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Fair Work Act 2009

Authoritative Version
  • - C2013C00469
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Tax Laws Amendment (Fairer Taxation of Excess Concessional Contributions) Act 2013
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Employment
Registered 29 Aug 2013
Start Date 01 Aug 2013
End Date 31 Dec 2013

Description: Commonwealth Coat of Arms

Fair Work Act 2009

No. 28, 2009 as amended

Compilation start date:                     1 August 2013

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 118, 2013

This compilation has been split into 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–536

Volume 2:       sections 537–800

                        Schedules

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

About this compilation

This compilation

This is a compilation of the Fair Work Act 2009 as in force on 1 August 2013. It includes any commenced amendment affecting the legislation to that date.

This compilation was prepared on 28 August 2013.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending laws and the amendment history of each amended provision.

Uncommenced amendments

The effect of uncommenced amendments is not reflected in the text of the compiled law but the text of the amendments is included in the endnotes.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for provisions and amendments

If the operation of a provision or amendment is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision that is not included in this compilation, details are included in the endnotes.

Modifications

If a provision of the compiled law is affected by a modification that is in force, details are included in the endnotes.

Provisions ceasing to have effect

If a provision of the compiled law has expired or otherwise ceased to have effect in accordance with a provision of the law, details are included in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                       1

Part 1‑1—Introduction                                                                                                       1

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                              1

1............ Short title............................................................................................. 1

2............ Commencement................................................................................... 1

Division 2—Object of this Act                                                                                 4

3............ Object of this Act................................................................................ 4

Division 3—Guide to this Act                                                                                   6

4............ Guide to this Act................................................................................. 6

5............ Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2).............................. 7

6............ Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)               8

7............ Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)........................................... 9

8............ Administration (Chapter 5)................................................................. 9

9............ Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)................................................................ 10

9A......... Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)          10

Part 1‑2—Definitions                                                                                                         11

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          11

10.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 11

11.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 11

Division 2—The Dictionary                                                                                     12

12.......... The Dictionary.................................................................................. 12

Division 3—Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.    42

13.......... Meaning of national system employee.............................................. 42

14.......... Meaning of national system employer.............................................. 42

14A....... Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.             44

15.......... Ordinary meanings of employee and employer................................. 45

Division 4—Other definitions                                                                                 46

16.......... Meaning of base rate of pay............................................................. 46

17.......... Meaning of child of a person............................................................ 47

17A....... Meaning of directly and indirectly (in relation to TCF work)............ 47

18.......... Meaning of full rate of pay................................................................ 48

19.......... Meaning of industrial action............................................................. 49

20.......... Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees               50

21.......... Meaning of pieceworker................................................................... 51

22.......... Meanings of service and continuous service..................................... 52

23.......... Meaning of small business employer................................................ 55

Part 1‑3—Application of this Act                                                                               56

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          56

24.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 56

25.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 56

Division 2—Interaction with State and Territory laws                            57

26.......... Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws.................................. 57

27.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26............. 58

28.......... Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws.............................. 60

29.......... Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws           61

30.......... Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases............ 61

Division 2A—Application of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009  62

30A....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 62

30B....... Meaning of referring State................................................................ 66

30C....... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 69

30D....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 70

30E........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 70

30F........ Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 71

30G....... General protections........................................................................... 71

30H....... Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 72

Division 2B—Application of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010                                                                                    73

30K....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 73

30L........ Meaning of referring State................................................................ 77

30M...... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 81

30N....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 81

30P........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 81

30Q....... Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 82

30R....... General protections........................................................................... 83

30S........ Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 83

Division 3—Geographical application of this Act                                       84

31.......... Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia..... 84

32.......... Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia           84

33.......... Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf       85

34.......... Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf               86

35.......... Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee.. 88

35A....... Regulations excluding application of Act.......................................... 88

36.......... Geographical application of offences................................................ 89

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                       90

37.......... Act binds Crown............................................................................... 90

38.......... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power................... 90

39.......... Acquisition of property..................................................................... 91

40.......... Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws       91

40A....... Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901................................ 92

Chapter 2—Terms and conditions of employment                  93

Part 2‑1—Core provisions for this Chapter                                                        93

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          93

41.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 93

42.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 94

Division 2—Core provisions for this Chapter                                               95

Subdivision A—Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act            95

43.......... Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act......... 95

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards            96

44.......... Contravening the National Employment Standards........................... 96

Subdivision C—Terms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award 96

45.......... Contravening a modern award.......................................................... 96

46.......... The significance of a modern award applying to a person................. 96

47.......... When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity   97

48.......... When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity        98

49.......... When a modern award is in operation............................................... 99

Subdivision D—Terms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement  100

50.......... Contravening an enterprise agreement............................................. 100

51.......... The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person... 100

52.......... When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation    100

53.......... When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation         101

54.......... When an enterprise agreement is in operation................................. 102

Division 3—Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                           103

Subdivision A—Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement                                                                                   103

55.......... Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement  103

56.......... Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect      105

Subdivision B—Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements         106

57.......... Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements...... 106

57A....... Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply. 106

Subdivision C—Interaction between one or more enterprise agreements 107

58.......... Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee............... 107

Part 2‑2—The National Employment Standards                                           109

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        109

59.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................ 109

60.......... Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 109

Division 2—The National Employment Standards                                   111

61.......... The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees     111

Division 3—Maximum weekly hours                                                                112

62.......... Maximum weekly hours................................................................. 112

63.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work        113

64.......... Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees. 114

Division 4—Requests for flexible working arrangements                    115

65.......... Requests for flexible working arrangements................................... 115

66.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 117

Division 5—Parental leave and related entitlements                               118

Subdivision A—General                                                                                       118

67.......... General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service           118

68.......... General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc. 120

69.......... Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.      120

Subdivision B—Parental leave                                                                           121

70.......... Entitlement to unpaid parental leave................................................ 121

71.......... The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave       121

72.......... The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave             123

73.......... Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth          125

74.......... Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 126

75.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending to use more of available parental leave period     128

76.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending for up to 12 months beyond available parental leave period........................................................................................................ 129

77.......... Reducing period of unpaid parental leave........................................ 130

77A....... Pregnancy ends (other than by birth of a living child) or child born alive dies         130

78.......... Employee who ceases to have responsibility for care of child......... 132

79.......... Interaction with paid leave............................................................... 132

79A....... Keeping in touch days..................................................................... 133

79B....... Unpaid parental leave not extended by paid leave or keeping in touch days             134

Subdivision C—Other entitlements                                                                    135

80.......... Unpaid special maternity leave........................................................ 135

81.......... Transfer to a safe job....................................................................... 136

81A....... Paid no safe job leave...................................................................... 136

82.......... Employee on paid no safe job leave may be asked to provide a further medical certificate       137

82A....... Unpaid no safe job leave................................................................. 138

83.......... Consultation with employee on unpaid parental leave..................... 138

84.......... Return to work guarantee................................................................ 139

84A....... Replacement employees.................................................................. 139

85.......... Unpaid pre‑adoption leave.............................................................. 140

Division 6—Annual leave                                                                                       142

86.......... Division applies to employees other than casual employees............ 142

87.......... Entitlement to annual leave.............................................................. 142

88.......... Taking paid annual leave................................................................. 143

89.......... Employee not taken to be on paid annual leave at certain times....... 144

90.......... Payment for annual leave................................................................ 144

91.......... Transfer of employment situations that affect entitlement to payment for period of untaken paid annual leave        144

92.......... Paid annual leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms           145

93.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out and taking paid annual leave........................................................................................................ 145

94.......... Cashing out and taking paid annual leave for award/agreement free employees       146

Division 7—Personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave            148

Subdivision A—Paid personal/carer’s leave                                                   148

95.......... Subdivision applies to employees other than casual employees...... 148

96.......... Entitlement to paid personal/carer’s leave........................................ 148

97.......... Taking paid personal/carer’s leave.................................................. 148

98.......... Employee taken not to be on paid personal/carer’s leave on public holiday              149

99.......... Payment for paid personal/carer’s leave.......................................... 149

100........ Paid personal/carer’s leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms             149

101........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out paid personal/carer’s leave   149

Subdivision B—Unpaid carer’s leave                                                               150

102........ Entitlement to unpaid carer’s leave.................................................. 150

103........ Taking unpaid carer’s leave............................................................. 150

Subdivision C—Compassionate leave                                                               151

104........ Entitlement to compassionate leave................................................. 151

105........ Taking compassionate leave............................................................ 151

106........ Payment for compassionate leave (other than for casual employees) 152

Subdivision D—Notice and evidence requirements                                       152

107........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 152

Division 8—Community service leave                                                             154

108........ Entitlement to be absent from employment for engaging in eligible community service activity               154

109........ Meaning of eligible community service activity............................... 154

110........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 156

111........ Payment to employees (other than casuals) on jury service............. 156

112........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 158

Division 9—Long service leave                                                                           159

113........ Entitlement to long service leave..................................................... 159

113A..... Enterprise agreements may contain terms discounting service under prior agreements etc. in certain circumstances........................................................................................................ 161

Division 10—Public holidays                                                                                163

114........ Entitlement to be absent from employment on public holiday......... 163

115........ Meaning of public holiday.............................................................. 164

116........ Payment for absence on public holiday........................................... 165

Division 11—Notice of termination and redundancy pay                     166

Subdivision A—Notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice         166

117........ Requirement for notice of termination or payment in lieu................ 166

118........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for notice of termination by employees            167

Subdivision B—Redundancy pay                                                                       167

119........ Redundancy pay.............................................................................. 167

120........ Variation of redundancy pay for other employment or incapacity to pay  168

121........ Exclusions from obligation to pay redundancy pay......................... 169

122........ Transfer of employment situations that affect the obligation to pay redundancy pay                169

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            171

123........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 171

Division 12—Fair Work Information Statement                                       173

124........ Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Fair Work Information Statement  173

125........ Giving new employees the Fair Work Information Statement......... 173

Division 13—Miscellaneous                                                                                   175

126........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for school‑based apprentices and trainees to be paid loadings in lieu.................................................................................................. 175

127........ Regulations about what modern awards and enterprise agreements can do              175

128........ Relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements etc. permitted by this Part for award/agreement free employees................................................................................ 175

129........ Regulations about what can be agreed to etc. in relation to award/agreement free employees   176

130........ Restriction on taking or accruing leave or absence while receiving workers’ compensation    176

131........ Relationship with other Commonwealth laws................................. 177

Part 2‑3—Modern awards                                                                                            178

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        178

132........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 178

133........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 179

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                180

134........ The modern awards objective.......................................................... 180

135........ Special provisions relating to modern award minimum wages........ 181

Division 3—Terms of modern awards                                                             182

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               182

136........ What can be included in modern awards......................................... 182

137........ Terms that contravene section 136 have no effect........................... 183

138........ Achieving the modern awards objective.......................................... 183

Subdivision B—Terms that may be included in modern awards               183

139........ Terms that may be included in modern awards—general................ 183

140........ Outworker terms............................................................................. 184

141........ Industry‑specific redundancy schemes............................................ 185

142........ Incidental and machinery terms....................................................... 186

Subdivision C—Terms that must be included in modern awards              187

143........ Coverage terms of modern awards other than modern enterprise awards and State reference public sector modern awards........................................................................................................ 187

143A..... Coverage terms of modern enterprise awards................................. 189

143B..... Coverage terms of State reference public sector modern awards..... 190

144........ Flexibility terms.............................................................................. 191

145........ Effect of individual flexibility arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                193

146........ Terms about settling disputes.......................................................... 194

147........ Ordinary hours of work.................................................................. 194

148........ Base and full rates of pay for pieceworkers.................................... 194

149........ Automatic variation of allowances.................................................. 194

