Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

Primary content

Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006

Authoritative Version
  • - C2014C00030
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 14 of 2006 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Amendment (Cash Bidding) Act 2013
An Act about petroleum exploration and recovery, and the injection and storage of greenhouse gas substances, in offshore areas, and for other purposes
Administered by: Industry
Registered 09 Jan 2014
Start Date 14 Dec 2013
End Date 30 Jun 2014

Commonwealth Coat of Arms

Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006

No. 14, 2006 as amended

Compilation start date:                     14 December 2013

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 141, 2013

This compilation has been split into 3 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–465

Volume 2:       sections 466–791

Volume 3:       Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006 as in force on 14 December 2013. It includes any commenced amendment affecting the legislation to that date.

This compilation was prepared on 24 December 2013.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of each amended provision.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not reflected in the text of the compiled law but the text of the amendments is included in the endnotes.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Modifications

If a provision of the compiled law is affected by a modification that is in force, details are included in the endnotes.

Provisions ceasing to have effect

If a provision of the compiled law has expired or otherwise ceased to have effect in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                       1

Part 1.1—Legislative formalities and background                                            1

1............ Short title............................................................................................. 1

2............ Commencement................................................................................... 1

3............ Object.................................................................................................. 2

4............ Simplified outline................................................................................ 2

5............ Commonwealth‑State agreement (the Offshore Constitutional Settlement)              5

6............ Simplified maps.................................................................................. 8

Part 1.2—Interpretation                                                                                                  14

Division 1—General                                                                                                    14

7............ Definitions........................................................................................ 14

8............ Offshore areas of the States and Territories...................................... 41

9............ Spaces above and below offshore areas............................................ 45

10.......... Term of titles..................................................................................... 46

11.......... Renewal of titles................................................................................ 48

12.......... Variation of titles............................................................................... 50

13.......... Tied titles........................................................................................... 51

14.......... Vacated area...................................................................................... 51

15.......... Infrastructure facilities....................................................................... 53

16.......... Terminal station................................................................................. 55

17.......... Terminal point................................................................................... 55

18.......... Declared greenhouse gas facility....................................................... 56

19.......... Extended meaning of explore............................................................ 56

20.......... Potential greenhouse gas storage formation...................................... 57

21.......... Eligible greenhouse gas storage formation........................................ 58

22.......... Potential greenhouse gas injection site.............................................. 61

23.......... Incidental greenhouse gas‑related substance..................................... 61

24.......... Site plan—identified greenhouse gas storage formation.................... 62

25.......... Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—approval of key petroleum operations          62

26.......... Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—grant of petroleum production licence          64

27.......... Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—approval of key greenhouse gas operations 66

28.......... Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—grant of greenhouse gas injection licence     68

29.......... Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—power of responsible Commonwealth Minister to protect petroleum.......................................................................................................... 70

30.......... Direction given by the responsible Commonwealth Minister............ 71

31.......... Securities........................................................................................... 71

32.......... Designated agreements...................................................................... 72

33.......... Graticulation of Earth’s surface and constitution of blocks............... 73

34.......... External Territories............................................................................ 75

35.......... Application of Act............................................................................. 75

36.......... Certain pipelines provisions to apply subject to international obligations 76

Division 2—Datum provisions                                                                               77

Subdivision A—Datum for ascertaining the position of points etc.             77

37.......... Objects.............................................................................................. 77

38.......... Definitions........................................................................................ 77

39.......... Australian Geodetic Datum............................................................... 78

40.......... Geocentric Datum of Australia.......................................................... 78

41.......... Current datum, previous datum and changeover time........................ 79

42.......... Use of current datum......................................................................... 80

43.......... Use of previous datum...................................................................... 81

44.......... Variation of titles and instruments..................................................... 83

45.......... Variation of applications for titles..................................................... 85

46.......... No change to actual position of point, line or area............................. 86

47.......... Transitional regulations..................................................................... 86

48.......... International Seabed Agreements...................................................... 86

Subdivision B—Certain points etc. specified in an International Seabed Agreement to be ascertained by other means                                                                                                         86

49.......... Certain points etc. specified in an International Seabed Agreement to be ascertained by other means      86

Division 3—Apportionment of petroleum recovered from adjoining title areas              88

50.......... Title................................................................................................... 88

51.......... Titleholder and title area.................................................................... 88

52.......... Petroleum recovered through inclined well....................................... 88

53.......... Petroleum pool straddling 2 title areas etc......................................... 89

54.......... Petroleum pool straddling Commonwealth title area and State title area etc.             90

55.......... Unit development.............................................................................. 91

Part 1.3—Joint Authorities                                                                                            92

Division 1—Joint Authorities                                                                                 92

56.......... Joint Authorities................................................................................ 92

57.......... Functions and powers of Joint Authorities....................................... 93

58.......... Procedure of Joint Authority............................................................. 94

59.......... Decision‑making............................................................................... 94

60.......... Opinion or state of mind of Joint Authority...................................... 95

61.......... Records of decisions of Joint Authority............................................ 95

62.......... Signing of documents....................................................................... 96

63.......... Communications with Joint Authority.............................................. 96

64.......... Judicial notice of signature of member of a Joint Authority.............. 96

65.......... Issue of documents, and service of notices, on behalf of Joint Authority 98

66.......... Delegation by a Joint Authority for a State (other than Tasmania) or the Northern Territory   99

66A....... Delegation by Joint Authority for Tasmania................................... 100

67.......... Delegation by Greater Sunrise Offshore Petroleum Joint Authority 101

68.......... Delegation by Joint Authority for an external Territory.................. 102

69.......... Greater Sunrise Offshore Petroleum Joint Authority—consultations 103

Division 3—Finance                                                                                                   104

75.......... Payments by the Commonwealth to Western Australia—Royalty Act payments     104

Part 1.4—Application of State and Territory laws in offshore areas 106

78.......... Simplified outline............................................................................ 106

79.......... Meaning of laws............................................................................. 106

80.......... Application of State and Territory laws in offshore areas............... 106

81.......... Disapplication and modification of laws......................................... 109

82.......... Limit on application of laws............................................................ 109

83.......... Inconsistent law not applied............................................................ 109

84.......... Criminal laws not applied................................................................ 109

85.......... Tax laws not applied....................................................................... 110

86.......... Appropriation law not applied......................................................... 110

87.......... Applied laws not to confer Commonwealth judicial power............. 110

88.......... Applied laws not to contravene constitutional restrictions on conferral of powers on courts   110

89.......... State or Northern Territory occupational health and safety laws do not apply in relation to facilities       110

90.......... No limits on ordinary operation of law........................................... 113

91.......... Jurisdiction of State courts.............................................................. 113

92.......... Jurisdiction of Territory courts........................................................ 114

93.......... Validation of certain acts................................................................. 114

94.......... Certain provisions not affected by this Part..................................... 114

Chapter 2—Regulation of activities relating to petroleum 115

Part 2.1—Introduction                                                                                                    115

95.......... Simplified outline............................................................................ 115

Part 2.2—Petroleum exploration permits                                                            117

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          117

96.......... Simplified outline............................................................................ 117

97.......... Prohibition of unauthorised exploration for petroleum in offshore area 118

98.......... Rights conferred by petroleum exploration permit.......................... 118

99.......... Conditions of petroleum exploration permits.................................. 119

100........ Declared petroleum exploration permit—approval by responsible Commonwealth Minister of key petroleum operations........................................................................................................ 122

101........ Declared petroleum exploration permits.......................................... 125

102........ Duration of petroleum exploration permit....................................... 127

103........ Extension of petroleum exploration permit if permittee applies for petroleum retention lease or petroleum production licence............................................................................................. 128

Division 2—Obtaining a work‑bid petroleum exploration permit    130

104........ Application for work‑bid petroleum exploration permit—advertising of blocks      130

105........ Grant of work‑bid petroleum exploration permit—offer document. 131

106........ Ranking of multiple applicants for work‑bid petroleum exploration permit              132

107........ Grant of work‑bid petroleum exploration permit............................. 134

108........ Withdrawal of application............................................................... 134

109........ Effect of withdrawal or lapse of application.................................... 135

Division 3—Obtaining a cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit     137

110........ Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—application...................... 137

111........ Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—cash bids......................... 138

112........ Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—cash bids less than the reserve price         139

112A..... Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—highest cash bids at or over the reserve price           142

112B..... Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—tie‑breaking invitation..... 143

113........ Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit—grant............................... 144

114........ Extension of cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit....................... 145

Division 4—Obtaining a special petroleum exploration permit over a surrendered block or certain other blocks                                                                                                      147

115........ Application for a special petroleum exploration permit over a surrendered block or certain other blocks 147

116........ Grant of special petroleum exploration permit—only one application 149

117........ Grant of special petroleum exploration permit—2 or more applications 149

118........ Grant of special petroleum exploration permit................................. 152

Division 5—Renewal of petroleum exploration permits                        153

119........ Application for renewal of petroleum exploration permit................ 153

120........ Non‑renewable cash‑bid petroleum exploration permits................. 154

121........ Limit on renewal of cash‑bid petroleum exploration permits........... 154

122........ Limits on renewal of work‑bid petroleum exploration permits and special petroleum exploration permits               154

123........ Standard halving rules..................................................................... 156

124........ Modified halving rules.................................................................... 158

125........ Renewal of petroleum exploration permit—offer document............ 159

126........ Refusal to renew petroleum exploration permit............................... 160

127........ Renewal of petroleum exploration permit........................................ 160

Division 6—Locations                                                                                              162

128........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 162

129........ Nomination of blocks as a location................................................. 162

130........ Requirement to nominate blocks as a location................................. 164

131........ Declaration of location.................................................................... 164

132........ Revocation of declaration................................................................ 165

133........ Variation of declaration................................................................... 167

Part 2.3—Petroleum retention leases                                                                     169

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          169

134........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 169

135........ Rights conferred by petroleum retention lease................................. 169

136........ Conditions of petroleum retention leases......................................... 170

137........ Declared petroleum retention lease—approval by responsible Commonwealth Minister of key petroleum operations........................................................................................................ 173

138........ Declared petroleum retention leases................................................ 176

139........ Duration of petroleum retention lease.............................................. 178

140........ Extension of petroleum retention lease if lessee applies for petroleum production licence        178

Division 2—Obtaining a petroleum retention lease                                  180

Subdivision A—Application for petroleum retention lease by the holder of a petroleum exploration permit      180

141........ Application for petroleum retention lease by the holder of a petroleum exploration permit      180

142........ Grant of petroleum retention lease—offer document....................... 181

143........ Refusal to grant petroleum retention lease....................................... 181

143A..... Time limit for making decision about grant of petroleum retention lease  182

144........ Grant of petroleum retention lease................................................... 183

145........ Petroleum exploration permit ceases to be in force when petroleum retention lease comes into force      183

146........ Petroleum exploration permit transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant       184

Subdivision B—Application for petroleum retention lease by the holder of a life‑of‑field petroleum production licence                                                                                          184

147........ Application for petroleum retention lease by the holder of a life‑of‑field petroleum production licence   184

148........ Grant of petroleum retention lease—offer document....................... 185

149........ Refusal to grant petroleum retention lease....................................... 186

149A..... Time limit for making decision about grant of petroleum retention lease  186

150........ Grant of petroleum retention lease................................................... 187

151........ Petroleum production licence ceases to be in force when petroleum retention lease comes into force      188

152........ Petroleum production licence transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant       188

Division 3—Renewal of petroleum retention leases                                 189

153........ Application for renewal of petroleum retention lease...................... 189

154........ Renewal of petroleum retention lease—offer document.................. 190

155........ Refusal to renew petroleum retention lease..................................... 192

155A..... Time limit for making decision about renewal of petroleum retention lease              194

156........ Renewal of petroleum retention lease.............................................. 195

Division 4—Revocation of petroleum retention leases                           196

157........ Notice of proposal to revoke petroleum retention lease................... 196

158........ Revocation of petroleum retention lease.......................................... 197

Part 2.4—Petroleum production licences                                                            199

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          199

159........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 199

160........ Prohibition of unauthorised recovery of petroleum in offshore area 200

161........ Rights conferred by petroleum production licence.......................... 200

162........ Conditions of petroleum production licences.................................. 202

163........ Declared petroleum production licence—approval by responsible Commonwealth Minister of key petroleum operations........................................................................................................ 205

164........ Declared petroleum production licences.......................................... 208

165........ Duration of petroleum production licence....................................... 209

166........ Termination of life‑of‑field petroleum production licence if no recovery operations for 5 years              211

167........ Petroleum production licences to which the Royalty Act applies.... 212

Division 2—Obtaining a petroleum production licence as a result of an application made by a petroleum exploration permittee or a petroleum retention lessee 213

168........ Application for petroleum production licence by permittee............. 213

169........ Application period........................................................................... 214

170........ Application for petroleum production licence by lessee.................. 215

171........ Offer document............................................................................... 216

172........ Consultation—Greater Sunrise unit reservoir petroleum production licence            219

173........ Refusal to grant petroleum production licence................................. 220

173A..... Time limit for making decision about grant of petroleum production licence            223

174........ Joint Authority may defer taking action on application for petroleum production licence if there is a pending application for a greenhouse gas assessment permit.......................................... 225

175........ Grant of petroleum production licence............................................ 226

176........ Petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease ceases to be in force when petroleum production licence comes into force......................................................................................... 226

177........ Petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant           227

Division 3—Obtaining a cash‑bid petroleum production licence over a surrendered block or similar block                                                                                                        229

178........ Application for cash‑bid petroleum production licence over surrendered blocks or similar blocks          229

179........ Grant of cash‑bid petroleum production licence—only one application 230

180........ Grant of cash‑bid petroleum production licence—2 or more applications                231

181........ Grant of cash‑bid petroleum production licence.............................. 233

Division 4—Obtaining petroleum production licences over individual blocks   235

182........ Applications for petroleum production licences over individual blocks 235

183........ Grant of petroleum production licences over individual blocks....... 236

Division 5—Renewal of fixed‑term petroleum production licences 238

184........ Application for renewal of fixed‑term petroleum production licence 238

185........ Renewal of fixed‑term petroleum production licence—offer document 239

186........ Refusal to renew fixed‑term petroleum production licence.............. 241

186A..... Time limit for making decision about renewal of fixed‑term petroleum production licence      242

187........ Renewal of fixed‑term petroleum production licence...................... 243

Division 6—What happens if a block is not taken up                              244

188........ Revocation of petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease to the extent to which it relates to a block not taken up........................................................................................... 244

Division 7—Petroleum field development                                                      246

Subdivision A—Directions about the recovery of petroleum                     246

189........ Direction to recover petroleum........................................................ 246

190........ Directions about the rate of recovery of petroleum.......................... 246

Subdivision B—Unit development                                                                     248

191........ Unit development............................................................................ 248

Part 2.5—Infrastructure licences                                                                             252

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          252

192........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 252

193........ Prohibition of unauthorised construction or operation of an infrastructure facility in an offshore area     252

194........ Rights conferred by an infrastructure licence.................................. 253

195........ Conditions of infrastructure licences............................................... 254

196........ Duration of infrastructure licence.................................................... 254

197........ Termination of infrastructure licence if no operations for 5 years... 255

Division 2—Obtaining an infrastructure licence                                       257

198........ Application for infrastructure licence.............................................. 257

