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Fair Work Act 2009

Authoritative Version
  • - C2014C00342
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Public Governance, Performance and Accountability (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2014
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Employment
Registered 09 Jul 2014
Start Date 01 Jul 2014
End Date 26 Nov 2015
Table of contents.

Commonwealth Coat of Arms

Fair Work Act 2009

No. 28, 2009 as amended

Compilation start date:                     1 July  2014

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 62, 2014

This compilation has been split into 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–536

Volume 2:       sections 537–800

                        Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Fair Work Act 2009 as in force on 1 July 2014. It includes any commenced amendment affecting the legislation to that date.

This compilation was prepared on 3 July 2014.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of each amended provision.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not reflected in the text of the compiled law but the text of the amendments is included in the endnotes.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Modifications

If a provision of the compiled law is affected by a modification that is in force, details are included in the endnotes.

Provisions ceasing to have effect

If a provision of the compiled law has expired or otherwise ceased to have effect in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 4—Compliance and enforcement                                         1

Part 4‑1—Civil remedies                                                                                                    1

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                            1

537........................ Guide to this Part................................................................ 1

538........................ Meanings of employee and employer.................................. 1

Division 2—Orders                                                                                                        2

Subdivision A—Applications for orders                                                              2

539........................ Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions     2

540........................ Limitations on who may apply for orders etc.................... 13

541........................ Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements  15

542........................ Entitlements under contracts............................................. 15

543........................ Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts 16

544........................ Time limit on applications................................................. 16

Subdivision B—Orders                                                                                           16

545........................ Orders that can be made by particular courts.................... 16

546........................ Pecuniary penalty orders................................................... 18

547........................ Interest up to judgment..................................................... 19

Division 3—Small claims procedure                                                                   20

548........................ Plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure................... 20

Division 4—General provisions relating to civil remedies                     22

549........................ Contravening a civil remedy provision is not an offence.. 22

550........................ Involvement in contravention treated in same way as actual contravention              22

551........................ Civil evidence and procedure rules for proceedings relating to civil remedy provisions          22

552........................ Civil proceedings after criminal proceedings.................... 22

553........................ Criminal proceedings during civil proceedings................. 23

554........................ Criminal proceedings after civil proceedings.................... 23

555........................ Evidence given in proceedings for pecuniary penalty not admissible in criminal proceedings 23

556........................ Civil double jeopardy........................................................ 24

557........................ Course of conduct............................................................. 24

558........................ Regulations dealing with infringement notices.................. 25

Division 5—Unclaimed money                                                                               26

559........................ Unclaimed money............................................................. 26

Part 4‑2—Jurisdiction and powers of courts                                                      27

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          27

560........................ Guide to this Part.............................................................. 27

561........................ Meanings of employee and employer................................ 27

Division 2—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court                    28

562........................ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Court.................... 28

563........................ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court   28

564........................ No limitation on Federal Court’s powers.......................... 29

565........................ Appeals from eligible State or Territory courts................. 29

Division 3—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Circuit Court   30

566........................ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Circuit Court......... 30

567........................ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Circuit Court        30

568........................ No limitation on Federal Circuit Court’s powers.............. 30

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                       31

569........................ Minister’s entitlement to intervene.................................... 31

569A..................... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to intervene........ 31

570........................ Costs only if proceedings instituted vexatiously etc.......... 32

571........................ No imprisonment for failure to pay pecuniary penalty...... 32

572........................ Regulations dealing with matters relating to court proceedings                32

Chapter 5—Administration                                                                              33

Part 5‑1—The Fair Work Commission                                                                  33

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          33

573........................ Guide to this Part.............................................................. 33

574........................ Meanings of employee and employer................................ 34

Division 2—Establishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission             35

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission                35

575........................ Establishment of the Fair Work Commission................... 35

576........................ Functions of the FWC...................................................... 35

577........................ Performance of functions etc. by the FWC....................... 36

578........................ Matters the FWC must take into account in performing functions etc.     37

579........................ FWC has privileges and immunities of the Crown........... 37

580........................ Protection of FWC Members............................................ 37

Subdivision B—Functions and powers of the President                                 38

581........................ Functions of the President................................................ 38

581A..................... Dealing with a complaint about an FWC Member............ 38

581B...................... Code of Conduct............................................................... 40

582........................ Directions by the President............................................... 40

583........................ President not subject to direction...................................... 41

584........................ Delegation of functions and powers of the President........ 41

Subdivision C—Protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members         42

584B...................... Protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members  42

Division 3—Conduct of matters before the FWC                                       43

Subdivision A—Applications to the FWC                                                          43

585........................ Applications in accordance with procedural rules............. 43

586........................ Correcting and amending applications and documents etc. 43

587........................ Dismissing applications.................................................... 43

588........................ Discontinuing applications................................................ 44

Subdivision B—Conduct of matters before the FWC                                     44

589........................ Procedural and interim decisions...................................... 44

590........................ Powers of the FWC to inform itself.................................. 44

591........................ FWC not bound by rules of evidence and procedure........ 45

592........................ Conferences...................................................................... 45

593........................ Hearings........................................................................... 46

594........................ Confidential evidence........................................................ 46

595........................ FWC’s power to deal with disputes.................................. 47

Subdivision C—Representation by lawyers and paid agents and Minister’s entitlement to make submissions     48

596........................ Representation by lawyers and paid agents....................... 48

597........................ Minister’s entitlement to make submissions..................... 49

597A..................... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to make submissions 49

Subdivision D—Decisions of the FWC                                                                49

598........................ Decisions of the FWC...................................................... 49

599........................ FWC not required to decide an application in terms applied for               50

600........................ Determining matters in the absence of a person................ 50

601........................ Writing and publication requirements for the FWC’s decisions               50

602........................ Correcting obvious errors etc. in relation to the FWC’s decisions           51

603........................ Varying and revoking the FWC’s decisions..................... 52

Subdivision E—Appeals, reviews and referring questions of law               53

604........................ Appeal of decisions.......................................................... 53

605........................ Minister’s entitlement to apply for review of a decision... 53

606........................ Staying decisions that are appealed or reviewed............... 54

607........................ Process for appealing or reviewing decisions................... 54

608........................ Referring questions of law to the Federal Court............... 55

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                              56

609........................ Procedural rules................................................................ 56

610........................ Regulations dealing with any FWC matters...................... 56

611........................ Costs................................................................................. 57

Division 4—Organisation of the FWC                                                              58

Subdivision A—Functions etc. to be performed by a single FWC Member, a Full Bench or an Expert Panel      58

612........................ FWC’s functions etc. may generally be performed by single FWC Member           58

613........................ Appeal of decisions.......................................................... 58

614........................ Review of decisions by a Full Bench................................ 59

615........................ The President may direct a Full Bench to perform function etc.               59

615A..................... When the President must direct a Full Bench to perform function etc.     59

615B...................... Transfer to a Full Bench from an FWC Member.............. 60

615C...................... Transfer to the President from an FWC Member or a Full Bench            60

616........................ FWC’s functions etc. that must be performed by a Full Bench                61

617........................ FWC’s functions etc. that must be performed by an Expert Panel           62

Subdivision B—Constitution of the FWC by a single FWC Member, a Full Bench or an Expert Panel  63

618........................ Constitution and decision‑making of a Full Bench........... 63

619........................ Seniority of FWC Members............................................. 64

620........................ Constitution and decision‑making of an Expert Panel....... 64

621........................ Reconstitution of the FWC when single FWC Member becomes unavailable         65

622........................ Reconstitution of the FWC when FWC Member of a Full Bench or an Expert Panel becomes unavailable.......................................................................................... 66

623........................ When new FWC Members begin to deal with matters...... 67

624........................ FWC’s decisions not invalid when improperly constituted 67

Subdivision C—Delegation of the FWC’s functions and powers                  67

625........................ Delegation by the President of functions and powers of the FWC           67

Division 5—FWC Members                                                                                    69

Subdivision A—Appointment of FWC Members                                             69

626........................ Appointment of FWC Members....................................... 69

627........................ Qualifications for appointment of FWC Members............ 69

628........................ Basis of appointment of FWC Members.......................... 71

629........................ Period of appointment of FWC Members......................... 71

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of FWC Members                             72

629A..................... Status of the President...................................................... 72

630........................ Appointment of a Judge not to affect tenure etc................ 72

631........................ Dual federal and State appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners        73

632........................ Dual federal and Territory appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners  73

633........................ Outside work of FWC Members...................................... 73

634........................ Oath or affirmation of office............................................. 74

635........................ Remuneration of the President.......................................... 74

636........................ Application of Judges’ Pensions Act to the President...... 75

637........................ Remuneration of FWC Members other than the President 76

638........................ Remuneration of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners performing duties on a part‑time basis              77

639........................ Leave of absence of FWC Members other than the President  77

640........................ Disclosure of interests by FWC Members other than the President         78

641........................ Termination of appointment on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity   78

641A..................... Minister may handle complaints about FWC Members.... 79

642........................ Suspension on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity..... 79

643........................ Termination of appointment for bankruptcy, etc............... 80

644........................ Termination of appointment for outside work................... 81

645........................ Resignation of FWC Members......................................... 81

646........................ Other terms and conditions of FWC Members................. 81

647........................ Appointment of acting President and Vice President........ 81

648........................ Appointment of acting Deputy Presidents and Commissioners               83

Division 6—Cooperation with the States                                                         84

649........................ President to cooperate with prescribed State industrial authorities           84

650........................ Provision of administrative support.................................. 84

Division 7—Seals and additional powers and functions of the President and the General Manager    85

651........................ Seals................................................................................. 85

652........................ Annual report.................................................................... 85

653........................ Reports about making enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements etc.             86

653A..................... Arrangements with the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court        87

654........................ President must provide certain information etc. to the Minister and Fair Work Ombudsman  88

655........................ Disclosure of information by the FWC............................. 88

Division 8—General Manager, staff and consultants                               89

Subdivision A—Functions of the General Manager                                        89

656........................ Establishment.................................................................... 89

657........................ Functions and powers of the General Manager................ 89

658........................ Directions from the President........................................... 89

659........................ General Manager not otherwise subject to direction......... 90

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the General Manager        90

660........................ Appointment of the General Manager............................... 90

661........................ Remuneration of the General Manager............................. 90

662........................ Leave of absence of the General Manager........................ 91

663........................ Outside work of the General Manager.............................. 91

664........................ Disclosure of interests to the President............................. 91

665........................ Resignation of the General Manager................................. 91