149A..... Superannuation contributions for defined benefit members............ 195

Subdivision D—Terms that must not be included in modern awards       195

150........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 195

151........ Terms about payments and deductions for benefit of employer etc. 195

152........ Terms about right of entry............................................................... 195

153........ Terms that are discriminatory.......................................................... 196

154........ Terms that contain State‑based differences...................................... 196

155........ Terms dealing with long service leave............................................. 197

155A..... Terms dealing with superannuation................................................. 197

Division 4—4 yearly reviews of modern awards                                       199

156........ 4 yearly reviews of modern awards to be conducted....................... 199

Division 5—Exercising modern award powers outside 4 yearly reviews and annual wage reviews     201

Subdivision A—Exercise of powers if necessary to achieve modern awards objective               201

157........ FWC may vary etc. modern awards if necessary to achieve modern awards objective             201

158........ Applications to vary, revoke or make modern award...................... 202

Subdivision B—Other situations                                                                        204

159........ Variation of modern award to update or omit name of employer, organisation or outworker entity         204

160........ Variation of modern award to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error      205

161........ Variation of modern award on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission  205

Division 6—General provisions relating to modern award powers 207

162........ General............................................................................................ 207

163........ Special criteria relating to changing coverage of modern awards.... 207

164........ Special criteria for revoking modern awards................................... 208

165........ When variation determinations come into operation, other than determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages.............................................................................. 208

166........ When variation determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages come into operation  209

167........ Special rules relating to retrospective variations of awards............. 210

168........ Varied modern award must be published........................................ 211

Division 7—Additional provisions relating to modern enterprise awards           212

168A..... Modern enterprise awards............................................................... 212

168B..... The modern enterprise awards objective......................................... 213

168C..... Rules about making and revoking modern enterprise awards......... 213

168D..... Rules about changing coverage of modern enterprise awards......... 215

Division 8—Additional provisions relating to State reference public sector modern awards   216

168E...... State reference public sector modern awards................................... 216

168F...... The State reference public sector modern awards objective............. 216

168G..... Making State reference public sector modern awards on application 217

168H..... State reference public sector modern awards may contain State‑based differences   218

168J...... When State reference public sector modern awards come into operation  218

168K..... Rules about revoking State reference public sector modern awards 218

168L...... Rules about varying coverage of State reference public sector modern awards        219

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements                                                                             221

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        221

169........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 221

170........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 222

171........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 222

Division 2—Employers and employees may make enterprise agreements          224

172........ Making an enterprise agreement...................................................... 224

Division 3—Bargaining and representation during bargaining        227

173........ Notice of employee representational rights...................................... 227

174........ Content and form of notice of employee representational rights...... 228

176........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are not greenfields agreements        229

178........ Appointment of bargaining representatives—other matters............. 231

178A..... Revocation of appointment of bargaining representatives etc.......... 232

Division 4—Approval of enterprise agreements                                        233

Subdivision A—Pre‑approval steps and applications for the FWC’s approval             233

180........ Employees must be given a copy of a proposed enterprise agreement etc.               233

181........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed enterprise agreement     234

182........ When an enterprise agreement is made............................................ 235

183........ Entitlement of an employee organisation to have an enterprise agreement cover it   235

184........ Multi‑enterprise agreement to be varied if not all employees approve the agreement                236

185........ Bargaining representative must apply for the FWC’s approval of an enterprise agreement      237

Subdivision B—Approval of enterprise agreements by the FWC             238

186........ When the FWC must approve an enterprise agreement—general requirements        238

187........ When the FWC must approve an enterprise agreement—additional requirements    240

188........ When employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement 241

189........ FWC may approve an enterprise agreement that does not pass better off overall test—public interest test               241

190........ FWC may approve an enterprise agreement with undertakings....... 242

191........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 243

192........ When the FWC may refuse to approve an enterprise agreement..... 244

Subdivision C—Better off overall test                                                              244

193........ Passing the better off overall test..................................................... 244

Subdivision D—Unlawful terms                                                                         246

194........ Meaning of unlawful term............................................................... 246

195........ Meaning of discriminatory term..................................................... 247

Subdivision E—Approval requirements relating to particular kinds of employees     248

196........ Shiftworkers................................................................................... 248

197........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement includes pieceworker term.... 249

198........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement does not include a pieceworker term              249

199........ School‑based apprentices and school‑based trainees....................... 250

200........ Outworkers..................................................................................... 250

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            251

201........ Approval decision to note certain matters........................................ 251

Division 5—Mandatory terms of enterprise agreements                      253

202........ Enterprise agreements to include a flexibility term etc..................... 253

203........ Requirements to be met by a flexibility term................................... 254

204........ Effect of arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                255

205........ Enterprise agreements to include a consultation term etc................. 256

Division 6—Base rate of pay under enterprise agreements                257

206........ Base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement must not be less than the modern award rate or the national minimum wage order rate etc.......................................................................... 257

Division 7—Variation and termination of enterprise agreements   259

Subdivision A—Variation of enterprise agreements by employers and employees      259

207........ Variation of an enterprise agreement may be made by employers and employees    259

208........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed variation of an enterprise agreement              260

209........ When a variation of an enterprise agreement is made...................... 260

210........ Application for the FWC’s approval of a variation of an enterprise agreement        261

211........ When the FWC must approve a variation of an enterprise agreement 261

212........ FWC may approve a variation of an enterprise agreement with undertakings          263

213........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 264

214........ When the FWC may refuse to approve a variation of an enterprise agreement         265

215........ Approval decision to note undertakings.......................................... 265

216........ When variation comes into operation.............................................. 265

Subdivision B—Variations of enterprise agreements where there is ambiguity, uncertainty or discrimination  266

217........ Variation of an enterprise agreement to remove an ambiguity or uncertainty            266

217A..... FWC may deal with certain disputes about variations..................... 266

218........ Variation of an enterprise agreement on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission    266

Subdivision C—Termination of enterprise agreements by employers and employees                267

219........ Employers and employees may agree to terminate an enterprise agreement              267

220........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed termination of an enterprise agreement          268

221........ When termination of an enterprise agreement is agreed to............... 268

222........ Application for the FWC’s approval of a termination of an enterprise agreement    269

223........ When the FWC must approve a termination of an enterprise agreement.. 269

224........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 270

Subdivision D—Termination of enterprise agreements after nominal expiry date      270

225........ Application for termination of an enterprise agreement after its nominal expiry date                270

226........ When the FWC must terminate an enterprise agreement................. 270

227........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 271

Division 8—FWC’s general role in facilitating bargaining                  272

Subdivision A—Bargaining orders                                                                   272

228........ Bargaining representatives must meet the good faith bargaining requirements         272

229........ Applications for bargaining orders.................................................. 272

230........ When the FWC may make a bargaining order................................. 274

231........ What a bargaining order must specify............................................. 275

232........ Operation of a bargaining order...................................................... 276

233........ Contravening a bargaining order..................................................... 277

Subdivision B—Serious breach declarations                                                  277

234........ Applications for serious breach declarations................................... 277

235........ When the FWC may make a serious breach declaration.................. 277

Subdivision C—Majority support determinations and scope orders        279

236........ Majority support determinations..................................................... 279

237........ When the FWC must make a majority support determination......... 279

238........ Scope orders................................................................................... 280

239........ Operation of a scope order.............................................................. 282

Subdivision D—FWC may deal with a bargaining dispute on request     283

240........ Application for the FWC to deal with a bargaining dispute............. 283

Division 9—Low‑paid bargaining                                                                      284

241........ Objects of this Division.................................................................. 284

242........ Low‑paid authorisations.................................................................. 284

243........ When the FWC must make a low‑paid authorisation...................... 285

244........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—general................................ 287

245........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—enterprise agreement etc. comes into operation            288

246........ FWC’s assistance for the low‑paid................................................. 288

Division 10—Single interest employer authorisations                            289

Subdivision A—Declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement            289

247........ Ministerial declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement           289

Subdivision B—Single interest employer authorisations                             290

248........ Single interest employer authorisations........................................... 290

249........ When the FWC must make a single interest employer authorisation 290

250........ What a single interest employer authorisation must specify............ 291

251........ Variation of single interest employer authorisations........................ 292

252........ Variation to extend period single interest employer authorisation is in operation     293

Division 11—Other matters                                                                                  294

253........ Terms of an enterprise agreement that are of no effect.................... 294

254........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 294

255........ Part does not empower the FWC to make certain orders................. 295

256........ Prospective employers and employees............................................ 295

256A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          295

257........ Enterprise agreements may incorporate material in force from time to time etc.        296

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations                                                                    297

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        297

258........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 297

259........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 298

Division 2—Low‑paid workplace determinations                                     299

260........ Applications for low‑paid workplace determinations...................... 299

261........ When the FWC must make a consent low‑paid workplace determination                300

262........ When the FWC must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—general requirements             300

263........ When the FWC must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—additional requirements         302

264........ Terms etc. of a low‑paid workplace determination.......................... 302

265........ No other terms................................................................................ 303

Division 3—Industrial action related workplace determinations     304

266........ When the FWC must make an industrial action related workplace determination     304

267........ Terms etc. of an industrial action related workplace determination.. 305

268........ No other terms................................................................................ 306

Division 4—Bargaining related workplace determinations                 307

269........ When the FWC must make a bargaining related workplace determination               307

270........ Terms etc. of a bargaining related workplace determination............ 308

271........ No other terms................................................................................ 310

Division 5—Core terms, mandatory terms and agreed terms of workplace determinations etc.           311

272........ Core terms of workplace determinations......................................... 311

273........ Mandatory terms of workplace determinations............................... 312

274........ Agreed terms for workplace determinations.................................... 313

275........ Factors the FWC must take into account in deciding terms of a workplace determination        314

Division 6—Operation, coverage and interaction etc. of workplace determinations    315

276........ When a workplace determination operates etc................................. 315

277........ Employers, employees and employee organisations covered by a workplace determination    315

278........ Interaction of a workplace determination with enterprise agreements etc. 316

279........ Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement        317

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                     318

280........ Contravening a workplace determination........................................ 318

281........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 318

281A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          318

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages                                                                                           320

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        320

282........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 320

283........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 321

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                322

284........ The minimum wages objective........................................................ 322

Division 3—Annual wage reviews                                                                     324

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        324

285........ Annual wage reviews to be conducted............................................ 324

286........ When annual wage review determinations varying modern awards come into operation         324

287........ When national minimum wage orders come into operation etc........ 325

Subdivision B—Provisions about conduct of annual wage reviews          327

288........ General............................................................................................ 327

289........ Everyone to have a reasonable opportunity to make and comment on submissions 327

290........ President may direct investigations and reports............................... 328

291........ Research must be published............................................................ 328

292........ Varied wage rates must be published.............................................. 329

Division 4—National minimum wage orders                                               330

293........ Contravening a national minimum wage order................................ 330

294........ Content of national minimum wage order—main provisions.......... 330

295........ Content of national minimum wage order—other matters............... 331

296........ Variation of national minimum wage order to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error              332

297........ When determinations varying national minimum wage orders come into operation 332

298........ Special rule about retrospective variations of national minimum wage orders          333

299........ When a national minimum wage order is in operation..................... 333

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration                                                                                  334

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        334

300........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 334

301........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 334

Division 2—Equal remuneration orders                                                        335

302........ FWC may make an order requiring equal remuneration.................. 335

303........ Equal remuneration order may increase, but must not reduce, rates of remuneration                336

304........ Equal remuneration order may implement equal remuneration in stages.. 336

305........ Contravening an equal remuneration order...................................... 336

