offences against Division 270—no defence of victim consent or acquiescence

                   To avoid doubt, it is not a defence in a proceeding for an offence against this Division that a person against whom the offence is alleged to have been committed consented to, or acquiesced in, conduct constituting any element of the offence.

270.12  Offences against Division 270—other laws not excluded

             (1)  This Division is not intended to exclude or limit the operation of any other law of the Commonwealth or any law of a State or Territory.

Note:          Division 279 (video link evidence) applies to a proceeding for an offence against this Division.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), this Division is not intended to exclude or limit the concurrent operation of any other law of the Commonwealth, or a law of a State or Territory, that makes:

                     (a)  an act or omission that is an offence against a provision of this Division; or

                     (b)  a similar act or omission;

an offence against the law of the Commonwealth, State or Territory.

             (3)  Subsection (2) applies even if the other law of the Commonwealth, or the law of the State or Territory, does any one or more of the following:

                     (a)  provides for a penalty for the offence that differs from the penalty provided for in this Division;

                     (b)  provides for a fault element in relation to the offence that differs from the fault elements applicable to the offence under this Division;

                     (c)  provides for a defence in relation to the offence that differs from the defences applicable to the offence under this Division.

270.13  Offences against Division 270—double jeopardy

                   If a person has been convicted or acquitted in a country outside Australia of an offence against the law of that country in respect of any conduct, the person cannot be convicted of an offence against this Division in respect of that conduct.

Division 271Trafficking in persons and debt bondage

Subdivision A—Definitions

271.1  Definitions

                   In this Division:

coercion has the same meaning as in Division 270 (see section 270.1A).

confiscate, in relation to a person’s travel or identity document, means to take possession of the document, whether permanently or otherwise, to the exclusion of the person, or to destroy the document.

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

deceive means mislead as to fact (including the intention of any person) or as to law, by words or other conduct.

Note:          Deception has a corresponding meaning (see section 18A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

exploitation has the meaning given by section 271.1A.

threat has the same meaning as in Division 270 (see section 270.1A).

271.1A  Definition of exploitation

                   For the purposes of this Division, exploitation, of one person (the victim) by another person, occurs if the other person’s conduct causes the victim to enter into any of the following conditions:

                     (a)  slavery, or a condition similar to slavery;

                     (b)  servitude;

                     (c)  forced labour;

                     (d)  forced marriage;

                     (e)  debt bondage.

Note:          Division 270 (slavery and slavery‑like offences) deals with slavery, servitude, forced labour and forced marriage. Subdivision C of this Division deals with debt bondage.

Subdivision B—Offences relating to trafficking in persons

271.2  Offence of trafficking in persons

             (1)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry, or the receipt, of another person into Australia; and

                     (b)  the first person uses coercion, threat or deception; and

                     (c)  that use of coercion, threat or deception results in the first person obtaining the other person’s compliance in respect of that entry or proposed entry or in respect of that receipt.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (1A)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the exit or proposed exit of another person from Australia; and

                     (b)  the first person uses coercion, threat or deception; and

                     (c)  that use of coercion, threat or deception results in the first person obtaining the other person’s compliance in respect of that exit or proposed exit.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (1B)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry, or the receipt, of another person into Australia; and

                     (b)  in organising or facilitating that entry or proposed entry, or that receipt, the first person is reckless as to whether the other person will be exploited, either by the first person or another, after that entry or receipt.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (1C)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the exit or proposed exit of another person from Australia; and

                     (b)  in organising or facilitating that exit or proposed exit, the first person is reckless as to whether the other person will be exploited, either by the first person or another, after that exit.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

             (2)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry, or the receipt, of another person into Australia; and

                     (b)  the first person deceives the other person about the fact that the other person’s entry or proposed entry, the other person’s receipt or any arrangements for the other person’s stay in Australia, will involve the provision by the other person of sexual services or will involve the other person’s exploitation or the confiscation of the other person’s travel or identity documents.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (2A)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the exit or proposed exit of another person from Australia; and