666........................ Termination of appointment of the General Manager........ 91

667........................ Other terms and conditions of the General Manager......... 92

668........................ Appointment of acting General Manager.......................... 92

669........................ Minister to consult the President....................................... 93

Subdivision C—Staff and consultants                                                                 93

670........................ Staff.................................................................................. 93

671........................ Delegation by General Manager to staff........................... 93

672........................ Persons assisting the FWC............................................... 93

673........................ Consultants....................................................................... 94

Subdivision D—Application of the finance law                                                94

673A..................... Application of the finance law.......................................... 94

Division 9—Offences relating to the Fair Work Commission              95

674........................ Offences in relation to the FWC....................................... 95

675........................ Contravening an FWC order............................................. 97

676........................ Intimidation etc................................................................. 98

677........................ Offences in relation to attending before the FWC............. 98

678........................ False or misleading evidence............................................ 99

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                           101

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        101

679........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 101

680........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 101

Division 2—Fair Work Ombudsman                                                                102

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions and powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman         102

681........................ Establishment.................................................................. 102

682........................ Functions of the Fair Work Ombudsman....................... 102

683........................ Delegation by the Fair Work Ombudsman..................... 103

684........................ Directions from the Minister........................................... 103

685........................ Minister may require reports........................................... 104

686........................ Annual report.................................................................. 104

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman            104

687........................ Appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................. 104

688........................ Remuneration of the Fair Work Ombudsman................. 105

689........................ Leave of absence of the Fair Work Ombudsman............ 105

690........................ Outside work of the Fair Work Ombudsman................. 105

692........................ Resignation of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................... 105

693........................ Termination of appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman 105

694........................ Other terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman 106

695........................ Appointment of acting Fair Work Ombudsman.............. 106

Division 3—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                   108

Subdivision A—Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 108

696........................ Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 108

Subdivision B—Staff and consultants etc.                                                        108

697........................ Staff................................................................................ 108

698........................ Persons assisting the Fair Work Ombudsman................ 108

699........................ Consultants..................................................................... 109

Subdivision C—Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors                               109

700........................ Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors............................ 109

701........................ Fair Work Ombudsman is a Fair Work Inspector........... 109

702........................ Identity cards.................................................................. 109

Subdivision D—Functions and powers of Fair Work Inspectors               111

703........................ Conditions and restrictions on functions and powers..... 111

704........................ General directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman.......... 111

705........................ Particular directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman....... 111

706........................ Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised 111

707........................ When powers of inspectors may be exercised................ 112

708........................ Power of inspectors to enter premises............................ 112

709........................ Powers of inspectors while on premises......................... 113

710........................ Persons assisting inspectors........................................... 113

711........................ Power to ask for person’s name and address.................. 114

712........................ Power to require persons to produce records or documents 114

713........................ Self‑incrimination........................................................... 115

713A..................... Certain records and documents are inadmissible............. 115

714........................ Power to keep records or documents.............................. 116

715........................ Enforceable undertakings relating to contraventions of civil remedy provisions      116

716........................ Compliance notices......................................................... 117

717........................ Review of compliance notices......................................... 119

Subdivision E—Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman           120

718........................ Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman  120

Chapter 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                122

Part 6‑1—Multiple actions                                                                                            122

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        122

719........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 122

720........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 122

Division 2—Certain actions not permitted if alternative action can be taken   123

721........................ Equal remuneration applications..................................... 123

722........................ Notification and consultation requirements applications. 123

723........................ Unlawful termination applications.................................. 124

Division 3—Preventing multiple actions                                                         125

Subdivision A—Equal remuneration applications                                        125

724........................ Equal remuneration applications..................................... 125

Subdivision B—Applications and complaints relating to dismissal          126

725........................ General rule.................................................................... 126

726........................ Dismissal remedy bargaining order applications............. 126

727........................ General protections FWC applications............................ 126

728........................ General protections court applications............................ 127

729........................ Unfair dismissal applications.......................................... 128

730........................ Unlawful termination FWC applications......................... 128

731........................ Unlawful termination court applications......................... 129

732........................ Applications and complaints under other laws................ 129

733........................ Dismissal does not include failure to provide benefits.... 130

Subdivision C—General protections applications that do not relate to dismissal         130

734........................ General rule.................................................................... 130

Part 6‑2—Dealing with disputes                                                                                131

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        131

735........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 131

736........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 131

Division 2—Dealing with disputes                                                                      132

Subdivision A—Model term about dealing with disputes                             132

737........................ Model term about dealing with disputes......................... 132

Subdivision B—Dealing with disputes                                                               132

738........................ Application of this Division............................................ 132

739........................ Disputes dealt with by the FWC..................................... 132

740........................ Dispute dealt with by persons other than the FWC......... 133

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements 135

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        135

741........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 135

742........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 135

Division 2—Extension of entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements            136

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        136

743........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 136

744........................ Extending the entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements              136

745........................ Contravening the extended parental leave provisions...... 138

746........................ References to the National Employment Standards include extended parental leave provisions               138

747........................ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................. 138

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended parental leave provisions 139

748........................ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees               139

749........................ Modification of meaning of base rate of pay for pieceworkers                139

750........................ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers  139

751........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if determined by State industrial instrument        139

752........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if not determined by State industrial instrument  140

753........................ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours    140

754........................ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................ 140

755........................ Modification of provision about interaction with paid leave 141

756........................ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements........................................................................................ 141

757........................ Modification of power to make regulations.................... 141

Division 3—Extension of entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice       142

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        142

758........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 142

759........................ Extending entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice              142

760........................ Contravening the extended notice of termination provisions 143

761........................ References to the National Employment Standards include extended notice of termination provisions    144

762........................ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................. 144

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended notice of termination provisions          144

763........................ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees               144

764........................ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers  144

765........................ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................ 145

766........................ Modification of provision about notice of termination by employee        145

767........................ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements........................................................................................ 145

768........................ Modification of power to make regulations.................... 145

Part 6‑3A—Transfer of business from a State public sector employer 146

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        146

768AA.................. Guide to this Part............................................................ 146

768AB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 146

Division 2—Copying terms of State instruments when there is a transfer of business  147

768AC................... What this Division is about............................................. 147

768AD.................. When does a transfer of business occur?........................ 147

768AE................... Meaning of transferring employee, termination time and re‑employment time        148

Division 3—Copied State instruments                                                             149

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              149

768AF................... What this Division is about............................................. 149

Subdivision B—Copied State instruments                                                        149

768AG.................. Contravening a copied State instrument.......................... 149

768AH.................. What is a copied State instrument?.................................. 150

768AI.................... What is a copied State award?......................................... 150

768AJ.................... What is a State award?.................................................... 151

768AK................... What is a copied State employment agreement?.............. 151

768AL................... What is a State employment agreement?......................... 153

768AM.................. When does a copied State instrument apply to a person? 154

768AN.................. When does a copied State instrument cover a person?.... 155

768AO.................. When is a copied State instrument in operation?............. 157

Division 4—Interaction between copied State instruments and the NES, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                           159

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              159

768AP................... What this Division is about............................................. 159

Subdivision B—Interaction with the NES                                                        159

768AQ.................. Interaction between the NES and a copied State instrument 159

768AR................... Provisions of the NES that allow instruments to contain particular kinds of terms  159

Subdivision C—Interaction with modern awards                                          161

768AS................... Modern awards and copied State awards........................ 161

768AT................... Modern awards and copied State employment agreements 161

Subdivision D—Interaction with enterprise agreements                              163

768AU.................. Enterprise agreements and copied State instruments....... 163

Division 5—Variation and termination of copied State instruments 164

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              164

768AV.................. What this Division is about............................................. 164

Subdivision B—Variation of copied State instruments                                164

768AW.................. Variation in limited circumstances.................................. 164

768AX.................. Variation of copied State instruments............................. 164

Subdivision C—Termination of copied State instruments                           167

768AY.................. Termination in limited circumstances.............................. 167

Division 6—FWC orders about coverage of copied State instruments and other instruments 168

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              168

768AZ................... What this Division is about............................................. 168

768AZA................ Orders in relation to a transfer of business..................... 168

Subdivision B—Coverage orders                                                                       168

768BA................... FWC orders about coverage for transferring employees. 168

768BB................... FWC orders about coverage for employee organisations 170

Division 7—FWC orders about consolidating copied State instruments etc.      172

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              172

768BC................... What this Division is about............................................. 172

768BCA................ Orders in relation to a transfer of business..................... 173

Subdivision B—Consolidation orders in relation to transferring employees 173

768BD................... Consolidation orders in relation to transferring employees 173

768BE................... Consolidation order to deal with application and coverage 174

768BF................... Effect of this Act after a consolidation order is made...... 175

Subdivision C—Consolidation orders in relation to non‑transferring employees        175

768BG................... Consolidation orders in relation to non‑transferring employees               175

768BH................... Consolidation order to deal with application and coverage 177

768BI.................... Effect of this Act after a consolidation order is made...... 177

Division 8—Special rules for copied State instruments                          179

Subdivision A—Guide to this Division                                                              179

768BJ.................... What this Division is about............................................. 179

Subdivision B—Terms about disputes                                                              180

768BK................... Where no term dealing with disputes.............................. 180

Subdivision C—Service and entitlements of a transferring employee     180

768BL................... Service for the purposes of this Act................................ 180

768BM.................. NES—working out non‑accruing entitlements............... 181

768BN................... NES—working out accruing entitlements....................... 182

768BO................... Copied State instrument—service................................... 183

768BP................... Copied State instrument—working out non‑accruing entitlements           184

768BQ................... Copied State instrument—working out accruing entitlements  185

Subdivision D—Cessation of copied State awards: avoiding reductions in take‑home pay        186

768BR................... Cessation not intended to result in reduction in take‑home pay                186

768BS................... Orders remedying reductions in take‑home pay.............. 187

768BT................... Contravening a take‑home pay order.............................. 188

768BU................... How long a take‑home pay order continues to apply...... 188

768BV................... Interaction of take‑home pay orders with modern awards and enterprise agreements              188

768BW.................. Application of this Act to take‑home pay orders............. 188

Subdivision E—Modification of this Act                                                          188

768BX................... Modification of this Act for copied State instruments..... 188

Subdivision F—Modification of the Transitional Act                                  190

768BY................... Modification of the Transitional Act for copied State instruments           190

Subdivision G—Modification of the Registered Organisations Act          194

768BZ................... Modification of the Registered Organisations Act for copied State instruments      194