306........ Inconsistency with modern awards, enterprise agreements and orders of the FWC 336

Part 2‑8—Transfer of business                                                                                  338

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        338

307........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 338

308........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 338

309........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 339

Division 2—Transfer of instruments                                                                340

310........ Application of this Division............................................................ 340

311........ When does a transfer of business occur.......................................... 340

312........ Instruments that may transfer.......................................................... 342

313........ Transferring employees and new employer covered by transferable instrument       342

314........ New non‑transferring employees of new employer may be covered by transferable instrument              343

315........ Organisations covered by transferable instrument........................... 343

316........ Transferring employees who are high income employees............... 344

Division 3—Powers of the FWC                                                                         347

317........ FWC may make orders in relation to a transfer of business............ 347

318........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and transferring employees 347

319........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and non‑transferring employees         348

320........ Variation of transferable instruments.............................................. 350

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment                               353

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        353

321........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 353

322........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 353

Division 2—Payment of wages                                                                            354

323........ Method and frequency of payment.................................................. 354

324........ Permitted deductions....................................................................... 354

325........ Unreasonable requirements to spend amount.................................. 355

326........ Certain terms have no effect............................................................ 356

327........ Things given or provided, and amounts required to be spent, in contravention of this Division              356

Division 3—Guarantee of annual earnings                                                   358

328........ Employer obligations in relation to guarantee of annual earnings.... 358

329........ High income employee.................................................................... 359

330........ Guarantee of annual earnings and annual rate of guarantee............. 359

331........ Guaranteed period........................................................................... 360

332........ Earnings.......................................................................................... 361

333........ High income threshold.................................................................... 362

333A..... Prospective employees.................................................................... 362

Chapter 3—Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc.                                                                                                                       364

Part 3‑1—General protections                                                                                   364

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        364

334........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 364

335........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 364

336........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 365

Division 2—Application of this Part                                                                 366

337........ Application of this Part................................................................... 366

338........ Action to which this Part applies..................................................... 366

339........ Additional effect of this Part........................................................... 367

Division 3—Workplace rights                                                                              369

340........ Protection........................................................................................ 369

341........ Meaning of workplace right............................................................ 369

342........ Meaning of adverse action.............................................................. 371

343........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 374

344........ Undue influence or pressure........................................................... 374

345........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 375

Division 4—Industrial activities                                                                          376

346........ Protection........................................................................................ 376

347........ Meaning of engages in industrial activity....................................... 376

348........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 377

349........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 377

350........ Inducements—membership action.................................................. 378

Division 5—Other protections                                                                             379

351........ Discrimination................................................................................. 379

352........ Temporary absence—illness or injury............................................. 380

353........ Bargaining services fees.................................................................. 380

354........ Coverage by particular instruments................................................. 381

355........ Coercion—allocation of duties etc. to particular person.................. 381

356........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 382

Division 6—Sham arrangements                                                                        383

357........ Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting arrangement 383

358........ Dismissing to engage as independent contractor............................. 383

359........ Misrepresentation to engage as independent contractor................... 383

Division 7—Ancillary rules                                                                                   385

360........ Multiple reasons for action.............................................................. 385

361........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise............ 385

362........ Advising, encouraging, inciting or coercing action......................... 385

363........ Actions of industrial associations.................................................... 385

364........ Unincorporated industrial associations............................................ 387

Division 8—Compliance                                                                                          388

Subdivision A—Contraventions involving dismissal                                    388

365........ Application for the FWC to deal with a dispute.............................. 388

366........ Time for application........................................................................ 388

367........ Application fees.............................................................................. 388

368........ Conferences.................................................................................... 389

369........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................... 389

370........ Advice on general protections court application.............................. 389

371........ General protections court applications............................................. 390

Subdivision B—Other contraventions                                                              390

372........ Application for the FWC to deal with a dispute.............................. 390

373........ Application fees.............................................................................. 390

374........ Conferences.................................................................................... 391

375........ Advice on general protections court application.............................. 391

Subdivision C—Conference costs                                                                       391

376........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 391

377........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 392

378........ Contravening costs orders............................................................... 392

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal                                                                                           393

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        393

379........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 393

380........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 393

381........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 393

Division 2—Protection from unfair dismissal                                              395

382........ When a person is protected from unfair dismissal........................... 395

383........ Meaning of minimum employment period...................................... 395

384........ Period of employment..................................................................... 395

Division 3—What is an unfair dismissal                                                         397

385........ What is an unfair dismissal............................................................. 397

386........ Meaning of dismissed..................................................................... 397

387........ Criteria for considering harshness etc............................................. 398

388........ The Small Business Fair Dismissal Code....................................... 399

389........ Meaning of genuine redundancy..................................................... 399

Division 4—Remedies for unfair dismissal                                                    400

390........ When the FWC may order remedy for unfair dismissal.................. 400

391........ Remedy—reinstatement etc............................................................. 400

392........ Remedy—compensation................................................................. 402

393........ Monetary orders may be in instalments........................................... 403

Division 5—Procedural matters                                                                         404

394........ Application for unfair dismissal remedy......................................... 404

395........ Application fees.............................................................................. 404

396........ Initial matters to be considered before merits.................................. 405

397........ Matters involving contested facts.................................................... 405

398........ Conferences.................................................................................... 405

399........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 406

399A..... Dismissing applications.................................................................. 406

400........ Appeal rights................................................................................... 407

400A..... Costs orders against parties............................................................. 407

401........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 407

402........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 408

403........ Schedule of costs............................................................................ 408

404........ Security for costs............................................................................ 409

405........ Contravening orders under this Part................................................ 409

Part 3‑3—Industrial action                                                                                           410

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        410

406........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 410

407........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 411

Division 2—Protected industrial action                                                          412

Subdivision A—What is protected industrial action                                     412

408........ Protected industrial action............................................................... 412

409........ Employee claim action..................................................................... 412

410........ Employee response action............................................................... 414

411........ Employer response action............................................................... 414

412........ Pattern bargaining........................................................................... 415

Subdivision B—Common requirements for industrial action to be protected industrial action                416

413........ Common requirements that apply for industrial action to be protected industrial action           416

414........ Notice requirements for industrial action......................................... 417

Subdivision C—Significance of industrial action being protected industrial action    418

415........ Immunity provision......................................................................... 418

416........ Employer response action—employer may refuse to make payments to employees 419

416A..... Employer response action does not affect continuity of employment 419

Division 3—No industrial action before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       420

417........ Industrial action must not be organised or engaged in before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       420

Division 4—FWC orders stopping etc. industrial action                       422

418........ FWC must order that industrial action by employees or employers stop etc.            422

419........ FWC must order that industrial action by non‑national system employees or non‑national system employers stop etc......................................................................................................... 423

420........ Interim orders etc............................................................................ 424

421........ Contravening an order etc............................................................... 424

Division 5—Injunction against industrial action if pattern bargaining is being engaged in       426

422........ Injunction against industrial action if a bargaining representative is engaging in pattern bargaining         426

Division 6—Suspension or termination of protected industrial action by the FWC       427

423........ FWC may suspend or terminate protected industrial action—significant economic harm etc.  427

424........ FWC must suspend or terminate protected industrial action—endangering life etc. 429

425........ FWC must suspend protected industrial action—cooling off.......... 430

426........ FWC must suspend protected industrial action—significant harm to a third party   431

427........ FWC must specify the period of suspension................................... 432

428........ Extension of a period of suspension............................................... 433

429........ Employee claim action without a further protected action ballot after a period of suspension etc.            433

430........ Notice of employee claim action engaged in after a period of suspension etc.          434

Division 7—Ministerial declarations                                                                435

431........ Ministerial declaration terminating industrial action........................ 435

432........ Informing people of declaration...................................................... 435

433........ Ministerial directions to remove or reduce threat............................. 436

434........ Contravening a Ministerial direction............................................... 436

Division 8—Protected action ballots                                                                437

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               437

435........ Guide to this Division..................................................................... 437

436........ Object of this Division.................................................................... 437

Subdivision B—Protected action ballot orders                                              438

437........ Application for a protected action ballot order................................. 438

438........ Restriction on when application may be made................................. 439

439........ Joint applications............................................................................. 439

440........ Notice of application....................................................................... 440

441........ Application to be determined within 2 days after it is made............ 440

442........ Dealing with multiple applications together..................................... 440

443........ When the FWC must make a protected action ballot order.............. 440

444........ FWC may decide on ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission and independent advisor           442

445........ Notice of protected action ballot order............................................. 443

446........ Protected action ballot order may require 2 or more protected action ballots to be held at the same time  443

447........ Variation of protected action ballot order........................................ 443

448........ Revocation of protected action ballot order..................................... 444

Subdivision C—Conduct of protected action ballot                                      444

449........ Protected action ballot to be conducted by Australian Electoral Commission or other specified ballot agent            444

450........ Directions for conduct of protected action ballot............................. 444

451........ Timetable for protected action ballot................................................ 445

452........ Compilation of roll of voters........................................................... 446

453........ Who is eligible to be included on the roll of voters......................... 447

454........ Variation of roll of voters................................................................ 447

455........ Protected action ballot papers.......................................................... 449

456........ Who may vote in protected action ballot.......................................... 449

457........ Results of protected action ballot..................................................... 449

458........ Report about conduct of protected action ballot............................... 450

Subdivision D—Effect of protected action ballot                                          451

459........ Circumstances in which industrial action is authorised by protected action ballot    451

460........ Immunity for persons who act in good faith on protected action ballot results         452

461........ Validity of protected action ballot etc. not affected by technical breaches 453

Subdivision E—Compliance                                                                                454

462........ Interferences etc. with protected action ballot.................................. 454

463........ Contravening a protected action ballot order etc.............................. 456

Subdivision F—Liability for costs of protected action ballot                     456

464........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission                456

465........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by protected action ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission.................................................................................... 457

466........ Costs of legal challenges................................................................. 457

Subdivision G—Miscellaneous                                                                           458

467........ Information about employees on roll of voters not to be disclosed. 458

468........ Records........................................................................................... 458

469........ Regulations..................................................................................... 459

Division 9—Payments relating to periods of industrial action           460

Subdivision A—Protected industrial action                                                    460

470........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 460

471........ Payments relating to partial work bans............................................ 461

472........ Orders by the FWC relating to certain partial work bans................ 463

473........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 464

Subdivision B—Industrial action that is not protected industrial action 464

474........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 464

475........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 466

Subdivision CMiscellaneous                                                                            466

476........ Other responses to industrial action unaffected............................... 466

Division 10—Other matters                                                                                  467

477........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 467

Part 3‑4—Right of entry                                                                                                468

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        468

478........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 468

479........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 468

480........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 469

Division 2—Entry rights under this Act                                                         470

Subdivision A—Entry to investigate suspected contravention                   470

481........ Entry to investigate suspected contravention................................... 470

482........ Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 470

483........ Later access to record or document................................................. 472

483AA.. Application to the FWC for access to non‑member records............ 473

Subdivision AA—Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers             474

483A..... Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers           474

483B..... Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 475

483C..... Later access to record or document................................................. 477

483D..... Entry onto other premises to access records and documents........... 478

483E...... Later access to record or document—other premises...................... 479

Subdivision B—Entry to hold discussions                                                        480

484........ Entry to hold discussions................................................................ 480

Subdivision C—Requirements for permit holders                                         480

486........ Permit holder must not contravene this Subdivision....................... 480

487........ Giving entry notice or exemption certificate.................................... 480

488........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 481

489........ Producing authority documents....................................................... 481

490........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 482

491........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 482

492........ Conduct of interviews in particular room etc................................... 482

493........ Residential premises........................................................................ 483