                     (b)  the first person deceives the other person about the fact that the other person’s exit or proposed exit is for purposes that involve the provision by the other person of sexual services outside Australia or will involve the other person’s exploitation or the confiscation of the other person’s travel or identity documents.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (2B)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry, or the receipt, of another person into Australia; and

                     (b)  there is an arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services in Australia; and

                     (c)  the first person deceives the other person about any of the following:

                              (i)  the nature of the sexual services to be provided;

                             (ii)  the extent to which the other person will be free to leave the place or area where the other person provides sexual services;

                            (iii)  the extent to which the other person will be free to cease providing sexual services;

                            (iv)  the extent to which the other person will be free to leave his or her place of residence;

                             (v)  if there is a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the other person in connection with the arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services—the quantum, or the existence, of the debt owed or claimed to be owed.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

          (2C)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the exit or proposed exit of another person from Australia; and

                     (b)  there is an arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services outside Australia; and

                     (c)  the first person deceives the other person about any of the following:

                              (i)  the nature of the sexual services to be provided;

                             (ii)  the extent to which the other person will be free to leave the place or area where the other person provides sexual services;

                            (iii)  the extent to which the other person will be free to cease providing sexual services;

                            (iv)  the extent to which the other person will be free to leave his or her place of residence;

                             (v)  if there is a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the other person in connection with the arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services—the quantum, or the existence, of the debt owed or claimed to be owed.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 years.

             (3)  Absolute liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c) and (1A)(c).

271.3  Trafficking in persons—aggravated offence

             (1)  A person (the first person) commits an aggravated offence of trafficking in persons if the first person commits the offence of trafficking in persons in relation to another person (the victim) and any of the following applies:

                     (a)  the first person commits the offence intending that the victim will be exploited, either by the first person or another:

                              (i)  if the offence of trafficking in persons is an offence against subsection 271.2(1), (1B), (2) or (2B)—after entry into Australia; or

                             (ii)  if the offence of trafficking in persons is an offence against subsection 271.2(1A), (1C), (2A) or (2C)—after exit from Australia;

                     (b)  the first person, in committing the offence, subjects the victim to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment;

                     (c)  the first person, in committing the offence:

                              (i)  engages in conduct that gives rise to a danger of death or serious harm to the victim or another person; and

                             (ii)  is reckless as to that danger.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 20 years.

             (2)  If, on a trial for an offence against this section, the court, or if the trial is before a jury, the jury, is not satisfied that the defendant is guilty of the aggravated offence, but is satisfied that he or she is guilty of an offence against section 271.2, it may find the defendant not guilty of the aggravated offence but guilty of an offence against that section.

             (3)  Subsection (2) only applies if the defendant has been afforded procedural fairness in relation to the finding of guilt for the offence against section 271.2.

Note:          Section 271.2 provides for offences of trafficking in persons.

271.4  Offence of trafficking in children

             (1)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in children if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry into Australia, or the receipt in Australia, of another person; and

                     (b)  the other person is under the age of 18; and

                     (c)  in organising or facilitating that entry or proposed entry, or that receipt, the first person:

                              (i)  intends that the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that entry or receipt; or

                             (ii)  is reckless as to whether the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that entry or receipt.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

             (2)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of trafficking in children if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the exit or proposed exit from Australia of another person; and

                     (b)  the other person is under the age of 18; and

                     (c)  in organising or facilitating that exit or proposed exit, the first person:

                              (i)  intends that the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that exit; or

                             (ii)  is reckless as to whether the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that exit.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 25 years.

271.5  Offence of domestic trafficking in persons

             (1)  A person (the first person) commits an offence of domestic trafficking in persons if:

                     (a)  the first person organises or facilitates the transportation or proposed transportation of another person from one place in Australia to another place in Australia; and

                     (b)  the first person uses coercion, threat or deception;