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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2014C00727
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Omnibus Repeal Day (Autumn 2014) Act 2014
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Communications; Industry and Science; Infrastructure and Regional Development; Treasury
Registered 30 Oct 2014
Start Date 17 Oct 2014
End Date 31 Dec 2014
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIAB—Application of the finance lawPart IIIAB—Application of the finance law
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligationPart V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

No. 51, 1974 as amended

Compilation start date:                     17 October 2014

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 109, 2014

This compilation has been split into 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–119

Volume 2:       sections 10.01–179

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 as in force on 17 October 2014. It includes any commenced amendment affecting the legislation to that date.

This compilation was prepared on 28 October 2014.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of each amended provision.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not reflected in the text of the compiled law but the text of the amendments is included in the endnotes.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Modifications

If a provision of the compiled law is affected by a modification that is in force, details are included in the endnotes.

Provisions ceasing to have effect

If a provision of the compiled law has expired or otherwise ceased to have effect in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Object of this Act................................................................ 1

2A......................... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities    1

2B.......................... Application of Act to States and Territories........................ 2

2BA....................... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............. 2

2C.......................... Activities that are not business............................................ 3

3............................ Repeal................................................................................. 4

4............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 4

4A......................... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............. 15

4B.......................... Consumers........................................................................ 18

4C.......................... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................... 20

4D......................... Exclusionary provisions................................................... 21

4E.......................... Market.............................................................................. 22

4F.......................... References to purpose or reason....................................... 22

4G......................... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                23

4H......................... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings              23

4J........................... Joint ventures.................................................................... 23

4K.......................... Loss or damage to include injury...................................... 24

4KA....................... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2 24

4L.......................... Severability....................................................................... 24

4M......................... Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence    25

4N......................... Extended application of Part IIIA..................................... 25

5............................ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia  26

6............................ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations     27

6AA...................... Application of the Criminal Code..................................... 34

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     35

6A......................... Establishment of Commission.......................................... 35

7............................ Constitution of Commission............................................. 35

8............................ Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 36

8A......................... Associate members........................................................... 36

8AB....................... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members  38

9............................ Remuneration.................................................................... 38

10.......................... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................ 38

11.......................... Acting Chairperson........................................................... 39

12.......................... Leave of absence............................................................... 40

13.......................... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission.. 40

14.......................... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission    41

15.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 41

16.......................... Arrangement of business.................................................. 41

17.......................... Disclosure of interests by members.................................. 41

18.......................... Meetings of Commission.................................................. 42

19.......................... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions... 43

25.......................... Delegation by Commission............................................... 44

26.......................... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers 45

27.......................... Staff of Commission......................................................... 45

27A....................... Consultants....................................................................... 46

28.......................... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             46

29.......................... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          47

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   49

29A....................... Establishment of Council.................................................. 49

29B........................ Functions and powers of Council..................................... 49

29BA..................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council           50

29BB..................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 50

29BC..................... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........... 51

29C........................ Membership of Council.................................................... 52

29D....................... Terms and conditions of office......................................... 52

29E........................ Acting Council President.................................................. 52

29F........................ Remuneration of Councillors............................................ 53

29G....................... Leave of absence............................................................... 53

29H....................... Termination of appointment of Councillors...................... 53

29I......................... Resignation of Councillors............................................... 54

29J......................... Arrangement of Council business..................................... 54

29K........................ Disclosure of interests by Councillors.............................. 54

29L........................ Council meetings.............................................................. 55

29LA..................... Resolutions without meetings........................................... 55

29M....................... Staff to help Council......................................................... 56

29N....................... Consultants....................................................................... 56

29O....................... Annual report.................................................................... 57

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              58

29P........................ Definition.......................................................................... 58

30.......................... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................... 58

31.......................... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................. 58

31A....................... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc. 59

32.......................... Terms and conditions of appointment............................... 59

33.......................... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.... 59

34.......................... Acting appointments......................................................... 59

35.......................... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............. 61

36.......................... Resignation....................................................................... 62

37.......................... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................. 62

38.......................... Validity of determinations................................................. 62

39.......................... President may give directions........................................... 62

40.......................... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal............... 62

41.......................... Presidential member to preside......................................... 63

42.......................... Decision of questions....................................................... 63

43.......................... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................... 63

43A....................... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................ 64

43B........................ Consultants....................................................................... 64

44.......................... Staff of Tribunal............................................................... 65

44A....................... Acting appointments......................................................... 65

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              66

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            66

44AB..................... Definitions........................................................................ 66

44AC..................... This Part binds the Crown................................................ 66

44AD.................... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................. 66

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              68

44AE..................... Establishment of the AER................................................. 68

44AF..................... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth         68

44AG.................... Constitution of the AER................................................... 68

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             69

44AH.................... Commonwealth functions................................................. 69

44AI...................... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER                69

44AJ...................... How duty is imposed........................................................ 70

44AK..................... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..... 71

44AL..................... Powers of the AER........................................................... 71

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  72

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 72

44AM.................... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................ 72

44AN.................... Membership of AER and Commission............................. 72

44AO.................... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...... 73

44AP..................... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................. 73

44AQ.................... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........ 74

44AR..................... AER Chair........................................................................ 74

44AS..................... Acting AER Chair............................................................ 75

44AT..................... Remuneration of AER members....................................... 75

44AU.................... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................ 75

44AV.................... Leave of absence............................................................... 76

44AW.................... Other terms and conditions............................................... 76

44AX.................... Outside employment......................................................... 76

44AY.................... Disclosure of interests...................................................... 76

44AZ..................... Resignation....................................................................... 77

44AAB.................. Termination of appointment.............................................. 77