199........ Grant of infrastructure licence—offer document............................. 257

200........ Refusal to grant infrastructure licence............................................. 258

200A..... Time limit for making decision about grant of infrastructure licence 258

201........ Grant of infrastructure licence......................................................... 259

202........ Consultation with petroleum titleholders—grant of infrastructure licence                259

203........ Consultation with greenhouse gas titleholders—grant of infrastructure licence        261

Division 3—Varying an infrastructure licence                                           264

204........ Application for variation of infrastructure licence........................... 264

205........ Variation of infrastructure licence................................................... 264

206........ Consultation with petroleum titleholders—variation of infrastructure licence           266

207........ Consultation with greenhouse gas titleholders—variation of infrastructure licence  267

Division 4—Directions by responsible Commonwealth Minister      270

208........ Directions by responsible Commonwealth Minister....................... 270

Part 2.6—Pipeline licences                                                                                            271

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          271

209........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 271

210........ Prohibition of unauthorised construction or operation of a pipeline in an offshore area           271

211........ Rights conferred by pipeline licence................................................ 272

212........ Conditions of pipeline licences........................................................ 273

213........ Approval by Joint Authority of greenhouse gas substance to be conveyed in a pipeline          274

214........ Duration of pipeline licence............................................................. 276

215........ Termination of pipeline licence if no operations for 5 years............ 276

216........ Alteration or removal of pipeline constructed in breach of this Act. 278

Division 2—Obtaining a pipeline licence                                                        280

217........ Application for pipeline licence....................................................... 280

218........ Rights of petroleum production licensees following application for petroleum‑related pipeline licences by other persons........................................................................................................ 281

219........ Rights of petroleum production licensees following application for greenhouse gas‑related pipeline licences by other persons............................................................................................ 282

220........ Rights of greenhouse gas injection licensees following application for greenhouse gas‑related pipeline licences by other persons............................................................................................ 283

221........ Grant of petroleum‑related pipeline licence—offer document......... 285

222........ Grant of greenhouse gas‑related pipeline licence—offer document. 287

223........ Refusal to grant petroleum‑related pipeline licence.......................... 292

224........ Refusal to grant greenhouse gas‑related pipeline licence................. 293

225........ Grant of pipeline licence.................................................................. 297

Division 3—Varying a pipeline licence                                                            298

226........ Variation of pipeline licence on application by licensee................... 298

227........ Variation of pipeline licence at the request of a Minister or a statutory body            300

Division 4—Pipeline operation                                                                            303

228........ Ceasing to operate pipeline without consent.................................... 303

Part 2.7—Petroleum special prospecting authorities                                    304

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          304

229........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 304

230........ Rights conferred by petroleum special prospecting authority.......... 304

231........ Conditions of petroleum special prospecting authorities................. 305

232........ Duration of petroleum special prospecting authority....................... 305

233........ Petroleum special prospecting authority cannot be transferred........ 305

Division 2—Obtaining a petroleum special prospecting authority  306

234........ Application for petroleum special prospecting authority................. 306

235........ Grant or refusal of petroleum special prospecting authority............ 306

236........ Holders to be informed of the grant of another petroleum special prospecting authority          307

237........ Holders to be informed of the grant of greenhouse gas search authority  307

Part 2.8—Petroleum access authorities                                                                 309

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          309

238........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 309

239........ Rights conferred by petroleum access authority.............................. 309

240........ Conditions of petroleum access authorities..................................... 309

241........ Duration of petroleum access authority........................................... 310

Division 2—Obtaining a petroleum access authority                              311

242........ Application for petroleum access authority..................................... 311

243........ Grant or refusal of petroleum access authority................................ 312

244........ Consultation—grant of petroleum access authority in same offshore area                313

245........ Consultation—approval of grant of petroleum access authority in adjoining offshore area      314

Division 3—Variation of petroleum access authorities                          316

246........ Variation of petroleum access authority.......................................... 316

247........ Consultation—variation of petroleum access authority in same offshore area          316

248........ Consultation—approval of variation of petroleum access authority in adjoining offshore area                317

Division 4—Reporting obligations of holders of petroleum access authorities 319

249........ Reporting obligations of holders of petroleum access authorities.... 319

Division 5—Revocation of petroleum access authorities                      320

250........ Revocation of petroleum access authority....................................... 320

Part 2.9—Petroleum scientific investigation consents                                  321

251........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 321

252........ Rights conferred by petroleum scientific investigation consent....... 321

253........ Conditions of petroleum scientific investigation consents............... 321

254........ Grant of petroleum scientific investigation consent......................... 322

Part 2.10—Standard procedures                                                                              323

255........ Application and cash bid to be made in an approved manner.......... 323

256........ Application fee................................................................................ 323

257........ Application may set out additional matters...................................... 324

258........ Titles Administrator may require further information...................... 325

259........ Offer documents............................................................................. 327

260........ Acceptance of offer—request by applicant...................................... 329

260A..... Cash‑bid petroleum exploration permits—failure to respond to offer 333

261........ Special petroleum exploration permits and s 181 petroleum production licences—failure to pay             335

262........ Consultation—adverse decisions.................................................... 335

263........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may require information about negotiations for a designated agreement      337

Part 2.11—Variation, suspension and exemption                                          339

Division 1—Variation, suspension and exemption decisions relating to petroleum exploration permits, petroleum retention leases, petroleum production licences, infrastructure licences and pipeline licences                                                                                 339

264........ Variation, suspension and exemption—conditions of titles............. 339

265........ Extension of term of petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease—suspension or exemption           342

266........ Suspension of rights—petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease   342

267........ Extension of term of petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease—suspension of rights  343

Division 2—Variation, suspension and exemption decisions relating to petroleum special prospecting authorities and petroleum access authorities                    344

268........ Variation, suspension and exemption—conditions of petroleum special prospecting authorities and petroleum access authorities........................................................................................ 344

Part 2.12—Surrender of titles                                                                                    346

Division 1—Surrender of petroleum exploration permits, petroleum production licences, petroleum retention leases, infrastructure licences and pipeline licences          346

269........ Application for consent to surrender title........................................ 346

270........ Consent to surrender title................................................................ 346

271........ Surrender of title............................................................................. 350

Division 2—Surrender of petroleum special prospecting authorities and petroleum access authorities                                                                                                                    352

272........ Surrender of petroleum special prospecting authority..................... 352

273........ Surrender of petroleum access authority......................................... 352

Part 2.13—Cancellation of titles                                                                                353

Division 1—Cancellation of petroleum exploration permits, petroleum production licences, petroleum retention leases, infrastructure licences and pipeline licences          353

274........ Grounds for cancellation of title...................................................... 353

275........ Cancellation of title.......................................................................... 354

276........ Consultation.................................................................................... 354

277........ Cancellation of title not affected by other provisions....................... 355

277A..... NOPSEMA to notify the Titles Administrator of grounds for cancellation of title   357

Division 2—Cancellation of petroleum special prospecting authorities                359

278........ Cancellation of petroleum special prospecting authority.................. 359

Part 2.14—Other provisions                                                                                        360

279........ Reservation of blocks...................................................................... 360

280........ Interference with other rights.......................................................... 361

281........ No conditions about payment of money.......................................... 362

282........ Certain portions of blocks to be blocks........................................... 363

283........ Changes to the boundary of the coastal waters of a State or Territory 364

284........ Notification of discovery of petroleum in petroleum exploration permit area, petroleum retention lease area or petroleum production licence area.................................................................... 366

285........ Property in petroleum not recovered from a Greater Sunrise unit reservoir              367

286........ Property in petroleum recovered from a Greater Sunrise unit reservoir 368

286A..... Notification requirements—registered holders of titles................... 369

286B..... Publication of prescribed time limits............................................... 372

286C..... Report about decisions not made within time limits........................ 373

Chapter 3—Regulation of activities relating to injection and storage of greenhouse gas substances                                                                                          374

Part 3.1—Introduction                                                                                                    374

287........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 374

Part 3.2—Greenhouse gas assessment permits                                                376

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          376

288........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 376

289........ Prohibition of unauthorised exploration for potential greenhouse gas storage formation, or potential greenhouse gas injection site, in offshore area.......................................................... 377

290........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas assessment permit.................. 377

291........ Conditions of greenhouse gas assessment permits.......................... 379

292........ Approval by responsible Commonwealth Minister of key greenhouse gas operations            380

293........ Duration of greenhouse gas assessment permit............................... 384

294........ Extension of greenhouse gas assessment permit if permittee applies for a declaration of an identified greenhouse gas storage formation............................................................................ 385

295........ Extension of greenhouse gas assessment permit if permittee applies for a greenhouse gas holding lease or greenhouse gas injection licence......................................................................... 386

Division 2—Obtaining a work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit  389

296........ Application for work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit—advertising of blocks              389

297........ Petroleum retention lessee or petroleum production licensee to be notified of proposal to advertise blocks             390

298........ Grant of work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit—offer document 391

299........ Ranking of multiple applicants for work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit     392

300........ Grant of work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit.................... 394

301........ Withdrawal of application............................................................... 395

302........ Effect of withdrawal or lapse of application.................................... 396

Division 3—Obtaining a cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit 398

303........ Application for cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit........... 398

304........ Petroleum retention lessee or petroleum production licensee to be notified of proposal to advertise blocks             399

305........ Grant of cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit—only one application           400

306........ Grant of cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit—2 or more applications        401

307........ Grant of cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit..................... 403

Division 4—Renewal of greenhouse gas assessment permits              405

308........ Application for renewal of greenhouse gas assessment permit....... 405

309........ Renewal of greenhouse gas assessment permit—offer document... 406

310........ Refusal to renew greenhouse gas assessment permit...................... 409

311........ Renewal of greenhouse gas assessment permit............................... 410

Division 5—Declaration of identified greenhouse gas storage formation            412

312........ Declaration of identified greenhouse gas storage formation............ 412

313........ Variation of declaration of identified greenhouse gas storage formation  415

314........ Revocation of declaration of identified greenhouse gas storage formation               417

315........ Register of Identified Greenhouse Gas Storage Formations........... 418

Division 6—Directions                                                                                             419

316........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may give directions to greenhouse gas assessment permittees     419

317........ Compliance with directions............................................................. 420

Part 3.3—Greenhouse gas holding leases                                                            421

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          421

318........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 421

319........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas holding lease.......................... 422

320........ Conditions of greenhouse gas holding leases.................................. 423

321........ Approval by responsible Commonwealth Minister of key greenhouse gas operations            424

322........ Duration of greenhouse gas holding lease....................................... 428

323........ Extension of greenhouse gas holding lease if lessee applies for a special greenhouse gas holding lease or greenhouse gas injection licence............................................................................... 429

Division 2—Obtaining a greenhouse gas holding lease                          431

Subdivision A—Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a greenhouse gas assessment permit                                                                                                       431

324........ Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a greenhouse gas assessment permit       431

325........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease—offer document................ 434

326........ Refusal to grant greenhouse gas holding lease................................ 436

327........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease............................................ 436

328........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit ceases to be in force when greenhouse gas holding lease comes into force      437

329........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant              437

Subdivision B—Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a greenhouse gas injection licence                                                                                                       438

330........ Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a greenhouse gas injection licence          438

331........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease—offer document................ 439

332........ Refusal to grant greenhouse gas holding lease................................ 440

333........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease............................................ 440

334........ Greenhouse gas injection licence ceases to be in force when greenhouse gas holding lease comes into force          441

335........ Greenhouse gas injection licence transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant 441

Subdivision C—Application for special greenhouse gas holding lease by an unsuccessful applicant for a greenhouse gas injection licence                                                                 442

336........ Application for special greenhouse gas holding lease by an unsuccessful applicant for a greenhouse gas injection licence........................................................................................................ 442

337........ Grant of special greenhouse gas holding lease—offer document.... 444

338........ Grant of special greenhouse gas holding lease................................ 444

339........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit ceases to be in force when special greenhouse gas holding lease comes into force........................................................................................................ 445

340........ Ordinary greenhouse gas holding lease ceases to be in force when special greenhouse gas holding lease comes into force........................................................................................................ 445

341........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit transfer—transferee to be treated as applicant   445

342........ Greenhouse gas holding lease transfer—transferee to be treated as applicant           446

Subdivision D—Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a petroleum retention lease        447

343........ Application for greenhouse gas holding lease by the holder of a petroleum retention lease      447

344........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease—offer document................ 448

345........ Grant of greenhouse gas holding lease............................................ 448

346........ Petroleum retention lease transfer—transferee to be treated as applicant  449

Division 3—Renewal of greenhouse gas holding leases                         450

347........ Application for renewal of greenhouse gas holding lease............... 450

348........ Renewal of greenhouse gas holding lease—offer document........... 451

349........ Refusal to renew greenhouse gas holding lease.............................. 453

350........ Renewal of greenhouse gas holding lease....................................... 455

Division 4—Directions                                                                                             456

351........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may give directions to greenhouse gas holding lessees                456

352........ Compliance with directions............................................................. 457

Division 5—Special greenhouse gas holding lessee may be requested to apply for a greenhouse gas injection licence                                                                                 458

353........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may request special greenhouse gas holding lessee to apply for a greenhouse gas injection licence............................................................................... 458

Division 6—Cancellation of certain greenhouse gas holding leases granted to the holders of petroleum retention leases                                                                                  459

354........ Cancellation of certain greenhouse gas holding leases granted to the holders of petroleum retention leases             459

Part 3.4—Greenhouse gas injection licences                                                     460

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          460

355........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 460

356........ Prohibition of unauthorised injection and storage of substances in offshore area     461

357........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas injection licence..................... 462

358........ Conditions of greenhouse gas injection licences............................. 463

359........ Duration of greenhouse gas injection licence.................................. 467

360........ Termination of greenhouse gas injection licence if no injection operations for 5 years             467

Division 2—Obtaining a greenhouse gas injection licence                   470

Subdivision A—Application for greenhouse gas injection licence by the holder of a greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease                              470

361........ Application for greenhouse gas injection licence by greenhouse gas assessment permittee or greenhouse gas holding lessee............................................................................................... 470

362........ Offer document............................................................................... 474

363........ Refusal to grant greenhouse gas injection licence............................ 482

364........ Grant of greenhouse gas injection licence....................................... 482

365........ Deferral of decision to grant greenhouse gas injection licence—pending application for post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit........................................................................... 483

366........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease ceases to be in force when greenhouse gas injection licence comes into force.................................................................. 484

367........ Greenhouse gas assessment permit transfer—transferee to be treated as applicant   484

368........ Greenhouse gas holding lease transfer—transferee to be treated as applicant           484

Subdivision B—Application for greenhouse gas injection licence by the holder of a petroleum production licence                                                                                                       485

369........ Application for greenhouse gas injection licence by the holder of a petroleum production licence           485

370........ Grant of greenhouse gas injection licence—offer document........... 489

371........ Refusal to grant greenhouse gas injection licence............................ 492

372........ Grant of greenhouse gas injection licence....................................... 493

373........ Petroleum production licence transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant       493

Division 3—Variations                                                                                             495

374........ Variation of matters specified in greenhouse gas injection licence—general            495

375........ Variation of matters specified in greenhouse gas injection licence—declaration of identified greenhouse gas storage formation varied.............................................................................. 496

Division 4—Directions                                                                                             498