Division 3—State or Territory OHS rights                                                  484

494........ Official must be permit holder to exercise State or Territory OHS right.. 484

495........ Giving notice of entry..................................................................... 485

496........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 486

497........ Producing entry permit.................................................................... 486

498........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 486

499........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 486

Division 4—Prohibitions                                                                                         487

500........ Permit holder must not hinder or obstruct....................................... 487

501........ Person must not refuse or delay entry............................................. 487

502........ Person must not hinder or obstruct permit holder........................... 487

503........ Misrepresentations about things authorised by this Part................. 487

504........ Unauthorised use or disclosure of information or documents......... 488

Division 5—Powers of the FWC                                                                         490

Subdivision A—Dealing with disputes                                                               490

505........ FWC may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 490

506........ Contravening order made to deal with dispute................................ 491

Subdivision B—Taking action against permit holder                                  491

507........ FWC may take action against permit holder.................................... 491

Subdivision C—Restricting rights of organisations and officials where misuse of rights           491

508........ FWC may restrict rights if organisation or official has misused rights 491

509........ Contravening order made for misuse of rights................................ 492

Subdivision D—When the FWC must revoke or suspend entry permits  493

510........ When the FWC must revoke or suspend entry permits................... 493

Subdivision E—General rules for suspending entry permits                      494

511........ General rules for suspending entry permits..................................... 494

Division 6—Entry permits, entry notices and certificates                    495

Subdivision A—Entry permits                                                                            495

512........ FWC may issue entry permits......................................................... 495

513........ Considering application................................................................... 495

514........ When the FWC must not issue permit............................................. 496

515........ Conditions on entry permit.............................................................. 496

516........ Expiry of entry permit..................................................................... 497

517........ Return of entry permits to the FWC................................................ 498

Subdivision B—Entry notices                                                                             498

518........ Entry notice requirements................................................................ 498

Subdivision C—Exemption certificates                                                            500

519........ Exemption certificates..................................................................... 500

Subdivision D—Affected member certificates                                                501

520........ Affected member certificates........................................................... 501

Subdivision E—Miscellaneous                                                                            501

521........ Regulations dealing with instruments under this Part...................... 501

Part 3‑5—Stand down                                                                                                     502

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        502

522........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 502

523........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 502

Division 2—Circumstances allowing stand down                                      503

524........ Employer may stand down employees in certain circumstances...... 503

525........ Employee not stood down during a period of authorised leave or absence               504

Division 3—Dealing with disputes                                                                      505

526........ FWC may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 505

527........ Contravening an FWC order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part                505

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities                                                        506

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        506

528........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 506

529........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 506

Division 2—Notification and consultation relating to certain dismissals              507

Subdivision A—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                        507

530........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals........ 507

Subdivision B—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations             508

531........ FWC may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about dismissals         508

532........ Orders that the FWC may make...................................................... 509

533........ Application for an FWC order........................................................ 510

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            510

534........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 510

Division 3—Employer obligations in relation to employee records and pay slips           512

535........ Employer obligations in relation to employee records..................... 512

536........ Employer obligations in relation to pay slips................................... 512

 


An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1‑1Introduction

Division 1Preliminary

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Fair Work Act 2009.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

7 April 2009

2.  Sections 3 to 40

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

26 May 2009

(see F2009L01818)

3.  Sections 41 to 572

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 41–43, 50–54, 58, 169–281A, 300–327, 332, 333, 334–572: 1 July 2009 (see F2009L02563)

Sections 44–49, 55–57A, 59–168, 282–299, 328–331, 333A: 1 January 2010 (see F2009L02563)

4.  Sections 573 to 718

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

5.  Sections 719 to 800

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 719–740, 769–800: 1 July 2009 (see F2009L02563)

Sections 741–768: 1 January 2010 (see F2009L02563)

6.  Schedule 1

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by both Houses of the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.

Division 2Object of this Act

3  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to provide a balanced framework for cooperative and productive workplace relations that promotes national economic prosperity and social inclusion for all Australians by:

                     (a)  providing workplace relations laws that are fair to working Australians, are flexible for businesses, promote productivity and economic growth for Australia’s future economic prosperity and take into account Australia’s international labour obligations; and

                     (b)  ensuring a guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum terms and conditions through the National Employment Standards, modern awards and national minimum wage orders; and

                     (c)  ensuring that the guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum wages and conditions can no longer be undermined by the making of statutory individual employment agreements of any kind given that such agreements can never be part of a fair workplace relations system; and

                     (d)  assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by providing for flexible working arrangements; and

                     (e)  enabling fairness and representation at work and the prevention of discrimination by recognising the right to freedom of association and the right to be represented, protecting against unfair treatment and discrimination, providing accessible and effective procedures to resolve grievances and disputes and providing effective compliance mechanisms; and

                      (f)  achieving productivity and fairness through an emphasis on enterprise‑level collective bargaining underpinned by simple good faith bargaining obligations and clear rules governing industrial action; and

                     (g)  acknowledging the special circumstances of small and medium‑sized businesses.

Division 3Guide to this Act

4  Guide to this Act

Overview of this Act

             (1)  This Act is about workplace relations. It:

                     (a)  provides for terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2); and

                     (b)  sets out rights and responsibilities of employees, employers and organisations in relation to that employment (Chapter 3); and

                     (c)  provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act (Chapter 4); and

                     (d)  provides for the administration of this Act by establishing the Fair Work Commission and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman (Chapter 5); and

                     (e)  deals with other matters relating to the above (Chapter 6).

Overview of the rest of this Chapter

             (2)  The rest of this Chapter deals with:

                     (a)  definitions that are used in this Act (Part 1‑2); and

                     (b)  the application of this Act (Part 1‑3), including how this Act interacts with certain State and Territory laws and its geographical application.

Definitions

             (3)  Many of the terms in this Act are defined. The Dictionary in section 12 contains a list of every term that is defined in this Act.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for amendments

             (4)  Schedule 1 contains application, saving and transitional provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

5  Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)

             (1)  Chapter 2 provides for terms and conditions of employment of national system employees.

             (2)  Part 2‑1 has the core provisions for the Chapter. It deals with compliance with, and interaction between, the sources of the main terms and conditions provided under this Act—the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

Note:          Workplace determinations are another source of main terms and conditions. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279).

Main terms and conditions

             (3)  Part 2‑2 contains the National Employment Standards, which are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

             (4)  Part 2‑3 is about modern awards. A modern award is made for a particular industry or occupation and provides additional minimum terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A modern award can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (5)  Part 2‑4 is about enterprise agreements. An enterprise agreement is made at the enterprise level and provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. An enterprise agreement can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (6)  Part 2‑5 is about workplace determinations. A workplace determination provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A workplace determination is made by the FWC if certain conditions are met.

             (7)  Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements, workplace determinations and other instruments if there is a transfer of business from one national system employer to another national system employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (8)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment for national system employees include those:

                     (a)  provided by a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6) or an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  provided by Part 2‑9 (which deals with the frequency and method of making payments to employees, deductions from payments and high‑income employees).

6  Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)

             (1)  Chapter 3 sets out rights and responsibilities of national system employees, national system employers, organisations and others (such as independent contractors and industrial associations).

             (2)  Part 3‑1 provides general workplace protections. It:

                     (a)  protects workplace rights; and

                     (b)  protects freedom of association and involvement in lawful industrial activities; and

                     (c)  provides other protections, including protection from discrimination.

             (3)  Part 3‑2 deals with unfair dismissal of national system employees, and the granting of remedies when that happens.

             (4)  Part 3‑3 deals mainly with industrial action by national system employees and national system employers and sets out when industrial action is protected industrial action. No action lies under any law in force in a State or Territory in relation to protected industrial action except in certain circumstances.

             (5)  Part 3‑4 is about the rights of officials of organisations who hold entry permits to enter premises for purposes related to their representative role under this Act and under State or Territory OHS laws. In exercising those rights, permit holders must comply with the requirements set out in the Part.

             (6)  Part 3‑5 allows a national system employer to stand down a national system employee without pay in certain circumstances.

             (7)  Part 3‑6 deals with other rights and responsibilities of national system employers in relation to:

                     (a)  termination of employment; and

                     (b)  keeping records and giving payslips.

7  Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)

             (1)  Chapter 4 provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act.

             (2)  Part 4‑1 is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions. Part 4‑1:

                     (a)  deals with applications for orders for contraventions of civil remedy provisions; and

                     (b)  sets out the orders the courts can make in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

             (3)  Part 4‑2 is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

8  Administration (Chapter 5)

             (1)  Chapter 5 provides for the administration of this Act by establishing the Fair Work Commission and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman.

             (2)  Part 5‑1 is about the Fair Work Commission. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the FWC; and

                     (b)  sets out how matters before the FWC are to be conducted (for example, how the FWC is to deal with applications made to it).

             (3)  Part 5‑2 is about the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the Fair Work Ombudsman; and

                     (b)  confers functions and powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

9  Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)

             (1)  Chapter 6 is a collection of miscellaneous matters that relate to the other Chapters.

             (2)  Part 6‑1 provides rules relating to applications for remedies under this Act. It prevents certain applications if other remedies are available and prevents multiple applications or complaints in relation to the same conduct.

             (3)  Part 6‑2 is about dealing with disputes between national system employees and their employers under modern awards, enterprise agreements and contracts of employment.

             (4)  Part 6‑3 extends the National Employment Standards relating to unpaid parental leave and notice of termination to non‑national system employees.

          (4A)  Part 6‑3A provides for the transfer of terms and conditions of employment that are provided for in particular State industrial instruments if there is a transfer of business from a non‑national system employer that is a State public sector employer of the State to a national system employer.

             (5)  Part 6‑4 contains provisions to give effect, or further effect, to certain international agreements relating to termination of employment.

          (5A)  Part 6‑4A contains special provisions about TCF outworkers.

             (6)  Part 6‑5 deals with miscellaneous matters such as delegations and regulations.

9A  Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)

                   The Schedules contain application, transitional and saving provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

Note:          Application, transitional and saving provisions relating to the enactment of this Act, and States becoming referring States, are in the Transitional Act.

Part 1‑2Definitions

Division 1Introduction

10  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the terms that are defined in this Act.

Division 2 has the Dictionary (see section 12). The Dictionary is a list of every term that is defined in this Act. A term will either be defined in the Dictionary itself, or in another provision of this Act. If another provision defines the term, the Dictionary will have a signpost to that definition.

Division 3 has definitions relating to the meanings of employee and employer.

Division 4 has some other definitions that apply across this Act.

11  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

Division 2The Dictionary

12  The Dictionary

                   In this Act:

4 yearly review of modern awards: see subsection 156(1).

access period for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 180(4).

action includes an omission.

adoption‑related leave: see subsection 67(5).

adverse action: see section 342.

affected employees for a variation of an enterprise agreement: see subsection 207(2).

affected employer:

                     (a)  in relation to an entry under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 3‑4: see subsection 482(2); and

                    (aa)  in relation to an entry under section 483A other than a designated outworker terms entry: see paragraph 483B(3)(a); and

                   (ab)  in relation to a designated outworker terms entry under section 483A: see paragraph 483B(3)(b); and

                     (b)  in relation to an entry in accordance with Division 3 of Part 3‑4: see paragraph 495(2)(a); and

                     (c)  in relation to a State or Territory OHS right to inspect or otherwise access an employee record: see paragraph 495(2)(b).

affected member certificate: see subsection 520(1).