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       78

44AAC.................. Staff etc. to assist the AER............................................... 78

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          78

44AAD................. Meetings........................................................................... 78

44AAE.................. Resolutions without meetings........................................... 79

44AAEA............... Arbitration........................................................................ 79

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              80

44AAF.................. Confidentiality.................................................................. 80

44AAG................. Federal Court may make certain orders............................. 81

44AAGA.............. Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs     83

44AAH................. Delegation by the AER..................................................... 83

44AAI................... Fees.................................................................................. 84

44AAJ................... Annual report.................................................................... 84

44AAK.................. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................. 84

Part IIIAB—Application of the finance law                                                       86

44AAL.................. Application of the finance law.......................................... 86

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        87

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            87

44AA.................... Objects of Part.................................................................. 87

44B........................ Definitions........................................................................ 87

44C........................ How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures.. 91

44D....................... Meaning of designated Minister....................................... 92

44DA.................... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  93

44E........................ This Part binds the Crown................................................ 93

Division 2—Declared services                                                                               94

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                           94

44F........................ Person may request recommendation................................ 94

44FA..................... Council may request information...................................... 95

44G....................... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service  96

44GA.................... Time limit for Council recommendations.......................... 97

44GB..................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 99

44GC..................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 101

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                              102

44H....................... Designated Minister may declare a service..................... 102

44HA.................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 104

44I......................... Duration and effect of declaration................................... 105

44J......................... Revocation of declaration................................................ 105

44K........................ Review of declaration..................................................... 106

44KA..................... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration..................... 108

44KB..................... Tribunal may order costs be awarded............................. 109

44L........................ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............... 110

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   112

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      112

44LA..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 112

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          112

44LB..................... Ineligibility recommendation........................................... 112

44LC..................... Council may request information.................................... 114

44LD..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 114

44LE...................... Council may invite public submissions on the application 117

44LF...................... Council must publish its recommendation...................... 118

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 119

44LG..................... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............... 119

44LH..................... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision.... 120

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     121

44LI....................... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................. 121

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  123

44LJ...................... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................... 123

44LK..................... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision        125

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            126

44LL...................... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc. 126

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           128

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                128

44M....................... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        128

44MA.................... Council may request information.................................... 129

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 129

44N....................... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime... 129

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          131

44NA.................... Recommendation by Council.......................................... 131

44NAA................. Council may request information.................................... 132

44NB..................... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................... 132

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            133

44NC..................... Time limit for Council recommendations........................ 133

44NE..................... Council may invite public submissions........................... 136

44NF..................... Publication—Council...................................................... 137

44NG.................... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................... 138

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  139

44O....................... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime           139

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               140

44P........................ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          140

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   141

44PA..................... Approval of competitive tender process.......................... 141

44PAA.................. Commission may request information............................ 142

44PB..................... Report on conduct of tender process............................... 143

44PC..................... Revocation of approval decision..................................... 143

44PD..................... Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 145

44PE...................... Commission may invite public submissions................... 147

44PF...................... Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 148

44PG..................... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................ 149

44PH..................... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................... 150

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              153

44Q....................... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions  153

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         154

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      154

44R........................ Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 154

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              154

44S........................ Notification of access disputes........................................ 154

44T........................ Withdrawal of notifications............................................. 154

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               155

44U....................... Parties to the arbitration.................................................. 155

44V....................... Determination by Commission....................................... 155

44W....................... Restrictions on access determinations............................. 156

44X....................... Matters that the Commission must take into account...... 158

44XA.................... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............ 159

44Y....................... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases... 161

44YA.................... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              161

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      162

44Z........................ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration... 162

44ZA..................... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration.. 162

44ZB..................... Reconstitution of Commission........................................ 162

44ZC..................... Determination of questions............................................. 163

44ZD..................... Hearing to be in private................................................... 163

44ZE...................... Right to representation.................................................... 163

44ZF...................... Procedure of Commission.............................................. 163

44ZG..................... Particular powers of Commission................................... 164

44ZH..................... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................ 165

44ZI....................... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................... 165

44ZJ...................... Failing to answer questions etc....................................... 165

44ZK..................... Intimidation etc............................................................... 166

44ZL...................... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential               166

44ZM.................... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration      167

44ZN..................... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................... 167

44ZNA.................. Joint arbitration hearings................................................. 168

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               169

44ZNB.................. Arbitration reports.......................................................... 169

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        171

44ZO..................... Operation of final determinations.................................... 171

44ZOA.................. Effect and duration of interim determinations................. 173

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             173

44ZP...................... Review by Tribunal........................................................ 173

44ZQ..................... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review 174

44ZR..................... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal                174

44ZS...................... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               175

44ZT...................... Transmission of documents............................................ 176

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    176

44ZU..................... Variation of final determinations..................................... 176

44ZUA.................. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......... 176

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   177

44ZV..................... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......... 177

44ZW.................... Registration of contract................................................... 177

44ZX..................... Review of decision not to register contract..................... 178

44ZY..................... Effect of registration of contract...................................... 179

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  180

44ZZ...................... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...... 180

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       181

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              181

44ZZA................... Access undertakings by providers.................................. 181

44ZZAAA............. Proposed amendments to access undertakings................ 183

44ZZAAB............. Access undertakings containing fixed principles............ 185

44ZZAA................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies..................... 187

44ZZAB................ Commission may rely on industry body consultations... 189

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               190

44ZZBA................ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation            190

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       191

44ZZBB................ Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...... 191

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            193

44ZZBC................ Time limit for Commission decisions............................. 193

44ZZBCA............. Commission may request information............................ 195

44ZZBD................ Commission may invite public submissions................... 195