376........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may give greenhouse gas injection licensee directions to protect geological formations containing petroleum pools etc...................................... 498

377........ Consultation—directions to do something outside the licence area. 500

378........ Compliance with directions............................................................. 502

Division 5—Dealing with serious situations                                                  503

379........ Serious situation.............................................................................. 503

380........ Powers of responsible Commonwealth Minister to deal with serious situations      505

381........ Consultation—directions to do something outside the licence area. 508

382........ Compliance with directions............................................................. 509

Division 6—Protection of petroleum discovered in the title area of a pre‑commencement petroleum title                                                                                                                    511

383........ Powers of responsible Commonwealth Minister to protect petroleum discovered in the title area of a pre‑commencement petroleum title.................................................................................. 511

384........ Consultation—directions to do something outside the licence area. 517

385........ Compliance with directions............................................................. 518

Division 7—Site closing certificates                                                                  520

386........ Application for site closing certificate............................................. 520

387........ Variation of application for site closing certificate........................... 523

388........ Issue of site closing certificate—pre‑certificate notice..................... 524

389........ Acknowledgement of receipt of application for site closing certificate 527

390........ Refusal to give pre‑certificate notice................................................ 527

391........ Pre‑certificate notice—security etc.................................................. 527

392........ Issue of site closing certificate......................................................... 529

393........ Greenhouse gas injection licence transferred—transferee to be treated as applicant 529

394........ Duration of site closing certificate................................................... 530

395........ Transfer of site closing certificate.................................................... 530

396........ Transfer of securities....................................................................... 530

397........ Discharge of securities.................................................................... 530

398........ Recovery of the Commonwealth’s costs and expenses................... 531

Division 8—Long‑term liabilities                                                                        532

399........ Closure assurance period................................................................ 532

400........ Indemnity—long‑term liability........................................................ 533

401........ Commonwealth to assume long‑term liability if licensee has ceased to exist            534

Part 3.5—Greenhouse gas search authorities                                                   535

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          535

402........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 535

403........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas search authority..................... 536

404........ Conditions of greenhouse gas search authorities............................. 536

405........ Duration of greenhouse gas search authority.................................. 536

406........ Greenhouse gas search authority cannot be transferred................... 537

Division 2—Obtaining a greenhouse gas search authority                  538

407........ Application for greenhouse gas search authority............................. 538

408........ Grant or refusal of greenhouse gas search authority....................... 538

409........ Holders to be informed of the grant of another greenhouse gas search authority     539

410........ Holders to be informed of the grant of a petroleum special prospecting authority    539

Part 3.6—Greenhouse gas special authorities                                                   541

Division 1—General provisions                                                                          541

411........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 541

412........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas special authority..................... 541

413........ Conditions of greenhouse gas special authorities............................ 541

414........ Duration of greenhouse gas special authority.................................. 542

Division 2—Obtaining a greenhouse gas special authority                  543

415........ Application for greenhouse gas special authority............................ 543

416........ Grant or refusal of greenhouse gas special authority....................... 544

417........ Consultation—grant of greenhouse gas special authority................ 545

Division 3—Variation of greenhouse gas special authorities              547

418........ Variation of greenhouse gas special authority................................. 547

419........ Consultation—variation of greenhouse gas special authority.......... 547

Division 4—Reporting obligations of holders of greenhouse gas special authorities     549

420........ Reporting obligations of holders of greenhouse gas special authorities 549

Division 5—Revocation of greenhouse gas special authorities          550

421........ Revocation of greenhouse gas special authority.............................. 550

Part 3.7—Greenhouse gas research consents                                                   551

422........ Simplified outline............................................................................ 551

423........ Rights conferred by greenhouse gas research consent.................... 551

424........ Conditions of greenhouse gas research consents............................ 552

425........ Grant of greenhouse gas research consent...................................... 552

Part 3.8—Standard procedures                                                                                553

426........ Application to be made in an approved manner............................... 553

427........ Application fee................................................................................ 553

428........ Application may set out additional matters...................................... 554

429........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may require further information 555

430........ Offer documents............................................................................. 556

431........ Acceptance of offer—request by applicant...................................... 557

432........ Acceptance of offer—payment........................................................ 560

433........ Acceptance of offer—lodgment of security..................................... 560

434........ Consultation—adverse decisions.................................................... 561

435........ Responsible Commonwealth Minister may require information about negotiations for a designated agreement      562

Part 3.9—Variation, suspension and exemption                                             564

Division 1—Variation, suspension and exemption decisions relating to greenhouse gas assessment permits, greenhouse gas holding leases and greenhouse gas injection licences       564

436........ Variation, suspension and exemption—conditions of titles............. 564

437........ Extension of term of greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease—suspension or exemption........................................................................................................ 566

438........ Suspension of rights—greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease   567

439........ Extension of term of greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease—suspension of rights   567

Division 2—Variation, suspension and exemption decisions relating to greenhouse gas search authorities and greenhouse gas special authorities                                 569

440........ Variation, suspension and exemption—conditions of greenhouse gas search authorities and greenhouse gas special authorities........................................................................................ 569

Part 3.10—Surrender of titles                                                                                    571

Division 1—Surrender of greenhouse gas assessment permits, greenhouse gas holding leases and greenhouse gas injection licences                                             571

441........ Application for consent to surrender title........................................ 571

442........ Consent to surrender title................................................................ 571

443........ Surrender of title............................................................................. 575

Division 2—Surrender of greenhouse gas search authorities and greenhouse gas special authorities                                                                                                                    577

444........ Surrender of greenhouse gas search authority................................. 577

445........ Surrender of greenhouse gas special authority................................ 577

Part 3.11—Cancellation of titles                                                                                578

Division 1—Cancellation of greenhouse gas assessment permits, greenhouse gas holding leases and greenhouse gas injection licences                                             578

446........ Grounds for cancellation of title...................................................... 578

447........ Cancellation of title.......................................................................... 579

448........ Consultation.................................................................................... 580

449........ Cancellation of title not affected by other provisions....................... 580

Division 2—Cancellation of greenhouse gas search authorities        583

450........ Cancellation of greenhouse gas search authority............................. 583

Part 3.12—Other provisions                                                                                        584

451........ Notification of eligible greenhouse gas storage formation............... 584

452........ Notification of discovery of petroleum in greenhouse gas assessment permit area etc.            585

453........ Disposing of waste or other matter................................................. 586

454........ Additional securities etc.................................................................. 587

455........ Transfer of securities....................................................................... 589

456........ Discharge of securities.................................................................... 589

457........ Approved site plans........................................................................ 590

458........ Co‑existence of greenhouse gas titles and petroleum titles.............. 591

459........ Reservation of blocks...................................................................... 592

460........ Interference with other rights.......................................................... 593

461........ No conditions about payment of money.......................................... 594

462........ Certain portions of blocks to be blocks........................................... 595

463........ Changes to the boundary of the coastal waters of a State or Territory 597

464........ Commonwealth may monitor the behaviour of a greenhouse gas substance stored in a part of a geological formation........................................................................................................ 598

465........ Monitoring information may be made publicly available................. 598

 


An Act about petroleum exploration and recovery, and the injection and storage of greenhouse gas substances, in offshore areas, and for other purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1.1Legislative formalities and background

  

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

29 March 2006

2.  Sections 3 to 5

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

1 July 2008 (see F2008L02273)

3.  Parts 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

1 July 2008

4.  Chapters 2 to 6

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

1 July 2008

5.  Schedules 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

1 July 2008

6.  Schedule 6, clauses 1 to 38

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

1 July 2008

7.  Schedule 6, clause 39

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

29 March 2006

8.  Schedule 6, clauses 40 to 42

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

1 July 2008

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.

3  Object

                   The object of this Act is to provide an effective regulatory framework for:

                     (a)  petroleum exploration and recovery; and

                     (b)  the injection and storage of greenhouse gas substances;

in offshore areas.

4  Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Act:

•      This Act sets up a system for regulating the following activities in offshore areas:

               (a)     exploration for petroleum;

              (b)     recovery of petroleum;

               (c)     construction and operation of infrastructure facilities relating to petroleum or greenhouse gas substances;

              (d)     construction and operation of pipelines for conveying petroleum or greenhouse gas substances;

               (e)     exploration for potential greenhouse gas storage formations;

               (f)     injection and storage of greenhouse gas substances.

•      An offshore area:

               (a)     starts 3 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured; and

              (b)     extends seaward to the outer limits of the continental shelf.

•      This Act provides for the grant of the following titles:

               (a)     a petroleum exploration permit (see Part 2.2);

              (b)     a petroleum retention lease (see Part 2.3);

               (c)     a petroleum production licence (see Part 2.4);

              (d)     an infrastructure licence (see Part 2.5);

               (e)     a pipeline licence (see Part 2.6);

               (f)     a petroleum special prospecting authority (see Part 2.7);

               (g)     a petroleum access authority (see Part 2.8);

              (h)     a greenhouse gas assessment permit (see Part 3.2);

               (i)     a greenhouse gas holding lease (see Part 3.3);

               (j)     a greenhouse gas injection licence (see Part 3.4);

              (k)     a greenhouse gas search authority (see Part 3.5);

               (l)     a greenhouse gas special authority (see Part 3.6).

•      Generally, the administration of this Act in relation to an offshore area of a State is the responsibility of the Joint Authority for the State. The Joint Authority for a State (other than Tasmania) is constituted by the responsible State Minister and the responsible Commonwealth Minister. The Joint Authority for Tasmania is constituted by the responsible Commonwealth Minister.

•      Generally, the administration of this Act in relation to the Principal Northern Territory offshore area is the responsibility of the Joint Authority for that area (the Joint Authority is constituted by the responsible Northern Territory Minister and the responsible Commonwealth Minister).

•      The responsible Commonwealth Minister is responsible for the administration of greenhouse gas injection and storage provisions.

•      The National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority is responsible for the administration of:

               (a)     occupational health and safety provisions; and

              (b)     structural integrity provisions; and

               (c)     environmental management provisions.

•      The National Offshore Petroleum Titles Administrator is responsible for:

               (a)     assisting and advising the Joint Authority and the responsible Commonwealth Minister; and

              (b)     keeping registers of titles; and

               (c)     data and information management.

Note:          Generally, the baseline is the line of lowest astronomical tide along the coast, but it also encompasses straight lines across bays (bay closing lines), rivers (river closing lines) and between islands, as well as along heavily indented areas of coastline (straight baselines) under certain circumstances.

5  Commonwealth‑State agreement (the Offshore Constitutional Settlement)

             (1)  This section explains the agreement known as the Offshore Constitutional Settlement, to the extent to which that agreement relates to exploring for, and exploiting, petroleum.

             (2)  The Commonwealth, the States and the Northern Territory have agreed that:

                     (a)  Commonwealth offshore petroleum legislation should be limited to the area that is outside the coastal waters of the States and the Northern Territory; and

                     (b)  for this purpose, the outer limits of State and Northern Territory coastal waters should start 3 nautical miles from the baseline of the territorial sea; and

                     (c)  the States and the Northern Territory should share, in the manner provided by this Act, in the administration of the Commonwealth offshore petroleum legislation; and

                     (d)  State and Northern Territory offshore petroleum legislation should apply to State and Northern Territory coastal waters; and

                     (e)  the Commonwealth, the States and the Northern Territory should try to maintain, as far as practicable, common principles, rules and practices in regulating and controlling the exploration for, and exploitation of, offshore petroleum beyond the baseline of Australia’s territorial sea.

             (3)  The table summarises other Acts that provide background to the Offshore Constitutional Settlement:

 

Other Acts

Item

Act

Summary of Act

1

Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973

This Act:

(a) declared and enacted that the sovereignty in respect of the territorial sea and the associated airspace, seabed and subsoil is vested in and exercisable by the Crown in right of the Commonwealth; and

(b) gave the Governor‑General power to declare, by Proclamation, the limits of the territorial sea; and

(c) declared and enacted that the sovereignty in respect of waters of the sea that are on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea (but not within the limits of a State) and in respect of the associated airspace, seabed and subsoil is vested in and exercisable by the Crown in right of the Commonwealth; and

(d) declared and enacted that the sovereign rights of Australia as a coastal state in respect of the continental shelf of Australia (for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources) are vested in and exercisable by the Crown in right of the Commonwealth; and

(e) gave the Governor‑General power to declare, by Proclamation, the limits of the continental shelf of Australia.

2

Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act 1980

This Act was enacted following a request from the Parliaments of all the States under paragraph 51(xxxviii) of the Constitution of the Commonwealth and provided that the legislative powers exercisable under the Constitution of each State extended to the making of certain laws that would operate offshore.

3

Coastal Waters (Northern Territory Powers) Act 1980

This Act makes similar provision to the Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act 1980 in relation to the Northern Territory.

4

Coastal Waters (State Title) Act 1980

This Act vested in each State certain property rights in the seabed beneath the coastal waters of the State.

5

Coastal Waters (Northern Territory Title) Act 1980

This Act makes similar provision to the Coastal Waters (State Title) Act 1980 in relation to the Northern Territory.

6

Offshore Minerals Act 1994

This Act makes provision, based on the Offshore Constitutional Settlement, for the licensing regime that applies to the exploration for, and recovery of, minerals (other than petroleum) in offshore areas.

6  Simplified maps

             (1)  This section sets out simplified maps illustrating areas off the coast of Australia that are relevant to this Act.

             (2)  In the interests of simplification:

                     (a)  coastlines and boundaries have been smoothed; and

                     (b)  the maps do not show certain waters within the limits of a State or Territory; and

                     (c)  the line marking the outer limits of the coastal waters of a State or Territory appears to be further out to sea than it actually is.

Map 1

             (3)  Map 1 illustrates the offshore areas and the scheduled areas:

offshore maps 1 new

Note 1:       As at the day on which the Bill that became this Act was introduced into the House of Representatives, certain maritime areas adjacent to Australia remained subject to delimitation with other countries. The full extent of Australia’s claimed exclusive economic zone and continental shelf jurisdiction has not been shown in this map. The claimed jurisdiction extends beyond the areas shown in this map.

Note 2:       Generally, the territorial sea baseline is the line of lowest astronomical tide along the coast, but it also encompasses straight lines across bays (bay closing lines), rivers (river closing lines) and between islands, as well as along heavily indented areas of coastline (straight baselines) under certain circumstances.

Note 3:       The location of the Joint Petroleum Development Area established under the Timor Sea Treaty is indicated on this map as the unshaded space abutting the offshore areas of Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The Joint Petroleum Development Area is not included in any offshore area as defined by this Act.

Map 2

             (4)  Map 2 zooms in and illustrates the offshore area of South Australia:

offshore maps 2 new

Map 3

             (5)  Map 3 zooms in and illustrates coastal waters and waters within the limits of South Australia:

seasact03m3v3a

Note:          The bays shown as being within the limits of South Australia are for illustrative purposes only.

Part 1.2Interpretation

Division 1General

7  Definitions

                   In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

applied provisions has the meaning given by subsection 80(2).

approved:

                     (a)  when used in Chapter 3—means approved in writing by the responsible Commonwealth Minister; or

                     (b)  in any other case—means approved in writing by the Titles Administrator.

This definition does not apply to:

                     (c)  the expression approved site plan; or

                     (d)  section 286A; or

                     (e)  section 650; or

                      (f)  subsection 695B(3); or

                     (g)  section 695F.

approved site plan means a site plan in respect of which an approval is in force under the regulations.