Age Discrimination Commissioner means the Age Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Age Discrimination Act 2004.

agreed terms for a workplace determination: see section 274.

agreed to in relation to a termination of an enterprise agreement: see section 221.

annual rate of an employee’s guaranteed annual earnings: see subsection 330(3).

annual wage review: see subsection 285(1).

anti‑discrimination law: see subsection 351(3).

apparent indirectly responsible entity: see subsection 789CC(2).

applicable agreement‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(5).

applicable award‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(3).

application or complaint under another law: see subsection 732(2).

applies:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 47; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 52; and

                     (c)  in relation to a copied State instrument: see section 768AM.

applies to employment generally: see subsection 26(4).

appointment of a bargaining representative means an appointment of a bargaining representative under paragraph 176(1)(c) or (d).

appropriate safe job: see subsection 81(3).

approved by the FWC, in relation to an enterprise agreement, means approved by the FWC under section 186 or 189.

associated entity has the meaning given by section 50AAA of the Corporations Act 2001.

Australian‑based employee: see subsections 35(2) and (3).

Australian employer: see subsection 35(1).

Australian ship means a ship that has Australian nationality under section 29 of the Shipping Registration Act 1981.

authority documents: see subsection 489(3).

available parental leave period: see subsection 75(2).

award/agreement free employee means a national system employee to whom neither a modern award nor an enterprise agreement applies.

award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(4).

award modernisation process means:

                     (a)  the process of making modern awards under Part 10A of the Workplace Relations Act 1996, as continued by Part 2 of Schedule 5 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (b)  the enterprise instrument modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (c)  the State reference public sector transitional award modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6A of the Transitional Act.

ballot paper: see subsection 455(2).

bargaining order: see subsection 229(1).

bargaining related workplace determination: see subsection 269(1).

bargaining representative for a proposed enterprise agreement: see section 176.

bargaining services: see subsection 353(3).

bargaining services fee: see subsection 353(2).

base rate of pay: see section 16.

birth‑related leave: see subsection 67(4).

child of a person: see subsection 17(1).

civil remedy provision: see subsections 539(1) and (3).

Commissioner means a Commissioner of the FWC.

common requirements in relation to industrial action: see section 413.

Commonwealth authority means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a body corporate:

                              (i)  incorporated under a law of the Commonwealth or a State or a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which the Commonwealth has a controlling interest.

Commonwealth outworker entity means an entity that is an outworker entity otherwise than because of section 30F or 30Q.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

Commonwealth place means a place referred to in paragraph 52(i) of the Constitution, other than the seat of government.

compassionate leave means compassionate leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 104.

complaint about an FWC Member means a complaint referred to in paragraph 581A(1)(a) or section 641A.

complaint handler means:

                     (a)  the President; or

                     (b)  a person who is authorised by the President under subsection 581A(3); or

                     (c)  a person who is a member of a body that is authorised by the President under subsection 581A(3).

compliance powers: see section 703.

compliance purposes: see subsection 706(1).

concurrent leave: see subsection 72(5).

conduct includes an omission.

conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(5).

connected with a Territory: an arrangement for work to be performed for a person (either directly or indirectly) is connected with a Territory if one or more of the following apply:

                     (a)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a Territory in Australia;

                     (b)  the work is to be performed in such a Territory;

                     (c)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that Territory;

                     (d)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

Note:          In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

consent low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(2).

consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code: see subsection 388(2).

consolidation order:

                     (a)  in relation to a transferring employee—see subsection 768BD(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a non‑transferring employee—see subsection 768BG(1).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

constitutionally‑covered entity: see subsection 338(2).

constitutional trade or commerce means trade or commerce:

                     (a)  between Australia and a place outside Australia; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories; or

                     (e)  within a Territory.

continental shelf means the continental shelf (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

continuous service has a meaning affected by section 22.

copied State award: see subsection 768AI(1).

copied State collective employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(4).

copied State employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(1).

copied State individual employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(5).

copied State instrument: see section 768AH.

coverage terms:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award (other than a modern enterprise award): see section 143; and

                     (b)  in relation to a modern enterprise award: see section 143A; and

                     (c)  in relation to a State reference public sector modern award: see section 143B.

covers:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 48; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 53; and

                     (c)  in relation to a workplace determination: see section 277; and

                     (d)  in relation to a copied State instrument: see section 768AN.

day of placement: see subsection 67(6).

de facto partner of a national system employee:

                     (a)  means a person who, although not legally married to the employee, lives with the employee in a relationship as a couple on a genuine domestic basis (whether the employee and the person are of the same sex or different sexes); and

                     (b)  includes a former de facto partner of the employee.

default fund employee: see subsection 149A(2).

defined benefit member has the meaning given by the Superannuation Guarantee (Administration) Act 1992.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the FWC.

designated outworker term of a modern award, enterprise agreement, workplace determination or other instrument, means any of the following terms, so far as the term relates to outworkers in the textile, clothing or footwear industry:

                     (a)  a term that deals with the registration of an employer or outworker entity;

                     (b)  a term that deals with the making and retaining of, or access to, records about work to which outworker terms of a modern award apply;

                     (c)  a term imposing conditions under which an arrangement may be entered into by an employer or an outworker entity for the performance of work, where the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (d)  a term relating to the liability of an employer or outworker entity for work undertaken by an outworker under such an arrangement, including a term which provides for the outworker to make a claim against an employer or outworker entity;

                     (e)  a term that requires minimum pay or other conditions, including the National Employment Standards, to be applied to an outworker who is not an employee;

                      (f)  any other terms prescribed by the regulations.

designated outworker terms entry: see subsection 483A(5).

directly, when used in relation to TCF work: see section 17A.

Disability Discrimination Commissioner means the Disability Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.

discriminatory term of an enterprise agreement: see section 195.

dismissal remedy bargaining order application: see subsection 726(2).

dismissed: see section 386.

earnings: see subsections 332(1) and (2).

eligible community service activity: see section 109.

eligible State or Territory court means one of the following courts:

                     (a)  a District, County or Local Court;

                     (b)  a magistrates court;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Court of South Australia;

                    (ca)  the Industrial Court of New South Wales;

                     (d)  any other State or Territory court that is prescribed by the regulations.

employee is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employee either as a national system employee or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(1), 30E(1) and 30P(1).

Note 3:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

employee A, in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsections 768BD(1) and 768BG(1).

employee claim action: see section 409 and paragraph 471(4A)(c).

employee couple: 2 national system employees are an employee couple if each of the employees is the spouse or de facto partner of the other.

employee organisation means an organisation of employees.

employee record, in relation to an employee, means:

                     (a)  something that is an employee record, in relation to the employee, for the purposes of the Privacy Act 1988; or

                     (b)  in the case of a TCF contract outworker who is taken to be an employee by Division 2 of Part 6‑4A of this Act—something that would be an employee record, in relation to the outworker, for the purposes of the Privacy Act 1988, if the outworker were an employee for the purposes of that Act.

employee response action: see section 410 and paragraph 471(4A)(d).

employee with a disability means a national system employee who is qualified for a disability support pension as set out in section 94 or 95 of the Social Security Act 1991, or who would be so qualified but for paragraph 94(1)(e) or 95(1)(c) of that Act.

employer is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employer either as a national system employer or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(2), 30E(2) and 30P(2).

Note 3:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

employer organisation means an organisation of employers.

employer response action: see section 411.

employing authority: see subsection 795(6).

engages in industrial activity: see section 347.

enterprise means a business, activity, project or undertaking.

enterprise agreement means:

                     (a)  a single‑enterprise agreement; or

                     (b)  a multi‑enterprise agreement.

entry notice: see subsection 487(2).

entry permit: see section 512.

equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value: see subsection 302(2).

equal remuneration order: see subsection 302(1).

exclusive economic zone means the exclusive economic zone (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

exemption certificate: see subsection 519(1).

exempt public sector superannuation scheme has the meaning given by the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993.

Expert Panel means an Expert Panel constituted under section 620.

Expert Panel Member means an Expert Panel Member of the FWC.

extended notice of termination provisions: see subsection 759(3).

extended parental leave provisions: see subsection 744(3).

Fair Work Commission or FWC means the body continued in existence by section 575.

Fair Work Information Statement: see subsection 124(1).

Fair Work Inspector means:

                     (a)  a person appointed as a Fair Work Inspector under section 700; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work Ombudsman in his or her capacity as a Fair Work Inspector under section 701.

fair work instrument means:

                     (a)  a modern award; or

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement; or

                     (c)  a workplace determination; or

                     (d)  an FWC order.

Federal Circuit Court means the Federal Circuit Court of Australia.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

first employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

fixed platform means an artificial island, installation or structure permanently attached to the sea‑bed for the purpose of exploration for, or exploitation of, resources or for other economic purposes.

flexibility term:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see subsection 202(1).

flight crew officer means a person who performs (whether with or without other duties) duties as a pilot, navigator or flight engineer of aircraft, and includes a person being trained for the performance of such duties.

franchise has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

Full Bench means a Full Bench of the FWC constituted under section 618.

full rate of pay: see section 18.

FWC: see Fair Work Commission.

FWC member means the President, a Vice President, a Deputy President, a Commissioner or an Expert Panel Member.

General Manager means the General Manager of the FWC.

general protections court application: see subsection 370(2).

general protections FWC application: see subsection 727(2).

general State industrial law: see subsection 26(3).

genuinely agreed in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 188.

genuine redundancy: see section 389.

good faith bargaining requirements: see section 228.

greenfields agreement: see subsection 172(4).

guaranteed period for a guarantee of annual earnings: see section 331.

guarantee of annual earnings: see subsection 330(1).

handle a complaint about an FWC Member means do one or more of the following acts relating to the complaint:

                     (a)  consider the complaint;

                     (b)  investigate the complaint;

                     (c)  report on an investigation of the complaint;

                     (d)  deal with a report of an investigation of the complaint;

                     (e)  dispose of the complaint;

                      (f)  refer the complaint to a person or body.

high income employee: see section 329.

high income threshold: see section 333.

ILO means the International Labour Organization.

immediate family of a national system employee means:

                     (a)  a spouse, de facto partner, child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of the employee; or

                     (b)  a child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of a spouse or de facto partner of the employee.

independent advisor for a protected action ballot means the person (if any) specified in the protected action ballot order as the independent advisor for the ballot.

independent contractor is not confined to an individual.

indirectly, when used in relation to TCF work: see section 17A.

indirectly responsible entity, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsections 789CA(3), (4) and (5).

individual flexibility arrangement:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see paragraph 202(1)(a).

industrial action: see section 19.

industrial action related workplace determination: see subsection 266(1).

industrial association means:

                     (a)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, or an association of employers, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a workplace law; or

                     (b)  an association of employees, or independent contractors, or both (whether formed formally or informally), a purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning their employment, or their interests as independent contractors (as the case may be); or

                     (c)  an association of employers a principal purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning employment and/or independent contractors;

and includes:

                     (d)  a branch of such an association; and

                     (e)  an organisation; and

                      (f)  a branch of an organisation.

industrial body means:

                     (a)  the FWC; or

                     (b)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under an industrial law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on the FWC by this Act; or

                     (c)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under a workplace law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on the FWC by the Registered Organisations Act.

industrial law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Registered Organisations Act; or

                     (c)  a law of the Commonwealth, however designated, that regulates the relationships between employers and employees; or

                     (d)  a State or Territory industrial law.

industry‑specific redundancy scheme means redundancy or termination payment arrangements in a modern award that are described in the award as an industry‑specific redundancy scheme.

inspector means a Fair Work Inspector.

involved in: see section 550.

irregularity, in relation to the conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(6).

junior employee means a national system employee who is under 21.

jury service pay: see subsection 111(6).

jury service summons: see subsection 111(7).

keeping in touch day: see subsections 79A(2) and (3).

law enforcement officer has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

lawyer means a person who is admitted to the legal profession by a Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

local government employee has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

local government employer has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

lock out: see subsection 19(3).

long term casual employee: a national system employee of a national system employer is a long term casual employee at a particular time if, at that time:

                     (a)  the employee is a casual employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis for a sequence of periods of employment during a period of at least 12 months.

low‑paid authorisation: see subsection 242(1).

low‑paid workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a consent low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  a special low‑paid workplace determination.

made:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 182; and

                     (b)  in relation to a variation of an enterprise agreement: see section 209.

magistrates court means:

                     (a)  a court constituted by a police, stipendiary or special magistrate; or

                     (b)  a court constituted by an industrial magistrate.

majority support determination: see subsection 236(1).

maritime employee means a person who is, or whose occupation is that of, a master as defined in subsection 14(1) of the Navigation Act 2012, a seafarer as so defined or a pilot as so defined.

medical certificate means a certificate signed by a medical practitioner.

medical practitioner means a person registered, or licensed, as a medical practitioner under a law of a State or Territory that provides for the registration or licensing of medical practitioners.

membership action: see subsection 350(3).

minimum employment period: see section 383.

minimum wages objective: see subsection 284(1).

miscellaneous modern award: see subsection 163(4).

model consultation term: see subsection 205(3).

model flexibility term: see subsection 202(5).

modern award means a modern award made under Part 2‑3.

modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(3).

modern award powers: see subsection 134(2).

modern awards objective: see subsection 134(1).

modern enterprise award: see subsection 168A(2).

modern enterprise awards objective: see subsection 168B(1).

modifications includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

multi‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(3).