44ZZBE................. Commission must publish its decisions.......................... 197

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  198

44ZZBF................. Review of decisions........................................................ 198

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            199

44ZZC................... Register of access undertakings and access codes.......... 199

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               201

44ZZCA................ Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 201

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     202

44ZZCB................ Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........... 202

44ZZCBA............. Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.................. 204

44ZZCC................ Overlap between determinations and access undertakings 205

44ZZCD................ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings                205

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          207

44ZZD................... Enforcement of determinations....................................... 207

44ZZE................... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............. 208

44ZZF................... Consent injunctions........................................................ 209

44ZZG................... Interim injunctions.......................................................... 209

44ZZH................... Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........ 209

44ZZI.................... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........ 209

44ZZJ.................... Enforcement of access undertakings............................... 210

44ZZK................... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......... 210

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     211

44ZZL................... Register of determinations.............................................. 211

44ZZM.................. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws................................................................................ 211

44ZZMA............... How duty is imposed...................................................... 212

44ZZMB............... When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......... 213

44ZZN................... Compensation for acquisition of property....................... 213

44ZZNA................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part.. 214

44ZZO................... Conduct by directors, servants or agents........................ 214

44ZZOAAA.......... Information to be given to Tribunal................................ 215

44ZZOAA............. Tribunal only to consider particular material................... 217

44ZZOA................ Time limit for Tribunal decisions.................................... 218

44ZZP................... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................... 221

44ZZQ................... Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers.... 221

44ZZR................... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................ 221

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      223

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   223

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               223

44ZZRA................ Simplified outline............................................................ 223

44ZZRB................ Definitions...................................................................... 223

44ZZRC................ Extended meaning of party............................................. 225

44ZZRD................ Cartel provisions............................................................. 225

44ZZRE................. Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act. 231

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              231

44ZZRF................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 231

44ZZRG................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 232

44ZZRH................ Determining guilt............................................................ 233

44ZZRI.................. Court may make related civil orders................................ 233

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         234

44ZZRJ................. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........ 234

44ZZRK................ Giving effect to a cartel provision................................... 234

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  234

44ZZRL................. Conduct notified............................................................. 234

44ZZRM............... Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation............ 235

44ZZRN................ Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate         235

44ZZRO................ Joint ventures—prosecution........................................... 236

44ZZRP................. Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................... 239

44ZZRQ................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 241

44ZZRR................ Resale price maintenance................................................ 241

44ZZRS................. Exclusive dealing............................................................ 242

44ZZRT................. Dual listed company arrangement................................... 243

44ZZRU................ Acquisition of shares or assets....................................... 243

44ZZRV................ Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding   244

Division 1A—Anti‑competitive disclosure of pricing and other information      245

44ZZS................... Definitions...................................................................... 245

44ZZT................... Goods and services to which this Division applies......... 245

44ZZU................... Provisions affecting whether a corporation has disclosed information to a person  246

44ZZV................... Meaning of private disclosure to competitors................ 247

44ZZW.................. Corporation must not make private disclosure of pricing information etc. to competitors        248

44ZZX................... Corporation must not make disclosure of pricing information etc. for purpose of substantially lessening competition..................................................................... 249

44ZZY................... Exceptions that apply to sections 44ZZW and 44ZZX.... 250

44ZZZ................... Additional exceptions that only apply to section 44ZZW 252

44ZZZA................ Burden of proof.............................................................. 255

44ZZZB................. Mere receipt of information does not constitute being knowingly involved in contravention   255

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               256

45.......................... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            256

45B........................ Covenants affecting competition..................................... 259

45C........................ Covenants in relation to prices........................................ 263

45D....................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage             265

45DA.................... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               266

45DB..................... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................. 267

45DC..................... Involvement and liability of employee organisations...... 267

45DD.................... Situations in which boycotts permitted........................... 269

45E........................ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................... 272

45EA..................... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect 276

45EB..................... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part              276

46.......................... Misuse of market power................................................. 277

46A....................... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          281

46B........................ No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws  283

47.......................... Exclusive dealing............................................................ 283

48.......................... Resale price maintenance................................................ 289

49.......................... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition 290

50.......................... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition            291

50A....................... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................ 293

51.......................... Exceptions...................................................................... 296

51AAA................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 301

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            302

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          302

51ACA.................. Definitions...................................................................... 302

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              304

51AD.................... Contravention of industry codes..................................... 304

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   305

51ADA................. Commission may issue a public warning notice............. 305

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       306

51ADB.................. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc. 306

51ADC.................. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       308

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        310

51ADD................. Commission may require corporation to provide information  310

51ADE.................. Extending periods for complying with notices................ 310

51ADF.................. Compliance with notices................................................. 311

51ADG................. False or misleading information etc................................ 311

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     312

51AE..................... Regulations relating to industry codes............................ 312

51AEA.................. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws........... 312

Part V—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                              313

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          313

60.......................... Simplified outline of this Part......................................... 313

60AA.................... Objects etc...................................................................... 314

60A....................... Definitions...................................................................... 314

60B........................ Regulated goods............................................................. 319

Division 2—Carbon tax price reduction obligation                                 320

60C........................ Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal...... 320

60CA..................... Failure to pass on cost savings—250% penalty.............. 320

60D....................... Notice to entity that is considered to have engaged in price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 322

60E........................ Commission may issue notice to aid prevention of price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal........................................................................................ 323

60F........................ Acquisition of property................................................... 324

Division 2A—Carbon tax removal substantiation notices                    325

60FA..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation notices...................... 325

60FB..................... Extending periods for complying with carbon tax removal substantiation notices   326

60FC..................... Compliance with carbon tax removal substantiation notices 326