Note:          See section 457.

authority area:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum special prospecting authority—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the petroleum special prospecting authority; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a petroleum access authority—means the area to which the petroleum access authority relates; or

                     (c)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas search authority—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the greenhouse gas search authority; or

                     (d)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas special authority—means the area to which the greenhouse gas special authority relates.

block means a block constituted as provided by section 33 or 282.

cash‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit means a greenhouse gas assessment permit granted under Division 3 of Part 3.2.

cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit means:

                     (a)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 3 of Part 2.2 of this Act; or

                     (b)  an exploration permit granted under section 22B of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967; or

                     (c)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 5 of Part 2.2 of this Act by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (a) or (b); or

                     (d)  an exploration permit granted under section 32 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (b).

closure assurance period has the meaning given by section 399.

COAG Reform Fund means the COAG Reform Fund established by section 5 of the COAG Reform Fund Act 2008.

coastal waters, in relation to a State or the Northern Territory, means so much of the scheduled area for the State or Territory as consists of:

                     (a)  the territorial sea; and

                     (b)  any waters that are:

                              (i)  on the landward side of the territorial sea; and

                             (ii)  not within the limits of the State or Territory.

For this purpose, assume that the breadth of the territorial sea of Australia had never been determined or declared to be greater than 3 nautical miles, but had continued to be 3 nautical miles.

Commissioner means a person appointed under section 780A.

Commission of inquiry means an inquiry conducted, or to be conducted, by a person appointed under section 780A.

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

construct includes place.

continental shelf means the continental shelf (within the meaning of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) adjacent to the coast of:

                     (a)  Australia (including the coast of any island forming part of a State or Territory); or

                     (b)  a Territory.

datum means a reference frame for defining geographic coordinates.

Note:          If the position on the surface of the Earth of a particular point is identified by a coordinate that is determined by reference to a particular datum, the use of a different datum will result in the same point being identified by a different coordinate.

declared greenhouse gas facility has the meaning given by section 18.

declared petroleum exploration permit has the meaning given by section 101.

declared petroleum production licence has the meaning given by section 164.

declared petroleum retention lease has the meaning given by section 138.

designated agreement has the meaning given by section 32.

Designated Authority:

                     (a)  means a person who, at any time before the commencement of Part 6.10, was a Designated Authority (within the meaning of this Act); and

                     (b)  when used in the expression the Designated Authority, means a person who, at any time before the commencement of Part 6.10, was the Designated Authority (within the meaning of this Act) for the offshore area concerned.

detection agent means a substance, whether in a gaseous or liquid state, that:

                     (a)  when added to:

                              (i)  another substance; or

                             (ii)  a mixture of other substances;

                            facilitates the monitoring of the behaviour of that other substance or that mixture, as the case may be; and

                     (b)  is specified in the regulations.

Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area has the meaning given by Schedule 7.

Note:          The Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area is a part of the offshore area of the Northern Territory.

eligible greenhouse gas storage formation has the meaning given by section 21.

engage in conduct means:

                     (a)  do an act; or

                     (b)  omit to perform an act.

expert advisory committee means a committee established under section 748.

expert advisory committee member means a member of an expert advisory committee, and includes the Chair of an expert advisory committee.

expiry date:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease or petroleum production licence—has the meaning given by subsection 10(1); or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas assessment permit or a greenhouse gas holding lease (other than a special greenhouse gas holding lease)—has the meaning given by subsection 10(2).

explore:

                     (a)  when used in relation to petroleum—has a meaning affected by subsection 19(1); or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a potential greenhouse gas storage formation—has a meaning affected by subsections 19(2) and (3); or

                     (c)  when used in relation to a potential greenhouse gas injection site—has a meaning affected by subsection 19(4).

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

fixed‑term petroleum production licence means a petroleum production licence covered by item 2 or 3 of the table in subsection 165(1).

fundamental suitability determinants:

                     (a)  when used in relation to an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation—has the meaning given by subsection 21(8); or

                     (b)  when used in relation to an identified greenhouse gas storage formation—has the meaning given by subsection 312(11).

geographic coordinate includes:

                     (a)  a meridian of longitude by itself; and

                     (b)  a parallel of latitude by itself.

geological formation includes:

                     (a)  any seal or reservoir of a geological formation; and

                     (b)  any associated geological attributes or features of a geological formation.

good oilfield practice means all those things that are generally accepted as good and safe in:

                     (a)  the carrying on of exploration for petroleum; or

                     (b)  petroleum recovery operations.

good processing and transport practice means all those things that are generally accepted as good and safe in:

                     (a)  the processing, conveyance, transport and storage of petroleum; and

                     (b)  the preparation of petroleum for transport.

graticular section has the meaning given by section 33.

Greater Sunrise unit area has the meaning given by Schedule 7.

Greater Sunrise unitisation agreement means the Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor‑Leste relating to the Unitisation of the Sunrise and Troubadour Fields, done at Dili on 6 March 2003.

Note:          In 2007, the text of international agreements was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

Greater Sunrise unit reservoir petroleum production licence means a petroleum production licence in respect of one or more blocks within the Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area that would allow the licensee to recover petroleum from either or both of the Greater Sunrise unit reservoirs.

Greater Sunrise unit reservoirs means the unit reservoirs within the meaning of the Greater Sunrise unitisation agreement.

Greater Sunrise visiting inspector means a petroleum project inspector who is specified in the identity card issued to that inspector under subsection 600(2) as being a Greater Sunrise visiting inspector.

greenhouse gas assessment permit means a greenhouse gas assessment permit granted under Part 3.2.

greenhouse gas assessment permit area means the permit area of a greenhouse gas assessment permit.

greenhouse gas assessment permittee means the registered holder of a greenhouse gas assessment permit.

greenhouse gas facility line means a pipe, or system of pipes, that is:

                     (a)  for conveying a greenhouse gas substance; and

                     (b)  part of a declared greenhouse gas facility.

greenhouse gas holding lease means a greenhouse gas holding lease granted under Part 3.3.

greenhouse gas holding lease area means the lease area of a greenhouse gas holding lease.

greenhouse gas holding lessee means the registered holder of a greenhouse gas holding lease.

greenhouse gas infrastructure line means a pipe, or system of pipes, that is:

                     (a)  for conveying a greenhouse gas substance; and

                     (b)  part of an infrastructure facility.

greenhouse gas injection licence means a greenhouse gas injection licence granted under Part 3.4.

greenhouse gas injection licence area means the licence area of a greenhouse gas injection licence.

greenhouse gas injection licensee means the registered holder of a greenhouse gas injection licence.

greenhouse gas injection line means a pipe, or system of pipes, for:

                     (a)  conveying a greenhouse gas substance to be compressed, processed or otherwise prepared for injection into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                     (b)  conveying a greenhouse gas substance for storage prior to being injected into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                     (c)  conveying a greenhouse gas substance for injection into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

so long as the greenhouse gas substance does not pass through a terminal point on the pipe, or system of pipes, as the case may be, before it is injected into the identified greenhouse gas storage formation.

greenhouse gas pipeline means:

                     (a)  a pipe, or system of pipes, in an offshore area for conveying a greenhouse gas substance, other than:

                              (i)  a greenhouse gas injection line; or

                             (ii)  a greenhouse gas infrastructure line; or

                            (iii)  a greenhouse gas facility line; or

                            (iv)  a pipe, or a system of pipes, that is specified in the regulations; or

                     (b)  a part of a pipe covered by paragraph (a); or

                     (c)  a part of a system of pipes covered by paragraph (a).

greenhouse gas project inspector means a person appointed as a greenhouse gas project inspector under section 606.

greenhouse gas pumping station means equipment for pumping a greenhouse gas substance or water, and includes any structure associated with that equipment.

greenhouse gas research consent means a greenhouse gas research consent granted under Part 3.7.

greenhouse gas search authority means a greenhouse gas search authority granted under Part 3.5.

greenhouse gas special authority means a greenhouse gas special authority granted under Part 3.6.

greenhouse gas substance means:

                     (a)  carbon dioxide, whether in a gaseous or liquid state; or

                     (b)  a prescribed greenhouse gas, whether in a gaseous or liquid state; or

                     (c)  a mixture of any or all of the following substances:

                              (i)  carbon dioxide, whether in a gaseous or liquid state;

                             (ii)  one or more prescribed greenhouse gases, whether in a gaseous or liquid state;

                            (iii)  one or more incidental greenhouse gas‑related substances, whether in a gaseous or liquid state, that relate to either or both of the substances mentioned in subparagraphs (i) and (ii);

                            (iv)  a prescribed detection agent, whether in a gaseous or liquid state;

                            so long as:

                             (v)  the mixture consists overwhelmingly of either or both of the substances mentioned in subparagraphs (i) and (ii); and

                            (vi)  if the mixture includes a prescribed detection agent—the concentration of the prescribed detection agent in the mixture is not more than the concentration prescribed in relation to that detection agent.

greenhouse gas tank station means a tank, or system of tanks, for holding or storing a greenhouse gas substance, and includes any structure associated with that tank or system of tanks.

greenhouse gas valve station means equipment for regulating the flow of a greenhouse gas substance, and includes any structure associated with that equipment.

identified greenhouse gas storage formation has the meaning given by section 312.

incidental greenhouse gas‑related substance has the meaning given by section 23.

infrastructure facility has the meaning given by section 15.

infrastructure licence means an infrastructure licence granted under:

                     (a)  Part 2.5 of this Act; or

                     (b)  Division 3A of Part III of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

infrastructure licence area means the licence area of an infrastructure licence.

infrastructure licensee means the registered holder of an infrastructure licence.

Joint Authority has the meaning given by section 56 and, when used in the expression the Joint Authority, means the Joint Authority for the offshore area concerned.

Joint Petroleum Development Area has the same meaning as in the Petroleum (Timor Sea Treaty) Act 2003.

key greenhouse gas operation means:

                     (a)  an operation to make a well; or

                     (b)  an operation to inject, on an appraisal basis, a greenhouse gas substance into a part of a geological formation; or

                     (c)  an operation to store, on an appraisal basis, a greenhouse gas substance in a part of a geological formation; or

                     (d)  an operation to inject, on an appraisal basis, air, petroleum or water into a part of a geological formation; or

                     (e)  an operation to store, on an appraisal basis, air, petroleum or water in a part of a geological formation; or

                      (f)  an operation to carry out a seismic survey or any other kind of survey; or

                     (g)  an operation to monitor the behaviour of:

                              (i)  a greenhouse gas substance; or

                             (ii)  air; or

                            (iii)  petroleum; or

                            (iv)  water;

                            stored in a part of a geological formation; or

                     (h)  an operation to carry out baseline investigations relating to the storage of a greenhouse gas substance in a part of the geological formation; or

                      (i)  an operation to take samples of the seabed or subsoil of an offshore area; or

                      (j)  an operation specified in the regulations.

key petroleum operation means:

                     (a)  an operation to make a well; or

                     (b)  an operation to inject a substance into a part of a geological formation; or

                     (c)  an operation to store a substance in a part of a geological formation; or

                     (d)  an operation to carry out a seismic survey or any other kind of survey; or

                     (e)  an operation to monitor the behaviour of a substance stored in a part of a geological formation; or

                      (f)  an operation to take samples of the seabed or subsoil of an offshore area; or

                     (g)  an operation specified in the regulations.

lease area:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum retention lease—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the petroleum retention lease; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas holding lease—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the greenhouse gas holding lease.

lessee:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum retention lease—means the registered holder of the petroleum retention lease; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas holding lease—means the registered holder of the greenhouse gas holding lease.

licence area:

                     (a)  when used in relation to an infrastructure licence—means the place in relation to which the infrastructure licence is in force; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a petroleum production licence—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the petroleum production licence; or

                     (c)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas injection licence—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the greenhouse gas injection licence.

Note:          The place in relation to which an infrastructure licence is in force must be a place in an offshore area—see subsection 198(2) and section 199.

licensee:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum production licence—means the registered holder of the petroleum production licence; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to an infrastructure licence—means the registered holder of the infrastructure licence; or

                     (c)  when used in relation to a pipeline licence—means the registered holder of the pipeline licence; or

                     (d)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas injection licence—means the registered holder of the greenhouse gas injection licence.

life‑of‑field petroleum production licence means a petroleum production licence covered by item 1, 3A or 4 of the table in subsection 165(1).

listed OHS laws has the meaning given by section 638.

location means a block or blocks in relation to which a declaration under section 131 is in force.

Ministers responsible for mineral and energy resources matters means a group of Ministers established or recognised by the Council of Australian Governments whose members include Commonwealth, State, Territory and New Zealand Ministers with responsibility for energy and resource matters.

natural resources has the same meaning as in paragraph 4 of Article 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea done at Montego Bay on 10 December 1982.

Note:          Paragraph 4 of Article 77 is as follows:

The natural resources referred to in this Part consist of the mineral and other non‑living resources of the seabed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are immobile on or under the seabed or are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the seabed or the subsoil.

New Zealand boundary treaty means the Treaty between Australia and New Zealand establishing certain exclusive economic zone boundaries and continental shelf boundaries that was signed at Adelaide on 25 July 2004.

NOPSEMA means the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority.

Northern Territory title means an authority, however described, under a law of the Northern Territory, to explore for, or to recover, petroleum.

offshore area means:

                     (a)  the offshore area of New South Wales; or

                     (b)  the offshore area of Victoria; or

                     (c)  the offshore area of Queensland; or

                     (d)  the offshore area of Western Australia; or

                     (e)  the offshore area of South Australia; or

                      (f)  the offshore area of Tasmania; or

                     (g)  the Principal Northern Territory offshore area; or

                     (h)  the Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area; or

                      (i)  the offshore area of Norfolk Island; or

                      (j)  the offshore area of the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (k)  the offshore area of the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands; or

                      (l)  the offshore area of the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands; or

                    (m)  the offshore area of the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands;

and, when used in the expression the offshore area, means whichever of the areas referred to in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l) or (m) is applicable.

Note 1:       The offshore area of a State or Territory is defined by section 8.