Division 9—Regulations                                                                                          195

768CA................... Regulations..................................................................... 195

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment 197

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        197

769........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 197

770........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 197

Division 2—Termination of employment                                                       198

771........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 198

772........................ Employment not to be terminated on certain grounds..... 198

773........................ Application for the FWC to deal with a dispute.............. 200

774........................ Time for application........................................................ 200

775........................ Application fees.............................................................. 201

776........................ Dealing with a dispute (other than by arbitration)........... 201

777........................ Dealing with a dispute by arbitration.............................. 202

778........................ Taking a dispute to court................................................. 203

779........................ Appeal rights.................................................................. 203

779A..................... Costs orders against parties............................................ 204

780........................ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................. 204

781........................ Applications for costs orders.......................................... 205

781A..................... Schedule of costs............................................................ 205

782........................ Contravening costs orders.............................................. 205

783........................ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise 205

Division 3—Notification and consultation requirements relating to certain terminations of employment                                                                                                                    207

Subdivision A—Object of this Division                                                             207

784........................ Object of this Division.................................................... 207

Subdivision B—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                        207

785........................ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed terminations              207

Subdivision C—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations             208

786........................ FWC may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about terminations........................................................................................ 208

787........................ Orders that the FWC may make...................................... 210

788........................ Application to the FWC for order................................... 210

Subdivision D—Limits on scope of this Division                                            211

789........................ Limits on scope of this Division..................................... 211

Part 6‑4A—Special provisions about TCF outworkers                              212

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        212

789AA.................. Guide to this Part............................................................ 212

789AB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 212

789AC................... Objects of this Part......................................................... 212

Division 2—TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances             214

789BA................... Provisions covered by this Division............................... 214

789BB................... TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances               215

789BC................... Regulations relating to TCF outworkers who are taken to be employees 216

Division 3—Recovery of unpaid amounts                                                     217

789CA................... When this Division applies............................................. 217

789CB................... Liability of indirectly responsible entity for unpaid amount 219

789CC................... Demand for payment from an apparent indirectly responsible entity        219

789CD................... Court order for entity to pay amount demanded.............. 220

789CE................... Effect of payment by entity (including entity’s right to recover from responsible person)       221

789CF................... Division does not limit other liabilities or rights............. 222

Division 4—Code of practice relating to TCF outwork                         223

789DA.................. Regulations may provide for a code................................ 223

789DB................... Matters that may be dealt with in TCF outwork code..... 223

789DC................... Persons on whom obligations may be imposed by TCF outwork code   224

789DD.................. Other general matters relating to content of TCF outwork code               225

789DE................... Relationship between the TCF outwork code and other instruments        226

Division 5—Miscellaneous                                                                                     228

789EA................... Part not intended to exclude or limit State or Territory laws relating to outworkers 228

Part 6‑4B—Workers bullied at work                                                                     229

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        229

789FA................... Guide to this Part............................................................ 229

789FB................... Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 229

Division 2—Stopping workers being bullied at work                              230

789FC................... Application for an FWC order to stop bullying.............. 230

789FD................... When is a worker bullied at work?................................. 230

789FE.................... FWC to deal with applications promptly......................... 231

789FF.................... FWC may make orders to stop bullying......................... 231

789FG................... Contravening an order to stop bullying........................... 232

789FH................... Actions under work health and safety laws permitted..... 232

789FI..................... This Part is not to prejudice Australia’s defence, national security etc.    233

789FJ.................... Declarations by the Chief of the Defence Force.............. 233

789FK................... Declarations by the Director‑General of Security........... 233

789FL.................... Declarations by the Director‑General of ASIS............... 234

Part 6‑5—Miscellaneous                                                                                                 235

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        235

790........................ Guide to this Part............................................................ 235

791........................ Meanings of employee and employer.............................. 235

Division 2—Miscellaneous                                                                                     236

792........................ Delegation by Minister................................................... 236

793........................ Liability of bodies corporate........................................... 236

794........................ Signature on behalf of body corporate............................ 237

795........................ Public sector employer to act through employing authority 237

795A..................... The Schedules................................................................. 239

796........................ Regulations—general...................................................... 239

796A..................... Regulations conferring functions.................................... 239

797........................ Regulations dealing with offences.................................. 239

798........................ Regulations dealing with civil penalties.......................... 239

799........................ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................ 240

800........................ Regulations dealing with exhibiting fair work instruments 240

Schedule 1—Application, saving and transitional provisions relating to amendments of this Act                                                                                           241

Part 1—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Textile, Clothing and Footwear Industry) Act 2012                                                                                                                241

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 241

2............................ Section 789BB of amended Act applies to contracts entered into after commencement           241

3............................ Effect on TCF contract outworker’s entitlements............ 242

4............................ Fair work instruments etc. made before commencement. 242

5............................ Application of Division 3 of Part 6‑4A of amended Act 243

6............................ Application of subsection 203(2A) of amended Act....... 243

7............................ Regulations dealing with various matters........................ 243

Part 2—Amendments made by the Superannuation Legislation Amendment (Further MySuper and Transparency Measures) Act 2012                                                      245

8............................ Definitions...................................................................... 245

9............................ Application of sections 149A and 155A of amended Act 245

10.......................... FWC to vary certain modern awards.............................. 245

11.......................... FWC to update text of certain modern awards................ 246

12.......................... Application of paragraph 194(h) of amended Act........... 246

Schedule 2—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment (Transfer of Business) Act 2012                                                                                               247

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 247

2............................ Application of the amendments made by the amending Act 247

Schedule 3—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment Act 2012          248

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                         248

1............................ Definitions...................................................................... 248

Part 2—Default superannuation (Schedule 1)                                                 249

2............................ Schedule 1 to the amending Act...................................... 249

2A......................... Transitional provision—when first variations of default fund term take effect         249

2B.......................... Transitional provision—modern awards made on or after 1 January 2014              250

Part 3—Modern awards (Schedule 3)                                                                   251

3............................ Part 1 of Schedule 3 to the amending Act....................... 251

Part 4—Enterprise agreements (Schedule 4)                                                    252

4............................ Part 1 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 252

5............................ Part 2 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 252

6............................ Part 3 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 252

7............................ Part 4 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 252

8............................ Part 5 of Schedule 4 to the amending Act....................... 253

Part 5—General protections (Schedule 5)                                                           254

9............................ Part 1 of Schedule 5 to the amending Act....................... 254

Part 6—Unfair dismissal (Schedule 6)                                                                   255

10.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 255

11.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 255

12.......................... Part 3 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 255

13.......................... Part 4 of Schedule 6 to the amending Act....................... 255

Part 7—Industrial action (Schedule 7)                                                                  256

14.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 256

15.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 256

16.......................... Part 3 of Schedule 7 to the amending Act....................... 256

Part 8—The Fair Work Commission (Schedule 8)                                        257

17.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 257

18.......................... Part 2 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 257

19.......................... Part 4 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 257

20.......................... Part 5 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 257

21.......................... Part 6 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 257

22.......................... Part 7 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 258

23.......................... Part 8 of Schedule 8 to the amending Act....................... 258

Part 9—Changing the name of Fair Work Australia (Schedule 9)     259

24.......................... Transitional provision—President.................................. 259

25.......................... Transitional provision—Deputy President...................... 259

26.......................... Transitional provision—Commissioner.......................... 260

27.......................... Transitional provision—Minimum Wage Panel Member 262

28.......................... Operation of laws—things done by, or in relation to, FWA 262

29.......................... Transitional provision—General Manager and staff of FWA  263

30.......................... Operation of section 7 and subsection 25B(1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 not limited                264

Part 10—Other amendments (Schedule 10)                                                       265

31.......................... Part 1 of Schedule 10 to the amending Act..................... 265

Part 11—Regulations                                                                                                       266

32.......................... Regulations about application, transitional and saving matters 266

Schedule 4—Amendments made by the Fair Work Amendment Act 2013          267

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                         267

1............................ Definition........................................................................ 267

Part 2—Family‑friendly measures (Schedule 1)                                              268

2............................ Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 268

3............................ Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 268

4............................ Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 268

5............................ Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 268

6............................ Part 5 of Schedule 1 to the amending Act....................... 269

Part 3—Modern awards objective (Schedule 2)                                              270

7............................ Schedule 2 to the amending Act...................................... 270

Part 4—Anti‑bullying measure (Schedule 3)                                                     271

8............................ Schedule 3 to the amending Act...................................... 271

Part 4A—Conferences (Schedule 3A)                                                                   272

8A......................... Schedule 3A to the amending Act................................... 272

Part 5—Right of entry (Schedule 4)                                                                       273

9............................ Schedule 4 to the amending Act...................................... 273

Part 6—Consent arbitration for general protections and unlawful termination (Schedule 4A)               274

10.......................... Schedule 4A to the amending Act................................... 274

Part 7—The FWC (Schedule 5)                                                                                275

11.......................... Item 4 of Schedule 5 to the amending Act...................... 275

Endnotes                                                                                                                                  276

Endnote 1—About the endnotes                                                                          276

Endnote 2—Abbreviation key                                                                              278

Endnote 3—Legislation history                                                                           279

Endnote 4—Amendment history                                                                         290

Endnote 5—Uncommenced amendments [none]                                        336

Endnote 6—Modifications                                                                                      337

Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 (No. 55, 2009)           337

Endnote 7—Misdescribed amendments [none]                                           338

Endnote 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     339


Chapter 4Compliance and enforcement

Part 4‑1Civil remedies

Division 1Introduction

537  Guide to this Part

This Part is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions.

Subdivision A of Division 2 deals with applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions and safety net contractual entitlements, and applications for orders to enforce entitlements arising under subsection 542(1).

Subdivision B of Division 2 sets out the orders that can be made by the Federal Court, the Federal Circuit Court or an eligible State or Territory Court in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

Division 3 sets out when proceedings relating to a contravention of a civil remedy provision may be dealt with as small claims proceedings.

Division 4 deals with general provisions relating to civil remedies, including rules about evidence and procedure.

Division 5 deals with unclaimed money.

538  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2Orders

Subdivision AApplications for orders

539  Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions

             (1)  A provision referred to in column 1 of an item in the table in subsection (2) is a civil remedy provision.

             (2)  For each civil remedy provision, the persons referred to in column 2 of the item may, subject to sections 540 and 544 and Subdivision B, apply to the courts referred to in column 3 of the item for orders in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of the provision, including the maximum penalty referred to in column 4 of the item.

Note 1:       Civil remedy provisions within a single Part may be grouped together in a single item of the table.