Division 2B—Carbon tax removal substantiation statements            328

60FD..................... Carbon tax removal substantiation statements................. 328

Division 2C—Statements for customers                                                         331

60FE...................... Statements for customers................................................ 331

Division 3—Price monitoring in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 333

60G....................... Commission may monitor prices in relation to the carbon tax repeal etc. 333

60H....................... Information‑gathering powers........................................ 335

60J......................... Reporting........................................................................ 337

Division 4—False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices                                                                                                                    338

60K........................ False or misleading representations about the effect of the carbon tax repeal etc. on prices     338

Division 5—Infringement notices                                                                       339

60L........................ Issuing an infringement notice........................................ 339

60M....................... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice........... 340

60N....................... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice.. 341

60P........................ Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice                341

60Q....................... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................. 342

60R........................ Effect of this Division..................................................... 343

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    344

75B........................ Interpretation................................................................... 344

76.......................... Pecuniary penalties......................................................... 344

76A....................... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN          347

76B........................ What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?.......................................................................... 348

76C........................ Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions 350

77.......................... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............. 350

77A....................... Indemnification of officers.............................................. 351

77B........................ Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void               351

77C........................ Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate        352

78.......................... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV     352

79.......................... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG............... 352

79A....................... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................... 354

79B........................ Preference must be given to compensation for victims... 356

80.......................... Injunctions...................................................................... 356

80A....................... Price exploitation in relation to the carbon tax repeal—orders limiting prices or requiring refunds of money........................................................................................ 359

80AB..................... Stay of injunctions.......................................................... 360

80AC..................... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information..................................................................... 361

81.......................... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A 362

81A....................... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information          364

82.......................... Actions for damages....................................................... 366

83.......................... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................ 366

84.......................... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................... 367

85.......................... Defences......................................................................... 369

86.......................... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................... 369

86AA.................... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Circuit Court................. 370

86A....................... Transfer of matters.......................................................... 371

86C........................ Non‑punitive orders........................................................ 372

86D....................... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................. 373

86E........................ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations 374

86F........................ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              376

87.......................... Other orders.................................................................... 377

87AA.................... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   381

87B........................ Enforcement of undertakings.......................................... 382

87C........................ Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department 383

87CA..................... Intervention by Commission........................................... 383

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              384

87CB..................... Application of Part.......................................................... 384

87CC..................... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment      384

87CD..................... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............... 385

87CE..................... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   386

87CF..................... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................. 386

87CG..................... Subsequent actions......................................................... 387

87CH..................... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.... 387

87CI...................... Application of Part.......................................................... 387

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 389

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        389

87D....................... Definitions...................................................................... 389

87E........................ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................ 391

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            392

87F........................ Basic rule........................................................................ 392

87G....................... Date of discoverability.................................................... 393

87H....................... Long‑stop period............................................................ 394

87J......................... The effect of minority or incapacity................................ 395

87K........................ The effect of close relationships...................................... 395

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                397

87L........................ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................... 397

87M....................... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss... 397

87N....................... Index numbers................................................................ 398

87P........................ Most extreme cases......................................................... 398

87Q....................... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case                398

87R........................ Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case         399

87S........................ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case.............. 400

87T........................ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....... 400

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    401

87U....................... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity..... 401

87V....................... Average weekly earnings................................................ 401

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             403

87W....................... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             403

87X....................... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services     404

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            406

87Y....................... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......... 406

87Z........................ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........... 406

87ZA..................... Interest on damages........................................................ 407

87ZB..................... Exemplary and aggravated damages............................... 408

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   409

87ZC..................... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements        409

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices              410

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        410

87ZP...................... Definitions...................................................................... 410

88.......................... Power of Commission to grant authorisations................ 410

89.......................... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register. 418

90.......................... Determination of applications for authorisations............. 421

90A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        427

90B........................ Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC          431

91.......................... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................. 432

91A....................... Minor variations of authorizations.................................. 434

91B........................ Revocation of an authorization........................................ 436

91C........................ Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement            437

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        441

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing and private disclosure of pricing information       441

93.......................... Notification of exclusive dealing or private disclosure of pricing information         441

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             446

93AA.................... Definitions...................................................................... 446

93AB..................... Notification of collective bargaining............................... 447

93AC..................... Commission’s objection notice....................................... 451

93AD.................... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          453

93AE..................... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice..................... 455

93AEA.................. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given      456

93AF..................... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given         456

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               457

93A....................... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice   457

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         460

95.......................... Register of notifications.................................................. 460

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 463

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               463

95AA.................... Simplified outline of this Division.................................. 463

95AB..................... Definitions...................................................................... 464

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                   465

95AC..................... Commission may grant clearance for a merger............... 465

95AD.................... Application for clearance................................................ 465

95AE..................... Requirements for valid clearance application.................. 465

95AF..................... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid. 466

95AG.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 466

95AH.................... Merger clearance register................................................ 466

95AI...................... Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 467

95AJ...................... Commission may seek additional information from applicant  468

95AK..................... Commission may seek further information and consult others 469

95AL..................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 469

95AM.................... Commission to make determination on application......... 469

95AN.................... When clearance must not be granted............................... 470

95AO.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 470

95AP..................... Clearance subject to conditions....................................... 471

95AQ.................... When clearance is in force.............................................. 471

95AR..................... Minor variations of clearances........................................ 472

95AS..................... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance          476

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                            480

95AT..................... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger................ 480

95AU.................... Application for authorisation.......................................... 481

95AV.................... Requirements for valid authorisation application............ 481

95AW.................... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid.. 482

95AX.................... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application 482

95AY.................... Application to be published on the internet..................... 482