Note 2:       The offshore area of a State or Territory corresponds to the term adjacent area under the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

original greenhouse gas assessment permit means a greenhouse gas assessment permit that was granted otherwise than by way of renewal.

original petroleum exploration permit means a petroleum exploration permit granted otherwise than by way of renewal.

original petroleum production licence means a petroleum production licence granted otherwise than by way of renewal.

original petroleum retention lease means a petroleum retention lease granted otherwise than by way of renewal.

partly cancelled means:

                     (a)  in relation to a petroleum exploration permit or petroleum production licence—cancelled as to one or more, but not all, of the blocks the subject of the permit or licence; and

                     (b)  in relation to a pipeline licence—cancelled as to a part of the pipeline the subject of the licence.

partly revoked, in relation to a petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease, means revoked as to one or more, but not all, of the blocks the subject of the permit or lease.

partly surrendered, in relation to a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum production licence or greenhouse gas injection licence, means surrendered as to one or more, but not all, of the blocks the subject of the permit or licence.

partly terminated, in relation to a pipeline licence, means terminated as to a part of the pipeline the subject of the licence.

part of a geological formation includes a part of a combination of geological formations.

permit area:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum exploration permit—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas assessment permit—means the area constituted by the block or blocks that are the subject of the greenhouse gas assessment permit.

permittee:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum exploration permit—means the registered holder of the petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas assessment permit—means the registered holder of the greenhouse gas assessment permit.

petroleum means:

                     (a)  any naturally occurring hydrocarbon, whether in a gaseous, liquid or solid state; or

                     (b)  any naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons, whether in a gaseous, liquid or solid state; or

                     (c)  any naturally occurring mixture of:

                              (i)  one or more hydrocarbons, whether in a gaseous, liquid or solid state; and

                             (ii)  one or more of the following, that is to say, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, helium and carbon dioxide;

and:

                     (d)  includes any petroleum as defined by paragraph (a), (b) or (c) that has been returned to a natural reservoir; and

                     (e)  for the purposes of the pipeline provisions, also includes any petroleum as defined by paragraph (a), (b), (c) or (d), where:

                              (i)  one or more things have been added; or

                             (ii)  one or more things have been wholly or partly removed;

                            or both; and

                      (f)  for the purposes of the pipeline provisions, also includes any mixture that:

                              (i)  has been recovered from a well; and

                             (ii)  includes petroleum as defined by paragraph (a), (b), (c) or (d);

                            whether or not:

                            (iii)  one or more things have been added; or

                            (iv)  one or more things have been wholly or partly removed;

                            or both.

petroleum access authority means:

                     (a)  a petroleum access authority granted under Part 2.8 of this Act; or

                     (b)  an access authority granted under section 112 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

petroleum exploration permit means:

                     (a)  a work‑bid petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  a cash‑bid petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (c)  a special petroleum exploration permit.

petroleum exploration permit area means the permit area of a petroleum exploration permit.

petroleum exploration permittee means the registered holder of a petroleum exploration permit.

petroleum pipeline means:

                     (a)  a pipe, or system of pipes, in an offshore area for conveying petroleum (whether or not the petroleum is recovered from an offshore area), other than a secondary line; or

                     (b)  a part of a pipe covered by paragraph (a); or

                     (c)  a part of a system of pipes covered by paragraph (a).

petroleum pool means a naturally occurring discrete accumulation of petroleum.

petroleum production licence means:

                     (a)  a petroleum production licence granted under Part 2.4 of this Act; or

                     (b)  a production licence granted under Division 3 of Part III of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967; or

                     (c)  a production licence granted under section 148 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

petroleum production licence area means the licence area of a petroleum production licence.

petroleum production licensee means the registered holder of a petroleum production licence.

petroleum project inspector means a person appointed as a petroleum project inspector under section 600.

petroleum pumping station means equipment for pumping petroleum or water, and includes any structure associated with that equipment.

petroleum retention lease means:

                     (a)  a petroleum retention lease granted under Part 2.3 of this Act; or

                     (b)  a retention lease granted under Division 2A of Part III of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

petroleum retention lease area means the lease area of a petroleum retention lease.

petroleum retention lessee means the registered holder of a petroleum retention lease.

petroleum scientific investigation consent means:

                     (a)  a petroleum scientific investigation consent granted under Part 2.9 of this Act; or

                     (b)  a scientific investigation consent granted under section 123 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

petroleum special prospecting authority means:

                     (a)  a petroleum special prospecting authority granted under Part 2.7 of this Act; or

                     (b)  a special prospecting authority granted under section 111 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

petroleum tank station means a tank, or system of tanks, for holding or storing petroleum, and includes any structure associated with that tank or system of tanks.

petroleum valve station means equipment for regulating the flow of petroleum, and includes any structure associated with that equipment.

pipeline means:

                     (a)  a petroleum pipeline; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas pipeline.

pipeline licence means a pipeline licence granted under:

                     (a)  Part 2.6 of this Act; or

                     (b)  Division 4 of Part III of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

pipeline licensee means the registered holder of a pipeline licence.

pipeline provisions means the following:

                     (a)  Part 2.6;

                     (b)  the definition of greenhouse gas pipeline in this section;

                     (c)  the definition of greenhouse gas pumping station in this section;

                     (d)  the definition of greenhouse gas tank station in this section;

                     (e)  the definition of greenhouse gas valve station in this section;

                      (f)  the definition of petroleum pipeline in this section;

                     (g)  the definition of petroleum pumping station in this section;

                     (h)  the definition of petroleum tank station in this section;

                      (i)  the definition of petroleum valve station in this section;

                      (j)  the definition of pipeline in this section;

                     (k)  item 3 of the table in subsection 569(1).

post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit means:

                     (a)  an original petroleum exploration permit that was granted after the commencement of this section; or

                     (b)  a petroleum exploration permit that was granted by way of renewal, where the original petroleum exploration permit was granted after the commencement of this section.

post‑commencement petroleum production licence means:

                     (a)  a petroleum production licence that was granted to the registered holder of:

                              (i)  a post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit; or

                             (ii)  a post‑commencement petroleum retention lease;

                            that was in force over the block or blocks to which the petroleum production licence relates; or

                     (b)  a petroleum production licence granted under section 181; or

                     (c)  a petroleum production licence granted under section 183, where the initial petroleum production licence mentioned in section 182 was a post‑commencement petroleum production licence.

post‑commencement petroleum retention lease means:

                     (a)  an original petroleum retention lease that was granted to the registered holder of:

                              (i)  a post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit; or

                             (ii)  a post‑commencement petroleum production licence;

                            that was in force over the block or blocks to which the original petroleum retention lease relates; or

                     (b)  a petroleum retention lease that was granted by way of renewal, where the original petroleum retention lease was granted to the registered holder of:

                              (i)  a post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit; or

                             (ii)  a post‑commencement petroleum production licence;

                            that was in force over the block or blocks to which the original petroleum retention lease related.

post‑commencement petroleum title means:

                     (a)  a post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  a post‑commencement petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  a post‑commencement petroleum production licence.

potential greenhouse gas injection site has the meaning given by section 22.

potential greenhouse gas storage formation has the meaning given by section 20.

pre‑commencement petroleum exploration permit means a petroleum exploration permit other than a post‑commencement petroleum exploration permit.

pre‑commencement petroleum production licence means a petroleum production licence other than a post‑commencement petroleum production licence.

pre‑commencement petroleum retention lease means a petroleum retention lease other than a post‑commencement petroleum retention lease.

pre‑commencement petroleum title means:

                     (a)  a pre‑commencement petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  a pre‑commencement petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  a pre‑commencement petroleum production licence.

Principal Northern Territory offshore area means so much of the offshore area of the Northern Territory as does not consist of the Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area.

Note:          The offshore area of the Northern Territory is defined by section 8.

pumping station means:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas pumping station; or

                     (b)  a petroleum pumping station.

Register:

                     (a)  when used in Chapter 4—has the meaning given by section 467; or

                     (b)  when used in Chapter 5—has the meaning given by section 519.

registered holder, in relation to a title, means the person whose name is shown in the Register kept under section 469 or 521 as the holder of the title. For this purpose, a title is a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease, petroleum production licence, infrastructure licence, pipeline licence, petroleum special prospecting authority, petroleum access authority, greenhouse gas assessment permit, greenhouse gas holding lease, greenhouse gas injection licence, greenhouse gas search authority or greenhouse gas special authority.

regulated operation means:

                     (a)  an activity to which Chapter 2 applies; or

                     (b)  an activity to which Chapter 3 applies.

For the purposes of paragraph (b), assume that each reference in subsection 356(1) to a substance were a reference to a greenhouse gas substance.

Regulatory Levies Act means the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage (Regulatory Levies) Act 2003.

renewal:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease or petroleum production licence—has the meaning given by subsection 11(1); or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas assessment permit or greenhouse gas holding lease—has the meaning given by subsection 11(2).

responsible Commonwealth Minister means:

                     (a)  the Minister who is responsible for the administration of this Act; or

                     (b)  another Minister acting for and on behalf of the Minister referred to in paragraph (a).

responsible Northern Territory Minister means:

                     (a)  the Minister of the Northern Territory who is authorised under a law of the Northern Territory to perform the functions, and exercise the powers, of a member of the Joint Authority for the Northern Territory under this Act; or

                     (b)  another Minister of the Northern Territory acting for and on behalf of the Minister referred to in paragraph (a).

responsible State Minister, in relation to a State, means:

                     (a)  whichever of the following applies:

                              (i)  the Minister of the State (other than Tasmania) who is authorised under a law of the State to perform the functions, and exercise the powers, of a member of the Joint Authority for the State under this Act;

                             (ii)  the Minister of Tasmania who is responsible for the State PSLA for Tasmania, within the meaning of Part 6.9 (see section 643); or

                     (b)  another Minister of the State acting for and on behalf of the Minister referred to in paragraph (a).

Royal Commission has the same meaning as in the Royal Commissions Act 1902.

Royalty Act means the Offshore Petroleum (Royalty) Act 2006.

scheduled area, in relation to a State or Territory, has the meaning given by Schedule 1.

secondary line means a pipe, or system of pipes, for:

                     (a)  returning petroleum to a natural reservoir; or

                     (b)  conveying petroleum for use for petroleum exploration operations; or

                     (c)  conveying petroleum for use for petroleum recovery operations; or

                     (d)  conveying petroleum that is to be flared or vented; or

                     (e)  conveying petroleum from a well, wherever located, to a terminal station in an offshore area without passing through another terminal station.

Secretary means the Secretary of the Department.

serious situation, in relation to an identified greenhouse gas storage formation, has the meaning given by section 379.

significant risk has a meaning affected by section 25, 26, 27, 28 or 29.

site closing certificate means a certificate issued under section 392.

site plan, in relation to an identified greenhouse gas storage formation, has the meaning given by section 24.

spatial extent of an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation has the meaning given by subsection 21(3).

special greenhouse gas holding lease means a greenhouse gas holding lease granted under section 338.

special petroleum exploration permit means:

                     (a)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 4 of Part 2.2 of this Act; or

                     (b)  an exploration permit granted under section 27 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967; or

                     (c)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 5 of Part 2.2 of this Act by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (a) or (b); or

                     (d)  an exploration permit granted under section 32 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (b).

State title means an authority, however described, under a law of a State, to explore for, or to recover, petroleum.

structural integrity includes the following:

                     (a)  structural soundness;

                     (b)  structural strength;

                     (c)  stability;

                     (d)  fitness for purpose;

                     (e)  mechanical integrity;

                      (f)  systems integrity;

in connection with:

                     (g)  the containment of:

                              (i)  petroleum; or

                             (ii)  a greenhouse gas substance; or

                            (iii)  any other substance; or

                     (h)  the health and safety of persons engaged in:

                              (i)  offshore petroleum operations (within the meaning of Part 6.9); or

                             (ii)  offshore greenhouse gas operations (within the meaning of Part 6.9).

For the purposes of paragraph (f), systems integrity includes the integrity of the following:

                      (i)  electrical systems;

                      (j)  electronic systems;

                     (k)  hydraulic systems;

                      (l)  chemical systems;

                    (m)  dynamic positioning systems;

                     (n)  other systems.

structural integrity law means the provisions of this Act or the regulations to the extent to which the provisions relate to the structural integrity of:

                     (a)  facilities (within the meaning of Schedule 3); or

                     (b)  wells; or

                     (c)  well‑related equipment.

tank station means:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas tank station; or

                     (b)  a petroleum tank station.

term:

                     (a)  when used in relation to a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease, petroleum production licence, infrastructure licence, pipeline licence, petroleum special prospecting authority or petroleum access authority—has the meaning given by subsection 10(1); or

                     (b)  when used in relation to a greenhouse gas assessment permit, greenhouse gas holding lease, greenhouse gas injection licence, greenhouse gas search authority or greenhouse gas special authority—has the meaning given by subsection 10(2).

terminal point has the meaning given by section 17.

terminal station has the meaning given by section 16.

Territory means a Territory in which this Act applies or to which this Act extends.

tied, in relation to a greenhouse gas holding lease or greenhouse gas injection licence, has the meaning given by section 13.

Timor Sea Treaty means the Timor Sea Treaty between Australia and East Timor, done on 20 May 2002 [2003] ATS 13, as amended from time to time.

Note:          In 2007, the text of international agreements in the Australian Treaty Series was accessible through the Australian Treaties Library on the AustLII website (www.austlii.edu.au).

Timor Sea Treaty Designated Authority means the Designated Authority within the meaning of the Petroleum (Timor Sea Treaty) Act 2003.

title:

                     (a)  when used in the definition of registered holder—has the meaning given by the second sentence of that definition; or

                     (b)  when used in Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 1.2—has the meaning given by section 38; or

                     (c)  when used in Division 3 of Part 1.2—has the meaning given by section 50; or

                     (e)  when used in section 282—has the meaning given by subsection 282(6); or

                      (f)  when used in section 462—has the meaning given by subsection 462(6); or

                     (g)  when used in Chapter 4—has the meaning given by section 467; or

                    (ga)  when used in Chapter 5—has the meaning given by section 519; or

                     (h)  when used in section 574—has the meaning given by subsection 574(1); or

                   (ha)  when used in section 574A—has the meaning given by subsection 574A(1); or

                      (i)  when used in Division 2A of Part 6.2—has the meaning given by subsection 576A(3); or

                      (j)  when used in section 580—has the meaning given by subsection 580(1).

title area:

                     (a)  when used in Division 3 of Part 1.2—has the meaning given by section 51; or

                     (b)  when used in section 572—has the meaning given by subsection 572(1); or

                   (ba)  when used in Division 2A of Part 6.2—has the meaning given by subsection 576A(3); or

                     (c)  when used in section 586—has the meaning given by subsection 586(6); or

                     (d)  when used in section 586A—has the meaning given by subsection 586A(7).

titleholder:

                     (a)  when used in Division 3 of Part 1.2—has the meaning given by section 51; or

                     (b)  when used in section 572—has the meaning given by subsection 572(1).

Titles Administrator means the National Offshore Petroleum Titles Administrator.

vacated area has the meaning given by section 14.

valve station means:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas valve station; or

                     (b)  a petroleum valve station.

vessel means a vessel used in navigation, other than air navigation, and includes a barge, lighter or other floating vessel.

water line means a pipe, or system of pipes, for conveying water in connection with:

                     (a)  petroleum exploration operations; or

                     (b)  petroleum recovery operations; or

                     (c)  exploration for potential greenhouse gas storage formations; or

                     (d)  exploration for potential greenhouse gas injection sites; or

                     (e)  the injection of a greenhouse gas substance into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                      (f)  the injection, on an appraisal basis, of a greenhouse gas substance into a part of a geological formation; or

                     (g)  the injection, on an appraisal basis, of air, petroleum or water into a part of a geological formation.

well means a hole in the seabed or subsoil made by drilling, boring or any other means in connection with:

                     (a)  exploration for petroleum; or

                     (b)  petroleum recovery operations; or

                     (c)  exploration for potential greenhouse gas storage formations; or

                     (d)  exploration for potential greenhouse gas injection sites; or

                     (e)  the injection of a greenhouse gas substance into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                      (f)  the injection, on an appraisal basis, of a greenhouse gas substance into a part of a geological formation; or

                     (g)  the injection, on an appraisal basis, of air, petroleum or water into a part of a geological formation;

but does not include a seismic shot hole.

well‑related equipment means any:

                     (a)  plant; or

                     (b)  equipment; or

                     (c)  other thing;

for containing pressure in a well.