MySuper product has the meaning given by the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993.

named employer award: see subsection 312(2).

National Employment Standards: see subsection 61(3).

national minimum wage order means a national minimum wage order made in an annual wage review.

national system employee: see section 13.

Note 1:       Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

Note 2:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

national system employer: see section 14.

Note 1:       Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

Note 2:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

new employer:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 311(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768AD(1).

nominal expiry date:

                     (a)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 186, means the date specified in the agreement as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (b)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 189 (which deals with agreements that do not pass the better off overall test): see subsection 189(4); or

                     (c)  of a workplace determination, means the date specified in the determination as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (d)  of a copied State employment agreement: see subsection 768AO(5).

non‑excluded matters: see subsection 27(2).

non‑member record or document: see subsection 482(2A).

non‑monetary benefits: see subsection 332(3).

non‑national system employee means an employee who is not a national system employee.

non‑national system employer means an employer that is not a national system employer.

non‑transferring employee:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 314(2); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768BG(2).

notification time for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 173(2).

objectionable term means a term that:

                     (a)  requires, has the effect of requiring, or purports to require or have the effect of requiring; or

                     (b)  permits, has the effect of permitting, or purports to permit or have the effect of permitting;

either of the following:

                     (c)  a contravention of Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections);

                     (d)  the payment of a bargaining services fee.

occupier, of premises, includes a person in charge of the premises.

office, in an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an office of president, vice president, secretary or assistant secretary of the association; or

                     (b)  the office of a voting member of a collective body of the association, being a collective body that has power in relation to any of the following functions:

                              (i)  the management of the affairs of the association;

                             (ii)  the determination of policy for the association;

                            (iii)  the making, alteration or rescission of rules of the association;

                            (iv)  the enforcement of rules of the association, or the performance of functions in relation to the enforcement of such rules; or

                     (c)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(i) and (iv), other than an office the holder of which participates only in accordance with directions given by a collective body or another person for the purpose of implementing:

                              (i)  existing policy of the association; or

                             (ii)  decisions concerning the association; or

                     (d)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(ii) and (iii); or

                     (e)  the office of a person holding (whether as trustee or otherwise) property:

                              (i)  of the association; or

                             (ii)  in which the association has a beneficial interest.

Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman means the body established by section 696.

officer, of an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an official of the association; or

                     (b)  a delegate or other representative of the association.

official, of an industrial association, means a person who holds an office in, or is an employee of, the association.

old employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

old State employer: see subsection 768AD(1).

ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee: see section 20.

organisation means an organisation registered under the Registered Organisations Act.

original State agreement, in relation to a copied State employment agreement: see paragraph 768AK(1)(a).

original State award, in relation to a copied State award: see paragraph 768AI(1)(a).

outworker means:

                     (a)  an employee who, for the purpose of the business of his or her employer, performs work at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises; or

                     (b)  an individual who, for the purpose of a contract for the provision of services, performs work:

                              (i)  in the textile, clothing or footwear industry; and

                             (ii)  at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises.

outworker entity means any of the following entities, other than in the entity’s capacity as a national system employer:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation;

                     (b)  the Commonwealth;

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority;

                     (d)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory;

                     (e)  a person so far as:

                              (i)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                             (ii)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                            (iii)  the arrangement is connected with a Territory.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

outworker terms: see subsection 140(3).

paid agent, in relation to a matter before the FWC, means an agent (other than a bargaining representative) who charges or receives a fee to represent a person in the matter.

paid annual leave means paid annual leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 87.

paid no safe job leave means paid no safe job leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 81A.

paid personal/carer’s leave means paid personal/carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 96.

paid work means work for financial gain or reward (whether as an employee, a self‑employed person or otherwise).

partial work ban: see subsection 470(3).

part of a single enterprise: see subsection 168A(6).

passes the better off overall test:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement that is not a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(3).

pattern bargaining: see section 412.

peak council means a national or State council or federation that is effectively representative of a significant number of organisations (within the ordinary meaning of the term) representing employers or employees in a range of industries.

pecuniary penalty order means an order under subsection 546(1).

penalty unit has the meaning given by section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

period of employment: see section 384.

permissible occasion: see sections 102 and 104.

permit holder means a person who holds an entry permit.

permit qualification matters: see subsection 513(1).

permitted matters in relation to an enterprise agreement: see subsection 172(1).

pieceworker: see section 21.

pilot, in relation to an aircraft, includes a pilot in command, co‑pilot or pilot of any other description.

post‑declaration negotiating period: see subsection 269(2).

post‑industrial action negotiating period: see subsection 266(3).

premises includes:

                     (a)  any land, building, structure, mine, mine working, aircraft ship, vessel, vehicle or place; and

                     (b)  a part of premises (including premises referred to in paragraph (a)).

pre‑parental leave position: see subsection 83(2).

prescribed State industrial authority means a State board, court, tribunal, body or official prescribed by the regulations.

President means the President of the FWC.

procedural rules means the procedural rules of the FWC made under section 609.

process or proceedings under a workplace law or workplace instrument: see subsection 341(2).

prospective award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(5).

protected action ballot means a ballot conducted under Division 8 of Part 3‑3.

protected action ballot agent for a protected action ballot means the person that conducts the protected action ballot.

protected action ballot order: see subsection 437(1).

protected from unfair dismissal: see section 382.

protected industrial action: see section 408.

public holiday: see section 115.

public sector employment: see subsections 795(4) and (5).

public sector employment law: see subsection 40(3).

recognised emergency management body: see subsection 109(3).

reduction in take‑home pay: see subsection 768BR(3).

re‑employment time, in relation to a transferring employee covered by a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsection 768AE(3).

registered employee association means:

                     (a)  an employee organisation; or

                     (b)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a State or Territory industrial law.

Registered Organisations Act means the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

reinstatement includes appointment by an associated entity in the circumstances provided for in an order to which subsection 391(1A) applies.

related body corporate has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

relevant belief: a person has a relevant belief in relation to a complaint about an FWC Member if:

                     (a)  the person believes that if one or more of the circumstances that gave rise to the complaint were substantiated, the circumstances would justify considering:

                              (i)  terminating the appointment of the FWC Member in accordance with section 641; or

                             (ii)  (other than if the FWC Member is the President) suspending the FWC Member from office in accordance with section 642; or

                     (b)  the person believes that if one or more of the circumstances that gave rise to the complaint were substantiated, the circumstances may:

                              (i)  adversely affect, or have adversely affected, the performance of duties by the FWC Member; or

                             (ii)  have the capacity to adversely affect, or have adversely affected, the reputation of the FWC.

Note:          Sections 641 and 642 deal with termination of appointment and suspension on the grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity.

relevant employee organisation, in relation to a greenfields agreement, means an employee organisation that is entitled to represent the industrial interests of one or more of the employees who will be covered by the agreement, in relation to work to be performed under the agreement.

responsible person, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsection 789CA(1).

risk period: see subsections 81(1) and (5).

safety net contractual entitlement means an entitlement under a contract between an employee and an employer that relates to any of the subject matters described in:

                     (a)  subsection 61(2) (which deals with the National Employment Standards); or

                     (b)  subsection 139(1) (which deals with modern awards).

school age, for a child, means the age at which the child is required by a law of the State or Territory in which the child lives to attend school.

school‑based apprentice means a national system employee who is an apprentice to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based trainee means a national system employee (other than a school‑based apprentice) to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based training arrangement means a training arrangement undertaken as part of a course of secondary education.

scope order: see subsection 238(1).

second employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

serious breach declaration: see section 234.

serious misconduct has the meaning prescribed by the regulations.

service: see section 22.

setting modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

Sex Discrimination Commissioner means the Sex Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Sex Discrimination Act 1984.

ship includes a barge, lighter, hulk or other vessel.

single enterprise: see section 168A.

single‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(2).

single interest employer authorisation: see subsection 248(1).

small business employer: see section 23.

Small Business Fair Dismissal Code means the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code declared under subsection 388(1).

special low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(4).

spouse includes a former spouse.

State award: see section 768AJ.

State collective employment agreement: see subsection 768AL(3).

State employment agreement: see subsections 768AL(1) and (2).

State individual employment agreement: see subsection 768AL(4).

State industrial instrument means an award, an agreement (whether individual or collective), or another industrial instrument or order, that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law; and

                     (b)  determines terms and conditions of employment.

State industrial law means a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law.

state of mind: see subsection 793(3).

State or Territory industrial law: see subsection 26(2).

State or Territory OHS law: see subsection 494(3).

State or Territory OHS right: see subsection 494(2).

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other non‑national system employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer of the State but does not include a local government employee of the State.

State public sector employer, of a State, means a non‑national system employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a non‑national system employer of a law enforcement officer of the State but does not include a local government employer of the State.

State reference public sector employee: see subsection 168E(3).

State reference public sector employer: see subsection 168E(4).

State reference public sector modern award: see subsection 168E(2).

State reference public sector modern awards objective: see section 168F.

step‑child: without limiting who is a step‑child of a person, someone who is a child of the person’s de facto partner is a step‑child of a person, if he or she would be the person’s step‑child except that the person is not legally married to the de facto partner.

take‑home pay: see subsection 768BR(2).

take‑home pay order: see subsection 768BS(1).

TCF award means an instrument prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

TCF award worker: see subsection 483A(1A).

TCF contract outworker: see subsection 789BB(2).

TCF outwork code: see section 789DA.

TCF outworker means an outworker in the textile, clothing or footwear industry.

TCF work means work in the textile, clothing or footwear industry.

termination of industrial action instrument: see subsection 266(2).

termination time, in relation to a transferring employee covered by a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsection 768AE(2).

territorial sea, in relation to Australia, has the meaning given by Division 1 of Part II of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973.