95AZ..................... Merger authorisation register.......................................... 482

95AZA.................. Confidentiality claims etc................................................ 483

95AZC.................. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant 484

95AZD.................. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc. 485

95AZE................... Applicant may withdraw application............................... 485

95AZEA................ Tribunal must require Commission to give report........... 485

95AZF................... Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 485

95AZFA................ Commission may make enquiries................................... 486

95AZG.................. Tribunal to make determination on application................ 486

95AZH.................. When authorisation must not be granted......................... 487

95AZI.................... Time limits for determining application........................... 488

95AZJ................... Authorisation subject to conditions................................. 488

95AZK.................. When authorisation is in force........................................ 489

95AZL................... Minor variations of authorisations.................................. 489

95AZM................. Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation        493

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            498

95AZN.................. Providing false or misleading information...................... 498

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 499

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          499

95A....................... Interpretation................................................................... 499

95B........................ Exempt supplies.............................................................. 503

95C........................ Application of Part.......................................................... 503

95D....................... Crown to be bound......................................................... 504

95E........................ Object of this Part........................................................... 504

95F........................ Simplified overview of this Part..................................... 504

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               506

95G....................... Commission’s functions under this Part......................... 506

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    508

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                508

95H....................... Price inquiries................................................................. 508

95J......................... Content of inquiry notices............................................... 509

95K........................ Period for completing inquiry......................................... 510

95L........................ Notice of holding of inquiry........................................... 511

95M....................... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry..... 511

95N....................... Price restrictions............................................................. 512

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                514

95P........................ Copies of report to be made available............................. 514

95Q....................... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..... 515

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            515

95R........................ Public inquiries etc.......................................................... 515

95S........................ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation...................... 517

95T........................ Failure of witness to attend............................................. 517

95U....................... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................... 518

95V....................... Protection of witnesses................................................... 519

95W....................... Allowances to witnesses................................................. 519

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            520

95X....................... Declarations by Minister or Commission....................... 520

95Y....................... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.. 520

95Z........................ Price restrictions............................................................. 522

95ZA..................... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................... 525

95ZB..................... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............. 525

95ZC..................... Register of price notifications......................................... 526

95ZD..................... Delegation by Commission............................................. 527

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               529

95ZE...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry  529

95ZF...................... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business 529

95ZG..................... Exceptions to price monitoring....................................... 530

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               531

95ZH..................... Ministerial directions...................................................... 531

95ZI....................... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals               531

95ZJ...................... Withdrawal of notices..................................................... 532

95ZK..................... Power to obtain information or documents..................... 532

95ZL...................... Inspection of documents etc............................................ 535

95ZM.................... Retention of documents.................................................. 536

95ZN..................... Confidential information................................................. 536

95ZO..................... Immunity........................................................................ 537

95ZP...................... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc. 538

95ZQ..................... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission         539

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    541

96.......................... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance... 541

96A....................... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............. 543

97.......................... Recommended prices...................................................... 544

98.......................... Withholding the supply of goods.................................... 544

99.......................... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................. 545

100........................ Evidentiary provisions.................................................... 545

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       547

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)            547

101........................ Applications for review.................................................. 547

101A..................... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)               548

102........................ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................. 549

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               554

102A..................... Definition........................................................................ 554

103........................ Procedure generally........................................................ 554

104........................ Regulations as to certain matters..................................... 554

105........................ Power to take evidence on oath....................................... 555

106........................ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances 555

107........................ Evidence in form of written statement............................. 556

108........................ Taking of evidence by single member............................. 556

109........................ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................... 556

110........................ Representation................................................................ 556

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances     558

111........................ Applications for review.................................................. 558

112........................ Tribunal to notify Commission....................................... 559

113........................ Commission to give material to Tribunal........................ 559

114........................ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information.............. 559

115........................ Commission to assist Tribunal........................................ 560

116........................ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission 560

117........................ Tribunal to make decision on review.............................. 560

118........................ Time limits for making review decision.......................... 560

119........................ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s............... 561


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                    (aa)  Part V;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 44ZZRD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

clearance means a clearance under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.

debenture includes debenture stock, bonds, notes and any other document evidencing or acknowledging indebtedness of a body corporate, whether constituting a charge on property of the body corporate or not.

Deputy Chairperson means a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the Tribunal, and includes a person appointed to act as a Deputy President of the Tribunal.

Deputy Registrar means a Deputy Registrar of the Tribunal.

designated Commonwealth energy law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (d)  the National Energy Retail Law and Regulations (Commonwealth) (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

document means any record of information, and includes:

                     (a)  anything on which there is writing; and

                     (b)  anything on which there are marks, figures, symbols or perforations having a meaning for persons qualified to interpret them; and

                     (c)  anything from which sounds, images or writings can be reproduced with or without the aid of anything else; and

                     (d)  a map, plan, drawing or photograph.

dual listed company arrangement has the same meaning as in section 125‑60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

Federal Circuit Court means the Federal Circuit Court of Australia.

financial corporation means a financial corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that carries on as its sole or principal business the business of banking (other than State banking not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned) or insurance (other than State insurance not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned).

foreign corporation means a foreign corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that is incorporated in an external Territory.

fully‑participating jurisdiction means a State or Territory that:

                     (a)  is a participating jurisdiction as defined in section 150A; and

                     (b)  is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

give effect to, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, includes do an act or thing in pursuance of or in accordance with or enforce or purport to enforce.

goods includes:

                     (a)  ships, aircraft and other vehicles;

                     (b)  animals, including fish;

                     (c)  minerals, trees and crops, whether on, under or attached to land or not; and

                     (d)  gas and electricity.

local energy instrument means a regulation, rule, order, declaration or other instrument if:

                     (a)  the instrument is made or has effect under a law of a State or Territory; and

                     (b)  the law of the State or Territory applies a uniform energy law as a law of its own jurisdiction.

member of the Commission includes the Chairperson and a person appointed to act as a member of the Commission but does not include an associate member of the Commission.

member of the Tribunal includes the President and a person appointed to act as a member of the Tribunal.