Western Greater Sunrise area has the meaning given by Schedule 7.

Note:          Activities occurring in the Western Greater Sunrise area in relation to the exploration, development and exploitation of the Greater Sunrise unit reservoirs are dealt with under the Petroleum (Timor Sea Treaty) Act 2003.

wholly cancelled, in relation to a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum production licence or pipeline licence, means cancelled as to all the blocks, or as to the whole of the pipeline, the subject of the permit or licence.

wholly revoked, in relation to a petroleum exploration permit or petroleum retention lease, means revoked as to all the blocks the subject of the permit or lease.

wholly terminated, in relation to a pipeline licence, means terminated as to the whole of the pipeline the subject of the licence.

work‑bid greenhouse gas assessment permit means a greenhouse gas assessment permit granted under Division 2 of Part 3.2.

work‑bid petroleum exploration permit means:

                     (a)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 2 of Part 2.2 of this Act; or

                     (b)  an exploration permit granted under section 22 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967; or

                     (c)  a petroleum exploration permit granted under Division 5 of Part 2.2 of this Act by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (a) or (b); or

                     (d)  an exploration permit granted under section 32 of the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 by way of the renewal of a permit referred to in paragraph (b).

8  Offshore areas of the States and Territories

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Offshore areas

Item

The offshore area of...

is...

1

(a) New South Wales; or

(b) Victoria; or

(c) South Australia; or

(d) Tasmania

so much of the scheduled area for that State as comprises waters of the sea that are:

(a) beyond the outer limits of the coastal waters of that State; and

(b) within the outer limits of the continental shelf.

2

Queensland

both of the following areas:

(a) so much of the scheduled area for Queensland as comprises waters of the sea that are:

(i) beyond the outer limits of the coastal waters of Queensland; and

(ii) within the outer limits of the continental shelf;

(b) the Coral Sea area (as defined by subsection (2)).

3

Western Australia

so much of the scheduled area for Western Australia as comprises waters of the sea that are:

(a) beyond the outer limits of the coastal waters of Western Australia; and

(b) within the outer limits of the continental shelf; and

(c) not within the Joint Petroleum Development Area.

4

the Northern Territory

so much of the scheduled area for the Northern Territory as comprises waters of the sea that are:

(a) beyond the outer limits of the coastal waters of the Northern Territory; and

(b) within the outer limits of the continental shelf; and

(c) not within the Joint Petroleum Development Area.

5

the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands

so much of the scheduled area for that Territory as consists of land and water that is:

(a) within the outer limits of the continental shelf; and

(b) not within the Joint Petroleum Development Area.

6

Norfolk Island

the area whose boundaries are:

(a) the coastline at mean low water of Norfolk Island; and

(b) the outer limit of the superjacent waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the coast of Norfolk Island.

7

the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

the area whose boundaries are:

(a) the coastlines at mean low water of the islands comprising that Territory; and

(b) the outer limit of the superjacent waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the coasts of those islands.

8

the Territory of Christmas Island

the area whose boundaries are:

(a) the coastline at mean low water of Christmas Island; and

(b) the outer limit of the superjacent waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the coast of Christmas Island.

9

the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

both of the following areas:

(a) the area whose boundaries are the coastline at mean low water of the north atoll of that Territory (otherwise called North Keeling Island), and the outer limit of the superjacent waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the coast of that Island;

(b) the area whose boundaries are the coastlines at mean low water of the remaining islands of that Territory, and the outer limit of the superjacent waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the coasts of those islands.

Note:          The offshore area of a State or Territory corresponds to the adjacent area under the repealed Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, the Coral Sea area is so much of the area to the east of the area described in paragraph (a) of item 2 of the table in subsection (1) as comprises waters of the sea that are within the outer limits of the continental shelf, other than any part of that area that is:

                     (a)  to the south of the parallel of Latitude 25° South; or

                     (b)  on the landward side of the coastline of any island at mean low water.

Note:          For datum, see section 40.

Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands—land taken to be beneath the sea etc.

             (3)  This Act has effect in relation to so much of the offshore area of the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands as consists of land as if that land were:

                     (a)  beneath the sea; and

                     (b)  part of the seabed and subsoil of that offshore area.

Areas of the continental shelf over which Australia does not exercise sovereign rights

             (4)  For the purposes of:

                     (a)  an item in the table in subsection (1); and

                     (b)  subsection (2);

the continental shelf does not include any area of seabed and subsoil that, as a result of an agreement in force between Australia and a foreign country, is not an area over which Australia exercises sovereign rights.

9  Spaces above and below offshore areas

                   For the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  the space above or below an offshore area is taken to be in that area; and

                     (b)  the space above or below an area that is part of an offshore area is taken to be in that part.

10  Term of titles

Petroleum titles

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Term of title etc.

Item

A reference in this Act to...

is a reference to...

1

the term of:

(a) a petroleum exploration permit; or

(b) a petroleum retention lease; or

(c) a petroleum production licence; or

(d) an infrastructure licence; or

(e) a pipeline licence; or

(f) a petroleum special prospecting authority; or

(g) a petroleum access authority;

the period during which the permit, lease, licence or authority remains in force.

2

a year of the term of:

(a) a petroleum exploration permit; or

(b) a petroleum retention lease; or

(c) a petroleum production licence; or

(d) an infrastructure licence; or

(e) a pipeline licence;

a period of one year beginning on:

(a) the day on which the permit, lease or licence comes into force; or

(b) any anniversary of that day.

3

the expiry date of:

(a) a petroleum exploration permit; or

(b) a petroleum retention lease; or

(c) a petroleum production licence;

the day on which the permit, lease or licence ceases to be in force.

Greenhouse gas titles

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Term of title etc.

Item

A reference in this Act to...

is a reference to...

1

the term of:

(a) a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

(b) a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

(c) a greenhouse gas injection licence; or

(d) a greenhouse gas search authority; or

(e) a greenhouse gas special authority;

the period during which the permit, lease, licence or authority remains in force.

2

a year of the term of:

(a) a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

(b) a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

(c) a greenhouse gas injection licence;

a period of one year beginning on:

(a) the day on which the permit, lease or licence comes into force; or

(b) any anniversary of that day.

3

the expiry date of:

(a) a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

(b) a greenhouse gas holding lease (other than a special greenhouse gas holding lease);

the day on which the permit or lease ceases to be in force.

11  Renewal of titles

Petroleum titles

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Renewal of titles

 

Column 1

Column 2

Item

A reference in this Act to...

is a reference to...

1

the renewal, or the grant of a renewal, of a petroleum exploration permit

the grant of a petroleum exploration permit over some or all of the blocks specified in the permit mentioned in column 1, to begin on:

(a) the day after the expiry date of the permit mentioned in column 1; or

(b) the day after the expiry date of the petroleum exploration permit granted on a previous renewal of the permit mentioned in column 1.

2

the renewal, or the grant of a renewal, of a petroleum retention lease

the grant of a petroleum retention lease over all of the blocks in relation to which the lease mentioned in column 1 was in force, to begin on:

(a) the day after the expiry date of the lease mentioned in column 1; or

(b) the day after the expiry date of the petroleum retention lease granted on a previous renewal of the lease mentioned in column 1.

3

the renewal, or the grant of a renewal, of a petroleum production licence

the grant of a petroleum production licence over the block or blocks specified in the licence mentioned in column 1, to begin on:

(a) the day after the expiry date of the licence mentioned in column 1; or

(b) the day after the expiry date of the petroleum production licence granted on a previous renewal of the licence mentioned in column 1.

Greenhouse gas titles

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Renewal of title

 

Column 1

Column 2

Item

A reference in this Act to...

is a reference to...

1A

the renewal, or the grant of a renewal, of a greenhouse gas assessment permit

the grant of a greenhouse gas assessment permit over all of the blocks in relation to which the permit mentioned in column 1 was in force, to begin on the day after the expiry date of the permit mentioned in column 1.

1

the renewal, or the grant of a renewal, of a greenhouse gas holding lease

the grant of a greenhouse gas holding lease over all of the blocks in relation to which the lease mentioned in column 1 was in force, to begin on the day after the expiry date of the lease mentioned in column 1.

12  Variation of titles

Petroleum titles

             (1)  If a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease, petroleum production licence, infrastructure licence, pipeline licence, petroleum special prospecting authority or petroleum access authority is varied, a reference in this Act to the permit, lease, licence or authority is a reference to the permit, lease, licence or authority as varied.

Greenhouse gas titles

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence; or

                     (d)  a greenhouse gas search authority; or

                     (e)  a greenhouse gas special authority;

is varied, a reference in this Act to the permit, lease, licence or authority is a reference to the permit, lease, licence or authority as varied.

13  Tied titles

Scope

             (1)  This section applies if a greenhouse gas holding lease (the greenhouse gas lease) is granted under section 345 to the registered holder of a petroleum retention lease (the petroleum lease).

Tied titles

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, each of the following:

                     (a)  the greenhouse gas lease;

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease granted by way of renewal of the greenhouse gas lease;

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence derived from a lease referred to in paragraph (a) or (b);

is tied to each of the following:

                     (d)  the petroleum lease;

                     (e)  a petroleum retention lease granted by way of renewal of the petroleum lease;

                      (f)  a petroleum production licence derived from a lease referred to in paragraph (d) or (e).

14  Vacated area

                   For the purposes of this Act, the table has effect:

 

Vacated area

Item

In the case of...

the vacated area is...

1

a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease or petroleum production licence that has expired

the area constituted by the blocks over which the permit, lease or licence was in force but has not been renewed.

2

a petroleum exploration permit, petroleum retention lease or petroleum production licence that has been wholly revoked or partly revoked

the area constituted by the blocks as to which the permit, lease or licence was so revoked.

3

a petroleum exploration permit or petroleum production licence that has been wholly cancelled or partly cancelled

the area constituted by the blocks as to which the permit or licence was so cancelled.

4

a petroleum retention lease that has been cancelled

the lease area.

5

a petroleum production licence that has been terminated

the licence area.

6

an infrastructure licence that has been cancelled or terminated

the licence area.

7

a pipeline licence that has been wholly or partly terminated

the part of the offshore area in which the pipeline or the part of the pipeline was constructed.

8

a pipeline licence that has been wholly cancelled or partly cancelled

the part of the offshore area in which the pipeline or the part of the pipeline was constructed.

9

a petroleum special prospecting authority that:

(a) has been surrendered or cancelled; or

(b) has expired

the authority area.

10

a petroleum access authority that:

(a) has been revoked or surrendered; or

(b) has expired

the authority area.

11

a greenhouse gas assessment permit that has expired

the area constituted by the blocks over which the permit was in force but has not been renewed.

12

a greenhouse gas holding lease (other than a special greenhouse gas holding licence) that has expired

the area constituted by the blocks over which the lease was in force but has not been renewed.

13

a greenhouse gas assessment permit that has been cancelled

the permit area.

14

a greenhouse gas holding lease that has been cancelled

the lease area.

15

a greenhouse gas injection licence that has been cancelled

the licence area.

16

a greenhouse gas search authority that:

(a) has been surrendered or cancelled; or

(b) has expired

the authority area.

17

a greenhouse gas special authority that:

(a) has been revoked or surrendered; or

(b) has expired

the authority area.

15  Infrastructure facilities

Definition

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, an infrastructure facility is a facility, structure or installation for engaging in any of the activities to which subsection (2) or (3) applies, so long as:

                     (a)  the facility, structure or installation rests on the seabed; or

                     (b)  the facility, structure or installation is fixed or connected to the seabed (whether or not the facility is floating); or

                     (c)  the facility, structure or installation is attached or tethered to a facility, structure or installation referred to in paragraph (a) or (b).

Petroleum activities

             (2)  This subsection applies to the following activities:

                     (a)  remote control of facilities, structures or installations used to recover petroleum in a petroleum production licence area;

                     (b)  processing petroleum recovered in any place, including:

                              (i)  converting petroleum into another form by physical or chemical means, or both (for example, converting it into liquefied natural gas or methanol); and

                             (ii)  partial processing of petroleum (for example, by removing water);

                     (c)  storing petroleum before it is transported to another place;

                     (d)  preparing petroleum for transport to another place (for example, pumping or compressing);

                     (e)  activities related to any of the above;

but, except as mentioned in paragraph (a), this subsection does not apply to exploring for, or recovering, petroleum.

Greenhouse gas activities

             (3)  This subsection applies to the following activities:

                     (a)  activities preparatory to injecting a greenhouse gas substance into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation (for example, controlling the flow of a greenhouse gas substance into the relevant well);

                     (b)  preparing a greenhouse gas substance for injection into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation (for example, pumping, processing or compressing);

                     (c)  preparing a greenhouse gas substance for transport to another place (for example, pumping or compressing);

                     (d)  storing a greenhouse gas substance before it is:

                              (i)  transported to another place; or

                             (ii)  injected into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                            (iii)  subjected to any other activity at a facility, structure or installation;

                     (e)  monitoring the behaviour of a greenhouse gas substance stored in an identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                      (f)  remote control of facilities, structures or installations used to:

                              (i)  inject a greenhouse gas substance into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                             (ii)  store a greenhouse gas substance in an identified greenhouse gas storage formation; or

                            (iii)  do anything mentioned in any of the above paragraphs;

                     (g)  activities related to any of the above.

             (4)  For the purposes of subsection (3), the injection of a greenhouse gas substance into an identified greenhouse gas storage formation is taken to take place at the top of the relevant well.

16  Terminal station

             (1)  The Titles Administrator may, by notice published in the Gazette, declare any of the following to be a terminal station for the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  a specified petroleum pumping station in an offshore area;

                     (b)  a specified petroleum tank station in an offshore area;

                     (c)  a specified petroleum valve station in an offshore area.

             (2)  A declaration under subsection (1) has effect accordingly.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, a declaration may be made under subsection (1) whether or not a person has applied for a pipeline licence.

17  Terminal point

             (1)  The responsible Commonwealth Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette, declare that a specified point on a pipe, or system of pipes, for conveying a greenhouse gas substance is a terminal point for the purposes of this Act.

             (2)  A declaration under subsection (1) has effect accordingly.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, a declaration may be made under subsection (1) whether or not a person has applied for a pipeline licence.

18  Declared greenhouse gas facility

             (1)  The responsible Commonwealth Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette, declare that a specified facility, structure or installation in a greenhouse gas injection licence area is a declared greenhouse gas facility for the purposes of this Act.

             (2)  A declaration under subsection (1) has effect accordingly.

19  Extended meaning of explore

Petroleum

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a person:

                              (i)  carries out a seismic survey, or any other kind of survey, in an offshore area; or

                             (ii)  takes samples of the seabed or subsoil of an offshore area; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention that the person or another could use the survey data, or information derived from the samples, as the case may be, for the purpose of discovering petroleum;

the person is taken to explore for petroleum.

Potential greenhouse gas storage formation

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a person:

                              (i)  carries out a seismic survey, or any other kind of survey, in an offshore area; or

                             (ii)  takes samples of the seabed or subsoil of an offshore area; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention that the person or another could use the survey data, or information derived from the samples, as the case may be, for the purpose of discovering one or more potential greenhouse gas storage formations;

the person is taken to explore for those potential greenhouse gas storage formations.

             (3)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a person has reasonable grounds to suspect that a part of a geological formation could be an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation; and

                     (b)  the person carries out an activity for the purposes of ascertaining either or both of the following:

                              (i)  the spatial extent of the eligible greenhouse gas storage formation;

                             (ii)  any of the fundamental suitability determinants of the eligible greenhouse gas storage formation;

the person is taken to explore for a potential greenhouse gas formation.

Potential greenhouse gas injection site

             (4)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a person:

                              (i)  carries out a seismic survey, or any other kind of survey, in an offshore area; or

                             (ii)  takes samples of the seabed or subsoil of an offshore area; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention that the person or another could use the survey data, or information derived from the samples, as the case may be, for the purpose of discovering one or more potential greenhouse gas injection sites;

the person is taken to explore for those potential greenhouse gas injection sites.

20  Potential greenhouse gas storage formation

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a potential greenhouse gas storage formation is a part of a geological formation, where that part is suitable, with or without engineering enhancements, for the permanent storage of a greenhouse gas substance injected into that part.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), it is not necessary to identify the greenhouse gas substance.

             (3)  For the purposes of subsection (1), in determining whether a part of a geological formation is suitable, with or without engineering enhancements, for the permanent storage of a greenhouse gas substance injected into that part, regard may be had to reasonably foreseeable technological developments.

21  Eligible greenhouse gas storage formation

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation is a part of a geological formation, where that part:

                     (a)  is suitable, without engineering enhancements, for the permanent storage of a particular amount of a particular greenhouse gas substance injected at a particular point or points into that part over a particular period; or

                     (b)  is suitable, with engineering enhancements, for the permanent storage of a particular amount of a particular greenhouse gas substance injected at a particular point or points into that part over a particular period.

             (2)  An amount referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) must be at least 100,000 tonnes.

Spatial extent

             (3)  For the purposes of this Act, the spatial extent of an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation is the expected migration pathway or pathways, over the period:

                     (a)  beginning at the start of the particular period referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable; and

                     (b)  ending at the notional site closing certificate time;

of the particular amount of the particular greenhouse gas substance injected as mentioned in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable.

             (4)  In determining the spatial extent of an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation, regard must be had to:

                     (a)  the fundamental suitability determinants; and

                     (b)  such other matters as are relevant.

             (5)  The regulations may provide that the expected migration pathway or pathways are to be ascertained on the basis of:

                     (a)  one or more assumptions (if any) specified in the regulations; and

                     (b)  a level of probability specified in the regulations; and

                     (c)  a methodology (if any) specified in the regulations.

Notional site closing certificate time

             (6)  For the purposes of the application of this section to a part of a geological formation covered by paragraph (1)(a), the notional site closing certificate time is worked out as follows:

                     (a)  assume that the particular amount of the particular greenhouse gas substance referred to in that paragraph was injected at the particular point or points referred to in that paragraph over the particular period referred to in that paragraph;

                     (b)  assume that, throughout that period, that part was an identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                     (c)  assume that, throughout that period, operations for the injection of the greenhouse gas substance into that part:

                              (i)  were authorised by a greenhouse gas injection licence; and

                             (ii)  complied with the requirements of this Act and the regulations;

                     (d)  assume that, at the end of that period, operations for the injection of the greenhouse gas substance into that part ceased;

                     (e)  estimate the earliest time after the end of that period when the responsible Commonwealth Minister would be in a position to issue a site closing certificate in relation to the identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                      (f)  that time is the notional site closing certificate time.

             (7)  For the purposes of the application of this section to a part of a geological formation covered by paragraph (1)(b), the notional site closing certificate time is worked out as follows:

                     (a)  assume that the engineering enhancements referred to in that paragraph had been made;

                     (b)  assume that the particular amount of the particular greenhouse gas substance referred to in that paragraph was injected at the particular point or points referred to in that paragraph over the particular period referred to in that paragraph;

                     (c)  assume that, throughout that period, that part was an identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                     (d)  assume that, throughout that period, operations for the injection of the greenhouse gas substance into that part:

                              (i)  were authorised by a greenhouse gas injection licence; and

                             (ii)  complied with the requirements of this Act and the regulations;

                     (e)  assume that, at the end of that period, operations for the injection of the greenhouse gas substance into that part ceased;

                      (f)  estimate the earliest time after the end of that period when the responsible Commonwealth Minister would be in a position to issue a site closing certificate in relation to the identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                     (g)  that time is the notional site closing certificate time.

          (7A)  In making an estimate under paragraph (6)(e) or (7)(f), disregard subsection 388(8).

Fundamental suitability determinants

             (8)  For the purposes of this Act, the following are the fundamental suitability determinants of an eligible greenhouse gas storage formation:

                     (a)  the particular amount referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable;

                     (b)  the particular greenhouse gas substance referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable;

                     (c)  the particular point or points referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable;

                     (d)  the particular period referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable;

                     (e)  if paragraph (1)(b) is applicable—the engineering enhancements referred to in that paragraph;

                      (f)  the effective sealing feature, attribute or mechanism that enables the permanent storage referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable.

22  Potential greenhouse gas injection site

                   For the purposes of this Act, a potential greenhouse gas injection site is a place that:

                     (a)  is a suitable place to make a well or wells to inject a greenhouse gas substance into a part of a geological formation; and

                     (b)  is wholly situated in one or more offshore areas.

23  Incidental greenhouse gas‑related substance

Scope

             (1)  This section applies if either or both of the following substances (primary greenhouse gas substances) are captured from a particular source material:

                     (a)  carbon dioxide;

                     (b)  one or more prescribed greenhouse gases.

Incidental greenhouse gas‑related substance

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, the following are incidental greenhouse gas‑related substances in relation to a primary greenhouse gas substance:

                     (a)  any substance that is incidentally derived from the source material;

                     (b)  any substance that is incidentally derived from the capture;

                     (c)  if the primary greenhouse gas substance, whether in a pure form or in a mixture with other substances, is transported—any substance that is incidentally derived from the transportation;

                     (d)  if the primary greenhouse gas substance, whether in a pure form or in a mixture with other substances, is injected into a part of a geological formation—any substance that is incidentally derived from the injection;

                     (e)  if the primary greenhouse gas substance, whether in a pure form or in a mixture with other substances, is stored in a part of a geological formation—any substance that is incidentally derived from the storage.

24  Site plan—identified greenhouse gas storage formation

                   For the purposes of this Act, a site plan, in relation to an identified greenhouse gas storage formation, is a document that:

                     (a)  relates to the identified greenhouse gas storage formation; and

                     (b)  complies with such requirements as are specified in the regulations; and

                     (c)  is divided into the following parts:

                              (i)  Part A, which sets out predictions for the behaviour of a greenhouse gas substance stored in the identified greenhouse gas storage formation;

                             (ii)  Part B, which deals with other matters.

25  Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—approval of key petroleum operations

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 100, 101, 137, 138, 163 and 164 and paragraph 749(2)(a), the question of whether there is a significant risk that a key petroleum operation will have a significant adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations for the injection of a greenhouse gas substance; or

                     (b)  operations for the storage of a greenhouse gas substance;

is to be determined in a manner ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  A manner ascertained in accordance with regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) must take into account:

                     (a)  the probability, or range of probabilities, of the occurrence of the adverse impact; and

                     (b)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact; and

                     (c)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact relative to the potential economic value of the operations referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the matters that may be taken into account.

             (4)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to subsections (5) and (6).

             (5)  For the purposes of sections 100, 101, 137, 138, 163 and 164 and paragraph 749(2)(a), a key petroleum operation will have an adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations for the injection of a greenhouse gas substance; or

                     (b)  operations for the storage of a greenhouse gas substance;

(the relevant greenhouse gas operations) if, and only if, the key petroleum operation will result in:

                     (c)  an increase in the capital costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant greenhouse gas operations; or

                     (d)  an increase in the operating costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant greenhouse gas operations; or

                     (e)  a reduction in the rate of injection of the greenhouse gas substance; or

                      (f)  a reduction in the quantity of the greenhouse gas substance that will be able to be stored.

             (6)  For the purposes of sections 100, 101, 137, 138, 163 and 164 and paragraph 749(2)(a), if there is a risk that a key petroleum operation will have an adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations for the injection of a greenhouse gas substance; or

                     (b)  operations for the storage of a greenhouse gas substance;

then that risk is not to be treated as significant, and that adverse impact is not to be treated as significant, if the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the probability‑weighted impact cost of the key petroleum operation is less than the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the threshold amount.

26  Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—grant of petroleum production licence

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 171 and 173, the question of whether there is a significant risk that any of the operations that could be carried on under a petroleum production licence will have a significant adverse impact on operations that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence;

is to be determined in a manner ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  A manner ascertained in accordance with regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) must take into account:

                     (a)  the probability, or range of probabilities, of the occurrence of the adverse impact; and

                     (b)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact; and

                     (c)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact relative to the potential economic value of the operations that are being, or could be, carried on under the permit, lease or licence referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a), (b) or (c) is applicable.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the matters that may be taken into account.

             (4)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to subsections (5) and (6).

             (5)  For the purposes of sections 171 and 173, an operation that could be carried on under a petroleum production licence (the petroleum production licence operation) will have an adverse impact on operations (the relevant greenhouse gas operations) that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence;

if, and only if, the petroleum production licence operation will result in:

                     (d)  an increase in the capital costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant greenhouse gas operations; or

                     (e)  an increase in the operating costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant greenhouse gas operations; or

                      (f)  a reduction in the rate of injection of the greenhouse gas substance; or

                     (g)  a reduction in the quantity of the greenhouse gas substance that will be able to be stored.

             (6)  For the purposes of sections 171 and 173, if there is a risk that an operation that could be carried on under a petroleum production licence (the petroleum production licence operation) will have an adverse impact on operations that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence;

then that risk is not to be treated as significant, and that adverse impact is not to be treated as significant, if the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the probability‑weighted impact cost of the petroleum production licence operation is less than the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the threshold amount.

27  Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—approval of key greenhouse gas operations

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 292 and 321 and paragraph 749(2)(b), the question of whether there is a significant risk that a key greenhouse gas operation will have a significant adverse impact on petroleum exploration operations, or petroleum recovery operations, that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

is to be determined in a manner ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  A manner ascertained in accordance with regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) must take into account:

                     (a)  the probability, or range of probabilities, of the occurrence of the adverse impact; and

                     (b)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact; and

                     (c)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact relative to the potential economic value of the petroleum exploration operations, or petroleum recovery operations, that are being, or could be, carried on under the permit, lease or licence referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f) is applicable.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the matters that may be taken into account.

             (4)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to subsections (5) and (6).

             (5)  For the purposes of sections 292 and 321 and paragraph 749(2)(b), a key greenhouse gas operation will have an adverse impact on petroleum exploration operations, or petroleum recovery operations, that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

if, and only if, the key greenhouse gas operation will result in:

                     (g)  an increase in the capital costs (other than prescribed costs) of the petroleum exploration operations or petroleum recovery operations; or

                     (h)  an increase in the operating costs (other than prescribed costs) of the petroleum exploration operations or petroleum recovery operations; or

                      (i)  a reduction in the rate of recovery of the petroleum; or

                      (j)  a reduction in the quantity of the petroleum that will be able to be recovered.

             (6)  For the purposes of sections 292 and 321 and paragraph 749(2)(b), if there is a risk that a key greenhouse gas operation will have an adverse impact on petroleum exploration operations, or petroleum recovery operations, that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

then that risk is not to be treated as significant, and that adverse impact is not to be treated as significant, if the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the probability‑weighted impact cost of the key greenhouse gas operation is less than the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the threshold amount.

28  Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—grant of greenhouse gas injection licence

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 362 and 370 and paragraph 749(2)(c), the question of whether there is a significant risk that any of the operations that could be carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence will have a significant adverse impact on operations that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

is to be determined in a manner ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  A manner ascertained in accordance with regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) must take into account:

                     (a)  the probability, or range of probabilities, of the occurrence of the adverse impact; and

                     (b)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact; and

                     (c)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact relative to the potential economic value of the operations that are being, or could be, carried on under the permit, lease or licence referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f) is applicable.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the matters that may be taken into account.

             (4)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to subsections (5) and (6).

             (5)  For the purposes of sections 362 and 370 and paragraph 749(2)(c), an operation that could be carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence (the injection licence operation) will have an adverse impact on operations (the relevant petroleum operations) that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

if, and only if, the injection licence operation will result in:

                     (g)  an increase in the capital costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant petroleum operations; or

                     (h)  an increase in the operating costs (other than prescribed costs) of the relevant petroleum operations; or

                      (i)  a reduction in the rate of recovery of the petroleum; or

                      (j)  a reduction in the quantity of the petroleum that will be able to be recovered.

             (6)  For the purposes of sections 362 and 370 and paragraph 749(2)(c), if there is a risk that an operation that could be carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence (the injection licence operation) will have an adverse impact on operations that are being, or could be, carried on under:

                     (a)  an existing petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  an existing petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  an existing petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  a future petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (e)  a future petroleum retention lease; or

                      (f)  a future petroleum production licence;

then that risk is not to be treated as significant, and that adverse impact is not to be treated as significant, if the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the probability‑weighted impact cost of the injection licence operation is less than the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the threshold amount.

29  Significant risk of a significant adverse impact—power of responsible Commonwealth Minister to protect petroleum

             (1)  For the purposes of section 383 and paragraph 749(2)(d), the question of whether there is a significant risk that any of the operations that are being, or could be, carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence will have a significant adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations to recover petroleum; or

                     (b)  the commercial viability of the recovery of petroleum;

is to be determined in a manner ascertained in accordance with the regulations.

             (2)  A manner ascertained in accordance with regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) must take into account:

                     (a)  the probability, or range of probabilities, of the occurrence of the adverse impact; and

                     (b)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact; and

                     (c)  the economic consequences of the adverse impact relative to the potential economic value of the operations or recovery referred to in whichever of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) is applicable.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the matters that may be taken into account.

             (4)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to subsections (5) and (6).

             (5)  For the purposes of section 383 and paragraph 749(2)(d), an operation that could be carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence (the injection licence operation) will have an adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations to recover petroleum; or

                     (b)  the commercial viability of the recovery of petroleum;

if, and only if, the injection licence operation will result in:

                     (c)  an increase in the capital costs (other than prescribed costs) of the recovery of the petroleum; or

                     (d)  an increase in the operating costs (other than prescribed costs) of the recovery of the petroleum; or

                     (e)  a reduction in the rate of recovery of the petroleum; or

                      (f)  a reduction in the quantity of the petroleum that will be able to be recovered.

             (6)  For the purposes of section 383 and paragraph 749(2)(d), if there is a risk that an operation that is being, or could be, carried on under a greenhouse gas injection licence (the injection licence operation) will have an adverse impact on:

                     (a)  operations to recover petroleum; or

                     (b)  the commercial viability of the recovery of petroleum;

then that risk is not to be treated as significant, and that adverse impact is not to be treated as significant, if the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the probability‑weighted impact cost of the injection licence operation is less than the amount that, under the regulations, is taken to be the threshold amount.