Note 2:       Applications cannot be made by an inspector in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision by a person in certain cases where an undertaking or compliance notice has been given (see subsections 715(4) and 716(4A)).

Note 3:       The regulations may also prescribe persons for the purposes of an item in column 2 of the table (see subsection 540(8)).

 

Standing, jurisdiction and maximum penalties

Item

Column 1
Civil remedy provision

Column 2
Persons

Column 3
Courts

Column 4
Maximum penalty

Part 2‑1—Core provisions

1

44(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

2

45 (other than in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of an outworker term)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an employer organisation;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

3

45 (in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of an outworker term)

(a) an outworker;

(b) an employer;

(c) an outworker entity;

(d) an employee organisation;

(e) an employer organisation;

(f) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

4

50 (other than in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a term that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation to which the enterprise agreement concerned applies;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

5

50 (in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a term that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements

6

233

(a) an employee who the proposed enterprise agreement will cover;

(b) a bargaining representative for the proposed enterprise agreement;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations

7

280

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation to which the workplace determination concerned applies;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages

8

293

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration

9

305

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment

10

323(1)
323(3)
325(1)
328(1)
328(2)
328(3)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑1—General protections

11

340(1)
340(2)
343(1)
344
345(1)
346
348
349(1)
350(1)
350(2)
351(1)
352
353(1)
354(1)
355
357(1)
358
359
369(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

12

378

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal

13

405

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an employer organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑3—Industrial action

14

417(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation covered by the enterprise agreement or workplace determination concerned;

(d) a person affected by the industrial action;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

15

421(1)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

16

434

an inspector

the Federal Court

60 penalty units

17

458(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

18

462(1)
462(3)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

19

463(1)
463(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

20

467(1)

(a) an employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an applicant for the protected action ballot order;

(d) the protected action ballot agent;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

21

470(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

22

473(1)
473(2)

(a) an employer;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

23

474(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

24

475(1)
475(2)

(a) an employer;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑4—Right of entry

25

482(3)
483(4)
483B(4)
483C(5)
483D(4)
483E(5)
494(1)
495(1)
496
497
498
499
500
501
502(1)
503(1)
504
506
509
521C(3)
521D(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

26

517(1)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑5—Stand down

27

527

(a) an employee;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities

28

530(4)

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

29

535(1)
535(2)
536(1)
536(2)

(a) an employee;

(b) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

30 penalty units

Part 5‑1—The Fair Work Commission

30

611(3)

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an employee organisation;

(c) an employer organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman

31

711(3)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

30 penalty units

32

712(3)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

33

716(5)

an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

30 penalty units

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements

34

745(1)
760

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 6‑3A—Transfer of business from a State public sector employer

34A

768AG

(a) the transferring employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an employer organisation;

(e) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

34B

768BT

(a) the transferring employee;

(b) an employer;

(c) an employee organisation;

(d) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment

35

772(1)
777(3)

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

36

782

(a) a person to whom the costs are payable;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

60 penalty units

37

785(4)

(a) an employee;

(b) a registered employee association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Circuit Court

30 penalty units

Part 6‑4B—Workers bullied at work

38

789FG

(a) a person affected by the contravention;

(b) an industrial association;

(c) an inspector

(a) the Federal Court;

(b) the Federal Magistrates Court;

(c) an eligible State or Territory court

60 penalty units

             (3)  The regulations may provide that a provision set out in the regulations is a civil remedy provision.

             (4)  If the regulations make provision as mentioned in subsection (3):

                     (a)  the regulations must set out:

                              (i)  the persons who would be referred to in column 2; and

                             (ii)  the courts that would be referred to in column 3; and

                            (iii)  the maximum penalty that would be referred to in column 4;

                            of the table in subsection (2) if there were an item for the civil remedy provision in the table; and

                     (b)  this Part has effect as if the matters referred to subparagraphs (a)(i) to (iii) were set out in such an item in the table.

Note:          See section 798 for limits on the penalties that may be set out in the regulations.

540  Limitations on who may apply for orders etc.

Employees, employers, outworkers and outworker entities

             (1)  The following persons may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the person is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention:

                     (a)  an employee;

                     (b)  an employer;

                     (c)  an outworker;

                     (d)  an outworker entity.

Employee organisations and registered employee associations

             (2)  An employee organisation or a registered employee association may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision in relation to an employee, only if:

                     (a)  the employee is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; and

                     (b)  the organisation or association is entitled to represent the industrial interests of the employee.

             (3)  However, subsection (2) does not apply in relation to:

                     (a)  items 4, 7 and 14 in the table in subsection 539(2); or

                     (b)  a contravention or proposed contravention of:

                              (i)  an outworker term in a modern award; or

                             (ii)  a term in an enterprise agreement that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award.

             (4)  An employee organisation may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of:

                     (a)  an outworker term in a modern award; or

                     (b)  a term in an enterprise agreement that would be an outworker term if it were included in a modern award;

only if the employee organisation is entitled to represent the industrial interests of an outworker to whom the term relates.

Employer organisations

             (5)  An employer organisation may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the organisation has a member who is affected by the contravention, or who will be affected by the proposed contravention.

Industrial associations

             (6)  An industrial association may apply for an order under this Division, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if:

                     (a)  the industrial association is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; or

                     (b)  if the contravention is in relation to a person:

                              (i)  the person is affected by the contravention, or will be affected by the proposed contravention; and

                             (ii)  the industrial association is entitled to represent the industrial interests of the person.

             (7)  If an item in column 2 of the table in subsection 539(2) refers to an industrial association then, to avoid doubt, an employee organisation, a registered employee association or an employer organisation may apply for an order, in relation to a contravention or proposed contravention of a civil remedy provision, only if the organisation or association is entitled to apply for the order under subsection (6).

Regulations

             (8)  The regulations may prescribe a person for the purposes of an item in column 2 of the table in subsection 539(2). The regulations may provide that the person is prescribed only in relation to circumstances specified in the regulations.

541  Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements

             (1)  This section applies if an inspector applies to a court for an order under this Division, in relation to an employer’s contravention or proposed contravention of a provision or term referred to in subsection (3) in relation to an employee.

             (2)  The inspector may also apply to the court, on behalf of the employee, for an order in relation to the employer’s contravention, or proposed contravention, of a safety net contractual entitlement of the employee.

             (3)  The provisions and terms are the following:

                     (a)  a provision of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  a term of a modern award;

                     (c)  a term of an enterprise agreement;

                     (d)  a term of a workplace determination;

                     (e)  a term of a national minimum wage order;

                      (f)  a term of an equal remuneration order.

542  Entitlements under contracts

             (1)  For the purposes of this Part, a safety net contractual entitlement of a national system employer or a national system employee, as in force from time to time, also has effect as an entitlement of the employer or employee under this Act.

             (2)  The entitlement has effect under this Act subject to any modifications, by a law of the Commonwealth (including this Act or a fair work instrument), a State or a Territory, of the safety net contractual entitlement.

543  Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts

                   A national system employer or a national system employee may apply to the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court to enforce an entitlement of the employer or employee arising under subsection 542(1).

544  Time limit on applications

                   A person may apply for an order under this Division in relation to a contravention of one of the following only if the application is made within 6 years after the day on which the contravention occurred:

                     (a)  a civil remedy provision;

                     (b)  a safety net contractual entitlement;

                     (c)  an entitlement arising under subsection 542(1).

Note 1:       This section does not apply in relation to general protections court applications or unlawful termination court applications (see subparagraphs 370(a)(ii) and 778(a)(ii)).

Note 2:       For time limits on orders relating to underpayments, see subsection 545(5).

Subdivision BOrders

545  Orders that can be made by particular courts

Federal Court and Federal Circuit Court

             (1)  The Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court may make any order the court considers appropriate if the court is satisfied that a person has contravened, or proposes to contravene, a civil remedy provision.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

Note 3:       The Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court may grant injunctions in relation to industrial action under subsections 417(3) and 421(3).

Note 4:       There are limitations on orders that can be made in relation to contraventions of subsection 65(5), 76(4), 463(1) or 463(2) (which deal with reasonable business grounds and protected action ballot orders) (see subsections 44(2), 463(3) and 745(2)).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), orders the Federal Court or Federal Circuit Court may make include the following:

                     (a)  an order granting an injunction, or interim injunction, to prevent, stop or remedy the effects of a contravention;

                     (b)  an order awarding compensation for loss that a person has suffered because of the contravention;

                     (c)  an order for reinstatement of a person.

Eligible State or Territory courts

             (3)  An eligible State or Territory court may order an employer to pay an amount to, or on behalf of, an employee of the employer if the court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the employer was required to pay the amount under this Act or a fair work instrument; and

                     (b)  the employer has contravened a civil remedy provision by failing to pay the amount.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

          (3A)  An eligible State or Territory court may order an outworker entity to pay an amount to, or on behalf of, an outworker if the court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the outworker entity was required to pay the amount under a modern award; and

                     (b)  the outworker entity has contravened a civil remedy provision by failing to pay the amount.

Note 1:       For the court’s power to make pecuniary penalty orders, see section 546.

Note 2:       For limitations on orders in relation to costs, see section 570.

When orders may be made

             (4)  A court may make an order under this section:

                     (a)  on its own initiative, during proceedings before the court; or

                     (b)  on application.

Time limit for orders in relation to underpayments

             (5)  A court must not make an order under this section in relation to an underpayment that relates to a period that is more than 6 years before the proceedings concerned commenced.

546  Pecuniary penalty orders

             (1)  The Federal Court, the Federal Circuit Court or an eligible State or Territory court may, on application, order a person to pay a pecuniary penalty that the court considers is appropriate if the court is satisfied that the person has contravened a civil remedy provision.

Note:          Pecuniary penalty orders cannot be made in relation to conduct that contravenes a term of a modern award, a national minimum wage order or an enterprise agreement only because of the retrospective effect of a determination (see subsections 167(3) and 298(2)).

Determining amount of pecuniary penalty

             (2)  The pecuniary penalty must not be more than:

                     (a)  if the person is an individual—the maximum number of penalty units referred to in the relevant item in column 4 of the table in subsection 539(2); or

                     (b)  if the person is a body corporate—5 times the maximum number of penalty units referred to in the relevant item in column 4 of the table in subsection 539(2).

Payment of penalty

             (3)  The court may order that the pecuniary penalty, or a part of the penalty, be paid to:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a particular organisation; or

                     (c)  a particular person.

Recovery of penalty

             (4)  The pecuniary penalty may be recovered as a debt due to the person to whom the penalty is payable.

No limitation on orders

             (5)  To avoid doubt, a court may make a pecuniary penalty order in addition to one or more orders under section 545.

547  Interest up to judgment

             (1)  This section applies to an order (other than a pecuniary penalty order) under this Division in relation to an amount that a person was required to pay to, or on behalf of, another person under this Act or a fair work instrument.

             (2)  In making the order the court must, on application, include an amount of interest in the sum ordered, unless good cause is shown to the contrary.

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (2), in determining the amount of interest, the court must take into account the period between the day the relevant cause of action arose and the day the order is made.

Division 3Small claims procedure

548  Plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure

             (1)  Proceedings are to be dealt with as small claims proceedings under this section if:

                     (a)  a person applies for an order (other than a pecuniary penalty order) under Division 2 from a magistrates court or the Federal Circuit Court; and

                     (b)  the order relates to an amount referred to in subsection (1A); and

                     (c)  the person indicates, in a manner prescribed by the regulations or by the rules of the court, that he or she wants the small claims procedure to apply to the proceedings.

          (1A)  The amounts are as follows:

                     (a)  an amount that an employer was required to pay to, or on behalf of, an employee:

                              (i)  under this Act or a fair work instrument; or

                             (ii)  because of a safety net contractual entitlement; or

                            (iii)  because of an entitlement of the employee arising under subsection 542(1);

                     (b)  an amount that an outworker entity was required to pay to, or on behalf of, an outworker under a modern award.

Limits on award

             (2)  In small claims proceedings, the court may not award more than:

                     (a)  $20,000; or

                     (b)  if a higher amount is prescribed by the regulations—that higher amount.

Procedure

             (3)  In small claims proceedings, the court is not bound by any rules of evidence and procedure and may act:

                     (a)  in an informal manner; and

                     (b)  without regard to legal forms and technicalities.

             (4)  At any stage of the small claims proceedings, the court may amend the papers commencing the proceedings if sufficient notice is given to any party adversely affected by the amendment.

Legal representation

             (5)  A party to small claims proceedings may be represented in the proceedings by a lawyer only with the leave of the court.

             (6)  If the court grants leave for a party to the proceedings to be represented by a lawyer, the court may, if it considers appropriate, do so subject to conditions designed to ensure that no other party is unfairly disadvantaged.

             (7)  For the purposes of this section, a person is taken not to be represented by a lawyer if the lawyer is an employee or officer of the person.

Representation by an industrial association

             (8)  The regulations may provide for a party to small claims proceedings to be represented in the proceedings, in specified circumstances, by an official of an industrial association.

             (9)  However, if small claims proceedings are heard in a court of a State, the regulations may so provide only if the law of the State allows a party to be represented in that court in those circumstances by officials of bodies representing interests related to the matters in dispute.

Division 4General provisions relating to civil remedies

549  Contravening a civil remedy provision is not an offence

                   A contravention of a civil remedy provision is not an offence.

550  Involvement in contravention treated in same way as actual contravention

             (1)  A person who is involved in a contravention of a civil remedy provision is taken to have contravened that provision.

             (2)  A person is involved in a contravention of a civil remedy provision if, and only if, the person:

                     (a)  has aided, abetted, counselled or procured the contravention; or

                     (b)  has induced the contravention, whether by threats or promises or otherwise; or

                     (c)  has been in any way, by act or omission, directly or indirectly, knowingly concerned in or party to the contravention; or

                     (d)  has conspired with others to effect the contravention.

551  Civil evidence and procedure rules for proceedings relating to civil remedy provisions

                   A court must apply the rules of evidence and procedure for civil matters when hearing proceedings relating to a contravention, or proposed contravention, of a civil remedy provision.

552  Civil proceedings after criminal proceedings

                   A court must not make a pecuniary penalty order against a person for a contravention of a civil remedy provision if the person has been convicted of an offence constituted by conduct that is substantially the same as the conduct constituting the contravention.

553  Criminal proceedings during civil proceedings

             (1)  Proceedings for a pecuniary penalty order against a person for a contravention of a civil remedy provision are stayed if:

                     (a)  criminal proceedings are commenced or have already commenced against the person for an offence; and

                     (b)  the offence is constituted by conduct that is substantially the same as the conduct in relation to which the order would be made.

             (2)  The proceedings for the order may be resumed if the person is not convicted of the offence. Otherwise, the proceedings for the order are dismissed.

554  Criminal proceedings after civil proceedings

                   Criminal proceedings may be commenced against a person for conduct that is substantially the same as conduct constituting a contravention of a civil remedy provision regardless of whether an order has been made against the person under Division 2.

555  Evidence given in proceedings for pecuniary penalty not admissible in criminal proceedings

             (1)  Evidence of information given, or evidence of production of documents, by an individual is not admissible in criminal proceedings against the individual if:

                     (a)  the individual previously gave the information or produced the documents in proceedings for a pecuniary penalty order against the individual for a contravention of a civil remedy provision (whether or not the order was made); and

                     (b)  the conduct alleged to constitute the offence is substantially the same as the conduct in relation to which the order was sought.

             (2)  However, this does not apply to criminal proceedings in relation to the falsity of the evidence given by the individual in the proceedings for the pecuniary penalty order.

556  Civil double jeopardy

                   If a person is ordered to pay a pecuniary penalty under a civil remedy provision in relation to particular conduct, the person is not liable to be ordered to pay a pecuniary penalty under some other provision of a law of the Commonwealth in relation to that conduct.

Note:          A court may make other orders, such as an order for compensation, in relation to particular conduct even if the court has made a pecuniary penalty order in relation to that conduct (see subsection 546(5)).

557  Course of conduct

             (1)  For the purposes of this Part, 2 or more contraventions of a civil remedy provision referred to in subsection (2) are, subject to subsection (3), taken to constitute a single contravention if:

                     (a)  the contraventions are committed by the same person; and

                     (b)  the contraventions arose out of a course of conduct by the person.

             (2)  The civil remedy provisions are the following:

                     (a)  subsection 44(1) (which deals with contraventions of the National Employment Standards);

                     (b)  section 45 (which deals with contraventions of modern awards);

                     (c)  section 50 (which deals with contraventions of enterprise agreements);

                     (d)  section 280 (which deals with contraventions of workplace determinations);

                     (e)  section 293 (which deals with contraventions of national minimum wage orders);

                      (f)  section 305 (which deals with contraventions of equal remuneration orders);

                     (g)  subsection 323(1) (which deals with methods and frequency of payment);

                     (h)  subsection 323(3) (which deals with methods of payment specified in modern awards or enterprise agreements);

                      (i)  subsection 325(1) (which deals with unreasonable requirements to spend amounts);

                      (j)  subsection 417(1) (which deals with industrial action before the nominal expiry date of an enterprise agreement etc.);

                     (k)  subsection 421(1) (which deals with contraventions of orders in relation to industrial action);

                      (l)  section 434 (which deals with contraventions of Ministerial directions in relation to industrial action);

                    (m)  subsection 530(4) (which deals with notifying Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals);

                     (n)  subsections 535(1) and (2) (which deal with employer obligations in relation to employee records);

                     (o)  subsections 536(1) and (2) (which deal with employer obligations in relation to pay slips);

                     (p)  subsection 745(1) (which deals with contraventions of the extended parental leave provisions);

                     (q)  section 760 (which deals with contraventions of the extended notice of termination provisions);

                      (r)  subsection 785(4) (which deals with notifying Centrelink of certain proposed terminations);

                      (s)  any other civil remedy provisions prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a contravention of a civil remedy provision that is committed by a person after a court has imposed a pecuniary penalty on the person for an earlier contravention of the provision.

558  Regulations dealing with infringement notices

             (1)  The regulations may provide for a person who is alleged to have contravened a civil remedy provision to pay a penalty to the Commonwealth as an alternative to civil proceedings.

             (2)  The penalty must not exceed one‑tenth of the maximum penalty that a court could have ordered the person to pay under section 546 if the court was satisfied that the person had contravened that provision.

Division 5Unclaimed money

559  Unclaimed money

Payment to the Commonwealth

             (1)  An employer may pay an amount to the Commonwealth if:

                     (a)  the employer was required to pay the amount to an employee under this Act or a fair work instrument; and

                     (b)  the employee has left the employment of the employer without having been paid the amount; and

                     (c)  the employer is unable to pay the amount to the employee because the employer does not know the employee’s whereabouts.

Discharge of employer

             (2)  Payment of the amount to the Commonwealth is a sufficient discharge to the employer, as against the employee, for the amount paid.

Payment where money later claimed

             (3)  The Fair Work Ombudsman, on behalf of the Commonwealth, must pay an amount to a person if:

                     (a)  the amount has been paid to the Commonwealth under this section; and

                     (b)  the person has made a claim for the amount in accordance with the form prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (c)  the Fair Work Ombudsman is satisfied that the person is entitled to the amount.

Appropriation of Consolidated Revenue Fund

             (4)  The Consolidated Revenue Fund is appropriated for the purposes of this section.

Part 4‑2Jurisdiction and powers of courts

Division 1Introduction

560  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

Divisions 2 and 3 confer jurisdiction on the Federal Court and the Federal Circuit Court. That jurisdiction is generally required to be exercised in the Fair Work Divisions of those courts.

Division 4 deals with intervention, costs, limitation on imprisonment, and regulations, in relation to proceedings in the Federal Court, the Federal Circuit Court and, in some cases, a court of a State or Territory.

561  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court

562  Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Court

                   Jurisdiction is conferred on the Federal Court in relation to any matter (whether civil or criminal) arising under this Act.

563  Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court

                   The jurisdiction conferred on the Federal Court under section 562 is to be exercised in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court if:

                     (a)  an application is made to the Federal Court under this Act; or

                     (b)  a writ of mandamus or prohibition or an injunction is sought in the Federal Court against a person holding office under this Act; or

                     (c)  a declaration is sought under section 21 of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 in relation to a matter arising under this Act; or

                     (d)  an injunction is sought under section 23 of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 in relation to a matter arising under this Act; or

                     (e)  a prosecution is instituted in the Federal Court under this Act; or

                      (f)  an appeal is instituted in the Federal Court from a judgment of the Federal Circuit Court or a court of a State or Territory in a matter arising under this Act; or

                     (g)  proceedings in relation to a matter arising under this Act are transferred to the Federal Court from the Federal Circuit Court; or

                     (h)  the Federal Circuit Court or a court of a State or Territory states a case or reserves a question for the consideration of the Federal Court in a matter arising under this Act; or

                      (i)  the President refers, under section 608 of this Act, a question of law to the Federal Court; or

                      (j)  the High Court remits a matter arising under this Act to the Federal Court.