New Zealand Commerce Commission means the Commission established by section 8 of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

New Zealand Crown corporation means a body corporate that is an instrument of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand.

organisation of employees means an organisation that exists or is carried on for the purpose, or for purposes that include the purpose, of furthering the interests of its members in relation to their employment.

personal injury includes:

                     (a)  pre‑natal injury; or

                     (b)  impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; or

                     (c)  disease;

but does not include an impairment of a person’s mental condition unless the impairment consists of a recognised psychiatric illness.

practice of exclusive dealing means the practice of exclusive dealing referred to in subsection 47(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) or (9).

practice of resale price maintenance means the practice of resale price maintenance referred to in Part VIII.

President means the President of the Tribunal and includes a person appointed to act as President of the Tribunal.

presidential member or presidential member of the Tribunal means the President or a Deputy President.

price includes a charge of any description.

provision, in relation to an understanding, means any matter forming part of the understanding.

registered charity means an entity that is registered under the Australian Charities and Not‑for‑profits Commission Act 2012 as the type of entity mentioned in column 1 of item 1 of the table in subsection 25‑5(5) of that Act.

Registrar means the Registrar of the Tribunal.

require, in relation to the giving of a covenant, means require or demand the giving of a covenant, whether by way of making a contract containing the covenant or otherwise, and whether or not a covenant is given in pursuance of the requirement or demand.

send includes deliver, and sent and sender have corresponding meanings.

services includes any rights (including rights in relation to, and interests in, real or personal property), benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes the rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred under:

                     (a)  a contract for or in relation to:

                              (i)  the performance of work (including work of a professional nature), whether with or without the supply of goods;

                             (ii)  the provision of, or the use or enjoyment of facilities for, amusement, entertainment, recreation or instruction; or

                            (iii)  the conferring of rights, benefits or privileges for which remuneration is payable in the form of a royalty, tribute, levy or similar exaction;

                     (b)  a contract of insurance;

                     (c)  a contract between a banker and a customer of the banker entered into in the course of the carrying on by the banker of the business of banking; or

                     (d)  any contract for or in relation to the lending of moneys;

but does not include rights or benefits being the supply of goods or the performance of work under a contract of service.

share includes stock.

South Australian Electricity Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 4 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Energy Retail Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as amended from time to time, made under Part 11 of the National Energy Retail Law.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time, includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as amended from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

State/Territory AER member means an AER member referred to in section 44AP.

State/Territory energy law means any of the following laws:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that applies as a law of a State or Territory;

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that applies a law mentioned in paragraph (a) as a law of its own jurisdiction;

                     (c)  any other provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

supply, when used as a verb, includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—supply (including re‑supply) by way of sale, exchange, lease, hire or hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—provide, grant or confer;

and, when used as a noun, has a corresponding meaning, and supplied and supplier have corresponding meanings.

Telstra has the same meaning as in the Telstra Corporation Act 1991.

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

the Court or the Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

the Family Court means the Family Court of Australia.

this Act includes Schedule 2 to the extent that it is applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

trade or commerce means trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

trading corporation means a trading corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution.

Tribunal means the Australian Competition Tribunal, and includes a member of that Tribunal or a Division of that Tribunal performing functions of that Tribunal.

uniform energy law means:

                     (a)  the South Australian Electricity Legislation; or

                     (b)  the South Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                    (ca)  the South Australian Energy Retail Legislation; or

                     (d)  provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this subparagraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

Western Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

             (2)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to engaging in conduct shall be read as a reference to doing or refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (b)  a reference to conduct, when that expression is used as a noun otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (a), shall be read as a reference to the doing of or the refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (c)  a reference to refusing to do an act includes a reference to:

                              (i)  refraining (otherwise than inadvertently) from doing that act; or

                             (ii)  making it known that that act will not be done; and

                     (d)  a reference to a person offering to do an act, or to do an act on a particular condition, includes a reference to the person making it known that the person will accept applications, offers or proposals for the person to do that act or to do that act on that condition, as the case may be.

             (3)  Where a provision of this Act is expressed to render a provision of a contract, or to render a covenant, unenforceable if the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have a particular effect, that provision of this Act applies in relation to the provision of the contract or the covenant at any time when the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have that effect notwithstanding that:

                     (a)  at an earlier time the provision of the contract or the covenant did not have that effect or was not regarded as likely to have that effect; or

                     (b)  the provision of the contract or the covenant will not or may not have that effect at a later time.

             (4)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of shares in the capital of a body corporate shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such shares; and

                     (b)  a reference to the acquisition of assets of a person shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such assets but does not include a reference to an acquisition by way of charge only or an acquisition in the ordinary course of business.

4A  Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another body corporate if:

                     (a)  that other body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of the first‑mentioned body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one‑half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first‑mentioned body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds more than one‑half of the allotted share capital of the first‑mentioned body corporate (excluding any part of that allotted share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or

                     (b)  the first‑mentioned body corporate is a subsidiary of any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary (including any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary by another application or other applications of this paragraph).