30  Direction given by the responsible Commonwealth Minister

                   A reference in this Act to a direction given by the responsible Commonwealth Minister does not include a reference to a direction given by the responsible Commonwealth Minister in his or her capacity as, or as a member of, the Joint Authority for an offshore area.

31  Securities

Greenhouse gas titles

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit, greenhouse gas holding lease or greenhouse gas injection licence is in force; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  the successful applicant for the permit, lease or licence lodged a security with the responsible Commonwealth Minister in response to the offer document for the permit, lease or licence; or

                             (ii)  the registered holder, or a former registered holder, of the permit, lease or licence lodged a security with the responsible Commonwealth Minister in response to a notice under section 454; and

                     (c)  the security has not been wholly discharged;

the security is taken to be in force in relation to the permit, lease or licence.

Site closing certificate

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, if:

                     (a)  a site closing certificate is in force; and

                     (b)  the successful applicant for the certificate lodged a security with the responsible Commonwealth Minister in response to the pre‑certificate notice for the site closing certificate; and

                     (c)  the security has not been wholly discharged;

the security is taken to be in force in relation to the site closing certificate.

Note:          For pre‑certificate notice, see section 388.

32  Designated agreements

                   For the purposes of this Act, a designated agreement is an agreement of the kind referred to in any of the following provisions:

                     (a)  paragraph 100(5)(f);

                     (b)  paragraph 100(6)(d);

                     (c)  subsection 100(10);

                     (d)  paragraph 137(5)(f);

                     (e)  paragraph 137(6)(d);

                      (f)  subsection 137(10);

                     (g)  paragraph 163(5)(f);

                     (h)  paragraph 163(6)(d);

                      (i)  subsection 163(10);

                      (j)  paragraph 292(5)(d);

                     (k)  paragraph 292(6)(d);

                      (l)  subsection 292(11);

                    (m)  subsection 292(12);

                     (n)  paragraph 321(5)(d);

                     (o)  paragraph 321(6)(d);

                     (p)  subsection 321(11);

                     (q)  subsection 321(12);

                      (r)  subparagraph 362(1)(d)(iii);

                      (s)  subparagraph 362(1)(e)(iii);

                      (t)  subparagraph 362(2)(d)(iii);

                     (u)  subparagraph 362(2)(e)(iii);

                     (v)  paragraph 362(3)(a);

                    (w)  subparagraph 370(d)(v);

                     (x)  paragraph 370(e);

                     (y)  paragraph 370(f);

                     (z)  paragraph 370(g);

                    (za)  paragraph 383(1)(e).

33  Graticulation of Earth’s surface and constitution of blocks

Graticular sections

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the surface of the Earth is taken to be divided:

                     (a)  by the meridian of Greenwich and by meridians that are at an angular distance from that meridian of 5 minutes, or a multiple of 5 minutes, of longitude; and

                     (b)  by the equator and by parallels of latitude that are at an angular distance from the equator of 5 minutes, or a multiple of 5 minutes, of latitude;

into sections called graticular sections, each of which is bounded:

                     (c)  by portions of 2 of those meridians that are at an angular distance from each other of 5 minutes of longitude; and

                     (d)  by portions of 2 of those parallels of latitude that are at an angular distance from each other of 5 minutes of latitude.

Simplified map

             (2)  This subsection sets out a simplified map illustrating graticular sections off the coast of Western Australia in the vicinity of Barrow Island:

map5_20nov2greys

Blocks

             (3)  For the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  a graticular section that is wholly within an offshore area constitutes a block; and

                     (b)  if a part only of a graticular section is, or parts only of a graticular section are, within an offshore area, the area of that part, or of those parts, constitutes a block.

Note:          See also section 282 (certain portions of blocks to be blocks).

Block that is constituted by a graticular section

             (4)  A reference in this Act to a block that is constituted by a graticular section includes a reference to a block that is constituted by the area of a part only, or by the areas of parts only, of a graticular section.

Graticular section that constitutes a block

             (5)  A reference in this Act to a graticular section that constitutes a block includes a reference to:

                     (a)  a graticular section only part of which constitutes a block; or

                     (b)  a graticular section only parts of which constitute a block.

Note:          For datum, see section 39.

34  External Territories

                   This Act extends to the following external Territories:

                     (a)  Norfolk Island;

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island;

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

                     (d)  the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands;

                     (e)  the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands.

35  Application of Act

                   This Act applies to:

                     (a)  all individuals, whether or not Australian citizens, and whether or not resident in the Commonwealth or a Territory; and

                     (b)  all corporations, whether or not incorporated or carrying on business in the Commonwealth or a Territory.

36  Certain pipelines provisions to apply subject to international obligations

             (1)  This section applies to the provisions of this Act to the extent to which they relate to a pipeline for the conveyance of petroleum recovered from a place beyond the outer limits of any offshore area.

             (2)  The provisions have effect subject to Australia’s obligations under international law, including obligations under any agreement between Australia and any foreign country or countries.

Division 2Datum provisions

Subdivision ADatum for ascertaining the position of points etc.

37  Objects

                   The objects of this Subdivision are:

                     (a)  to use the Australian Geodetic Datum to determine the position of graticular sections or blocks; and

                     (b)  to use the Geocentric Datum of Australia to determine the position of certain other areas; and

                     (c)  to enable the position of a point, line or area to be described, in a title or other instrument under this Act, using:

                              (i)  the Geocentric Datum of Australia; or

                             (ii)  another datum identified in the regulations;

                            (but not so as to change the position of a point, line or area).

38  Definitions

                   In this Subdivision:

Australian Geodetic Datum means the Australian Geodetic Datum as defined in Gazette No. 84 of 6 October 1966 (AGD66 geodetic data set).

Geocentric Datum of Australia means the Geocentric Datum of Australia as defined in Gazette No. 35 of 6 September 1995 (GDA94 geocentric data set).

greenhouse gas title means:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas assessment permit; or

                     (b)  a greenhouse gas holding lease; or

                     (c)  a greenhouse gas injection licence; or

                     (d)  a greenhouse gas search authority; or

                     (e)  a greenhouse gas special authority.

instrument under this Act does not include the regulations.

petroleum title means:

                     (a)  a petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  a petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  a petroleum production licence; or

                     (d)  an infrastructure licence; or

                     (e)  a pipeline licence; or

                      (f)  a petroleum special prospecting authority; or

                     (g)  a petroleum access authority.

this Act includes the regulations.

title means:

                     (a)  a greenhouse gas title; or

                     (b)  a petroleum title.

39  Australian Geodetic Datum

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of a graticular section or block is to be determined by reference to the Australian Geodetic Datum.

Note:          Australian Geodetic Datum is defined in section 38.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply for the purposes of describing, in a title or other instrument under this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area.

40  Geocentric Datum of Australia

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of:

                     (a)  the parallel of latitude described in subsection 8(2); or

                     (b)  an area described in Schedule 1; or

                     (c)  the area described in Schedule 2; or

                     (d)  the area described in Schedule 7;

is to be determined by reference to the Geocentric Datum of Australia.

Note 1:       Subsection 8(2) describes the Coral Sea area.

Note 2:       Schedule 1 describes the scheduled areas for the States and Territories. See also sections 48 and 49 (points and lines specified in the New Zealand boundary treaty).

Note 3:       Schedule 2 describes the area that includes the area to be avoided.

Note 3A:    Schedule 7 describes the Greater Sunrise unit area, the Eastern Greater Sunrise offshore area and the Western Greater Sunrise area.

Note 4:       Geocentric Datum of Australia is defined in section 38.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply for the purposes of describing, in a title or other instrument under this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area.

41  Current datum, previous datum and changeover time

             (1)  The regulations may declare that, for the purposes of describing, in a title or other instrument under this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area:

                     (a)  a specified datum is the current datum; and

                     (b)  that datum replaces the previous datum.

             (2)  The previous datum is:

                     (a)  if a datum is the first datum declared to be the current datum under subsection (1)—the Geocentric Datum of Australia; or

                     (b)  in any other case—the datum that was the current datum immediately before the changeover time.

             (3)  The changeover time is the time when the declaration takes effect.

             (4)  Before the first declaration under subsection (1) takes effect, the Geocentric Datum of Australia applies for the purposes of describing, in a title or other instrument under this Act, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area.

42  Use of current datum

                   For the purposes of this Act, after the changeover time, for a title or instrument set out in the table, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area set out in the table is to be described by reference to the current datum, and the relevant title or instrument may be annotated accordingly:

 

Points, lines and areas

Item

Title or instrument

Point, line or area

1

a petroleum exploration permit

the permit area of a petroleum exploration permit granted after the changeover time

2

a petroleum retention lease

the lease area of a petroleum retention lease granted after the changeover time

3

a petroleum production licence

the licence area of a petroleum production licence granted after the changeover time

4

an infrastructure licence

the licence area of an infrastructure licence granted after the changeover time

5

a petroleum special prospecting authority

the authority area of a petroleum special prospecting authority granted after the changeover time

6

a petroleum access authority

the authority area of a petroleum access authority granted after the changeover time

7

a pipeline licence

the route of a pipeline authorised by a pipeline licence granted after the changeover time

8

a greenhouse gas assessment permit

the permit area of a greenhouse gas assessment permit granted after the changeover time

9

a greenhouse gas holding lease

the lease area of a greenhouse gas holding lease granted after the changeover time

10

a greenhouse gas injection licence

the licence area of a greenhouse gas injection licence granted after the changeover time

11

a greenhouse gas search authority

the authority area of a greenhouse gas search authority granted after the changeover time

12

a greenhouse gas special authority

the authority area of a greenhouse gas special authority granted after the changeover time

13

any other instrument under this Act

a point, line or area set out in any other instrument made under this Act made after the changeover time

Note 1:       A grant of a petroleum exploration permit, a petroleum retention lease or a petroleum production licence may be a grant by way of renewal—see section 11.

Note 2:       A grant of a greenhouse gas holding lease may be a grant by way of renewal—see section 11.

43  Use of previous datum

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, after the changeover time, for a title or instrument set out in the table, the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area set out in the table is to be described by reference to the previous datum:

 

Points, lines and areas

Item

Title or instrument

Point, line or area

1

a petroleum exploration permit

the permit area of a petroleum exploration permit that was in force immediately before the changeover time

2

a petroleum retention lease

the lease area of a petroleum retention lease that was in force immediately before the changeover time

3

a petroleum production licence

the licence area of a petroleum production licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

4

an infrastructure licence

the licence area of an infrastructure licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

5

a petroleum special prospecting authority

the authority area of a petroleum special prospecting authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

6

a petroleum access authority

the authority area of a petroleum access authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

7

a pipeline licence

the route of a pipeline authorised by a pipeline licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

8

a greenhouse gas assessment permit

the permit area of a greenhouse gas assessment permit that was in force immediately before the changeover time

9

a greenhouse gas holding lease

the lease area of a greenhouse gas holding lease that was in force immediately before the changeover time

10

a greenhouse gas injection licence

the licence area of a greenhouse gas injection licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

11

a greenhouse gas search authority

the authority area of a greenhouse gas search authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

12

a greenhouse gas special authority

the authority area of a greenhouse gas special authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

13

any other instrument under this Act

a point, line or area set out in any other instrument under this Act that was in force immediately before the changeover time

             (2)  Subsection (1) has effect subject to section 44 (which deals with variation of titles and instruments).

44  Variation of titles and instruments

Petroleum titles and instruments

             (1)  The table has effect:

 

Variation of titles and instruments

Item

The Titles Administrator may issue an instrument varying...

for the sole purpose of...

1

a petroleum exploration permit that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the permit area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

2

a petroleum retention lease that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the lease area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

3

a petroleum production licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the licence area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

4

an infrastructure licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the licence area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

5

a petroleum special prospecting authority or a petroleum access authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the authority area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

6

a pipeline licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the route of the pipeline using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

7

any other instrument under this Act that:

(a) sets out a point, line or area; and

(b) was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the point, line or area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

8

a petroleum title or other instrument under this Act

inserting an annotation about the applicable datum.

Note:          For publication in the Gazette of notice of the variation, see section 708.

Greenhouse gas titles and instruments

             (2)  The table has effect:

 

Variation of titles and instruments

Item

The responsible Commonwealth Minister may issue an instrument varying...

for the sole purpose of...

1

a greenhouse gas assessment permit that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the permit area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

2

a greenhouse gas holding lease that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the lease area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

3

a greenhouse gas injection licence that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the licence area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

4

a greenhouse gas search authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the authority area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

5

a greenhouse gas special authority that was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the authority area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

6

any other instrument under this Act that:

(a) sets out a point, line or area; and

(b) was in force immediately before the changeover time

relabelling the point, line or area using geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

7

a greenhouse gas title or other instrument under this Act

inserting an annotation about the applicable datum.

Note:          For publication in the Gazette of notice of the variation, see section 708.

45  Variation of applications for titles

Petroleum titles

             (1)  The Titles Administrator may issue an instrument varying an application for a petroleum title for the sole purpose of relabelling a point, line or area by reference to geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

Greenhouse gas titles

             (2)  The responsible Commonwealth Minister may issue an instrument varying an application for a greenhouse gas title for the sole purpose of relabelling a point, line or area by reference to geographic coordinates based on the current datum.

46  No change to actual position of point, line or area

                   This Subdivision does not authorise any change to the position on the surface of the Earth of a point, line or area.

47  Transitional regulations

                   The regulations may make provision for matters of a transitional nature arising from the change from the previous datum to the current datum.

48  International Seabed Agreements

                   This Subdivision has effect subject to section 49.

Note:          Section 49 deals with International Seabed Agreements.

Subdivision BCertain points etc. specified in an International Seabed Agreement to be ascertained by other means

49  Certain points etc. specified in an International Seabed Agreement to be ascertained by other means

             (1)  This section applies if, for the purposes of this Act or the regulations, or for the purposes of an instrument under this Act or the regulations, it is necessary to determine the position on the surface of the Earth of:

                     (a)  a point or line specified in an International Seabed Agreement; or

                     (b)  a point on, or part of, such a line.

             (2)  That position must be determined in accordance with:

                     (a)  that Agreement; or

                     (b)  if that Agreement is varied—in accordance with that Agreement as varied for the time being.

             (3)  In this section:

International Seabed Agreement means:

                     (a)  the Agreement between Australia and Indonesia establishing certain seabed boundaries signed at Canberra on 18 May 1971; or

                     (b)  the Agreement between Australia and Indonesia establishing certain seabed boundaries in the area of the Timor and Arafura Seas supplementary to the Agreement referred to in paragraph (a) and signed at Jakarta on 9 October 1972; or

                     (c)  the Agreement between Australia and Indonesia concerning certain boundaries between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia signed at Jakarta on 12 February 1973; or

                     (d)  the Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea concerning sovereignty and maritime boundaries in the area between the 2 countries, including the area known as the Torres Strait, and related matters that was signed at Sydney on 18 December 1978; or

                     (e)  the New Zealand boundary treaty.

Division 3Apportionment of petroleum recovered from adjoining title areas

50  Title

                   In this Division:

title means:

                     (a)  a petroleum exploration permit; or

                     (b)  a petroleum retention lease; or

                     (c)  a petroleum production licence.

51  Titleholder and title area

                   For the purposes of this Division, the table has effect:

 

Titleholder and title area

Item