564  No limitation on Federal Court’s powers

                   To avoid doubt, nothing in this Act limits the Federal Court’s powers under section 21, 22 or 23 of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976.

565  Appeals from eligible State or Territory courts

Appeals from original decisions of eligible State or Territory courts

             (1)  An appeal lies to the Federal Court from a decision of an eligible State or Territory court exercising jurisdiction under this Act.

          (1A)  No appeal lies from a decision of an eligible State or Territory court exercising jurisdiction under this Act, except:

                     (a)  if the court was exercising summary jurisdiction—an appeal, to that court or another eligible State or Territory court of the same State or Territory, as provided for by a law of that State or Territory; or

                     (b)  in any case—an appeal as provided for by subsection (1).

Appeals from appellate decisions of eligible State or Territory courts

          (1B)  An appeal lies to the Federal Court from a decision of an eligible State or Territory court made on appeal from a decision that:

                     (a)  was a decision of that court or another eligible State or Territory court of the same State or Territory; and

                     (b)  was made in the exercise of jurisdiction under this Act.

          (1C)  No appeal lies from a decision to which subsection (1B) applies, except an appeal as provided for by that subsection.

Leave to appeal not required

             (2)  It is not necessary to obtain the leave of the Federal Court, or the court appealed from, in relation to an appeal under subsection (1) or (1B).

Division 3Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Circuit Court

566  Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Circuit Court

                   Jurisdiction is conferred on the Federal Circuit Court in relation to any civil matter arising under this Act.

567  Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Circuit Court

                   Jurisdiction conferred on the Federal Circuit Court under section 566 is to be exercised in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Circuit Court if:

                     (a)  an application is made to the Federal Circuit Court under this Act; or

                     (b)  an injunction is sought under section 15 of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia Act 1999 in relation to a matter arising under this Act; or

                     (c)  a declaration is sought under section 16 of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia Act 1999 in relation to a matter arising under this Act; or

                     (d)  proceedings in relation to a matter arising under this Act are transferred to the Federal Circuit Court from the Federal Court; or

                     (e)  the High Court remits a matter arising under this Act to the Federal Circuit Court.

568  No limitation on Federal Circuit Court’s powers

                   To avoid doubt, nothing in this Act limits the Federal Circuit Court’s powers under section 14, 15 or 16 of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia Act 1999.

Division 4Miscellaneous

569  Minister’s entitlement to intervene

             (1)  The Minister may intervene on behalf of the Commonwealth in proceedings before a court (including a court of a State or Territory) in relation to a matter arising under this Act if the Minister believes it is in the public interest to do so.

             (2)  If the Minister intervenes, the Minister is taken to be a party to the proceedings for the purposes of instituting an appeal from a judgment given in the proceedings.

             (3)  Despite section 570, a court may make an order as to costs against the Commonwealth if:

                     (a)  the Minister intervenes under subsection (1); or

                     (b)  the Minister institutes an appeal from a judgment as referred to in subsection (2).

569A  State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to intervene

             (1)  The Minister of a State or Territory who has responsibility for workplace relations matters may intervene on behalf of the State or Territory in proceedings before a court (including a court of a State or Territory) in relation to a matter arising under this Act if he or she believes it is in the public interest of the State or Territory to do so.

             (2)  If the Minister of a State or Territory who has responsibility for workplace relations matters intervenes, he or she is taken to be a party to the proceedings for the purposes of instituting an appeal from a judgment given in the proceedings.

             (3)  Despite section 570, a court may make an order as to costs against a State or Territory if:

                     (a)  the Minister of a State or Territory who has responsibility for workplace relations matters intervenes under subsection (1); or

                     (b)  he or she institutes an appeal from a judgment as referred to in subsection (2).

570  Costs only if proceedings instituted vexatiously etc.

             (1)  A party to proceedings (including an appeal) in a court (including a court of a State or Territory) in relation to a matter arising under this Act may be ordered by the court to pay costs incurred by another party to the proceedings only in accordance with subsection (2) or section 569 or 569A.

Note:          The Commonwealth might be ordered to pay costs under section 569. A State or Territory might be ordered to pay costs under section 569A.

             (2)  The party may be ordered to pay the costs only if:

                     (a)  the court is satisfied that the party instituted the proceedings vexatiously or without reasonable cause; or

                     (b)  the court is satisfied that the party’s unreasonable act or omission caused the other party to incur the costs; or

                     (c)  the court is satisfied of both of the following:

                              (i)  the party unreasonably refused to participate in a matter before the FWC;

                             (ii)  the matter arose from the same facts as the proceedings.

571  No imprisonment for failure to pay pecuniary penalty

             (1)  A court (including a court of a State or Territory) may not order a person to serve a sentence of imprisonment if the person fails to pay a pecuniary penalty imposed under this Act.

             (2)  This section applies despite any other law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

572  Regulations dealing with matters relating to court proceedings

                   The regulations may provide for the fees to be charged in relation to proceedings in a court (including a court of a State or Territory) under this Act.

Chapter 5Administration

Part 5‑1The Fair Work Commission

Division 1Introduction

573  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the Fair Work Commission.

Division 2 establishes and confers functions on the FWC. The FWC consists of the President, Vice Presidents, Deputy Presidents, Commissioners and Expert Panel Members. Division 2 also confers functions on the President.

Division 3 deals with the conduct of matters before the FWC (such as applications, representation by lawyers, the FWC’s decisions and appeals).

Division 4 deals with the organisation of the FWC, who may perform functions of the FWC and delegation of the FWC’s functions and powers. Certain functions must be performed by a Full Bench or an Expert Panel.

Division 5 deals with the appointment, terms and conditions of FWC Members.

Division 6 deals with cooperation with the States.

Division 7 deals with the FWC’s seal. It also deals with other powers and functions of the President and the General Manager (including in relation to annual reports, reports on making enterprise agreements, arrangements with certain courts, and disclosing information obtained by the FWC).

Division 8 is about the General Manager of the FWC (whose function is to assist the President), staff of the FWC and others assisting the FWC.

Division 9 contains offences in relation to the FWC.

574  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2Establishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission

Subdivision AEstablishment and functions of the Fair Work Commission

575  Establishment of the Fair Work Commission

             (1)  The body known immediately before the commencement of this subsection as Fair Work Australia is continued in existence as the Fair Work Commission.

Note:          See also subsection 25B(1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

             (2)  The Fair Work Commission consists of:

                     (a)  the President; and

                    (aa)  2 Vice Presidents; and

                     (b)  such number of Deputy Presidents as, from time to time, hold office under this Act; and

                     (c)  such number of Commissioners as, from time to time, hold office under this Act; and

                     (d)  6 Expert Panel Members.

Note:          The Fair Work Commission also has a General Manager and staff (see Division 8).

576  Functions of the FWC

             (1)  The FWC has the functions conferred by this Act in relation to the following subject matters:

                     (a)  the National Employment Standards (Part 2‑2);

                     (b)  modern awards (Part 2‑3);

                     (c)  enterprise agreements (Part 2‑4);

                     (d)  workplace determinations (Part 2‑5);

                     (e)  minimum wages (Part 2‑6);

                      (f)  equal remuneration (Part 2‑7);

                     (g)  transfer of business (Part 2‑8);

                     (h)  general protections (Part 3‑1);

                      (i)  unfair dismissal (Part 3‑2);

                      (j)  industrial action (Part 3‑3);

                     (k)  right of entry (Part 3‑4);

                      (l)  stand down (Part 3‑5);

                    (m)  other rights and responsibilities (Part 3‑6);

                     (n)  the extension of the National Employment Standards entitlements (Part 6‑3);

                   (na)  transfer of business from a State public sector employer (Part 6‑3A);

                     (o)  unlawful termination protections (Part 6‑4);

                     (p)  special provisions about TCF outworkers (Part 6‑4A);

                     (q)  workers bullied at work (Part 6‑4B).

             (2)  The FWC also has the following functions:

                    (aa)  promoting cooperative and productive workplace relations and preventing disputes;

                     (a)  dealing with disputes as referred to in section 595;

                     (b)  providing assistance and advice about its functions and activities;

                     (c)  providing administrative support in accordance with an arrangement under section 650 or 653A;

                    (ca)  mediating any proceedings, part of proceedings or matter arising out of any proceedings that, under section 53A of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 or section 34 of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia Act 1999, have been referred by the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court or Federal Circuit Court to the FWC for mediation;

                     (d)  any other function conferred on the FWC by a law of the Commonwealth.

Note:          Section 13 of the Registered Organisations Act confers additional functions on the FWC.

577  Performance of functions etc. by the FWC

                   The FWC must perform its functions and exercise its powers in a manner that:

                     (a)  is fair and just; and

                     (b)  is quick, informal and avoids unnecessary technicalities; and

                     (c)  is open and transparent; and

                     (d)  promotes harmonious and cooperative workplace relations.

Note:          The President also is responsible for ensuring that the FWC performs its functions and exercises its powers efficiently etc. (see section 581).

578  Matters the FWC must take into account in performing functions etc.

                   In performing functions or exercising powers, in relation to a matter, under a part of this Act (including this Part), the FWC must take into account:

                     (a)  the objects of this Act, and any objects of the part of this Act; and

                     (b)  equity, good conscience and the merits of the matter; and

                     (c)  the need to respect and value the diversity of the work force by helping to prevent and eliminate discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, age, physical or mental disability, marital status, family or carer’s responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin.

579  FWC has privileges and immunities of the Crown

                   The FWC has the privileges and immunities of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth.

580  Protection of FWC Members

                   An FWC Member has, in performing his or her functions or exercising his or her powers as an FWC Member, the same protection and immunity as a Justice of the High Court.

Note:          See also section 584B (which deals with protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members).

Subdivision BFunctions and powers of the President

581  Functions of the President

                   The President is responsible for ensuring that the FWC performs its functions and exercises its powers in a manner that:

                     (a)  is efficient; and

                     (b)  adequately serves the needs of employers and employees throughout Australia.

Note:          The President must perform his or her own functions and exercise his or her own powers in a manner that facilitates cooperation with prescribed State industrial authorities (see section 649).

581A  Dealing with a complaint about an FWC Member

             (1)  Without limiting section 581 (which deals with the functions of the President), the President may:

                     (a)  deal, in accordance with subsection (2) of this section, with a complaint about the performance by another FWC Member of his or her duties; and

                     (b)  take any measures that the President believes are reasonably necessary to maintain public confidence in the FWC, including (but not limited to) temporarily restricting the duties of the FWC Member.

Note 1:       The complaint is a complaint about an FWC Member (see section 12).

Note 2:       The Minister may also handle complaints about FWC Members (see section 641A).

             (2)  The President may deal with a complaint about an FWC Member referred to in paragraph (1)(a) by doing either or both of the following:

                     (a)  deciding whether or not to handle the complaint and then doing one of the following:

                              (i)  dismissing the complaint;

                             (ii)  handling the complaint if the President has a relevant belief in relation to the complaint;

                            (iii)  arranging for any other person to assist the President to handle the complaint if the President has a relevant belief in relation to the complaint;

                     (b)  arranging for any other complaint handlers to decide whether or not to handle the complaint and then to do one of the following:

                              (i)  dismiss the complaint;

                             (ii)  handle the complaint if each of the complaint handlers has a relevant belief in relation to the complaint.

Note 1:       A complaint handler (other than the President) may handle a complaint by referring it to the President. The President may then do either or both of the things referred to in paragraph (2)(a) or (b) in respect of the complaint.

Note 2:       For protections for persons involved in relation to handling a complaint about an FWC Member, see section 584B.

Authorisation of persons or bodies

             (3)  The President may authorise, in writing, a person or a body to do one or more of the following in relation to a complaint about an FWC Member referred to in paragraph (1)(a) (whether in relation to a specific complaint or generally):

                     (a)  assist the President to handle the complaint or complaints;

                     (b)  decide whether or not to handle the complaint or complaints;

                     (c)  dismiss the complaint or complaints;

                     (d)  handle the complaint or complaints.

Referral to Minister

             (4)  The President must refer a complaint about an FWC Member referred to in paragraph (1)(a) to the Minister if, after the complaint has been handled in accordance with subsection (2), the President is satisfied that:

                     (a)  one or more of the circumstances that gave rise to the complaint have been substantiated; and

                     (b)  each House of the Parliament should consider whether to present to the Governor‑General an address praying for the termination of the appointment of the FWC Member.

Note:          The appointment of an FWC Member may be terminated under section 641 if each House of the Parliament presents such an address to the Governor‑General.

             (5)  The Minister must consider whether each House of the Parliament should consider the matter referred to in paragraph (4)(b).

581B  Code of Conduct

             (1)  After consulting the other FWC Members, the President may determine a Code of Conduct for FWC Members.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit section 582 (which deals with directions by the President).

             (3)  The Code of Conduct must be published on the FWC’s website or by any other means that the President considers appropriate.

             (4)  A determination under subsection (1) is not a legislative instrument.

582  Directions by the President

The President may give directions

             (1)  The President may give directions under subsection (2) as to the manner in which the FWC is to perform its functions, exercise its powers or deal with matters.

             (2)  The President may give a direction that is of a general nature, or that relates to a particular matter, to one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  an FWC Member;

                     (b)  a Full Bench;

                     (c)  an Expert Panel;

                     (d)  the General Manager.

             (3)  The direction must not relate to a decision by the FWC.

             (4)  Without limiting subsection (2), the direction may be a direction of the following kind:

                     (a)  a direction about the conduct of 4 yearly reviews of modern awards under Division 4 of Part 2‑3;

                    (aa)  a direction about the conduct of 4 yearly reviews of default fund terms of modern awards under Division 4A of Part 2‑3;

                     (b)  a direction about the conduct of annual wage reviews;

                     (c)  a direction that 2 or more matters be dealt with jointly by one or more single FWC Members or one or more Full Benches;

                     (d)  a direction about the transfer between FWC Members (including a transfer between Full Benches) of one or more matters being dealt with by the FWC.

Persons must comply with the President’s directions

             (5)  A person to whom a direction is given must comply with the direction.

Note:          For directions to the General Manager, see section 658.

Direction is not a legislative instrument

             (6)  If a direction is in writing, the direction is not a legislative instrument.

583  President not subject to direction

                   The President is not subject to direction by or on behalf of the Commonwealth.

584  Delegation of functions and powers of the President

             (1)  The President may, in writing, delegate to a Vice President or a Deputy President all or any of the President’s functions or powers, other than under:

                    (aa)  paragraph 581A(1)(b) (which deals with taking measures to maintain public confidence in the FWC); or

                     (a)  section 620 (which deals with the constitution and decision‑making of an Expert Panel); or

                     (b)  section 625 (which deals with the delegation of functions and powers of the FWC).

             (2)  In performing functions or exercising powers under a delegation, the delegate must comply with any directions of the President.

Note:          See also sections 34AA and 34AB of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

Subdivision CProtection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members

584B  Protection of persons involved in handling etc. complaints about FWC Members

             (1)  A person who is exercising powers or performing functions under or for the purposes of paragraph 581A(1)(a), subsections 581A(2) to (5), or section 641A, in relation to a complaint about an FWC Member, or assisting in exercising those powers or performing those functions, has the same protection and immunity as a Justice of the High Court.

             (2)  A witness requested to attend, or appearing, before a complaint handler or any other person, in relation to a complaint about an FWC Member, has the same protection, and is subject to the same liabilities in proceedings, as a witness in a case tried by the High Court.

             (3)  A lawyer assisting, or appearing on behalf of a person before, a complaint handler or any other person, in relation to a complaint about an FWC Member, has the same protection and immunity as a barrister has in appearing for a party in proceedings in the High Court.

Division 3Conduct of matters before the FWC

Subdivision AApplications to the FWC

585  Applications in accordance with procedural rules

                   An application to the FWC must be in accordance with the procedural rules (if any) relating to applications of that kind.

Note 1:       Certain provisions might impose additional requirements in relation to particular kinds of applications (see for example subsection 185(2)).

Note 2:       The FWC may, under section 587, dismiss an application that is not made in accordance with the procedural rules.

586  Correcting and amending applications and documents etc.

                   The FWC may:

                     (a)  allow a correction or amendment of any application, or other document relating to a matter before the FWC, on any terms that it considers appropriate; or

                     (b)  waive an irregularity in the form or manner in which an application is made to the FWC.

587  Dismissing applications

             (1)  Without limiting when the FWC may dismiss an application, the FWC may dismiss an application if:

                     (a)  the application is not made in accordance with this Act; or

                     (b)  the application is frivolous or vexatious; or

                     (c)  the application has no reasonable prospects of success.

Note:          For another power of the FWC to dismiss an application for a remedy for unfair dismissal made under Division 5 of Part 3‑2, see section 399A.

             (2)  Despite paragraphs (1)(b) and (c), the FWC must not dismiss an application under section 365 or 773 on the ground that the application:

                     (a)  is frivolous or vexatious; or

                     (b)  has no reasonable prospects of success.

             (3)  The FWC may dismiss an application:

                     (a)  on its own initiative; or

                     (b)  on application.

588  Discontinuing applications

                   A person who has applied to the FWC may discontinue the application:

                     (a)  in accordance with the procedural rules (if any); and

                     (b)  whether or not the matter has been settled.

Subdivision BConduct of matters before the FWC

589  Procedural and interim decisions

             (1)  The FWC may make decisions as to how, when and where a matter is to be dealt with.

             (2)  The FWC may make an interim decision in relation to a matter before it.

             (3)  The FWC may make a decision under this section:

                     (a)  on its own initiative; or

                     (b)  on application.

             (4)  This section does not limit the FWC’s power to make decisions.

590  Powers of the FWC to inform itself

             (1)  The FWC may, except as provided by this Act, inform itself in relation to any matter before it in such manner as it considers appropriate.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), the FWC may inform itself in the following ways:

                     (a)  by requiring a person to attend before the FWC;

                     (b)  by inviting, subject to any terms and conditions determined by the FWC, oral or written submissions;

                     (c)  by requiring a person to provide copies of documents or records, or to provide any other information to the FWC;

                     (d)  by taking evidence under oath or affirmation in accordance with the regulations (if any);

                     (e)  by requiring an FWC Member, a Full Bench or an Expert Panel to prepare a report;

                      (f)  by conducting inquiries;

                     (g)  by undertaking or commissioning research;

                     (h)  by conducting a conference (see section 592);

                      (i)  by holding a hearing (see section 593).

591  FWC not bound by rules of evidence and procedure

                   The FWC is not bound by the rules of evidence and procedure in relation to a matter before it (whether or not the FWC holds a hearing in relation to the matter).

592  Conferences

             (1)  For the purpose of performing a function or exercising a power of the FWC (other than a function or power under Part 2‑6), the FWC may direct a person to attend a conference at a specified time and place.

Note:          Part 2‑6 deals with minimum wages. For the conduct of annual wage reviews, see Subdivision B of Division 3 of Part 2‑6.

             (2)  An FWC Member (other than an Expert Panel Member), or a delegate of the FWC, is responsible for conducting the conference.

             (3)  The conference must be conducted in private, unless the person responsible for conducting the conference directs that it be conducted in public.

Note:          This subsection does not apply in relation to conferences conducted in relation to unfair dismissal or general protection matters (see sections 368, 374, 398 and 776).

             (4)  At a conference, the FWC may:

                     (a)  mediate or conciliate; or

                     (b)  make a recommendation or express an opinion.

             (5)  Subsection (4) does not limit what the FWC may do at a conference.

593  Hearings

             (1)  The FWC is not required to hold a hearing in performing functions or exercising powers, except as provided by this Act.

             (2)  If the FWC holds a hearing in relation to a matter, the hearing must be held in public, except as provided by subsection (3).

Confidential evidence in hearings

             (3)  The FWC may make the following orders in relation to a hearing that the FWC holds if the FWC is satisfied that it is desirable to do so because of the confidential nature of any evidence, or for any other reason:

                     (a)  orders that all or part of the hearing is to be held in private;

                     (b)  orders about who may be present at the hearing;

                     (c)  orders prohibiting or restricting the publication of the names and addresses of persons appearing at the hearing;

                     (d)  orders prohibiting or restricting the publication of, or the disclosure to some or all of the persons present at the hearing of, the following:

                              (i)  evidence given in the hearing;

                             (ii)  matters contained in documents before the FWC in relation to the hearing.

             (4)  Subsection (3) does not apply to the publication of a submission made to the FWC for consideration in an annual wage review (see subsection 289(2)).