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the composition of a body corporate’s board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another body corporate if that other body corporate, by the exercise of some power exercisable by it without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors, and for the purposes of this provision that other body corporate shall be deemed to have power to make such an appointment if:

                     (a)  a person cannot be appointed as a director without the exercise in his or her favour by that other body corporate of such a power; or

                     (b)  a person’s appointment as a director follows necessarily from his or her being a director or other officer of that other body corporate.

             (3)  In determining whether a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate:

                     (a)  any shares held or power exercisable by that other body corporate in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it;

                     (b)  subject to paragraphs (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable:

                              (i)  by any person as a nominee for that other body corporate (except where that other body corporate is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity); or

                             (ii)  by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other body corporate, not being a subsidiary that is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity;

                            shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other body corporate;

                     (c)  any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first‑mentioned body corporate, or of a trust deed for securing any allotment of such debentures, shall be disregarded; and

                     (d)  any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other body corporate or its subsidiary (not being held or exercisable as mentioned in paragraph (c)) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other body corporate if the ordinary business of that other body corporate or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business.

             (4)  A reference in this Act to the holding company of a body corporate shall be read as a reference to a body corporate of which that other body corporate is a subsidiary.

             (5)  Where a body corporate:

                     (a)  is the holding company of another body corporate;

                     (b)  is a subsidiary of another body corporate; or

                     (c)  is a subsidiary of the holding company of another body corporate;

that first‑mentioned body corporate and that other body corporate shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be related to each other.

          (5A)  For the purposes of Parts IV, VI and VII:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is a party to a dual listed company arrangement is taken to be related to the other body corporate that is a party to the arrangement; and

                     (b)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to the other party to the arrangement; and

                     (c)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to each body corporate that is related to the other party to the arrangement.

             (6)  In proceedings under this Act, whether in the Court or before the Tribunal or the Commission, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that bodies corporate are not, or were not at a particular time, related to each other.

4B  Consumers

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular goods as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;

                            and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of production or manufacture or of repairing or treating other goods or fixtures on land; and

                     (b)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular services as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the services did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the services were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1):

                     (a)  the prescribed amount is $40,000 or, if a greater amount is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph, that greater amount;

                     (b)  subject to paragraph (c), the price of goods or services purchased by a person shall be taken to have been the amount paid or payable by the person for the goods or services;

                     (c)  where a person purchased goods or services together with other property or services, or with both other property and services, and a specified price was not allocated to the goods or services in the contract under which they were purchased, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased from the supplier the goods or services without the other property or services;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier except together with the other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier without other property or services—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, goods or services of the kind acquired were not available for purchase from any supplier except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time;

                     (d)  where a person acquired goods or services otherwise than by way of purchase, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased the goods or services from the supplier;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier or were so available only together with other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if goods or services of the kind acquired were not available, at the time of the acquisition, for purchase from any supplier or were not so available except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time; and

                     (e)  without limiting by implication the meaning of the expression services in subsection 4(1), the obtaining of credit by a person in connection with the acquisition of goods or services by him or her shall be deemed to be the acquisition by him or her of a service and any amount by which the amount paid or payable by him or her for the goods or services is increased by reason of his or her so obtaining credit shall be deemed to be paid or payable by him or her for that service.

             (3)  Where it is alleged in any proceeding under this Act or in any other proceeding in respect of a matter arising under this Act that a person was a consumer in relation to particular goods or services, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that the person was a consumer in relation to those goods or services.

             (4)  In this section, commercial road vehicle means a vehicle or trailer acquired for use principally in the transport of goods on public roads.

4C  Acquisition, supply and re‑supply

                   In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of goods includes a reference to the acquisition of property in, or rights in relation to, goods in pursuance of a supply of the goods;

                     (b)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods or services includes a reference to agreeing to supply or acquire goods or services;

                     (c)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods together with other property or services, or both;

                     (d)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of services includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of services together with property or other services, or both;

                     (e)  a reference to the re‑supply of goods acquired from a person includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the goods to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of goods in which the first‑mentioned goods have been incorporated;

                      (f)  a reference to the re‑supply of services (the original services) acquired from a person (the original supplier) includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the original services to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of other services that are substantially similar to the original services, and could not have been supplied if the original services had not been acquired by the person who acquired them from the original supplier.

4D  Exclusionary provisions

             (1)  A provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, shall be taken to be an exclusionary provision for the purposes of this Act if:

                     (a)  the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, or the proposed contract or arrangement is to be made, or the proposed understanding is to be arrived at, between persons any 2 or more of whom are competitive with each other; and

                     (b)  the provision has the purpose of preventing, restricting or limiting:

                              (i)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons in particular circumstances or on particular conditions;

                            by all or any of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed parties to the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding or, if a party or proposed party is a body corporate, by a body corporate that is related to the body corporate.

             (2)  A person shall be deemed to be competitive with another person for the purposes of subsection (1) if, and only if, the first‑mentioned person or a body corporate that is related to that person is, or is likely to be, or, but for the provision of any contract, arrangement or understanding or of any proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, would be, or would be likely to be, in competition with the other person, or with a body corporate that is related to the other person, in relation to the supply or acquisition of all or any of the goods or services to which the relevant provision of the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding relates.

4E  Market

                   For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears, market means a market in Australia and, when used in relation to any goods or services, includes a market for those goods or services and other goods or services that are substitutable for, or otherwise competitive with, the first‑mentioned goods or services.