Territory employer: see subsection 338(4).

test time: see subsection 193(6).

this Act includes the regulations.

trade and commerce employer: see subsection 338(3).

training arrangement means a combination of work and training that is subject to a training agreement, or a training contract, that takes effect under a law of a State or Territory relating to the training of employees.

transferable instrument: see subsection 312(1).

transfer of business:

                     (a)  for a transfer of business between a national system employer and another national system employer—see subsection 311(1); and

                     (b)  for a transfer of business between a non‑national system employer that is a State public sector employer and a national system employer—see subsection 768AD(1).

transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

transfer of employment between associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(a).

transfer of employment between non‑associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(b).

transferring employee:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 311(2); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768AE(1).

transferring work:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see paragraph 311(1)(c); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see paragraph 768AD(1)(c).

Transitional Act means the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009.

unfair dismissal application: see subsection 729(2).

unfairly dismissed: see section 385.

unlawful term of an enterprise agreement: see section 194.

unlawful termination court application: see subsection 778(2).

unlawful termination FWC application: see subsection 730(2).

unpaid amount, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsections 789CA(1) and (4).

unpaid carer’s leave means unpaid carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 102.

unpaid no safe job leave means unpaid no safe job leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 82A.

unpaid parental leave means unpaid parental leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 70.

unpaid pre‑adoption leave means unpaid pre‑adoption leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 85.

unpaid special maternity leave means unpaid special maternity leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 80.

varying modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

Vice President means a Vice President of the FWC.

vocational placement means a placement that is:

                     (a)  undertaken with an employer for which a person is not entitled to be paid any remuneration; and

                     (b)  undertaken as a requirement of an education or training course; and

                     (c)  authorised under a law or an administrative arrangement of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

voluntary emergency management activity: see subsection 109(2).

waters above the continental shelf means any part of the area in, on or over the continental shelf.

waterside worker has the meaning given by clause 1 of Schedule 2 to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as in force immediately before the commencement of this section.

working day means a day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday or a public holiday.

workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  an industrial action related workplace determination; or

                     (c)  a bargaining related workplace determination.

workplace instrument means an instrument that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a workplace law; and

                     (b)  concerns the relationships between employers and employees.

workplace law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Registered Organisations Act; or

                     (c)  the Independent Contractors Act 2006; or

                     (d)  any other law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory that regulates the relationships between employers and employees (including by dealing with occupational health and safety matters).

workplace right: see subsection 341(1).

work value reasons: see subsection 156(4).

Division 3Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.

13  Meaning of national system employee

                   A national system employee is an individual so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in the definition of national system employer in section 14, by a national system employer, except on a vocational placement.

Note:          Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

14  Meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer is:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (b)  the Commonwealth, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (d)  a person so far as the person, in connection with constitutional trade or commerce, employs, or usually employs, an individual as:

                              (i)  a flight crew officer; or

                             (ii)  a maritime employee; or

                            (iii)  a waterside worker; or

                     (e)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory, so far as the body employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                      (f)  a person who carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a Territory in Australia, so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual in connection with the activity carried on in the Territory.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

Particular employers declared not to be national system employers

             (2)  Despite subsection (1) and sections 30D and 30N, a particular employer is not a national system employer if:

                     (a)  that employer:

                              (i)  is a body established for a public purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, by the Governor of a State, by the Administrator of a Territory or by a Minister of a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory; or

                            (iii)  is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, an employer to which subparagraph (ii) applies; and

                     (b)  that employer is specifically declared, by or under a law of the State or Territory, not to be a national system employer for the purposes of this Act; and

                     (c)  an endorsement by the Minister under paragraph (4)(a) is in force in relation to the employer.

             (3)  Paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to an employer that is covered by a declaration by or under such a law only because it is included in a specified class or kind of employer.

Endorsement of declarations

             (4)  The Minister may, in writing:

                     (a)  endorse, in relation to an employer, a declaration referred to in paragraph (2)(b); or

                     (b)  revoke or amend such an endorsement.

             (5)  An endorsement, revocation or amendment under subsection (4) is a legislative instrument, but neither section 42 (disallowance) nor Part 6 (sunsetting) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 applies to the endorsement, revocation or amendment.

Employers that cannot be declared

             (6)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer that:

                     (a)  generates, supplies or distributes electricity; or

                     (b)  supplies or distributes gas; or

                     (c)  provides services for the supply, distribution or release of water; or

                     (d)  operates a rail service or a port;

unless the employer is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, or is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, such a body.

             (7)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer if the employer is an Australian university (within the meaning of the Higher Education Support Act 2003) that is established by or under a law of a State or Territory.

14A  Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.

             (1)  The regulations may make provisions of a transitional, application or saving nature in relation to any of the following:

                     (a)  an employer ceasing to be a national system employer because subsection 14(2) applies to the employer;

                     (b)  an individual ceasing to be a national system employee because an employer ceases to be a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (a);

                     (c)  an employer becoming a national system employer because subsection 14(2) ceases to apply to the employer;

                     (d)  an individual becoming a national system employee because an employer becomes a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (c).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), regulations made for the purpose of that subsection may:

                     (a)  modify provisions of this Act or the Transitional Act; or

                     (b)  provide for the application (with or without modifications) of provisions of this Act, or the Transitional Act, to matters to which they would otherwise not apply.

15  Ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning:

                     (a)  includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employee; and

                     (b)  does not include a person on a vocational placement.

Note:          Subsections 30E(1) and 30P(1) extend the meaning of employee in relation to a referring State.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employer.

Note:          Subsections 30E(2) and 30P(2) extend the meaning of employer in relation to a referring State.

Division 4Other definitions

16  Meaning of base rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The base rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee for his or her ordinary hours of work, but not including any of the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s base rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the base rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

Meaning for pieceworkers for the purpose of section 206

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the base rate of pay, for the purpose of section 206, of an employee who is a pieceworker. If the regulations do so, the employee’s base rate of pay, for the purpose of that section, is as prescribed by, or determined in accordance with, the regulations.

Note:          Section 206 deals with an employee’s base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement.

17  Meaning of child of a person

             (1)  A child of a person includes:

                     (a)  someone who is a child of the person within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975; and

                     (b)  an adopted child or step‑child of the person.

It does not matter whether the child is an adult.

             (2)  If, under this section, one person is a child of another person, other family relationships are also to be determined on the basis that the child is a child of that other person.

Note:          For example, for the purpose of leave entitlements in relation to immediate family under Division 7 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave):

(a)    the other person is the parent of the child, and so is a member of the child’s immediate family; and

(b)    the child, and any other children, of the other person are siblings, and so are members of each other’s immediate family.

17A  Meaning of directly and indirectly (in relation to TCF work)

             (1)  If there is a chain or series of 2 or more arrangements for the supply or production of goods produced by TCF work performed by a person (the worker), the following provisions have effect:

                     (a)  the work is taken to be performed directly for the person (the direct principal) who employed or engaged the worker (and the direct principal is taken to have arranged for the work to be performed directly for the direct principal);

                     (b)  the work is taken to be performed indirectly for each other person (an indirect principal) who is a party to any of the arrangements in the chain or series (and each indirect principal is taken to have arranged for the work to be performed indirectly for the indirect principal).

             (2)  This section does not limit the circumstances in which TCF work is performed directly or indirectly for a person (or in which a person arranges for TCF work to be performed directly or indirectly for the person).

             (3)  This section does not apply for the purposes of Division 2A or 2B of Part 1‑3.

18  Meaning of full rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The full rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee, including all the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  However, if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s full rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the full rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

19  Meaning of industrial action

             (1)  Industrial action means action of any of the following kinds:

                     (a)  the performance of work by an employee in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work by an employee, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work;

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work by an employee or on the acceptance of or offering for work by an employee;

                     (c)  a failure or refusal by employees to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by employees who attend for work;

                     (d)  the lockout of employees from their employment by the employer of the employees.

Note:          In Automotive, Food, Metals, Engineering, Printing and Kindred Industries Union v The Age Company Limited, PR946290, the Full Bench of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission considered the nature of industrial action and noted that action will not be industrial in character if it stands completely outside the area of disputation and bargaining.

             (2)  However, industrial action does not include the following:

                     (a)  action by employees that is authorised or agreed to by the employer of the employees;

                     (b)  action by an employer that is authorised or agreed to by, or on behalf of, employees of the employer;

                     (c)  action by an employee if:

                              (i)  the action was based on a reasonable concern of the employee about an imminent risk to his or her health or safety; and

                             (ii)  the employee did not unreasonably fail to comply with a direction of his or her employer to perform other available work, whether at the same or another workplace, that was safe and appropriate for the employee to perform.

             (3)  An employer locks out employees from their employment if the employer prevents the employees from performing work under their contracts of employment without terminating those contracts.

Note:          In this section, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings (see section 11).

20  Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees

Agreed ordinary hours of work

             (1)  The ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee are the hours agreed by the employee and his or her national system employer as the employee’s ordinary hours of work.

If there is no agreement

             (2)  If there is no agreement about ordinary hours of work for an award/agreement free employee, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are:

                     (a)  for a full time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

If the agreed hours are less than usual weekly hours

             (3)  If, for an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee, there is an agreement under subsection (1) between the employee and his or her national system employer, but the agreed ordinary hours of work are less than the employee’s usual weekly hours of work, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are the lesser of:

                     (a)  38 hours; and

                     (b)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

Regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours

             (4)  For an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee and who does not have usual weekly hours of work, the regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, hours that are taken to be the employee’s usual weekly hours of work for the purposes of subsections (2) and (3).

21  Meaning of pieceworker

             (1)  A pieceworker is:

                     (a)  a national system employee to whom a modern award applies and who is defined or described in the award as a pieceworker; or

                     (b)  a national system employee to whom an enterprise agreement applies and who is defined or described in the agreement as a pieceworker; or

                     (c)  an award/agreement free employee who is in a class of employees prescribed by the regulations as pieceworkers.

Note:          Sections 197 and 198 affect whether the FWC may approve an enterprise agreement covering a national system employee that includes a term that:

(a)    defines or describes the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and does not include such a term; or

(b)    does not define or describe the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and includes such a term.

             (2)  Without limiting the way in which a class may be described for the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the class may be described by reference to one or more of the following:

                     (a)  a particular industry or part of an industry;

                     (b)  a particular kind of work;

                     (c)  a particular type of employment.

22  Meanings of service and continuous service

General meaning

             (1)  A period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include any period (an excluded period) that does not count as service because of subsection (2).

             (2)  The following periods do not count as service:

                     (a)  any period of unauthorised absence;

                     (b)  any period of unpaid leave or unpaid authorised absence, other than:

                              (i)  a period of absence under Division 8 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with community service leave); or

                             (ii)  a period of stand down under Part 3‑5, under an enterprise agreement that applies to the employee, or under the employee’s contract of employment; or

                            (iii)  a period of leave or absence of a kind prescribed by the regulations;

                     (c)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  An excluded period does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service.

          (3A)  Regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (2)(c) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions of this Act (other than provisions to which subsection (4) applies). If they do so, subsection (3) applies accordingly.

Meaning for Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2

             (4)  For the purposes of Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2:

                     (a)  a period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include:

                              (i)  any period of unauthorised absence; or

                             (ii)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  a period referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) or (ii) does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service; and

                     (c)  subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not apply.

Note:          Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2 deal, respectively, with requests for flexible working arrangements, parental leave and related entitlements, and notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice.

          (4A)  Regulations made for the purposes of subparagraph (4)(a)(ii) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions to which subsection (4) applies. If they do so, paragraph (4)(b) applies accordingly.

When service with one employer counts as service with another employer

             (5)  If there is a transfer of employment (see subsection (7)) in relation to a national system employee:

                     (a)  any period of service of the employee with the first employer counts as service of the employee with the second employer; and

                     (b)  the period between the termination of the employment with the first employer and the start of the employment with the second employer does not break the employee’s continuous service with the second employer (taking account of the effect of paragraph (a)), but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service with the second employer.