594  Confidential evidence

             (1)  The FWC may make an order prohibiting or restricting the publication of the following in relation to a matter before the FWC (whether or not the FWC holds a hearing in relation to the matter) if the FWC is satisfied that it is desirable to do so because of the confidential nature of any evidence, or for any other reason:

                     (a)  evidence given to the FWC in relation to the matter;

                     (b)  the names and addresses of persons making submissions to the FWC in relation to the matter;

                     (c)  matters contained in documents lodged with the FWC or received in evidence by the FWC in relation to the matter;

                     (d)  the whole or any part of its decisions or reasons in relation to the matter.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply to the publication of a submission made to the FWC for consideration in an annual wage review (see subsection 289(2)).

595  FWC’s power to deal with disputes

             (1)  The FWC may deal with a dispute only if the FWC is expressly authorised to do so under or in accordance with another provision of this Act.

             (2)  The FWC may deal with a dispute (other than by arbitration) as it considers appropriate, including in the following ways:

                     (a)  by mediation or conciliation;

                     (b)  by making a recommendation or expressing an opinion.

             (3)  The FWC may deal with a dispute by arbitration (including by making any orders it considers appropriate) only if the FWC is expressly authorised to do so under or in accordance with another provision of this Act.

Example:    Parties may consent to the FWC arbitrating a bargaining dispute (see subsection 240(4)).

             (4)  In dealing with a dispute, the FWC may exercise any powers it has under this Subdivision.

Example:    The FWC could direct a person to attend a conference under section 592.

             (5)  To avoid doubt, the FWC must not exercise the power referred to in subsection (3) in relation to a matter before the FWC except as authorised by this section.

Subdivision CRepresentation by lawyers and paid agents and Minister’s entitlement to make submissions

596  Representation by lawyers and paid agents

             (1)  Except as provided by subsection (3) or the procedural rules, a person may be represented in a matter before the FWC (including by making an application or submission to the FWC on behalf of the person) by a lawyer or paid agent only with the permission of the FWC.

             (2)  The FWC may grant permission for a person to be represented by a lawyer or paid agent in a matter before the FWC only if:

                     (a)  it would enable the matter to be dealt with more efficiently, taking into account the complexity of the matter; or

                     (b)  it would be unfair not to allow the person to be represented because the person is unable to represent himself, herself or itself effectively; or

                     (c)  it would be unfair not to allow the person to be represented taking into account fairness between the person and other persons in the same matter.

Note:          Circumstances in which the FWC might grant permission for a person to be represented by a lawyer or paid agent include the following:

(a)    where a person is from a non‑English speaking background or has difficulty reading or writing;

(b)    where a small business is a party to a matter and has no specialist human resources staff while the other party is represented by an officer or employee of an industrial association or another person with experience in workplace relations advocacy.

             (3)  The FWC’s permission is not required for a person to be represented by a lawyer or paid agent in making a written submission under Part 2‑3 or 2‑6 (which deal with modern awards and minimum wages).

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a person is taken not to be represented by a lawyer or paid agent if the lawyer or paid agent:

                     (a)  is an employee or officer of the person; or

                     (b)  is an employee or officer of:

                              (i)  an organisation; or

                             (ii)  an association of employers that is not registered under the Registered Organisations Act; or

                            (iii)  a peak council; or

                            (iv)  a bargaining representative;

                            that is representing the person; or

                     (c)  is a bargaining representative.

597  Minister’s entitlement to make submissions

             (1)  The Minister is entitled to make a submission for consideration in relation to a matter before the FWC if:

                     (a)  the matter is before a Full Bench and it is in the public interest for the Minister to make a submission; or

                     (b)  the matter involves public sector employment.

             (2)  Subsection (1) applies whether or not the FWC holds a hearing in relation to the matter.

597A  State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to make submissions

             (1)  The Minister of a State or Territory who has responsibility for workplace relations matters is entitled to make a submission for consideration in relation to a matter before the FWC if:

                     (a)  the matter is before a Full Bench; and

                     (b)  it is in the public interest of the State or Territory for the Minister of the State or Territory to make a submission.

             (2)  Subsection (1) applies whether or not the FWC holds a hearing in relation to the matter.

Subdivision DDecisions of the FWC

598  Decisions of the FWC

             (1)  A reference in this Part to a decision of the FWC includes any decision of the FWC however described. However, to avoid doubt, a reference to a decision of the FWC does not include an outcome of a process carried out in accordance with subsection 595(2) (which deals with the FWC’s power to deal with disputes).

Note:          Examples of decisions that the FWC makes include making modern awards, approving or refusing to approve enterprise agreements, decisions as to how, when and where a matter is to be dealt with, deciding whether to grant permission to hear an appeal, and decisions in relation to appeals.

             (2)  If the FWC makes a decision that makes or varies an instrument, a reference in this Part to a decision of the FWC includes the FWC’s decision to make or vary the instrument in the particular terms decided.

             (3)  A decision of the FWC that is described as an order must be made by order.

Note:          An example of a decision that is described as an order is a bargaining order.

             (4)  A decision of the FWC that is not described as an order may be made by order.

599  FWC not required to decide an application in terms applied for

                   Except as provided by this Act, the FWC is not required to make a decision in relation to an application in the terms applied for.

600  Determining matters in the absence of a person

                   The FWC may determine a matter before it in the absence of a person who has been required to attend before it.

601  Writing and publication requirements for the FWC’s decisions

             (1)  The following decisions of the FWC must be in writing:

                     (a)  a decision of the FWC made under a Part of this Act other than this Part;

                     (b)  an interim decision that relates to a decision to be made under a Part of this Act other than this Part;

                     (c)  a decision in relation to an appeal or review.

Note:          For appeals and reviews, see sections 604 and 605.

             (2)  The FWC may give written reasons for any decision that it makes.

             (3)  A decision, and reasons, that are in writing must be expressed in plain English and be easy to understand in structure and content.

             (4)  The FWC must publish the following, on its website or by any other means that the FWC considers appropriate:

                     (a)  a decision that is required to be in writing and any written reasons that the FWC gives in relation to such a decision;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement that has been approved by the FWC under Part 2‑4.

The FWC must do so as soon as practicable after making the decision or approving the agreement.

             (5)  Subsection (4) does not apply to any of the following decisions or reasons in relation to such decisions:

                     (a)  a decision to issue, or refuse to issue, a certificate under paragraph 368(3)(a);

                     (c)  a decision to issue an entry permit under section 512;

                     (d)  a decision to impose conditions on an entry permit under section 515;

                     (e)  a decision to issue, or refuse to issue, an exemption certificate under section 519;

                      (f)  a decision to issue, or refuse to issue, an affected member certificate under section 520;

                     (g)  a decision or reasons in relation to which an order is in operation under paragraph 594(1)(d).

             (6)  Subsections (1) and (4) do not limit the FWC’s power to put decisions in writing or publish decisions.

602  Correcting obvious errors etc. in relation to the FWC’s decisions

             (1)  The FWC may correct or amend any obvious error, defect or irregularity (whether in substance or form) in relation to a decision of the FWC (other than an error, defect or irregularity in a modern award or national minimum wage order).

Note 1:       If the FWC makes a decision to make an instrument, the FWC may correct etc. the instrument under this section (see subsection 598(2)).

Note 2:       The FWC corrects modern awards and national minimum wage orders under sections 160 and 296.

             (2)  The FWC may correct or amend the error, defect or irregularity:

                     (a)  on its own initiative; or

                     (b)  on application.

603  Varying and revoking the FWC’s decisions

             (1)  The FWC may vary or revoke a decision of the FWC that is made under this Act (other than a decision referred to in subsection (3)).

Note:          If the FWC makes a decision to make an instrument, the FWC may vary or revoke the instrument under this subsection (see subsection 598(2)).

             (2)  The FWC may vary or revoke a decision under this section:

                     (a)  on its own initiative; or

                     (b)  on application by:

                              (i)  a person who is affected by the decision; or

                             (ii)  if the kind of decision is prescribed by the regulations—a person prescribed by the regulations in relation to that kind of decision.

             (3)  The FWC must not vary or revoke any of the following decisions of the FWC under this section:

                     (a)  a decision under Part 2‑3 (which deals with modern awards);

                     (b)  a decision under section 235 or Division 4, 7, 9 or 10 of Part 2‑4 (which deal with enterprise agreements);

                     (c)  a decision under Part 2‑5 (which deals with workplace determinations);

                     (d)  a decision under Part 2‑6 (which deals with minimum wages);

                     (e)  a decision under Division 3 of Part 2‑8 (which deals with transfer of business);

                      (f)  a decision under Division 8 of Part 3‑3 (which deals with protected action ballots);

                     (g)  a decision under section 472 (which deals with partial work bans);

                     (h)  a decision that is prescribed by the regulations.

Note:          The FWC can vary or revoke decisions, and instruments made by decisions, under other provisions of this Act (see, for example, sections 447 and 448).

Subdivision EAppeals, reviews and referring questions of law

604  Appeal of decisions

             (1)  A person who is aggrieved by a decision:

                     (a)  made by the FWC (other than a decision of a Full Bench or an Expert Panel); or

                     (b)  made by the General Manager (including a delegate of the General Manager) under the Registered Organisations Act;

may appeal the decision, with the permission of the FWC.

             (2)  Without limiting when the FWC may grant permission, the FWC must grant permission if the FWC is satisfied that it is in the public interest to do so.

Note:          Subsection (2) does not apply in relation to an application for an unfair dismissal (see section 400).

             (3)  A person may appeal the decision by applying to the FWC.

605  Minister’s entitlement to apply for review of a decision

             (1)  The Minister may apply to the FWC for a review to be conducted by the FWC of a decision made by the FWC (other than a decision of a Full Bench or an Expert Panel) if the Minister believes that the decision is contrary to the public interest.

             (2)  Without limiting when the FWC may conduct a review, the FWC must conduct a review of the decision if the FWC is satisfied that it is in the public interest to conduct the review.

Note:          The FWC must be constituted by a Full Bench to decide whether to conduct a review, and to conduct the review (see section 614).

             (3)  In conducting a review:

                     (a)  the FWC must take such steps as it considers appropriate to ensure that each person with an interest in the review is made aware of the review; and

                     (b)  the Minister is entitled to make submissions for consideration in the review.

             (4)  Nothing in this section affects any right of appeal or any power of the FWC under section 604 or 607. A review of a decision and an appeal of the decision may be dealt with together if the FWC considers it appropriate.

606  Staying decisions that are appealed or reviewed