4F  References to purpose or reason

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or a covenant or a proposed covenant, shall be deemed to have had, or to have, a particular purpose if:

                              (i)  the provision was included in the contract, arrangement or understanding or is to be included in the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or the covenant was required to be given or the proposed covenant is to be required to be given, as the case may be, for that purpose or for purposes that included or include that purpose; and

                             (ii)  that purpose was or is a substantial purpose; and

                     (b)  a person shall be deemed to have engaged or to engage in conduct for a particular purpose or a particular reason if:

                              (i)  the person engaged or engages in the conduct for purposes that included or include that purpose or for reasons that included or include that reason, as the case may be; and

                             (ii)  that purpose or reason was or is a substantial purpose or reason.

             (2)  This section does not apply for the purposes of subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1), 45DB(1), 45E(2) and 45E(3).

4G  Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition

                   For the purposes of this Act, references to the lessening of competition shall be read as including references to preventing or hindering competition.

4H  Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a contract shall be construed as including a reference to a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building and shall be so construed notwithstanding the express references in this Act to such leases or licences;

                     (b)  a reference to making or entering into a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as a reference to granting or taking the lease or licence; and

                     (c)  a reference to a party to a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as including a reference to any person bound by, or entitled to the benefit of, any provision contained in the lease or licence.

4J  Joint ventures

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a joint venture is a reference to an activity in trade or commerce:

                              (i)  carried on jointly by two or more persons, whether or not in partnership; or

                             (ii)  carried on by a body corporate formed by two or more persons for the purpose of enabling those persons to carry on that activity jointly by means of their joint control, or by means of their ownership of shares in the capital, of that body corporate; and

                     (b)  a reference to a contract or arrangement made or understanding arrived at, or to a proposed contract or arrangement to be made or proposed understanding to be arrived at, for the purposes of a joint venture shall, in relation to a joint venture by way of an activity carried on by a body corporate as mentioned in subparagraph (a)(ii), be read as including a reference to the memorandum and articles of association, rules or other document that constitute or constitutes, or are or is to constitute, that body corporate.

4K  Loss or damage to include injury

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to loss or damage, other than a reference to the amount of any loss or damage, includes a reference to injury; and

                     (b)  a reference to the amount of any loss or damage includes a reference to damages in respect of an injury.

4KA  Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2

                   Despite any other provision of this Act, sections 4 to 4K do not affect the meaning of any expression used in Part XI or Schedule 2, unless a contrary intention appears.

4L  Severability

                   If the making of a contract after the commencement of this section contravenes this Act by reason of the inclusion of a particular provision in the contract, then, subject to any order made under section 51ADB or 87, nothing in this Act affects the validity or enforceability of the contract otherwise than in relation to that provision in so far as that provision is severable.

4M  Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence

                   This Act does not affect the operation of:

                     (a)  the law relating to restraint of trade in so far as that law is capable of operating concurrently with this Act; or

                     (b)  the law relating to breaches of confidence;

but nothing in the law referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) affects the interpretation of this Act.

4N  Extended application of Part IIIA

             (1)  Part IIIA, and the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, extend to services provided by means of facilities that are, or will be, wholly or partly within:

                     (a)  an external Territory; or

                     (b)  the offshore area in respect of a State, of the Northern Territory, or of an external Territory, as specified in section 7 of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (1) affects the operation of section 15B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 in respect of the application of Part IIIA, and of the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, in any part of:

                     (a)  the coastal sea of Australia; or

                     (b)  the coastal sea of an external Territory;

that is on the landward side of each of the offshore areas referred to in that subsection.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section:

service includes proposed service covered by Division 2A of Part IIIA.

5  Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia

             (1)  Each of the following provisions:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part XI;

                     (c)  the Australian Consumer Law (other than Part 5‑3);

                      (f)  the remaining provisions of this Act (to the extent to which they relate to any of the provisions covered by paragraph (a), (b) or (c));

extends to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by:

                     (g)  bodies corporate incorporated or carrying on business within Australia; or

                     (h)  Australian citizens; or

                      (i)  persons ordinarily resident within Australia.

          (1A)  In addition to the extended operation that section 46A has by virtue of subsection (1), that section extends to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by:

                     (a)  New Zealand and New Zealand Crown corporations; or

                     (b)  bodies corporate carrying on business within New Zealand; or

                     (c)  persons ordinarily resident within New Zealand.

             (2)  In addition to the extended operation that sections 47 and 48 have by virtue of subsection (1), those sections extend to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by any persons in relation to the supply by those persons of goods or services to persons within Australia.

             (3)  Where a claim under section 82, or under section 236 of the Australian Consumer Law, is made in a proceeding, a person is not entitled to rely at a hearing in respect of that proceeding on conduct to which a provision of this Act extends by virtue of subsection (1) or (2) of this section except with the consent in writing of the Minister.

             (4)  A person other than the Minister, the Commission or the Director of Public Prosecutions is not entitled to make an application to the Court for an order under subsection 87(1) or (1A), or under subsection 237(1) or 238(1) of the Australian Consumer Law, in a proceeding in respect of conduct to which a provision of this Act extends by virtue of subsection (1) or (2) of this section except with the consent in writing of the Minister.

             (5)  The Minister shall give a consent under subsection (3) or (4) in respect of a proceeding unless, in the opinion of the Minister:

                     (a)  the law of the country in which the conduct concerned was engaged in required or specifically authorised the engaging in of the conduct; and

                     (b)  it is not in the national interest that the consent be given.

6  Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations

             (1)  Without prejudice to its effect apart from this section, this Act also has effect as provided by this section.

             (2)  This Act, other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X, has, by force of this subsection, the effect it would have if:

                     (a)  any references in this Act other than in section 45DB, or section 33 or 155 of the Australian Consumer Law, to trade or commerce were, by express provision, confined to trade or commerce:

                              (i)  between Australia and places outside Australia; or</