Note:          This subsection does not apply to a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities, for the purpose of Division 6 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with annual leave) or Subdivision B of Division 11 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with redundancy pay), if the second employer decides not to recognise the employee’s service with the first employer for the purpose of that Division or Subdivision (see subsections 91(1) and 122(1)).

             (6)  If the national system employee has already had the benefit of an entitlement the amount of which was calculated by reference to a period of service with the first employer, subsection (5) does not result in that period of service with the first employer being counted again when calculating the employee’s entitlements of that kind as an employee of the second employer.

Note:          For example:

(a)    the accrued paid annual leave to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer does not include any period of paid annual leave that the employee has already taken as an employee of the first employer; and

(b)    if an employee receives notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice in relation to a period of service with the first employer, that period of service is not counted again in calculating the amount of notice of termination, or payment in lieu, to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer.

Meaning of transfer of employment etc.

             (7)  There is a transfer of employment of a national system employee from one national system employer (the first employer) to another national system employer (the second employer) if:

                     (a)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee becomes employed by the second employer not more than 3 months after the termination of the employee’s employment with the first employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer; or

                     (b)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee is a transferring employee in relation to a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are not associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer.

Note:          Paragraph (a) applies whether or not there is a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer.

             (8)  A transfer of employment:

                     (a)  is a transfer of employment between associated entities if paragraph (7)(a) applies; and

                     (b)  is a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities if paragraph (7)(b) applies.

23  Meaning of small business employer

             (1)  A national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time if the employer employs fewer than 15 employees at that time.

             (2)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time:

                     (a)  subject to paragraph (b), all employees employed by the employer at that time are to be counted; and

                     (b)  a casual employee is not to be counted unless, at that time, he or she has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

             (3)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time, associated entities are taken to be one entity.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, in determining whether a national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time in relation to the dismissal of an employee, or termination of an employee’s employment, the employees that are to be counted include (subject to paragraph (2)(b)):

                     (a)  the employee who is being dismissed or whose employment is being terminated; and

                     (b)  any other employee of the employer who is also being dismissed or whose employment is also being terminated.

Part 1‑3Application of this Act

Division 1Introduction

24  Guide to this Part

This Part deals with the extent of the application of this Act.

Division 2 is about how this Act affects the operation of certain State or Territory laws.

Divisions 2A and 2B are about the extended application of this Act in States that have referred to the Parliament of the Commonwealth matters relating to this Act.

Division 3 is about the geographical application of this Act.

Division 4 deals with other matters relating to the application of this Act.

25  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances). However, that Division does not apply for the purposes of Divisions 2A and 2B of this Part.

Division 2Interaction with State and Territory laws

26  Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of all State or Territory industrial laws so far as they would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (2)  A State or Territory industrial law is:

                     (a)  a general State industrial law; or

                     (b)  an Act of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and has one or more of the following as its main purpose or one or more of its main purposes:

                              (i)  regulating workplace relations (including industrial matters, industrial activity, collective bargaining, industrial disputes and industrial action);

                             (ii)  providing for the establishment or enforcement of terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iii)  providing for the making and enforcement of agreements (including individual agreements and collective agreements), and other industrial instruments or orders, determining terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  prohibiting conduct relating to a person’s membership or non‑membership of an industrial association;

                             (v)  providing for rights and remedies connected with the termination of employment;

                            (vi)  providing for rights and remedies connected with conduct that adversely affects an employee in his or her employment; or

                     (c)  a law of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and deals with leave (other than long service leave or leave for victims of crime); or

                     (d)  a law of a State or Territory providing for a court or tribunal constituted by a law of the State or Territory to make an order in relation to equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value; or

                     (e)  a law of a State or Territory providing for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair; or

                      (f)  a law of a State or Territory that entitles a representative of a trade union to enter premises; or

                     (g)  an instrument made under a law described in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f), so far as the instrument is of a legislative character; or

                     (h)  either of the following:

                              (i)  a law that is a law of a State or Territory;

                             (ii)  an instrument of a legislative character made under such a law;

                            that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  Each of the following is a general State industrial law:

                     (a)  the Industrial Relations Act 1996 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Industrial Relations Act 1999 of Queensland;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Act 1979 of Western Australia;

                     (d)  the Fair Work Act 1994 of South Australia;

                     (e)  the Industrial Relations Act 1984 of Tasmania.

             (4)  A law or an Act of a State or Territory applies to employment generally if it applies (subject to constitutional limitations) to:

                     (a)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory except those identified (by reference to a class or otherwise) by a law of the State or Territory.

For this purpose, it does not matter whether or not the law also applies to other persons, or whether or not an exercise of a power under the law affects all the persons to whom the law applies.

27  State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26

          (1A)  Section 26 does not apply to any of the following laws:

                     (a)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 of Victoria;

                     (c)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1991 of Queensland;

                     (d)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of Western Australia;

                     (e)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of South Australia;

                      (f)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1998 of Tasmania;

                     (g)  the Discrimination Act 1991 of the Australian Capital Territory;

                     (h)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act of the Northern Territory.

             (1)  Section 26 does not apply to a law of a State or Territory so far as:

                     (b)  the law is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which section 26 does not apply; or

                     (c)  the law deals with any non‑excluded matters; or

                     (d)  the law deals with rights or remedies incidental to:

                              (i)  any law referred to in subsection (1A); or

                             (ii)  any matter dealt with by a law to which paragraph (b) applies; or

                            (iii)  any non‑excluded matters.

Note:          Examples of incidental matters covered by paragraph (d) are entry to premises for a purpose connected with workers compensation, occupational health and safety or outworkers.

             (2)  The non‑excluded matters are as follows:

                     (a)  superannuation;

                     (b)  workers compensation;

                     (c)  occupational health and safety;

                     (d)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                     (e)  child labour;

                      (f)  training arrangements, except in relation to terms and conditions of employment to the extent that those terms and conditions are provided for by the National Employment Standards or may be included in a modern award;

                     (g)  long service leave, except in relation to an employee who is entitled under Division 9 of Part 2‑2 to long service leave;

                     (h)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (i)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

Note:       See also section 112 for employee entitlements in relation to engaging in eligible community service activities.

                      (j)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays, except in relation to the rights and obligations of an employee or employer in relation to public holidays;

                     (k)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                      (l)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                    (m)  workplace surveillance;

                     (n)  business trading hours;

                     (o)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as the law in question provides for a matter to which paragraph 26(2)(e) applies;

                     (p)  any other matters prescribed by the regulations.

28  Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  However, subsection (1) applies only so far as the law of the State or Territory would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) has effect even if the law is covered by section 27 (so that section 26 does not apply to the law). This subsection does not limit subsection (1).

29  Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws

             (1)  A modern award or enterprise agreement prevails over a law of a State or Territory, to the extent of any inconsistency.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement applies subject to the following:

                     (a)  any law covered by subsection 27(1A);

                     (b)  any law of a State or Territory so far as it is covered by paragraph 27(1)(b), (c) or (d).

             (3)  Despite subsection (2), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement does not apply subject to a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which modern awards and enterprise agreements are not subject.

30  Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases

                   This Division is not a complete statement of the circumstances in which this Act and instruments made under it are intended to apply to the exclusion of, or prevail over, laws of the States and Territories or instruments made under those laws.

Division 2AApplication of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009

30A  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30B(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30B(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                          (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30B.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30B  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, before 1 July 2009, referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5); or

                     (c)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to local government employees, or local government employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the State’s initial reference terminates;

                     (b)  the State’s amendment reference terminates, and neither of subsections (7) and (8) apply to the termination;

                     (c)  the State’s transition reference terminates.

             (7)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 6 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  that State’s amendment reference, and the amendment reference of every other referring State (other than a referring State that has terminated its amendment reference in the circumstances referred to in subsection (8)), terminate on the same day.

             (8)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 3 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  the Governor of that State, as part of the proclamation by which the termination is to be effected, declares that, in the opinion of the Governor, this Act:

                              (i)  is proposed to be amended (by an amendment introduced into the Parliament by a Minister); or

                             (ii)  has been amended;

                            in a manner that is inconsistent with one or more of the fundamental workplace relations principles.

             (9)  The following are the fundamental workplace relations principles:

                     (a)  that this Act should provide for, and continue to provide for, the following:

                              (i)  a strong, simple and enforceable safety net of minimum employment standards;

                             (ii)  genuine rights and responsibilities to ensure fairness, choice and representation at work, including the freedom to choose whether or not to join and be represented by a union or participate in collective activities;

                            (iii)  collective bargaining at the enterprise level with no provision for individual statutory agreements;

                            (iv)  fair and effective remedies available through an independent umpire;

                             (v)  protection from unfair dismissal;

                     (b)  that there should be, and continue to be, in connection with the operation of this Act, the following:

                              (i)  an independent tribunal system;

                             (ii)  an independent authority able to assist employers and employees within a national workplace relations system.

30C  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30D(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30D  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30E  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30F  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                             (ii)  the work is to be performed in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                            (iii)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that State;

                            (iv)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of the definition of outworker entity in section 12.

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of outworker entity.

30G  General protections

             (1)  Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections) applies to action taken in a State that is a referring State because of this Division.

             (2)  This section applies despite section 337 (which limits the application of Part 3‑1), and does not limit the operation of sections 338 and 339 (which set out the application of that Part).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the application of Part 3‑1.

30H  Division only has effect if supported by reference

                   A provision of this Division has effect in relation to a State that is a referring State because of this Division only to the extent that the State’s referral law refers to the Parliament of the Commonwealth the matters mentioned in subsection 30B(1) that result in the Parliament of the Commonwealth having sufficient legislative power for the provision so to have effect.

Division 2BApplication of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010

30K  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30L(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30L(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                          (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30L.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer of the State.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office of the State whom the State’s referral law provides is to be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to be an employer of law enforcement officers of the State.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30L  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010, referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5); or

                     (c)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to local government employees, or local government employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, and as subsequently amended by amendments enacted at any time before the State’s referral law commenced, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (as it continues to apply because of the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009); or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations or industrial relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the State’s initial reference terminates;

                     (b)  the State’s amendment reference terminates, and neither of subsections (7) and (8) apply to the termination;

                     (c)  the State’s transition reference terminates.

             (7)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 6 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  that State’s amendment reference, and the amendment reference of every other referring State (other than a referring State that has terminated its amendment reference in the circumstances referred to in subsection (8)), terminate on the same day.

             (8)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 3 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  the Governor of that State, as part of the proclamation by which the termination is to be effected, declares that, in the opinion of the Governor, this Act:

                              (i)  is proposed to be amended (by an amendment introduced into the Parliament by a Minister); or

                             (ii)  has been amended;

                            in a manner that is inconsistent with one or more of the fundamental workplace relations principles.

             (9)  The following are the fundamental workplace relations principles:

                     (a)  that this Act should provide for, and continue to provide for, the following:

                              (i)  a strong, simple and enforceable safety net of minimum employment standards;

                             (ii)  genuine rights and responsibilities to ensure fairness, choice and representation at work, including the freedom to choose whether or not to join and be represented by a union or participate in collective activities;

                            (iii)  collective bargaining at the enterprise level with no provision for individual statutory agreements;

                            (iv)  fair and effective remedies available through an independent umpire;

                             (v)  protection from unfair dismissal;

                     (b)  that there should be, and continue to be, in connection with the operation of this Act, the following:

                              (i)  an independent tribunal system;

                             (ii)  an independent authority able to assist employers and employees within a national workplace relations system.

30M  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30N(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30P(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30N  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30P(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30P  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a referring State if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30Q  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies: